Luther's 95 Theses路德的論文95

General Information 一般信息

On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther, German theologian and professor at Wittenberg, posted his Ninety-five Theses on the door of the castle church at Wittenberg and thereby ignited the Protestant Reformation. 在1517年一十零月31號,馬丁路德,德國神學教授維滕貝格,張貼他的95名論文的門上的城堡教堂維滕貝格,從而點燃了新教改革。

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THE NINETY-FIVE THESES:在95 THESES :

Disputation of Dr. Martin Luther Concerning Penitence and Indulgences爭議的馬丁路德博士關於懺悔和Indulgences

In the desire and with the purpose of elucidating the truth, a disputation will be held on the underwritten propositions at Wittenberg, under the presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Monk of the Order of St. Augustine, Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology, and ordinary Reader of the same in that place.在願望和目的,闡明事實真相的爭論將舉行的承銷主張在維滕貝格,根據主席的神父馬丁路德,僧侶的命令聖奧古斯丁,碩士和神聖的神學和普通讀者同樣在該地方。 He therefore asks those who cannot be present and discuss the subject with us orally, to do so by letter in their absence.因此,他要求那些誰可以沒有提出和討論的議題與我們口頭方式,這樣做在他們的信沒有。 In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.在名稱我們的主耶穌基督。 Amen.阿門。

