Liberation Theology解放神學

General Information 一般信息

Liberation theology, a term first used in 1973 by Gustavo Gutierrez, a Peruvian Roman Catholic priest, is a school of thought among Latin American Catholics according to which the Gospel of Christ demands that the church concentrate its efforts on liberating the people of the world from poverty and oppression.解放神學,任期首次使用於1973年由古斯塔沃古鐵雷斯,秘魯羅馬天主教神父,是一所學校的思想拉丁美洲天主教根據該基督福音的要求,教會其努力集中在解放世界人民從貧困和壓迫。

The liberation-theology movement was partly inspired by the Second Vatican Council and the 1967 papal encyclical Populorum progressio. Its leading exponents include Gutierrez, Leonardo Boff of Brazil, and Juan Luis Segundo of Uruguay.解放神學運動,部分靈感來自梵蒂岡二次會議和1967年的教皇通諭Populorum progressio 。及其代表人物包括古鐵雷斯,萊昂納多博夫巴西,和胡安路易斯Segundo的烏拉圭。 The liberationists have received encouragement from the Latin American bishops, especially in resolutions adopted at a 1968 conference in Medellin, Colombia; others in the Roman Catholic church have objected to their use of Marxist ideas, their support for revolutionary movements, and their criticisms of traditional church institutions.該liberationists鼓勵已收到來自拉丁美洲主教,特別是在通過的決議在1968年會議在哥倫比亞麥德林;他人在羅馬天主教反對使用的馬克思主義的思潮,他們支持革命運動,他們的批評傳統教會機構。 Two members of Nicaragua's Sandinista leadership belonged to the Roman Catholic clergy, a Maryknoll and a Jesuit.兩名成員尼加拉瓜的桑地諾領導屬於羅馬天主教的神職人員,一個聖母和耶穌。 Vatican authorities censured Boff in 1985 but in a 1986 document supported a moderate form of liberation theology.梵蒂岡當局譴責博夫在1985年,但在1986年的文件支持的溫和形式的解放神學。

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Bibliography 目錄
Berryman, Phillip, Liberation Theology (1987); Sigmund, PE, Liberation Theology at the Crossroads (1990).貝里曼,菲利普,解放神學( 1987年) ;西格蒙德,體育,解放神學十字路口( 1990年) 。


Liberation Theology - Haiti解放神學-海地

General Information 一般信息

While studying at a seminary to become a priest, Jean-Bertrand Aristide (later to become president of Haiti) was influenced by the tenets of liberation theology, which taught that Christians must work for social and economic justice for all people. For Aristide, liberation theology meant criticizing the repressive dictatorship of Jean Claude Duvalier and protecting the rights of the poor in Haiti.雖然就讀於神學院,成為一名神父,讓貝特朗阿里斯蒂德(後來成為海地總統)是影響的信條解放神學,它告訴我們,基督信徒必須努力爭取社會和經濟正義為所有的人。對於阿里斯蒂德解放神學意味著批評鎮壓專政的讓克勞德杜瓦利埃和保護窮人的權利在海地。

After completing his seminary training in 1979, Aristide's superiors sent him out of the country in an effort to curb his political activism.他在完成培訓學院於1979年,阿里斯蒂德的上司送他離開該國在努力制止他的政治活動。 He went first to Israel, where he studied biblical theology, and then to London and to Montréal, Canada, where he completed a master's degree in theology.他第一次到以色列,在那裡他研究聖經的神學,然後到倫敦和加拿大蒙特利爾,在那裡他完成了碩士學位神學。 Aristide returned to Haiti briefly in 1982 to be ordained as a Salesian priest.阿里斯蒂德返回海地在1982年簡單地將祝聖為慈幼會神父。

