Theological Liberalism, Modernism神學自由主義,現代主義

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Also known as modernism, this is the major shift in theological thinking that occurred in the late nineteenth century.也被稱為現代主義,這是重大轉變的神學思想,發生在十九世紀末期。 It is an extremely elusive concept.這是一個非常難以實現的概念。 A variety of shades of liberal thinking exist, it has changed in character during the passage of time, and the distinctions between liberalism in Europe and North America are considerable.各種顏色的自由思維存在,它改變了性質在時間的推移,和自由主義之間的區別在歐洲和北美是巨大的。 Main Features.主要特點。 The major distinctive is the desire to adapt religious ideas to modern culture and modes of thinking. Liberals insist that the world has changed since the time Christianity was founded so that biblical terminology and creeds are incomprehensible to people today.主要特色是希望以適應宗教思想對現代文化和思維方式。自由黨堅持認為,世界已經發生了變化,因為當時基督教成立,使聖經中的術語和信仰的人們難以理解的今天。

Although most would start from the inherited orthodoxy of Jesus Christ as the revelation of a savior God, they try to rethink and communicate the faith in terms which can be understood today.雖然大部分將開始從正統繼承耶穌基督的啟示救世主的上帝,他們試圖重新思考和溝通的信念在這是可以理解的今天。 As Harry Emerson Fosdick put it, we must express the essence of Christianity, its "abiding experiences," but we must not identify them with the "changing categories" by which they were expressed in the past.作為艾默生福斯迪克哈利所說的那樣,我們必須表示的本質基督教,其“守法的經驗, ”但我們不能確定他們與“不斷變化的類別” ,其中表示他們在過去。 Liberals maintain that Christianity has always adapted its forms and language to particular cultural situations and the "modernists" in any given age have merely been those who were most candid and creative in doing this.自由黨認為,基督教始終適應形式和語言,特別是文化情況和“現代”在任何特定的年齡僅僅是那些誰最坦率和創造性,這樣做的。

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A second element of liberalism is its rejection of religious belief based on authority alone.第二個因素的自由主義是反對宗教信仰的基礎上單獨權威。 All beliefs must pass the tests of reason and experience, and one's mind must be open to new facts and truth, regardless of where these may originate.所有信仰必須通過試驗的原因和經驗,心必須是開放的,以新的事實和真相,而不論這些可能起源。 No questions are closed or settled and religion must not protect itself from critical examination.沒有任何問題,關閉或定居和宗教絕不能保護自己免受嚴格審查。 As the Bible is the work of writers who were limited by their times, it is neither supernatural nor an infallible record of divine revelation and thus does not possess absolute authority.正如聖經的工作是作家誰是有限的時代,它既不是超自然的,也不是萬無一失的記錄神聖的啟示,從而不具備絕對的權威。 The "essence of Christianity" replaces the authority of Scripture, creeds, and the church.在“基督教的本質”取代了權威的聖經,信仰,和教會。 This means there is no inherent contradiction between the kingdoms of faith and natural law, revelation and science, the sacred and the secular, or religion and culture.這意味著不存在固有的矛盾王國的信念和自然法,啟示和科學的神聖和世俗或宗教和文化。

A central idea of liberal theology is divine immanence.中央思想自由神學是神聖的內涵。 God is seen as present and dwelling within the world, not apart from or elevated above the world as a transcendent being.上帝被看作是當前和住宅內的世界,而不是除了以上或高架世界作為一個超然的福祉。 He is its soul and life as well as the creator.他是自己的靈魂和生命,以及創作者。 Thus God is found in the whole of life and not just in the Bible or a few revelatory events.因此,上帝是發現在整個生命,而不僅僅是在聖經或幾個啟示事件。 Because he is present and works in all that happens, there can be no distinction between the natural and supernatural.因為他是本工程的所有發生這種情況,就不可能有區別的自然和超自然的。 The divine presence is disclosed in such things as rational truth, artistic beauty, and moral goodness. Although most liberals attempt to hold on to a core of Christian doctrine, some did carry immanence to its logical end, which is pantheism.神聖的存在是披露的這些事情合理真理,藝術美,善良和道義。雖然大多數自由派企圖抓住一個核心的基督教教義,一些沒有攜帶其內在的邏輯結束,這是泛神論。

Immanence contributed to such common liberal beliefs as the existence of a universal religious sentiment that lay behind the institutions and creeds of particular religions and the superiority of good works (both in individual and collective terms) over professions and confessions.內在促成這種共同的信仰自由的存在具有普遍性的宗教情緒,背後的機構和信仰的宗教,特別是優越的優秀作品(包括個人和集體的計算)以上的專業和口供。 God is seen as the one who enables man to integrate his personality and thereby achieve perfection.上帝被看作是一個人誰能夠把他的個性,從而實現完美。 This of course required the restatement of many traditional Christian doctrines.當然,這需要重述了許多傳統的基督教學說。 The incarnation was the entrance into the world through the person of Jesus Christ of a molding and redeeming force in humanity, and it signified and ratified the actual presence of God in humanity.化身是進入世界各地的人耶穌基督的成型和挽救人類的力量,它標誌著並批准了實際存在的上帝的人性。 His prophetic personality is the clearest and most challenging demonstration of the divine power in the world, and he is both the revelation of God and the goal of man's longing.他的預言的個性是最明顯和最有挑戰性示範神聖的力量在世界上,他既是上帝的啟示和目標的人的嚮往。 Just as Jesus' resurrection was the continuation of his spirit and personality, so it is with all mortals after the death of the physical body.正如耶穌的復活是繼續進行他的精神和人格,因此它是所有凡人死後肉體。

Sin or evil is seen as imperfection, ignorance, maladjustment, and immaturity, not the fundamental flaw in the universe.黃大仙或邪惡被看作是完美的,愚昧,適應不良,和不成熟,而不是根本性的缺陷在宇宙中。 These hindrances to the unfolding of the inner nature may be overcome by persuasion and education, and salvation or regeneration is their removal.這些障礙的展開內部性質可以克服的說服教育,和拯救或再生是其清除。 Religion represents the dimension of life in which personal values receive their highest expression, and its power possesses spiritually therapeutic qualities.宗教代表層面的生活中獲得個人價值的最高體現,其權力擁有精神上的治療品質。 Prayer, for example, heightens one's spiritual sensitivity and confers the moral benefits of stability, self - control, and peace of mind.祈禱,例如,加劇了人的精神賦予的敏感性和道德帶來的好處穩定,自我-控制和安心。