  1. Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, in saying "Repent ye," etc., intended that the whole life of believers should be penitence.我們的上帝和主耶穌基督,在說: “你們悔改”等,打算把整個生命的信徒應該懺悔。
  2. This word cannot be understood of sacramental penance, that is, of the confession and satisfaction which are performed under the ministry of priests.這個字不能被理解的聖事的懺悔,即供詞和滿意度是根據執行部牧師。
  3. It does not, however, refer solely to inward penitence; nay such inward penitence is naught, unless it outwardly produces various mortifications of the flesh.它並不然而,僅僅是指外來懺悔;奈等外來懺悔是徒勞的,除非它外表生產各種mortifications的肉。
  4. The penalty thus continues as long as the hatred of self--that is, true inward penitence--continues: namely, till our entrance into the kingdom of heaven.因此,該處罰繼續,只要仇恨的自我-也就是說,真正的外來懺悔-繼續,即:直到我們進入天國。
  5. The Pope has neither the will nor the power to remit any penalties, except those which he has imposed by his own authority, or by that of the canons.教宗既沒有,也不將權力移交任何處罰,除他施加自己的權威,或是大砲。
  6. The Pope has no power to remit any guilt, except by declaring and warranting it to have been remitted by God; or at most by remitting cases reserved for himself; in which cases, if his power were despised, guilt would certainly remain.教皇無權免除任何罪惡感,除非宣布和需要它已匯出上帝;或在大多數情況下的匯款為自己保留;在什麼情況下,如果他的權力被鄙視,內疚肯定會繼續存在。
  7. God never remits any man's guilt, without at the same time subjecting him, humbled in all things, to the authority of his representative the priest.上帝從來沒有職權任何人有罪,但在同一時間服從他,卑微的所有事情,向他的權威代表的牧師。
  8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and no burden ought to be imposed on the dying, according to them.大砲的悔罪只有實行的生活,沒有任何負擔應該是對死亡的,根據他們。
  9. Hence the Holy Spirit acting in the Pope does well for us, in that, in his decrees, he always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity.因此,聖靈行事教皇也沒有對我們來說,在,在他的法令,他總是讓例外條款的死亡和必要性。
  10. Those priests act wrongly and unlearnedly, who, in the case of the dying, reserve the canonical penances for purgatory.這些神職人員和錯誤行為unlearnedly ,誰,在瀕臨死亡的,保留典型penances的煉獄。
  11. Those tares about changing of the canonical penalty into the penalty of purgatory seem surely to have been sown while the bishops were asleep.這些tares改變的典型死刑的刑罰煉獄似乎肯定已經播下,而主教們睡著了。
  12. Formerly the canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition.以前的規範處罰後不實行,但在此之前赦免,因為真正的考驗懺悔。
  13. The dying pay all penalties by death, and are already dead to the canon laws, and are by right relieved from them.臨終支付所有的死刑處罰,並已經死了的教會的法律,並有權解除他們。
  14. The imperfect soundness or charity of a dying person necessarily brings with it great fear; and the less it is, the greater the fear it brings.健全不完善或慈善一個垂死的人不一定帶來了巨大的恐懼;和欠它,就越害怕它帶來。
  15. This fear and horror is sufficient by itself, to say nothing of other things, to constitute the pains of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair.這種擔心和恐懼是不夠,更不用說其他事項外,構成了痛苦的煉獄,因為它是非常接近的恐怖絕望。
  16. Hell, purgatory, and heaven appear to differ as despair, almost despair, and peace of mind differ.地獄,煉獄和天堂似乎有所不同絕望,幾乎絕望,和安寧的心靈有所不同。
  17. With souls in purgatory it seems that it must needs be that, as horror diminishes, so charity increases.隨著煉獄的靈魂在它看來,它必須需求,作為恐怖削弱,因此慈善事業增加。
  18. Nor does it seem to be proved by any reasoning or any scriptures, that they are outside of the state of merit or of the increase of charity.它也不似乎證明了任何理由或任何經文,他們不屬於國家的長處或增加的慈善機構。
  19. Nor does this appear to be proved, that they are sure and confident of their own blessedness, at least all of them, though we may be very sure of it.也沒有這似乎證明,他們是肯定和自信自己的blessedness ,至少在所有這些,雖然我們可以非常肯定的。
  20. Therefore the Pope, when he speaks of the plenary remission of all penalties, does not mean simply of all, but only of those imposed by himself.因此,教皇,當他說話的全體會議上緩解所有的懲罰,並不意味著簡單的一切,但只有那些強加自己。