In 1985 Aristide became the pastor of a small, impoverished parish in Port-au-Prince.阿里斯蒂德於1985年成為牧師的一個小,貧困區在太子港。 He also organized and led a number of movements protesting the Duvalier government.他還組織和領導了一些運動,抗議政府杜瓦利埃。 In February 1986 Duvalier fled the island, and for the next four years Haiti was governed by a group of civilians and military officers who had supported the former dictator.在1986年2月杜瓦利埃逃離該島,並為今後四年的海地是由一組平民和軍事人員誰曾支持前獨裁者。 Aristide continued to organize and lead Haitians in protests against the repressive dictatorship known as "Duvalierism without Duvalier."阿里斯蒂德繼續組織和領導海地人抗議鎮壓專政被稱為“無杜瓦利埃Duvalierism 。 ” In 1988 the Salesian order, under pressure from the government, accused Aristide of inciting violence and expelled him from the order. 1988年,慈幼秩序的壓力下,從政府,指責阿里斯蒂德煽動暴力和驅逐出境的命令。

In December 1990, in the first free elections in Haiti since 1804, Aristide was elected president of Haiti. 1990年12月,在第一次自由選舉以來,海地1804年,阿里斯蒂德當選海地總統。

Philip A. Howard孔飛霍華德


Liberation Theology解放神學

General Information 一般信息

Roman Catholic Popes have consistently decried the injustices of the economic and social conditions created by modern industrial societies and proposed remedies for them.羅馬天主教教皇一貫譴責不公正的經濟和社會條件所造成的現代工業社會,並提出補救措施為他們。 They have denounced nuclear warfare, repeatedly urged an end to the arms race, and sought to halt the exploitation of poor nations by rich ones. The protection and promotion of basic human rights in the social, economic, and political orders have been central to these pronouncements.他們譴責核戰爭,一再敦促停止軍備競賽,並設法制止剝削貧窮國家的富國。保護和促進基本人權的社會,經濟和政治的訂單已經向這些中心聲明。 The so-called liberation theology created by some Catholic intellectuals in Latin America has recently attempted to fit these concerns into a less traditional framework of speculation, even utilizing concepts found in Marxist literature.所謂的解放神學所造成的一些天主教知識分子在拉丁美洲最近試圖以適應這些問題成為一個不那麼傳統的框架的猜測,甚至利用的概念中發現的馬克思主義文獻。

John W. O'Malley約翰W奧馬利


Liberation Theology解放神學

Advanced Information 先進的信息

This is more a movement that attempts to unite theology and sociopolitical concerns than a new school of theological theory.這更是一個運動,企圖團結神學和社會政治的關注超過一所新學校的神學理論。 It is more accurate to speak of liberation theology in the plural, for these theologies of liberation find contemporary expression among blacks, feminists, Asians, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans.這是更準確地講解放神學複數,這些theologies的解放找到表達當代黑人,女權主義者,亞洲人,拉美裔美國人和土著美國人。 The most significant and articulate expression to date has taken place in Latin America.最重要的和明確的表達迄今已在拉丁美洲。 Theological themes have been developed in the Latin American context that have served as models for other theologies of liberation.神學主題已制定在拉丁美洲方面,擔任過的其他型號theologies的解放。

There are at least four major factors that have played a significant role in the formulation of Latin American liberation theology.至少有四個主要因素,發揮了重大作用,制定拉丁美洲解放神學。 First, it is a post-Englightenment theological movement.首先,它是一個後啟示神學運動。 The leading proponents, such as Gustavo Gutierrez, Juan Segundo, Jose Miranda, are responsive to the epistemological and social perspectives of Kant, Hegel, and Marx.領先的支持者,如古斯塔沃古鐵雷斯,胡安Segundo的聖何塞米蘭達,是順應認識論和社會的觀點康德,黑格爾和馬克思。 Second, liberation theology has been greatly influenced by European political theology finding in JB Metz and Jurgen Moltmann and Harvey Cox perspectives which have criticized the ahistorical and individualistic nature of existential theology.第二,解放神學已經大大影響歐洲政治神學發現巴頓梅斯和於爾根莫爾特曼和哈維考克斯的觀點有批評ahistorical和個人主義性質的生存神學。