Liberalism also manifests a humanistic optimism.自由主義也體現人文樂觀。 Society is moving toward the realization of the kingdom of God, which will be an ethical state of human perfection.社會是朝著實現王國的上帝,這將是一種道德狀態的人類完美。 The church is the movement of those who are dedicated to following the principles and ideals set forth by Jesus, the one who provided the ultimate example of an unselfish life of love, and the members of this fellowship work together to build the kingdom.該教堂是這些運動誰正在致力於以下的原則和理想所規定的耶穌,誰提供的終極範例無私的愛情生活,以及成員的共同努力,研究建立王國。 Liberal eschatology views God's work among men as that of redemption and salvation, not punishment for sin, and this end will be reached in the course of a continuous, ascending progress.自由末世論的觀點上帝的工作,男子的贖回和拯救,而不是懲罰的罪過,並為此將達到過程中的一個持續的,遞增的進展。

Sources and Development來源與發展

Theological liberalism originated in Germany, where a number of theological and philosophical currents converged in the nineteenth century.神學自由主義起源於德國,在那裡有若干神學和哲學的電流融合在十九世紀。 German thought had a profound impact on British and American theology, but indigenous movements in both places, the Broad Church tradition in Britain and Unitarianism in America, significantly shaped liberalism's development there.德國的思想產生了深刻影響英國和美國的神學,但土著運動在兩地,廣泛教會的傳統,在英國和Unitarianism在美國,自由主義形成顯著的發展。

Kant's ethical idealism and rejection of all transcendental reasoning about religion had the effect of limiting knowledge and opening the way for faith.康德的道德理想主義和反對一切先驗的推理了對宗教的影響,限制了知識和開闢道路的信念。 Schleiermacher introduced the idea of religion as a condition of the heart whose essence is feeling.施介紹了想法,宗教作為一種條件下的核心,其實質是感覺。 This made Christian doctrine independent of philosophical systems and faith a matter of individual experience of dependence upon God.這使得基督教教義獨立的哲學體系和信仰問題的個人經驗,依靠上帝。 Jesus was the perfect realization of the ideal of a new life of spiritual communion with God, and this possibility also existed for those who were drawn into fellowship with him in the church.耶穌是完美的實現理想的新生活的精神與上帝,這可能也存在著對那些誰被捲入金與他的教會。

Hegel went off in another direction with his absolute idealism, as this emphasized the existence of a rational structure in the world apart from the individual minds of its inhabitants.黑格爾又發生另一個方向與他的絕對唯心論,因為這強調了存在的結構合理,在世界上除了個人頭腦中的居民。 That which is real is rational, and all reality is the manifestation of the absolute idea or the divine mind.這是真正的合理,以及所有現實是體現了絕對的想法或神聖的想法。 Through a dialectical process of the ebb and flow of historical struggle, reason is gradually overcoming the irrational and good is triumphing over evil.通過辯證過程的低潮和流動的歷史鬥爭,原因是逐步克服不合理和良好的是戰勝了邪惡。 The main contributions of Hegelian idealism were support for the idea of divine immanence and the fostering of historical and biblical criticism.主要貢獻的黑格爾唯心主義是支持的想法神聖的內涵和推動歷史和聖經的批評。

The ideas of FC Baur and the Tubingen School on the origins and early development of Christianity and the NT followed the principles of Hegelian historical evolution, and the same was true with Graf and Welhausen in OT studies.的想法隊鮑爾和蒂賓根學校的起源和早期發展的基督教和NT遵循的原則,黑格爾的歷史演變,和同樣是如此格拉夫和Welhausen在加時賽的研究。 Higher criticism questioned the authorship and dating of much of the biblical literature and rejected the traditional understanding of the Scriptures as divinely revealed oracles.高等教育的批評質疑作者和交友的許多聖經文學和拒絕傳統的理解聖經的神聖發現神諭。 Christianity was simply seen as the historical fulfillment of natural religion, the culminating self - disclosure of immanent Spirit.基督教僅僅看作是歷史的實現自然宗教,最終導致自我-披露的內在精神。 Beginning with DF Strauss, carried forward by E Renan and JR Seeley, and reaching a high point with Harnack, the "life of Jesus" was studied with the intent of stripping off the dogmatic formulations of the church and getting back to the concrete, historical human personage.從東風施特勞斯,推進電子勒南和JR西利,並達到一個高點與哈納克的“耶穌生命”研究的意圖剝奪了教條主義的配方,教堂和回去的具體,歷史人類的人物。 They found hidden behind the smoke - screen of theology and hellenistic philosophy the teaching of a simple ethical religion summed up in the fatherhood of God and brotherhood of man.他們發現隱藏在煙霧-屏幕上的神學和古希臘哲學教學中的一個簡單的道德宗教總結了在上帝的父親和兄弟情誼的人。 Insisting that Christianity must be founded upon the exact type of person he was, they felt it necessary to get behind the "Christ of the creeds" to the "Jesus of history."堅持基督教的基礎必須是各國的確切類型的人,他,他們認為有必要讓背後的“基督的信仰”到“耶穌的歷史。 ”

The sway of Hegel was broken by Ritschl, who emphasized the importance of faith and religious experience.聽命黑格爾被打破了Ritschl ,誰強調信仰和宗教的經驗。 He upheld Christianity's claim to uniqueness but argued that Christian experience should be based on the objective data of history, not personal feeling.他堅持基督教的獨特性要求,但辯稱,基督教經驗的基礎應該是客觀數據的歷史,而不是個人的感覺。 He saw Christianity as a life of action which would free man from the enslaving passions of his own nature and the determinism of his physical enviroment.他認為,基督教作為一個生命的行動自由的人會從奴役激情自己的性質和決定他的物理環境。 Religious statements are value judgments relating to one's spiritual situation and have practical consequences.宗教報表的價值判斷與一個人的精神狀況和實際後果。 His theology of moral values relates the gospel to two poles, the redemptive work of Christ and the fellowship of redeemed persons (the kingdom of God).他的神學的道德價值觀與福音的兩個極點的拯救工作的基督和兌現金的人(上帝王國的) 。 In the kingdom one achieves moral perfection and thus is like Christ.英國的一個實現道德完善,從而就像是基督。 God is immanent, transcendent, and personal all at the same time.上帝是內在的,是至高無上的,個人所有的同一時間舉行。