  21. Thus those preachers of indulgences are in error who say that, by the indulgences of the Pope, a man is loosed and saved from all punishment.因此,這些傳教士的indulgences是錯誤誰說,由indulgences教皇,一名男子正在loosed並保存所有的懲罰。
  22. For in fact he remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which they would have had to pay in this life according to the canons.在事實上,他匯款到靈魂的煉獄沒有死刑,他們將不得不付出生命在此根據大砲。
  23. If any entire remission of all penalties can be granted to any one, it is certain that it is granted to none but the most perfect--that is, to very few.如果有任何緩解整個所有的懲罰可以給予任何一個,這是肯定的,這是理所當然, 0票反對,但最完美的-那就是很少。
  24. Hence the greater part of the people must needs be deceived by this indiscriminate and high-sounding promise of release from penalties.因此,更大的一部分人必須需要被欺騙了這個不分青紅皂白和冠冕堂皇的許諾釋放的處罰。
  25. Such power as the Pope has over purgatory in general, such has every bishop in his own diocese, and every curate in his own parish, in particular.這種權力的教皇的煉獄一般,例如每個主教已在自己的教區,每一個牧師在自己的教區,特別是。
  26. The Pope acts most rightly in granting remission to souls, not by the power of the keys (which is of no avail in this case), but by the way of suffrage.教皇最正確的行為給予減免的靈魂,而不是由權力的鑰匙(這是無濟於事在這種情況下) ,而是由普選方式。
  27. They preach mad, who say that the soul flies out of purgatory as soon as the money thrown into the chest rattles.他們鼓吹瘋了,誰說,蒼蠅的靈魂的煉獄盡快將錢扔進胸部搖鈴。
  28. It is certain that, when the money rattles in the chest, avarice and gain may be increased, but the suffrage of the Church depends on the will of God alone.可以肯定的是,當金錢搖鈴的胸部,貪婪和收益可能會增加,但普選的教會取決於上帝的意志獨立。
  29. Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory desire to be redeemed from it, according to the story told of Saints Severinus and Paschal?誰知道,是否所有的靈魂在渴望煉獄兌現它,根據這個故事告訴聖人Severinus和復活節?
  30. No man is sure of the reality of his own contrition, much less of the attainment of plenary remission.沒有人是肯定的現實,他自己的懺悔,更談不上實現的全體會議緩解。
  31. Rare as is a true penitent, so rare is one who truly buys indulgences--that is to say, most rare.稀土作為是一個真正的懺悔,所以是一個難得的誰真正購買indulgences -這就是說,最難得的。
  32. Those who believe that, through letters of pardon, they are made sure of their own salvation, will be eternally damned along with their teachers.這些誰認為,通過信件赦免,他們確信自己的救星,將永遠該死連同他們的老師。
  33. We must especially beware of those who say that these pardons from the Pope are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to God.我們必須特別小心那些誰說,這些赦免從教皇是不可估量的上帝的禮物,其中人是不甘心的上帝。
  34. For the grace conveyed by these pardons has respect only to the penalties of sacramental satisfaction, which are of human appointment.對於寬限期轉達了赦免了這些方面不僅對刑罰的聖禮滿意,這是人的任命。
  35. They preach no Christian doctrine, who teach that contrition is not necessary for those who buy souls out of purgatory or buy confessional licences.沒有他們宣揚基督教教義,誰教的懺悔沒有必要為那些買誰的心靈煉獄或購買懺悔許可證。
  36. Every Christian who feels true compunction has of right plenary remission of pain and guilt, even without letters of pardon.每一個基督徒誰真正感到內疚的權利全體會議緩解疼痛和內疚,即使不信赦免。
  37. Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has a share in all the benefits of Christ and of the Church given him by God, even without letters of pardon.每一個真正的基督徒,不論是活的或死的,有一個分享的所有好處基督和教會給予他的上帝,即使不信赦免。
  38. The remission, however, imparted by the Pope is by no means to be despised, since it is, as I have said, a declaration of the Divine remission.的緩解,但是,傳授教皇絕非是輕視,因為它是,正如我所說,宣言的神聖緩解。
  39. It is a most difficult thing, even for the most learned theologians, to exalt at the same time in the eyes of the people the ample effect of pardons and the necessity of true contrition.這是一個最困難的事情,即使是最教訓神學家,發揚在同一時間在民眾的眼中充足的影響,赦免和必要性真正的懺悔。
  40. True contrition seeks and loves punishment; while the ampleness of pardons relaxes it, and causes men to hate it, or at least gives occasion for them to do so.尋求真正的懺悔和愛處罰;而富裕的赦免放鬆,並導致男子恨它,或者至少給機會他們這樣做。