Third, it is for the most part a Roman Catholic theological movement. With notable exceptions such as Jose Miguez-Bonino (Methodist) and Rubem Alves (Presbyterian) liberation theology has been identified with the Roman Catholic Church.第三,大部分是羅馬天主教神學運動。有了顯著的例外,如何塞米蓋茲,博尼諾(衛)和Rubem爾維斯(長老)解放神學已經確定的羅馬天主教。 After Vatican II (1965) and the conference of the Latin American episcopate (Celam II) in Medellin, Colombia (1968), a significant number of Latin American leaders within the Roman Catholic Church turned to liberation theology as the theological voice for the Latin American church.在梵蒂岡第二( 1965年)和會議拉丁美洲主教( Celam二)在哥倫比亞麥德林( 1968年) ,有相當多的拉美國家領導人在羅馬天主教會轉向解放神學的神學語音拉丁美洲教堂。 The dominating role of the Roman Catholic Church in Latin America has made it a significant vehicle for liberation theology throughout the South American continent.的主導作用,羅馬天主教會在拉丁美洲的一項重要手段解放神學整個南美大陸。

Fourth, it is a theological movement specifically and uniquely situated in the Latin American context.第四,它是一個神學運動的具體和獨特的位於拉丁美洲的範圍內。 Liberation theologians contend that their continent has been victimized by colonialism, imperialism, and multinational corporations.解放神學家認為,他們的大陸一直受到殖民主義,帝國主義,和跨國公司。 Economic "developmentalism" has placed socalled underdeveloped Third World nations in a situation of dependence, resulting in the local economies of Latin America being controlled by decisions made in New York, Houston, or London.經濟“發展主義”已經把所謂欠發達的第三世界國家在這種情況下依賴,導致當地經濟的拉丁美洲被控制作出的決定在紐約,休斯頓,或倫敦。 In order to perpetuate this economic exploitation, liberationists argue, the powerful capitalist countries, especially the United States, give military and economic support to secure certain political regimes supportive of the economic status quo.為了維持這種經濟剝削, liberationists認為,強大的資本主義國家,特別是美國提供軍事和經濟支持,以確保一定的政治制度支持的經濟現狀。

These four factors combine to bring about a distinctive theological method and interpretation.這四個因素結合起來,以實現獨特的神學方法和解釋。

Theological Method神法

Gustavo Gutierrez defines theology as "critical reflection on historical praxis."古斯塔沃古鐵雷斯神學定義為“批判性反思的歷史實踐。 ” Doing theology requires the theologian to be immersed in his or her own intellectual and sociopolitical history.做神學的神學需要將沉浸在他或她自己的智慧和社會政治的歷史。 Theology is not a system of timeless truths, engaging the theologian in the repetitious process of systematization and apologetic argumentation.神學不是一個系統的永恆的真理,讓神學中的重複過程的系統化和道歉的論證。 Theology is a dynamic, ongoing exercise involving contemporary insights into knowledge (epistemology), man (anthropology), and history (social analysis).神學是一個動態的,持續不斷的工作,涉及深入了解當代知識(認識論) ,男子(人類學) ,歷史(社會分析) 。 "Praxis" means more than the application of theological truth to a given situation. “實踐”是指多的應用神學真理某一局勢。 It means the discovery and the formation of theological truth out of a given historical situation through personal participation in the Latin American class struggle for a new socialist society.這意味著發現和形成的神學真理的某一特定歷史情況通過個人參與拉丁美洲的階級鬥爭的一個新的社會主義社會。