Liberals welcomed the findings of science and readily accommodated to the challenge of Darwinism.自由黨歡迎調查結果的科學和易於安置的挑戰進化論。 Evolution vindicated divine immanence, since this explained how God had slowly built the universe through natural law.演變證明內在的神聖,因為這解釋了如何上帝已經慢慢建立了宇宙通過自然法則。 He also revealed himself through an evolutionary process, as the Israelites began with backward, blood - thirsty ideas and gradually came to understand that the righteous God could be served only by those who are just, merciful, and humble.他還透露,自己通過一個漸進的過程,作為以色列人開始落後,血液-口渴的想法和逐漸認識到,正義的上帝可以送達只有那些誰是公正,仁慈,並謙虛。 At last, Jesus portrayed him as the loving Father of all men.最後,耶穌描繪他的熱愛之父所有的人。 Thus, redemption was the gradual transformation of man from a primitive state to that of obedient sonship to God.因此,贖回是逐步轉變男子從原始狀態到服從sonship上帝。 The scientific approach was applied to theology and biblical criticism, and they were regarded as open to all truth.科學方法是適用於神學和聖經的批評,他們被視為開放給所有的真理。 Just like the physical realm, culture and religion had evolved, and there was no fundamental antagonism between the kingdoms of faith and natural law.就像物理領域,文化和宗教演變,也沒有根本的對立王國的信念和自然法則。

Liberalism was prevalent in French Protestantism, where Auguste Sabatier taught that religion must be understood as life rather than doctrine.自由主義盛行的是法國新教,在奧古斯特薩巴蒂爾教,宗教必須被理解為生命,而不是理論。 It is to be grasped through religious psychology and the historical study of the documents in which the religious consciousness of the past has left an imprint.它是通過掌握心理學和宗教的歷史研究的文件,其中的宗教意識在過去留下了印記。 According to the Catholic Alfred Loisy, the essence of Christianity is in the ongoing faith of the church rather than exclusively in the teachings of Jesus, and it is constantly reshaped by the present.根據天主教阿爾弗雷德盧瓦西,本質的基督教是正在進行中的信仰教會,而不是只在耶穌的教誨,並不斷改變本。 Catholic modernism had a strong foothold in France as well as in Britain and to a lesser extent in the United States, but it was effectively quashed by papal action in the early twentieth century.天主教現代主義有一個強有力的立足點在法國以及在英國和在較小的程度上在美國,但它有效地粉碎了羅馬教皇的行動在20世紀初。

British liberalism was related to the latitudinarian tradition and was found among the Broad Churchmen such as Benjamin Jowett, who stressed a loose definition of dogma.英國自由主義與傳統的latitudinarian被發現之間的廣泛的教會,如本傑明喬伊特,誰強調一個鬆散的定義的教條。 Anglican modernism was distinctly British, individualistic and compromising, tending to combine Jesus' natural manhood with a doctrine of his divinity. Perhaps the most controversial liberal was RJ Campbell, a Methodist who criticized orthodox doctrine for its "practical dualism" in making people think of God as above and apart from his world instead of expressing himself through his world.聖公會現代明顯英國,個人主義和損害,撫育結合耶穌的自然男子漢氣概的理論與他的神。也許最有爭議的是雷諾寬鬆坎貝爾,循道衛理誰正統理論批評其“實際二元”的決策人認為上帝如上除了他的世界而不是表達自己通過他的世界。 He stressed instead the inward unity of God, man, and the universe almost to the point of pantheism.他強調,不是外來的統一神,人,宇宙幾乎到了泛神論。 By and large, British liberalism tended to be theoretical and academic and more subdued in its overt humanistic enthusiasm.總的來說,英國的自由主義往往是理論和學術和更加溫和,在其公開的人文熱情。

In the United States the major source of liberal religious ideas was Unitarianism, and it had already modified the doctrines of divine sovereignty, human sin, and biblical revelation before German thought began to make itself felt.在美國的主要來源,自由的宗教思想是Unitarianism ,它已經修改了理論的神聖主權,人權罪,聖經的啟示和前德國開始思考,使自己感覺。 By the 1890s most of the major theologians had studied in Germany, and many of them had come to accept the principles of higher criticism and Darwinism.到1890年大部分主要神學研究了在德國,許多人已經到了接受高等教育的原則和進化論的批評。 American liberalism was characterized by a strong sense of activism and a feeling that God is present and active in the great forward movements of human culture.美國自由主義的特點是強烈的責任感和積極的感覺,上帝是當前和積極參與的偉大動作著人類文化。

Liberal theologians concerned themselves with building the kingdom of God and promoting the applied liberalism known as the social gospel. This emphasized the need to modify the corrupt society that in turn was corrupting man.有關自由神學建設自己王國的上帝和促進適用於被稱為自由主義的社會福音。此強調,有必要修改腐敗的社會,又是腐敗的人。 Social gospelers talked of the kingdom where men would live as brothers in a spirit of cooperation, love, and justice. The church must turn from saving individual sinners to the collective action of saving society.社會gospelers談到英國男子將生活在一個兄弟的合作精神,愛情和正義。教堂必須把節約個人從罪人的集體行動的節水型社會。 Achieving a better life on earth replaced the concern for the afterlife, and it was expected that Christ and Christian values would conquer the world.實現一個更美好的生活在地球上取代了關注來世,預計基督和基督教的價值觀念將征服世界。 Progress could be seen in the advance of political democracy, the movement for world peace, and efforts to end racial discrimination.進步中可以看到推進民主政治,該運動對世界的和平,並努力結束種族歧視。

Decline and Persistence衰退和持久性

By the time of World War I liberalism had made considerable inroads in the Protestant churches in Europe and North America, but it rested on shaky foundations.的時候,第一次世界大戰自由主義已取得相當進展的新教在歐洲和北美,但它依賴於不穩定的基礎。 World War I shattered the heady optimism that was its stock in trade, while conservatives counterattacked.第一次世界大戰打破了振奮人心樂觀地認為,是其股票在貿易,而保守派的反擊。 Often referred to as fundamentalists, confessionalists, or pietists, they denounced liberalism for being, as JG Machen put it, "Not Christianity at all, but a religion which is so entirely different from Christianity as to belong in a distinct category."通常被稱為原教旨主義者, confessionalists ,或虔誠主義者,他們譴責自由主義的福利,作為JG麥所說的那樣, “不是基督教,而是一種宗教這一點完全不同於基督教為屬於不同的範疇。 ”