  41. Apostolical pardons ought to be proclaimed with caution, lest the people should falsely suppose that they are placed before other good works of charity.使徒赦免應該宣布持謹慎態度,以免誤人應該假設他們是擺在其他優秀作品的慈善機構。
  42. Christians should be taught that it is not the mind of the Pope that the buying of pardons is to be in any way compared to works of mercy.基督徒應該告訴我們,它不是考慮到教皇的赦免購買要以任何方式相比,作品的擺佈。
  43. Christians should be taught that he who gives to a poor man, or lends to a needy man, does better than if he bought pardons.基督徒應該告訴我們,誰給他一個可憐的人,或借給一個需要幫助的人,並不比他買,如果赦免。
  44. Because, by a work of charity, charity increases and the man becomes better; while, by means of pardons, he does not become better, but only freer from punishment.因為,由一個工作的慈善機構,慈善機構的增加和該名男子變得更好;同時,通過赦免,他並沒有成為更好的,但只有自由的懲罰。
  45. Christians should be taught that he who sees any one in need, and passing him by, gives money for pardons, is not purchasing for himself the indulgences of the Pope, but the anger of God.基督徒應該學習誰,他認為任何一個有需要的人,和他的逝世,使資金赦免,是不是為自己購買的indulgences教皇,但憤怒的上帝。
  46. Christians should be taught that, unless they have superfluous wealth, they are bound to keep what is necessary for the use of their own households, and by no means to lavish it on pardons.基督徒應教授認為,除非他們有多餘的財富,他們必然要保持什麼是必要的使用他們自己的家庭,沒有豪華的手段就赦免。
  47. Christians should be taught that, while they are free to buy pardons, they are not commanded to do so.基督徒應教授說,雖然他們也可以自由購買赦免,他們沒有指揮這樣做。
  48. Christians should be taught that the Pope, in granting pardons, has both more need and more desire that devout prayer should be made for him, than that money should be readily paid.基督徒應該教,教皇,給予赦免,既更需要和更希望,虔誠的祈禱應該為他,而不是金錢應該隨時支付。
  49. Christians should be taught that the Pope's pardons are useful, if they do not put their trust in them; but most hurtful, if through them they lose the fear of God.基督徒應該告訴我們,教皇的赦免是有益的,如果他們不把他們的信任;但大多數傷害,如果通過他們失去的恐懼上帝。
  50. Christians should be taught that, if the Pope were acquainted with the exactions of the preachers of pardons, he would prefer that the Basilica of St. Peter should be burnt to ashes, than that it should be built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep.基督徒應教授說,如果教皇是熟悉勒索的傳教士的赦免,他傾向於認為大教堂聖彼得應燒毀的骨灰,而不是它應建立與皮膚,肉和骨頭他的羊。
  51. Christians should be taught that, as it would be the duty, so it would be the wish of the Pope, even to sell, if necessary, the Basilica of St. Peter, and to give of his own money to very many of those from whom the preachers of pardons extract money.基督徒應教授說,這將是責任,因此這將是希望教皇,甚至出售,如果有必要,教堂聖彼得,並給自己的錢非常多的人從其中傳教士赦免榨取錢財。
  52. Vain is the hope of salvation through letters of pardon, even if a commissary--nay, the Pope himself--were to pledge his own soul for them.是徒勞的拯救希望通過信件赦免,即使一個小賣部-不,教皇本人-是他自己的承諾為他們的靈魂。
  53. They are enemies of Christ and of the Pope who, in order that pardons may be preached, condemn the word of God to utter silence in other churches.他們是敵人的耶穌和教皇誰,以便赦免可能會鼓吹,譴責上帝的話,說出沉默在其他教堂。
  54. Wrong is done to the word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or longer time is spent on pardons than on it.誤區做是為了上帝的話,當在同一講道,平等或更長的時間都花在赦免,而不是它。
  55. The mind of the Pope necessarily is, that if pardons, which are a very small matter, are celebrated with single bells, single processions, and single ceremonies, the Gospel, which is a very great matter, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, and a hundred ceremonies.心靈的教皇不一定是,如果赦免,這是一個非常小的問題,是著名的單鈴,單遊行,和單一儀式,福音,這是一個非常大的問題,應該宣揚的100鐘聲, 100遊行,以及100儀式。
  56. The treasures of the Church, whence the Pope grants indulgences, are neither sufficiently named nor known among the people of Christ.寶藏的教會,何處教皇贈款indulgences ,既沒有足夠的命名,也不知道人民之間的基督。
  57. It is clear that they are at least not temporal treasures, for these are not so readily lavished, but only accumulated, by many of the preachers.很顯然,他們至少沒有時間的寶藏,因為這些是不那麼容易浪費,但只有積累了許多傳教士。