Liberation theology accepts the two-pronged "challenge of the Enlightenment" (Juan Sobrino).解放神學接受雙管齊下“的挑戰的啟示” (胡安Sobrino ) 。 These two critical elements shape liberation theology's biblical hermeneutic.這兩個關鍵要素形狀解放神學的聖經詮釋。 The first challenge comes through the philosophical perspective begun by Immanuel Kant, which argued for the autonomy of human reason.第一個挑戰是通過哲學的角度開始康德,它主張自治的人的原因。 Theology is no longer worked out in response to God's self-disclosure through the divine-human authorship of the Bible.神學不再是制定針對上帝的自我揭露的神聖人類著作權的聖經。 This revelation from "outside" is replaced by the revelation of God found in the matrix of human interaction with history.這一發現來自“外部”所取代上帝的啟示中發現矩陣的人際交往的歷史。 The second challenge comes through the political perspective founded by Karl Marx, which argues that man's wholeness can be realized only through overcoming the alienating political and economic structures of society.第二個挑戰是通過政治角度創辦的卡爾馬克思,這認為,人的整體性,才能實現只有通過克服疏遠政治和經濟結構的社會。 The role of Marxism in liberation theology must be honestly understood.的作用,馬克思主義在解放神學必須誠實地理解。 Some critics have implied that liberation theology and Marxism are indistinguishable, but this is not completely accurate.一些批評人士暗示,解放神學與馬克思主義是無法區分的,但這是不完全準確。

Liberation theologians agree with Marx's famous statement: "Hitherto philosophers have explained the world; our task is to change it."解放神學同意馬克思的一句名言: “迄今為止,哲學家解釋世界;我們的任務是去改變它。 ” They argue that theologians are not meant to be theoreticians but practitioners engaged in the struggle to bring about society's transformation.他們爭辯說,神學家並不意味著要理論家,但從業人員從事的鬥爭,使社會的轉型。 In order to do this liberation theologyemploys a Marxist-style class analysis, which divides the culture between oppressors and oppressed.為了做到這一點解放theologyemploys一個馬克思主義風格的階級分析,其中分為文化之間的壓迫者和被壓迫者。 This conflictual sociological analysis is meant to identify the injustices and exploitation within the historical situation.這種衝突的社會學分析的目的是確定不公正和剝削的歷史狀況。 Marxism and liberation theology condemn religion for supporting the status quo and legitimating the power of the oppressor. But unlike Marxism, liberation theology turns to the Christian faith as a means for bringing about liberation.馬克思主義與解放神學宗教譴責為支持現狀和合法化的力量,壓迫者。但與馬克思主義,解放神學轉向基督教信仰作為一種手段,使解放。 Marx failed to see the emotive, symbolic, and sociological force the church could be in the struggle for justice.馬克思沒有看到的感情,象徵性的,和社會力量的教堂可能是在為正義鬥爭。 Liberation theologians claim that they are not departing from the ancient Christian tradition when they use Marxist thought as a tool for social analysis.解放神學家聲稱,他們不會離開古老的基督教傳統當他們運用馬克思主義思想作為一種工具來社會分析。 They do not claim to use Marxism as a philosophical world view or a comprehensive plan for political action. Human liberation may begin with the economic infrastructure, but it does not end there.他們不主張使用馬克思主義作為一種哲學世界觀或一項全面計劃,採取政治行動。人權解放可能開始的經濟基礎設施,但它並不到此為止。