Although the fundamentalist challenge was more or less beaten back, a more serious threat came from the sophisticated theologians of neo - orthodoxy who called for the recovery of divine transcendence and a realistic doctrine of sin.雖然原教旨主義的挑戰是或多或少地擊退,更嚴重的威脅來自於先進的神學新-正統誰呼籲恢復神聖的超越和現實主義的罪孽。 Liberalism with its emphasis on the freedom and self - determination of man gave religious sanction to modern man's efforts to control his life by autonomous reason and improve conditions by relying on his own goodness, but it tried to deny the overwhelming power of sin and evil which repeatedly thwart human aspirations.自由主義,其重點是自由和自我-決心的人了宗教的制裁,以現代人的努力,控制自己生活的自主性原因和改善條件,依靠自己的善良,但它試圖否認壓倒性力量的罪孽和邪惡的一再阻撓人權的願望。 The neo - orthodox suggested that liberals failed to grasp either the actual condition of men or the doctrine of God that could provide a remedy for this.新-正統的建議,自由派沒有任何把握的實際情況男人或理論的上帝,可以提供一個補救這一點。 Christianity was transformed into a high - minded ethical humanism that offered little for those caught up in the travail of modern life, and in its efforts not to separate the sacred from the secular it too closely identified the one with the other.基督教轉化為高-人文主義思想道德提供一點對於那些陷入痛苦的現代生活,並努力不分開的神聖的世俗它過於密切確定了一個與其他。

Liberalism had also become too dependent on finding the historical Jesus, and, as Albert Schweitzer showed, the Jesus that researchers were uncovering possessed an apocalyptic world view and assumptions that were quite a variance with their conception of his teaching.自由主義也已成為過分依賴的歷史找到耶穌,並在史懷哲表明,耶穌的研究人員發現擁有世界末日的世界觀和假設是相當的差異與他們的概念,他的教學。 The history of religions school carried the idea of historical development to its logical end and portrayed Christianity as the syncretistic religion of the ancient Near East.歷史上的宗教學校進行的思想歷史發展的合乎邏輯的結束和描繪基督教為融宗教,古代近東。 This meant the denial of its distinctiveness and the authority of the biblical canon.這意味著剝奪其獨特性和權威的聖經教會。 Christianity was merely one among many religions, all of which were relative to their time and circumstance, and thus it had no claim to finality.基督教僅僅是其中之一許多宗教,所有這些都是相對的時間和環境,因此它沒有要求終結。

In the 1930s some adherents moved much further to the left and broke almost completely with Christianity.在20世紀30年代的一些追隨者搬到進一步的左側和突破幾乎完全與基督教。 Some turned to secular humanism, and in their 1933 manifesto repudiated the existence of God, immortality, and the supernatural in general, and substituted faith in man and his capabilities.一些轉向世俗人文主義,並在其1933年宣言否定上帝存在,永生,以及超自然的一般,並取代信仰男子和他的能力。 Others identified with an empirical philosophy of religion based entirely on the scientific methods and experience.其他確定的實證哲學,宗教完全基於科學的方法和經驗。

Nevertheless, liberalism did not die out.然而,自由主義沒有死了。 A group of "evangelical liberals" in the United States, among them HE Fosdick, William A Brown, Rufus Jones, and Henry Sloane Coffin, preached a God who was both immanent and transcendent, that Jesus, the Bible, and Christianity were unique, and that Jesus should be accepted as Lord of one's life. A組的“福音派自由派”在美國,其中包括何福斯迪克,威廉A布朗,魯弗瓊斯,亨利和斯隆棺,宣揚上帝誰既是內在與超越,即耶穌,聖經和基督教是獨一無二的,並聲稱是耶穌應被接納為上帝一個人的生活。 A new generation of "neoliberals" criticized the old modernism for its excessive preoccupation with intellectualism, sentimentality, a watered - down concept of God, and accommodation to the modern world that prevented it from launching a moral attack. Such people as WM Horton, John C Bennett, and HP Van Dusen called for finding who God really is and securing his help in facing the human predicament, which is sin.新一代的“新自由主義學派”批評現代歲的過分關注與理智,感情,一個澆水-下跌概念的上帝,和住宿的現代世界,阻止它從道義上發起攻擊。這樣的人作為西醫結合霍頓,約翰ç本內特,惠普範杜森要求找到誰是真正上帝並確保他的幫助,人類所面臨的困境,這是罪孽。

In Germany liberal scholarship was dominated by such giants as Bultmann, with his emphasis on form criticism and demythologizing the NT so modern man could understand what the Christian faith is, and Tillich, who was concerned with the ultimate, the ground of being, and suggested that God cannot be described in symbols that last from age to age but can only be encountered by experience.在德國自由的獎學金主要是這類巨頭布特曼,他強調形式的批評和demythologizing新台幣,使現代人能夠理解什麼是基督教信仰,並蒂利希,誰關注的是最終的,地面的福利,並建議上帝不能描述的符號,去年從年齡的年齡,但只能在所遇到的經驗。 Bonhoeffer put forth the idea of a religionless Christianity where the church must be concerned with Christ and not religious ideas.潘霍華提出的想法religionless基督教的教堂必須關注與基督,而不是宗教思想。 We live in a world come of age and must reject the way of religion which is a psychological crutch.在我們生活的世界的時代來了,而且必須拒絕宗教的方式是一種心理上的拐杖。 Christians must step out in faith and follow the one who is "the man for others" in costly discipleship.基督徒必須走出的信仰和奉行一個誰是“該名男子為他人”的代價高昂的門徒。

By the 1960s most liberals had abandoned humanistic optimism, progressive cultural immanentism, and the dream of an earthly kingdom, but they gave no ground on the nonliteral interpretation of the Bible.到60年代大部分遺棄自由派人文樂觀的,漸進的文化immanentism和夢想的人間王國,但他們沒有透露地面上nonliteral解釋聖經。 Many had a renewed interest in natural theology and stressed the importance of social change.許多有新的興趣自然神學,並強調了重要性的社會變革。 The "radical" and "secular" theologians talked about the traditional concept of God as being "dead" in this secular age, and gloried in the God who comes to us in the events of social change.在“激進”和“世俗”的神學談論的傳統概念被上帝“死”在這世俗的年齡, gloried在誰的上帝給我們留下的事件中的社會變革。 They were optimistic about the creative possibilities open to secular man, held up love as the sufficient norm of ethical behavior, and reaffirmed the lordship of Christ and his call to discipleship.他們是樂觀的創造性的可能性開放,世俗的人,舉行了愛的不夠規範的道德行為,並重申了貴族身份的基督和他的呼籲門徒。