  58. Nor are they the merits of Christ and of the saints, for these, independently of the Pope, are always working grace to the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell to the outer man.也不是的優點,耶穌和聖人,這些獨立於教皇,一直致力於在寬限期內的人,兩岸,死亡,與地獄到外的人。
  59. St. Lawrence said that the treasures of the Church are the poor of the Church, but he spoke according to the use of the word in his time.聖勞倫斯說,寶藏的教會是窮人的教會,但他以根據一詞的使用在他的時間。
  60. We are not speaking rashly when we say that the keys of the Church, bestowed through the merits of Christ, are that treasure.我們說的不是貿然當我們說,鑰匙的教會,通過賦予的是非曲直基督,是國寶。
  61. For it is clear that the power of the Pope is alone sufficient for the remission of penalties and of reserved cases.因為它清楚地表明,權力的教皇是僅足以免除處罰和保留案件。
  62. The true treasure of the Church is the Holy Gospel of the glory and grace of God.真正的財富,教會是福音羅馬的榮耀和恩典的上帝。
  63. This treasure, however, is deservedly most hateful, because it makes the first to be last.這寶藏,然而,是當之無愧的最可恨的,因為它使得第一個上。
  64. While the treasure of indulgences is deservedly most acceptable, because it makes the last to be first.雖然寶藏indulgences是當之無愧最容易被接受的,因為它使最後被第一。
  65. Hence the treasures of the gospel are nets, wherewith of old they fished for the men of riches.因此,財富的福音是蚊帳,舊wherewith他們捕魚的男子財富。
  66. The treasures of indulgences are nets, wherewith they now fish for the riches of men.瑰寶indulgences是蚊帳,他們現在wherewith魚類的財富男子。
  67. Those indulgences, which the preachers loudly proclaim to be the greatest graces, are seen to be truly such as regards the promotion of gain.這些indulgences ,而傳教士大聲宣布成為最大的青睞,被認為是真正的,如關於促進好處。
  68. Yet they are in reality in no degree to be compared to the grace of God and the piety of the cross.然而,它們在現實中是沒有的程度進行比較的恩典上帝和虔誠的交叉。
  69. Bishops and curates are bound to receive the commissaries of apostolical pardons with all reverence.主教和curates必將收到小賣部的使徒赦免所有崇敬。
  70. But they are still more bound to see to it with all their eyes, and take heed with all their ears, that these men do not preach their own dreams in place of the Pope's commission.但是,他們仍然更約束地看到它與所有的眼睛,並採取一切聽從他們的耳朵,這些男人不宣揚自己的夢想在教皇的佣金。
  71. He who speaks against the truth of apostolical pardons, let him be anathema and accursed.他對誰講的真理使徒的赦免,讓他被詛咒和詛咒。
  72. But he, on the other hand, who exerts himself against the wantonness and licence of speech of the preachers of pardons, let him be blessed.但是他說,另一方面,誰發揮自己對wantonness和牌照的言論的傳教士的赦免,讓他的祝福。
  73. As the Pope justly thunders against those who use any kind of contrivance to the injury of the traffic in pardons.正如教宗公正雷鳴對那些誰使用任何種類的發明損傷的交通赦免。
  74. Much more is it his intention to thunder against those who, under the pretext of pardons, use contrivances to the injury of holy charity and of truth.更是他打算對那些雷聲誰的藉口下,赦免,使用contrivances損害聖地慈善和真理。
  75. To think that Papal pardons have such power that they could absolve a man even if--by an impossibility--he had violated the Mother of God, is madness.認為教皇赦免了這種權力,他們可以免除一個人即使-由一個不可能-他違反了天主之母,是瘋狂。
  76. We affirm, on the contrary, that Papal pardons cannot take away even the least of venal sins, as regards its guilt.我們申明,相反,認為教皇赦免不能帶走甚至最少的貪污罪,至於其有罪。
  77. The saying that, even if St. Peter were now Pope, he could grant no greater graces, is blasphemy against St. Peter and the Pope.該說,即使聖彼得教皇現在,他可以不給予更大的青睞,是褻瀆聖彼得和教皇。
  78. We affirm, on the contrary: that both he and any other Pope have greater graces to grant--namely, the Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc. (I Cor. xii. 9.)我們申明,恰恰相反:這兩個他和任何其他教皇有更大的青睞給予-即福音,權力,饋贈癒合,等等(我肺心病。十二。 9 。 )
  79. To say that the cross set up among the insignia of the Papal arms is of equal power with the cross of Christ, is blasphemy.說,建立兩岸之間的徽章教皇武器是平等的權力與兩岸基督,是褻瀆。