The challenge of the Enlightenment is followed by the challenge of the Latin American situation in formulating liberation theology's hermeneutics of praxis.所面臨的挑戰的啟示其次是挑戰拉丁美洲的情況制定解放神學的詮釋學的實踐。 The important hermeneutical key emerging out of the Latin American context is summarized in Hugo Assmann's reference to the "epistemological privilege of the poor."重要的詮釋了關鍵的新興拉丁美洲方面概述了雨果阿斯曼提到的“認識論特權的窮人” 。 On a continent where the majority is both poor and Roman Catholic, liberation theology claims the struggle is with man's inhumanity to man and not with unbelief. Liberation theologians have carved out a special place for the poor. "The poor man, the other, reveals the totally Other to us" (Gutierrez). All communion with God is predicated on opting for the poor and exploited classes, identifying with their plight, and sharing their fate.在大陸的大多數是窮人和羅馬天主教,要求解放神學的鬥爭是與人的不人道行為的人,而不是與不信教。解放神學家割據的一個特殊的地方為窮人服務。 “可憐的人,另一方面,揭示其他的完全對我們“ (古鐵雷斯) 。所有與上帝的前提是選擇為窮人和剝削階級,找出與他們的困境,並分享他們的命運。 Jesus "secularizes the means of salvation, making the sacrament of the 'other' a determining element for entry into the Kingdom of God" (Leonardo Boff).耶穌“ secularizes的手段拯救,使聖的'其他'的一個決定性因素,進入上帝的王國” (萊昂納多博夫) 。 "The poor are the epiphany of the Kingdom or of the infinite exteriority of God" (Enrique Dussel). “窮人的頓悟王國或無限的外在上帝” (恩里克Dussel ) 。 Liberation theology holds that in the death of the peasant or the native Indian we are confronted with "the monstrous power of the negative" (Hegel).解放神學認為,在死亡的農民或印度本土我們所面臨的“權力的可怕的負面” (黑格爾) 。 We are forced to understand God from within history mediated through the lives of oppressed human beings.我們不得不理解上帝從歷史上通過介導的生命被壓迫的人。 God is not recognized analogically in creation's beauty and power, but dialectically in the creature's suffering and despair.上帝是不承認analogically創造的美麗和力量,但辯證地在動物的痛苦和絕望。 Sorrow "triggers the process of cognition," enabling us to comprehend God and the meaning of his will (Sobrino). Combining post-Enlightenment critical reflection with an acute awareness of Latin America's conflict-ridden history results in several important theological perspectives.悲傷“觸發的過程中認知, ”使我們能夠理解上帝的意思,他將( Sobrino ) 。結合後關鍵的啟示與思考敏銳地意識到拉丁美洲的充滿衝突的歷史成果在若干重要理論觀點。

Theological Interpretation神釋義

Liberation theologians believe that the orthodox doctrine of God tends to manipulate God in favor of the capitalistic social structure.解放神學認為,正統學說的上帝往往操縱上帝有利於資本主義的社會結構。 They claim that orthodoxy has been dependent upon ancient Greek notions of God that perceived God as a static being who is distant and remote from human history.他們聲稱,正統一直依賴於古希臘概念的上帝,認為上帝為靜態正在誰是遙遠的,遠離人類歷史。 These distorted notions of God's transcendence and majesty have resulted in a theology which thinks of God as "up there" or "out there."這些扭曲的概念,上帝的超越和陛下已導致該神學認為上帝是“那裡”或“有。 ” Consequently the majority of Latin Americans have become passive in the face of injustice and superstitious in their religiosity.因此,大多數拉丁美洲已成為被動,面對正義和迷信的宗教。 Liberation theology responds by stressing the incomprehensible mysteriousness of the reality of God.解放神學作出反應,強調難以理解mysteriousness現實的上帝。 God cannot be summarized in objectifying language or known through a list of doctrines.上帝不能客觀總結了已知的語言或通過名單的學說。 God is found in the course of human history.上帝是發現的過程中人類歷史。 God is not a perfect, immutable entity, "squatting outside the world."上帝不是一個完美的,一成不變的實體“ ,蹲在外面的世界。 ” He stands before us on the frontier of the historical future (Assmann).他站在我們面前的邊疆的歷史未來(阿斯曼) 。 God is the driving force of history causing the Christian to experience transcendence as a "permanent cultural revolution" (Gutierrez).上帝是動力的歷史造成的基督教體驗超越作為一個“永久的文化革命” (古鐵雷斯) 。 Suffering and pain become the motivating force for knowing God.苦難和痛苦成為動力上帝知道。 The God of the future is the crucified God who submerges himself in a world of misery.上帝的未來是誰釘在十字架上上帝淹沒自己的世界中的苦難。 God is found on the crosses of the oppressed rather than in beauty, power, or wisdom.上帝是發現了十字架的壓迫,而不是在美容,電力,或智慧。