RV Pierard風疹病毒Pierard

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
J Dillenberger and C Welch, Protestant Christianity Interpreted Through Its Development; W Pauck, The Heritage of the Reformation; B Reardon, Liberal Protestantism; DE Miller, The Case for Liberal Christianity; H Zahrnt, The Question of God: Protestant Theology in the Twentieth Century; WR Hutchinson, The Modernist Impulse in American Protestantism; LJ Averill, American Theology in the Liberal Tradition; K Cauthen, The Impact of American Religious Liberalism; RJ Coleman, Issues of Theological Conflict: Evangelicals and Liberals. J Dillenberger和C韋爾奇,解釋基督教新教通過其發展; W Pauck ,傳統的改革;乙爾登,自由新教;德國米勒,該案件的自由基督教; H Zahrnt ,這個問題上帝:新教神學20世紀;水利哈欽森,現代脈衝在美國新教;軍為Averill ,美國神學的自由傳統; K考森,影響美國宗教自由主義;雷諾科爾曼問題的神學衝突:福音派和自由派。


Liberalism自由主義

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

A free way of thinking and acting in private and public life.一個自由的思維方式和行事的私人和公共生活。

I. DEFINITION一,定義

The word liberal is derived from the Latin liber, free, and up to the end of the eighteenth century signified only "worthy of a free man", so that people spoke of "liberal arts", "liberal occupations".自由主義一詞源於拉丁文書,免費的,而且到十八世紀末不僅標誌著“不愧為自由人” ,因此,人們談論的“文科” , “自由職業” 。 Later the term was applied also to those qualities of intellect and of character, which were considered an ornament becoming those who occupied a higher social position on account of their wealth and education.後來,任期也適用於那些素質,智慧和性格,這被認為是這些飾品成為誰佔領了較高的社會地位考慮到他們的財富和教育。 Thus liberal got the meaning of intellectually independent, broad-minded, magnanimous, frank, open, and genial.因此,獲得自由的含義理智獨立,開明,大度,坦誠,開放和親切。 Again Liberalism may also mean a political system or tendency opposed to centralization and absolutism.再次自由主義也可能意味著一種政治制度或傾向反對集權和專制主義。 In this sense Liberalism is not at variance with the spirit and teaching of the Catholic Church.在這個意義上的自由主義是沒有差異的精神和教學的天主教教會。 Since the end of the eighteenth century, however, the word has been applied more and more to certain tendencies in the intellectual, religious, political, and economical life, which implied a partial or total emancipation of man from the supernatural, moral, and Divine order.自十八世紀末,然而,這個詞已應用於越來越多的某些傾向的知識,宗教,政治和經濟生活,這意味著部分或全部解放的男子從超自然的,道德和神聖命令。 Usually, the principles of 1789, that is of the French Revolution, are considered as the Magna Charta of this new form of Liberalism.通常情況下,原則的1789年,這是法國大革命,被視為大憲章的這種新形式的自由主義。 The most fundamental principle asserts an absolute and unrestrained freedom of thought, religion, conscience, creed, speech, press, and politics.最根本的原則主張絕對和無限制的自由,思想,宗教,良心,信仰,言論,新聞,和政治問題。 The necessary consequences of this are, on the one hand, the abolition of the Divine right and of every kind of authority derived from God; the relegation of religion from the public life into the private domain of one's individual conscience; the absolute ignoring of Christianity and the Church as public, legal, and social institutions; on the other hand, the putting into practice of the absolute autonomy of every man and citizen, along all lines of human activity, and the concentration of all public authority in one "sovereignty of the people".必要的後果是,一方面,廢除神聖的權利和各種權力來自上帝;降級的宗教從公共生活到私人領域的人的個人良心;絕對無視基督教和教會公眾,法律和社會機構;另一方面,在付諸實踐的絕對自主權的每一個男人和公民,以及所有的人類活動,並集中所有公共權力的一個“主權人民“ 。 This sovereignty of the people in all branches of public life as legislation, administration, and jurisdiction, is to be exercised in the name and by order of all the citizens, in such a way, that all should have share in and a control over it.這個人民主權的所有部門的公共生活作為立法,行政和司法管轄權,是行使的名稱和命令所有的公民,以這樣一種方式,所有應該分享和控制權。 A fundamental principle of Liberalism is the proposition: "It is contrary to the natural, innate, and inalienable right and liberty and dignity of man, to subject himself to an authority, the root, rule, measure, and sanction of which is not in himself".一個基本原則是自由主義的主張: “這是違背自然的,與生俱來的,不可剝奪的權利,自由和尊嚴的人,服從自己的權威,根,規則,措施和處罰,其中不自己“ 。 This principle implies the denial of all true authority; for authority necessarily presupposes a power outside and above man to bind him morally.這一原則意味著剝奪所有真正的權威;的權力必然前提是權力和上述以外的人在道義上約束他。