  80. Those bishops, curates, and theologians who allow such discourses to have currency among the people, will have to render an account.這些主教, curates ,和神學誰允許這樣的論述有貨幣之間的人,將不得不報帳。
  81. This licence in the preaching of pardons makes it no easy thing, even for learned men, to protect the reverence due to the Pope against the calumnies, or, at all events, the keen questionings of the laity.這牌照的說教赦免使它不容易的事情,甚至對男人的經驗教訓,以保護崇敬由於教皇對誹謗,或者在所有發生的事件,希望questionings的俗人。
  82. As for instance:--Why does not the Pope empty purgatory for the sake of most holy charity and of the supreme necessity of souls--this being the most just of all reasons--if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of that most fatal thing, money, to be spent on building a basilica--this being a very slight reason?比如: -為什麼沒有教皇空煉獄為了最神聖的慈善機構和最高必要性的靈魂-這是最公正的所有理由-如果他贖回了無限多的靈魂,為了這種最致命的東西,錢,將用於建設一個教堂-這是一個很小的原因?
  83. Again: why do funeral masses and anniversary masses for the deceased continue, and why does not the Pope return, or permit the withdrawal of the funds bequeathed for this purpose, since it is a wrong to pray for those who are already redeemed?再次:為什麼葬禮週年群眾和群眾的死者繼續下去,為什麼不教宗返回,或允許撤出的資金留給為此目的,因為它是一個錯誤的祈禱這些誰已經兌現?
  84. Again: what is this new kindness of God and the Pope, in that, for money's sake, they permit an impious man and an enemy of God to redeem a pious soul which loves God, and yet do not redeem that same pious and beloved soul, out of free charity, on account of its own need?再次:這是什麼新的善良的上帝和教宗,在這,為了錢的緣故,他們允許impious男子及一名敵人的上帝贖回一個虔誠的靈魂而愛上帝,但不贖回同樣虔誠和心愛的靈魂,在自由施捨,考慮到其本身的需要?
  85. Again: why is it that the penitential canons, long since abrogated and dead in themselves in very fact and not only by usage, are yet still redeemed with money, through the granting of indulgences, as if they were full of life?再次:為什麼它的悔罪大砲,早已廢止,並死在自己的事實本身,而不是只使用,仍是尚未兌現的錢,通過給予indulgences ,因為如果他們全部的生活?
  86. Again: why does not the Pope, whose riches are at this day more ample than those of the wealthiest of the wealthy, build the one Basilica of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with that of poor believers?再次:為什麼不教宗,其財富在這一天更充分的比最富有的富人,建立一個大教堂的聖彼得與他自己的錢,而不是與窮人的信徒?
  87. Again: what does the Pope remit or impart to those who, through perfect contrition, have a right to plenary remission and participation?再次:什麼教宗的職權或傳授那些誰,通過完善的懺悔,都有權全體會議緩解和參與?
  88. Again: what greater good would the Church receive if the Pope, instead of once, as he does now, were to bestow these remissions and participations a hundred times a day on any one of the faithful ?再次:什麼更大的利益將得到教會如果教皇,而不是一次,因為他現在沒有被賦予這些減免和共同一百倍每天的任何一個忠實的?
  89. Since it is the salvation of souls, rather than money, that the Pope seeks by his pardons, why does he suspend the letters and pardons granted long ago, since they are equally efficacious?由於這是拯救靈魂,而不是金錢,教宗要求赦免他,他為什麼暫停信件和給予赦免很久以前,因為他們也同樣有效?
  90. To repress these scruples and arguments of the laity by force alone, and not to solve them by giving reasons, is to expose the Church and the Pope to the ridicule of their enemies, and to make Christian men unhappy.為了鎮壓這些顧忌和論據的俗人僅通過武力,而不是解決這些問題給予的原因,是要揭露教會和教宗的嘲笑他們的敵人,使基督教男子不高興。
  91. If, then, pardons were preached according to the spirit and mind of the Pope, all these questions would be resolved with ease--nay, would not exist.如果,那麼,赦免是根據宣揚的精神和心靈的教宗,所有這些問題將得到解決與緩和-不,就不會存在。
  92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, "Peace, peace," and there is no peace!客場,然後,所有這些誰先知說,人民的基督, “和平,和平” ,就沒有和平!
  93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, "The cross, the cross," and there is no cross!祝福所有這些是誰先知說,人民的基督, “跨,跨” ,並沒有跨!
  94. Christians should be exhorted to strive to follow Christ their Head through pains, deaths, and hells.基督徒應該告誡努力追隨基督元首通過的痛苦,死亡,和地獄。
  95. And thus trust to enter heaven through many tribulations, rather than in the security of peace.因此,信任和進入天堂了許多磨難,而不是安全的和平。