The biblical notion of salvation is equated with the process of liberation from oppression and injustice.聖經概念的救恩是等同的過程中擺脫壓迫和不公正。 Sin is defined in terms of man's inhumanity to man.黃大仙是指在人的不人道行為的人。 Liberation theology for all practical purposes equates loving your neighbor with loving God.解放神學的一切實際的目的等同愛你的鄰居與熱愛上帝。 The two are not only inseparable but virtually indistinguishable.兩國不僅是分不開的,但實際上區分。 God is found in our neighbor and salvation is identified with the history of "man becoming."上帝是在我們的鄰居和拯救被確定的歷史“的人成為” 。 The history of salvation becomes the salvation of history embracing the entire process of humanization.歷史的見證成為歷史的見證擁抱整個過程人性化。 Biblical history is important insofar as it models and illustrates this quest for justice and human dignity.聖經的歷史是非常重要,因為它的模式和說明了這一點追求正義和人類尊嚴。 Israel's liberation from Egypt in the Exodus and Jesus' life and death stand out as the prototypes for the contemporary human struggle for liberation.以色列從埃及解放的外流和耶穌的生命和死亡脫穎而出的原型為當代人類解放鬥爭。 These biblical events signify the spiritual significance of secular struggle for liberation.這些事件表明聖經的精神意義的世俗解放鬥爭。

The church and the world can no longer be segregated.教會和世界再也不能被隔離。 The church must allow itself to be inhabited and evangelized by the world.教堂必須允許自己居住和evangelized的世界。 "A theology of the Church in the world should be complemented by a theology of the world in the Church" (Gutierrez). “一個神學教會在世界上應該輔之以神學的世界教會” (古鐵雷斯) 。 Joining in solidarity with the oppressed against the oppressors is an act of "conversion," and "evangelization" is announcing God's participation in the human struggle for justice.加入聲援被壓迫的壓迫者是一種“轉換”和“福”是上帝宣布參與人類的正義鬥爭。