These tendencies, however, were more or less active long before 1789; indeed, they are coeval with the human race.這些傾向,但或多或少積極很久以前1789年,實際上,他們是同時代的人類。 Modern Liberalism adopts and propagates them under the deceiving mask of Liberalism in the true sense.採用現代自由主義和傳播他們的欺騙下面具自由主義的真正意義。 As a direct offspring of Humanism and the Reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, modern Liberalism was further developed by the philosophers and literati of England especially Locke and Hume, by Rousseau and the Encyclopedists in France, and by Lessing and Kant in Germany.作為直接後代的人文和改革中的第十五屆和第十六世紀,現代自由主義得到了進一步發展的哲學家和文人尤其是英國洛克和休謨,盧梭和Encyclopedists在法國,和萊辛,康德在德國。 Its real cradle, however, was the drawing-rooms of the moderately free-thinking French nobility (1730-1789), especially those of Mme Necker and her daughter, Mme de Sta묮 The latter was more than anybody else the connecting link between the free-thinking elements before and after the Revolution and the centre of the modern Liberal movement both in France and Switzerland.其真正的搖籃,然而,客廳房間溫和的自由思維法國貴族( 1730至1789年) ,特別是那些內克爾女士和她的女兒,太太德站묮後者是超過別人的承上啟下自由思維的內容之前和之後的革命和該中心的現代自由運動在法國和瑞士。 In her politico-religious views she is intimately connected with Mirabeau and the Constitutional party of the Revolution.在她的政治和宗教的意見,她是密切聯繫在一起林蔭大道和憲法黨的革命。 These views find their clearest exposition in her work "Considérations sur les principaux événements de la Révolution fran硩se".這些意見,找到自己清晰的論述,在她的作品“思考河畔萊principaux événements德拉魯阿硩法國大革命本身” 。 She pleads for the greatest possible individual liberty, and denounces as absurd the derivation of human authority from God.她懇求盡可能最大的個人自由,並譴責荒謬的推導人類權力來自上帝。 The legal position of the Church, according to her, both as a public institution and as a property-owner is a national arrangement and therefore entirely subject to the will of the nation; ecclesiastical property belongs not to the church but to the nation; the abolition of ecclesiastical privileges is entirely justified, since the clergy is the natural enemy of the principles of Revolution.法律地位的教會,據她說,作為一個公共機構,並作為財產所有者是國家的安排,因此完全符合意願的國家;教會財產不屬於教堂,但對國家的廢除宗教特權是完全正確的,因為神職人員是天然的敵人,革命的原則。 The ideal form of government is in smaller states the republic, in larger ones the constitutional monarchy after the model of England.理想的政府形式是在小國的共和國,在較大的君主立憲制的模式後,英格蘭。 The entire art of government in modern times, consists, according to Mme de Sta묬 in the art of directing public opinion and of yielding to it at the right moment.整個政府的藝術在現代社會,包括,根據德太太站묬藝術指導公眾輿論和高產它在正確的時刻。

II.二。 DEVELOPMENT AND PRINCIPAL TYPES OF MODERN LIBERALISM IN NON-ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES發展和主要類型的現代自由主義在非英語國家

Since the so-called Liberal principles of 1789 are based upon a wrong notion of human liberty, and are and must forever be contradictory and indefinite in themselves, it is an impossibility in practical life to carry them into effect with much consistency.由於所謂的自由原則, 1789年是根據一個錯誤的概念,人類的自由,是而且必須永遠是矛盾和無限期本身,這是一個不可能在現實生活進行生效他們很多的一致性。 Consequently the most varying kinds and shades of Liberalism have been developed, all of which remained in fact more conservative than a logical application of Liberal principles would warrant.因此,大多數不同種類和色彩的自由主義已經制定,所有這些都留在更為保守的事實比邏輯應用自由原則,將令。 Liberalism was first formulated by the Protestant Genevese (Rousseau, Necker, Mme de Sta묬 Constant, Guizot); nevertheless it was from France, that it spread over the rest of the world, as did its different representative types.自由主義首先制定了新教的日內瓦(盧梭,內克爾,太太德站묬常數,基佐) ;然而,這是由法國,它散佈在世界其他地方一樣,其不同的代表類型。 These developed in closest connection with the different Revolutions in Europe since 1789.這些發達國家在密切聯繫與不同的革命1789年以來歐洲。 The principal types are:-主要類型有: -

(A) Anti-ecclesiastical Liberalism (甲)反教會自由主義

(1) The old Liberalism, first advocated by Mme de Sta묠and Constant. ( 1 )舊的自由主義,首先倡導的太太德站묠和常數。 It may be described as the drawing-room Liberalism of the free-thinking educated classes, who, however, did not condescend to become practical politicians or statesmen; they were superior observers, infallible critics, standing above all parties.它可被稱為客廳自由主義的自由,思想教育課,誰,但沒有屈尊成為實際的政治家或政治家,他們均優於觀察員,萬無一失的批評,站在上面所有各方。 In later days some few of these old Liberals, animated by a truly liberal chivalry, stood up for the rights of suppressed minorities against Jacobin majorities, for instance, Littré and Laboulaye in France (1879-1880).在以後的幾年內一些這些舊自由黨,動畫由一個真正的自由騎士,站起來的權利,抑制少數人對多數雅各賓舉例來說, Littré和拉博在法國( 1879年至1880年) 。

(2) Closely connected with this old Liberalism of Mme de Sta묠is doctrinaire Liberalism which originated in the lecture-hall of Royer-Collard and in the salon of the Duc de Broglie (1814-1830). ( 2 )緊密聯繫在一起的老自由主義的太太德站묠是教條主義的自由主義起源於演講大廳的羅耶,科拉爾和美髮廳的德布羅意德( 1814年至1830年) 。 It was the Liberalism of the practical politicians and statesmen, who intended to re-establish, maintain, and develop, in the different states, the constitutional form of government based upon the principles of 1789.這是自由主義的實際政治家和國務活動家,誰打算重新建立,維護和發展,在不同的國家,憲法的政府形式為基礎的原則, 1789年。 The most prominent representatives of this body were, besides de Broglie, Royer-Collard, Guizot in France, Cavour in Italy, von Rotteck and his partisans in Germany.最突出的代表是這個機構,除了德布羅意,羅耶,科拉爾,基佐在法國,凱沃爾在意大利,馮Rotteck和他的游擊隊員在德國。