PROTESTATION抗議

I, Martin Luther, Doctor, of the Order of Monks at Wittenberg, desire to testify publicly that certain propositions against pontifical indulgences, as they call them, have been put forth by me. Now although, up to the present time, neither this most celebrated and renowned school of ours, nor any civil or ecclesiastical power has condemned me, yet there are, as I hear, some men of headlong and audacious spirit, who dare to pronounce me a heretic, as though the matter had been thoroughly looked into and studied.一,馬丁路德,醫生,命令的僧人在維滕貝格,希望公開作證,某些主張對宗座indulgences ,因為他們給他們打電話,已經提出了我。現在,雖然到現在,無論是這個最慶祝和知名學校的我們,也沒有任何民事或教會權力譴責我,但有,因為我聽說,一些男子輕率和大膽的精神,誰膽敢宣布我的邪教,好像此事已徹底調查和研究。 But on my part, as I have often done before, so now too, I implore all men, by the faith of Christ, either to point out to me a better way, if such a way has been divinely revealed to any, or at least to submit their opinion to the judgment of God and of the Church. For I am neither so rash as to wish that my sole opinion should be preferred to that of all other men, nor so senseless as to be willing, that the word of God should be made to give place to fables, devised by human reason.但就我而言,正如我以前經常這樣做,所以現在我也懇請所有的人,由信仰基督,或者指出我更好的方式,如果這樣一直神透露給任何,或在至少提出他們的意見,以判斷上帝和教會。對於我既不使皮疹以希望,我唯一的意見應該是傾向於所有其他人,也不做無謂的願意,這個詞的上帝應該給地方寓言,制定人類理性。


Luther's 95 Theses路德的論文95

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(1517) ( 1517 )

The Ninety-five Theses were a series of propositions dealing with indulgences which Martin Luther drew up as the basis for a proposed academic disputation.在95篇論文的一系列主張,處理indulgences其中馬丁路德制定了為基礎,提出的學術爭論。 They were written in reaction to abuses in the sale of a plenary indulgence by Johann Tetzel, who gave the impression that it would not only remit the guilt and penalties of even the most serious sins, but that its benefits could be applied to the dead in purgatory.他們撰寫的反應,濫用出售放縱一次全體會議由約翰Tetzel ,誰給的印象是,它不僅能免除罪責和懲罰,甚至最嚴重的罪過,但它的好處可用於死亡煉獄。 Luther challenged this teaching because it led people to believe that forgiveness could be bought and to neglect true repentance.路德質疑這一教學,因為它使人們相信,寬恕可以購買和忽視真正的懺悔。

The theses began by arguing that true repentance involves a turning of the entire self to God and not simply the desire to evade punishment. Luther also maintained that only God could remit guilt and that indulgences could only excuse the penalties imposed by the church.論文一開始就認為,真正的懺悔涉及一個轉折點,整個自我上帝,而不是簡單的願望,以逃避懲罰。路德還堅持認為,只有上帝可以免除罪責,並indulgences只能藉口施加的刑罰教堂。 In addition, he denied the pope's power over purgatory, stated that the believer always has true forgiveness without indulgences, and condemned the interest shown in money rather than souls.此外,他還否認了教皇的權力煉獄指出,信徒一直沒有真正的寬恕indulgences ,並譴責表現出的興趣,而不是金錢的靈魂。 Although written in Latin and not intended for public distribution, the theses were translated into German and soon spread throughout Germany.雖然寫在拉丁美洲和不打算公開發行,論文被翻譯成德文,並很快蔓延到德國。 Even though they do not reveal the full development of Luther's theology, October 31, 1517, the day they were supposedly posted on the Wittenberg Castle Church door, has traditionally been considered the starting point of the Reformation.儘管他們不會透露的全面發展路德的神學, 1517年10月31號,這一天他們理應張貼在維滕貝格城堡教堂門口,歷來被認為是起點的改革。 Recent scholarship has questioned both the dating of the theses and whether they were actually posted.最近的學術質疑的約會的論文,以及他們是否實際上張貼。 Although the debate has not been resolved, most scholars still accept the traditional interpretation.雖然辯論還沒有得到解決,大多數學者仍然接受傳統的解釋。

Bibliography 目錄
K. Aland, ed., Martin Luther's 95 Theses; H. Grimm, ed., Luther's Works, XXXI; E. Iserloh, The Theses Were Not Posted; F. Lau, "The Posting of Luther's Theses, Legend or Fact?"光奧蘭,編輯。馬丁路德的95論文閣下;格林,編輯。 ,路德的作品,三十一;體育Iserloh ,該論文並沒有張貼;樓樓“ ,張貼路德的論文,傳說或事實? ” CTM 38:691-703.澳門電訊38:691-703 。


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