The importance of Jesus for liberation theology lies in his exemplary struggle for the poor and the outcast.重要性耶穌的解放神學在於他出色鬥爭的窮人和棄兒。 His teaching and action on behalf of the kingdom of God demonstrate the love of God in a historical situation that bears striking similarity to the Latin American context.他的教學和行動代表上帝王國的證明上帝的愛的歷史情況,負有驚人的相似之處拉丁美洲的範圍內。 The meaning of the incarnation is reinterpreted. Jesus is not God in an ontological or metaphysical sense.的含義是重新化身。耶穌是不是上帝在本體論或形而上學的意義。 Essentialism is replaced with the notion of Jesus' relational significance.本質主義所取代的概念,耶穌的關係意義。 Jesus shows us the way to God; he reveals the way one becomes the son of God. The meaning of Jesus' incarnation is found in his total immersion in a historical situation of conflict and oppression.耶穌告訴我們的方式向上帝,他揭示了這樣一個兒子成為上帝。意義耶穌的化身是在他身上總沉浸在歷史的衝突局勢和壓迫。 His life absolutizes the values of the kingdom, unconditional love, universal forgiveness, and continual reference to the mystery of the Father.他的一生absolutizes的價值王國,無條件的愛,普遍的寬恕,並不斷提及神秘的父親。 But it is impossible to do exactly what Jesus did simply because his specific teaching was oriented to a particular historical period.但這是不可能做到正是耶穌也僅僅是因為他的具體教學,是面向特定的歷史時期。 On one level Jesus irreversibly belongs to the past, but on another level Jesus is the zenith of the evolutionary process.在一個層面上耶穌不可逆轉屬於過去,但在另一個層面耶穌是最高境界的進化過程。 In Jesus history reaches its goal.在耶穌的歷史達到其目標。 However, following Jesus is not a matter of retracing his path, trying to adhere to his moral and ethical conduct, as much as it is re-creating his path by becoming open to his "dangerous memory" which calls our path into question.然而,繼耶穌是不是一個問題,他的路徑回落,試圖堅持他的道德和倫理的行為,因為它是重新建立自己的道路,成為開放給他的“危險記憶”要求我們的道路成了問題。 The uniqueness of Jesus' cross lies not in the fact that God, at a particular point in space and time, experienced the suffering intrinsic to man's sinfulness in order to provide a way of redemption.獨特性的耶穌的跨不在於一個事實,即上帝,在某一特定點在空間和時間,經歷了痛苦固有的人的罪孽,以提供一種方式贖回。 Jesus' death is not a vicarious offering on behalf of mankind who deserve God's wrath.耶穌的死亡不是一個替代產品代表值得全人類誰上帝的憤怒。 Jesus' death is unique because he historicizes in exemplary fashion the suffering experienced by God in all the crosses of the oppressed.耶穌的死亡是獨一無二的,因為他在historicizes模範地的痛苦經歷上帝的所有跨越的壓迫。 Liberation theology holds that through Jesus' life people are brought to the liberating conviction that God does not remain outside of history indifferent to the present course of evil events but that he reveals himself through the authentic medium of the poor and oppressed.解放神學認為,通過耶穌的生活帶來了人民的解放的信念,即上帝不置身歷史的漠不關心,本課程的罪惡事件,但他發現自己真正的通過媒介的窮人和被壓迫者。

Theological Critique神學的批判

The strength of liberation theology is in its compassion for the poor and its conviction that the Christian should not remain passive and indifferent to their plight.的力量解放神學是在其同情窮人和其信念,認為基督教不應該無動於衷和漠不關心,他們的困境。 Man's inhumanity to man is sin and deserves the judgment of God and Christian resistance. Liberation theology is a plea for costly discipleship and a reminder that follow Jesus has practical social and political consequences.人的不人道行為人是罪惡的,值得的判決上帝和基督教的抵抗。解放神學是一個認罪昂貴的門徒,並提醒人們,跟隨耶穌具有實際的社會和政治後果。

Liberation theology's weakness stems from an application of misleading hermeneutical principles and a departure from historic Christian faith. Liberation theology rightly condemns a tradition that attempts to use God for its own ends but wrongly denies God's definitive selfdisclosure in biblical revelation.解放神學的弱點來源於申請誤導詮釋原則,背離了歷史性的基督教信仰。解放神學正確地譴責的傳統,企圖利用上帝為自己的目的,但錯誤地否認上帝的最終selfdisclosure在聖經的啟示。 To argue that our conception of God is determined by the historical situation is to agree with radical secularity in absolutizing the temporal process, making it difficult to distinguish between theology and ideology.為了爭辯說,我們的上帝的觀念所決定的歷史情況是同意激進的世俗中absolutizing的時間過程,因此很難區分神學和意識形態。