(3) Bourgeois Liberalism, was the natural outgrowth of doctrinaire Liberalism. It adapted itself more to the interests of the propertied and moneyed classes; for the clergy and nobility having been dispossessed of their political power, these were the only classes which could make use of the new institutions, the people not being sufficiently instructed and organized to do so. ( 3 )資產階級自由化,是自然結果教條主義的自由主義。它更適合本身的利益,有財產的階級和金錢;的神職人員和貴族被剝奪了政治權力,這是唯一的課程可以使用新的機構,人民沒有得到足夠的指示和有組織這樣做。 The rich industrial classes, therefore, were from the very beginning and in all countries the mainstay of Liberalism, and Liberalism for its part was forced to further their interests.豐富的工業類,因此,人從一開始就和所有國家的支柱自由主義,與自由主義來說,它被迫進一步他們的利益。 This kind of bourgeois Liberalism enjoyed its highest favour in France during the time of the citizen-king, Louis-Philippe (1830-40), who openly avowed his dependence upon it.這種資產階級的自由主義的最高享受在法國有利於在時間上的公民國王路易斯菲利普( 1830至1840年) ,誰公開宣稱他的依賴它。 It flourished in Germany, as "national Liberalism", in Austria, as "political Liberalism in general", in France, as the Liberalism of Gambetta's Opportunist party.它在德國蓬勃發展,作為“國家自由主義” ,在奧地利, “政治自由主義一般” ,在法國,作為自由主義的甘貝塔的機會主義政黨。 Its characteristic traits are materialistic, sordid ideals, which care only for unrestrained enjoyment of life, egoism in exploiting the economically weak by means of tariffs which are for the interests of the classes, a systematic persecution of Christianity and especially of the Catholic Church and her institutions, a frivolous disregard and even a mocking contempt of the Divine moral order, a cynical indifference in the choice and use of means - slander, corruption, fraud, etc. - in fighting one's opponents and in acquiring an absolute mastery and control of everything.其特點是唯物主義的特徵,骯髒的理想,而只顧無節制的享受生活,利己主義在利用經濟薄弱的手段,這是關稅的利益,階級,有系統的迫害,尤其是基督教,天主教會和她的機構,無意義的無視,甚至嘲笑蔑視神聖的道德秩序,一個玩世不恭的冷漠在選擇和使用的手段-誹謗罪,貪污腐敗,欺詐行為等-在打擊自己的對手,獲得絕對的掌握和控制一切。

(4) The Liberal "parties of progress" are in opposition to the Conservatives and the Liberals of the bourgeois classes, in so far as these, when once in power, usually care little or nothing for further improvements according to their Liberal principles, whereas the former lay more stress on the fundamental tenets of Liberalism themselves and fight against a cynical one-sided policy of self-interest; for this reason they appear to an outsider more fair-minded. ( 4 )自由“黨的進展”是在反對保守黨和自由黨對資產階級的階級,只要這些時,一旦上台,通常照顧很少或幾乎沒有進一步改善根據自己的自由原則,而前奠定更加注重基本原理的自由主義本身和打擊玩世不恭一邊倒的政策,自身的利益,為此他們似乎一個局外人更公正的。

(5) Liberal Radicals are adherents of progressive modern ideas, which they try to realize without consideration for the existing order or for other people's rights, ideas, and feelings. ( 5 )自由自由基的追隨者逐步現代觀念,他們努力實現不考慮現有秩序或其他人的權利,想法和感受。 Such was the first Liberal political party, the Spanish Jacobinos in 1810.這是第一次自由政黨來說,在Jacobinos西班牙1810年。 This is the Radicalism, which under the mask of liberty is now annihilating the rights of Catholics in France.這是激進主義,這掩蓋下的自由現在是毀滅性的權利,天主教徒在法國。

(6) The Liberal Democrats want to make the masses of the common people the deciding factor in public affairs. ( 6 )自由民主黨希望廣大普通百姓的決定性因素在公共事務中。 They rely especially on the middle classes, whose interests they pretend to have at heart.他們依靠特別是中產階級的利益,他們假裝有心髒病。

(7) Socialism is the Liberalism of self-interest nurtured by all classes of Liberals described above, and espoused by the members of the fourth estate and the proletariat. ( 7 )社會主義是自由主義自身利益所培育各類自由上文所述,並主張各成員的第四產業和無產階級。 It is at the same time nothing but the natural reaction against a one-sided policy of self-interest.它是在同一時間只是自然反應對一個片面的政策,自身利益的考慮。 Its main branches are:其主要分支有:

Communism, which tries to reorganize the social conditions by abolishing all private ownership;共產主義,試圖重組的社會條件,取消所有私人所有權;

Radical Social Democracy of Marx (founded 1848), common in Germany and Austria;社會民主激進黨馬克思( 1848年成立) ,共同在德國和奧地利;

Moderate Socialism (Democratic Socialistic Federation in England, Possibilists in France, etc.);適度社會主義(民主社會主義聯邦駐英國,法國Possibilists等) ;

Anarchist parties founded by Bakunin, Most, and Krapotkin, after 1868, for some periods allied to Social Democracy.各方無政府主義者巴枯寧創辦的,大部分,並克拉波特金後, 1868年,一些結盟時期社會民主主義。 Anarchism as a system is relatively the most logical and radical development of the Liberal principles.無政府主義作為一個系統是相對最合乎邏輯的發展和激進自由的原則。

(B) Ecclesiastical Liberalism (Liberal Catholicism) (乙)教會自由主義(自由天主教)

(1) The prevailing political form of modern Liberal Catholicism, is that which would regulate the relations of the Church to the State and modern society in accordance with the Liberal principles as expounded by Benjamin Constant. ( 1 )當前的政治形式的現代自由天主教的是,這將規範的關係,教會對國家和現代社會按照自由原則,闡述貢斯當。 It had its predecessors and patterns in Gallicanism, Febronianism, and Josephinism. Founded 1828 by Lamennais, the system was later defended in some respects by Lacordaire, Montalembert, Parisis, Dupanloup, and Falloux.它有前任和模式Gallicanism , Febronianism ,並Josephinism 。由1828年成立Lamennais ,系統維護,後來在某些方面的拉科代爾,蒙塔朗貝爾, Parisis , Dupanloup ,並Falloux 。

(2) The more theological and religious form of Liberal Catholicism had its predecessors in Jansenism and Josephinism; it aims at certain reforms in ecclesiastical doctrine and discipline in accordance with the anti-ecclesiastical liberal Protestant theory and atheistical "science and enlightenment" prevailing at the time. ( 2 )更多的神學和宗教形式的自由天主教有其前任在詹森主義和Josephinism ;它的目的是在某些教會的改革理論和紀律按照反新教教會自由的理論和無神論的“科學啟蒙”在當前的時間。 The newest phases of this Liberalism were condemned by Pius X as Modernism.最新的階段,這是自由主義譴責庇護十大現代主義。 In general it advocates latitude in interpreting dogma, oversight or disregard of the disciplinary and doctrinal decrees of the Roman Congregations, sympathy with the State even in its enactments against the liberty of the Church, in the action of her bishops, clergy, religious orders and congregations, and a disposition to regard as clericalism the efforts of the Church to protect the rights of the family and of individuals to the free exercise of religion.一般來說它主張緯度在解釋教條,監督或無視紀律和理論法令羅馬公理,同情與國家甚至在其頒布的自由教會,在她的行動主教,神職人員,宗教命令和眾,並處置方面的教權主義的努力,教會,以保護家庭的權利和個人自由從事宗教活動的。