Marxism may be a useful tool in identifying the class struggle that is being waged in many Third World countries, but the question arises whether the role of Marxism is limited to a tool of analysis or whether it has become a political solution.馬克思主義可能是一種有用的工具,在確定的階級鬥爭正在發動許多第三世界國家,但問題在於是否對馬克思主義的作用是有限的,以一種工具的分析,或是否已成為一個政治解決辦法。 Liberation theology rightly exposes the fact of oppression in society and the fact that there are oppressors and oppressed, but it is wrong to give this alignment an almost ontological status.解放神學正確地揭露了事實的壓迫在社會和事實,即有壓迫者和被壓迫者,但它是錯誤的讓這個幾乎一致本體論地位。 This may be true in Marxism, but the Christian understands sin and alienation from God as a dilemma confronting both the oppressor and the oppressed.這可能是真正的馬克思主義,但基督教的理解罪惡和疏遠上帝作為一個面臨困境的壓迫者和被壓迫者。 Liberation theology's emphasis upon the poor gives the impression that the poor are not only the object of God's concern but the salvific and revelatory subject. Only the cry of the oppressed is the voice of God.解放神學的重點放在貧困者給人的印象是,窮人不僅是反對上帝的關注,但salvific和啟示的問題。只有哭的是被壓迫的聲音,上帝。 Everything else is projected as a vain attempt to comprehend God by some self-serving means.一切預測作為一個妄圖理解上帝的一些自我服務的手段。 This is a confused and misleading notion.這是一種混淆和誤導性的概念。 Biblical theology reveals that God is for the poor, but it does not teach that the poor are the actual embodiment of God in today's world .聖經神學表明,上帝是為窮人,但它不教,窮人的實際體現,上帝在今天的世界上。 Liberation theology threatens to politicize the gospel to the point that the poor are offered a solution that could be provided with or without Jesus Christ.解放神學政治威脅福音的一點,即窮人提供了一個解決方案,可提供帶或不帶耶穌基督。

Liberation theology stirs Christians to take seriously the social and political impact of Jesus' life and death but fails to ground Jesus' uniqueness in the reality of his deity.解放神學激起基督徒認真對待社會和政治影響的耶穌的生活和死亡,但沒有地面耶穌的獨特性在現實的神。 It claims he is different from us by degree, not by kind, and that his cross is the climax of his vicarious identification with suffering mankind rather than a substitutionary death offered on our behalf to turn away the wrath of God and triumph over sin, death, and the devil.它聲稱他是不同於我們的程度,而不是通過實物,他的兩岸的高潮是他的替代識別與人類的痛苦,而不是提供substitutionary死亡代表我們迴避的憤怒上帝和戰勝罪惡,死亡和魔鬼。 A theology of the cross which isolates Jesus' death from its particular place in God's design and shuns the disclosure of its revealed meaning is powerless to bring us to God, hence assuring the perpetuity of our theological abandonment.神學的跨這株耶穌的死亡特別在上帝的設計和迴避披露其顯示的意義是無能為力的,使我們的上帝,因而保證了我們的永遠的神學被遺棄。

DD Webster韋伯斯特日
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
CE Armerding, ed., Evangelicals and Liberation; H. Assmann, Theology for a Nomad Church; L. Boff, Jesus Christ Liberator; J.行政長官Armerding ,編輯。 ,福音派和解放閣下;阿斯曼,神學的游牧教會;屬博夫,耶穌基督解放者;學者 Miguez-Bonino, Doing Theology in a Revolutionary Situation; RM Brown, Theology in a New Key: Responding to Liberation Themes; I. Ellacuria, Freedom Made Flesh: The Mission of Christ and His Church; A. Fierro, The Militant Gospel: A Critical Introduction to Political Theologies; R. Gibellini, ed., Frontiers of Theology in Latin America; G.塞米蓋茲,博尼諾,做神學的革命形勢;產品布朗,神學中一種新的關鍵詞:應對解放的主題;一Ellacuria ,自由國產肉:特派團基督和他的教會的A. Fierro ,激進的福音:一種批判導言政治Theologies ;河Gibellini ,編輯。 ,前沿神學在拉丁美洲;灣 Gutierrez, A Theology of Liberation; JA Kirk, Liberation Theology: An Evangelical View from the Third World; JP Miranda, Marx and the Bible.古鐵雷斯,一個神學的解放;茉莉柯克,解放神學:一種福音察看從第三世界;太平紳士米蘭達,馬克思和聖經的內容。


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