III.三。 CONDEMNATION OF LIBERALISM BY THE CHURCH譴責自由主義的教堂

By proclaiming man's absolute autonomy in the intellectual, moral and social order, Liberalism denies, at least practically, God and supernatural religion. If carried out logically, it leads even to a theoretical denial of God, by putting deified mankind in place of God.宣布男子的絕對自主權的智力,道德和社會秩序,自由主義否認,至少在實際上,上帝和超自然的宗教。如果進行了邏輯,這甚至導致了理論否定上帝,把神化人類在上帝的地方。 It has been censured in the condemnations of Rationalism and Naturalism.這是在譴責譴責理性主義和自然主義。 The most solemn condemnation of Naturalism and Rationalism was contained in the Constitution "De Fide" of the Vatican Council (1870); the most explicit and detailed condemnation, however, was administered to modern Liberalism by Pius IX in the Encyclical "Quanta cura" of 8 December, 1864 and the attached Syllabus.最莊嚴的譴責自然和理性載於憲法“德善意”梵蒂岡理事會( 1870年) ;最明確和詳細的譴責,但是,管理向現代自由主義的庇護九中的通諭“廣庫拉”的1864年十二月八號及所附的教學大綱。 Pius X condemned it again in his allocution of 17 April, 1907, and in the Decree of the Congregation of the Inquisition of 3 July, 1907, in which the principal errors of Modernism were rejected and censured in sixty-five propositions.皮烏斯X再次譴責在他的allocution 4月17日1907年,並在該法令的教會的宗教裁判所的07年7月三號,其中的主要錯誤現代被否決,並指責在65主張。 The older and principally political form of false Liberal Catholicism had been condemned by the Encyclical of Gregory XVI, "Mirari Vos", of 15 August, 1832 and by many briefs of Pius IX (see Ségur, "Hommage aux Catholiques Libéraux", Paris, 1875).老年人和主要政治形式的虛假自由天主教已譴責了通諭中的格里高利十六世, “ Mirari沃斯” ,在1832年八月15日和許多簡報的庇護九(見填報, “ Hommage輔助天主教Libéraux ” ,巴黎, 1875年) 。 The definition of the papal infallibility by the Vatican council was virtually a condemnation of Liberalism.的定義的羅馬教皇犯錯誤梵蒂岡理事會幾乎是譴責的自由主義。 Besides this many recent decisions concern the principal errors of Liberalism.除了許多關心最近的決定的主要錯誤的自由主義。 Of great importance in this respect are the allocutions and encyclicals of Pius IX, Leo XIII, and Pius X. (Cf., Recueil des allocutions consistorales encycliques . . . citées dans le Syllabus", Paris, 1865) and the encyclicals of Leo XIII of 20 January, 1888, "On Human Liberty"; of 21 April, 1878, "On the Evils of Modern Society"; of 28 December, 1878, "On the Sects of the Socialists, Communists, and Nihilists"; of 4 August, 1879, "On Christian Philosophy"; of 10 February, 1880, "On Matrimony"; of 29 July, 1881, "On the Origin of Civil Power"; of 20 April, 1884, "On Freemasonry"; of 1 November, 1885, "On the Christian State"; of 25 December, 1888, "On the Christian Life"; of 10 January, 1890, "On the Chief Duties of a Christian Citizen"; of 15 May, 1891, "On the Social Question"; of 20 January, 1894, "On the Importance of Unity in Faith and Union with the Church for the Preservation of the Moral Foundations of the State"; of 19 March, 1902, "On the Persecution of the Church all over the World". Full information about the relation of the Church towards Liberalism in the different countries may be gathered from the transactions and decisions of the various provincial councils. These can be found in the "Collectio Lacensis" under the headings of the index: Fides, Ecclesia, Educatio, Francomuratores.非常重要的在這方面是allocutions和通諭的庇護九,利奧十三世和庇護十(參見,講義allocutions consistorales encycliques 。 。 。 citées中的樂教學大綱“ ,巴黎, 1865年)和通諭的利奧十三世在1888年1月20日, “論人的自由” ;的1878年4月21日, “論罪惡的現代社會” ;的1878年12月28號, “論教派的社會黨,共產黨,並Nihilists ” ; 8月4日, 1879年, “論基督教哲學” ;的一八八○年2月10日, “論婚姻” ;的1881年7月29日, “論公民的起源國” ; 4月20日, 1884年“關於共濟會” ; 11月1日, 1885年, “論基督教國家” ;的1888年12月25日, “論基督徒生活” ;的一八九○年1月10號, “關於行政長官的職責基督教公民” ;的1891年5月十五日, “論社會問題“ 1月20日1894年, ”論統一的重要性在信仰和聯盟與教會的保存道德基礎的國家“ ;的一九〇二年3月19號, ”關於迫害的教會世界各地“ 。充分了解的關係,教會對自由主義在不同的國家可能蒐集到的交易和作出的決定各省議會。這些可以在” Collectio Lacensis “的標題下的指數:信仰,教會, Educatio , Francomuratores 。

Publication information Written by Hermann Gruber.出版信息撰稿:赫爾曼格魯伯。 Transcribed by Vivek Gilbert John Fernandez. Dedicated to Anusha Jebanasam and The Opus Dei The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.轉錄的維韋克約翰吉爾伯特費爾南德斯。致力於Anusha Jebanasam和主業會的天主教百科全書,體積九。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat ,十月一日,一九一零年。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. +約翰M Farley, Archbishop of New York法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

FERRAZ, Spiritualisme et libéralisme (Paris, 1887); IDEM, Traditionalisme et ultramontanisme (Paris, 1880); D'HAUSSONVILLE, Le salon de Mme Necker (Paris, 1882); LADY BLENNERHASSET, Frau von Sta묠(1887-89); LABOULAYE, Le parti libéral (Paris, 1864); IDEM in the Introduction to his edition of Cours de politique constitutionelle de Benj.費拉斯Spiritualisme等libéralisme (巴黎, 1887年) ;同上, Traditionalisme等ultramontanisme (巴黎, 1880年) ;德HAUSSONVILLE ,樂德太太沙龍內克爾(巴黎, 1882年) ;夫人BLENNERHASSET ,弗勞馮站묠 ( 1887年至1889年) ;拉博,樂自由黨(巴黎, 1864年) ;同上在介紹他的版本的教程政治constitutionelle德Benj 。 Constant (Paris, 1872); CONSTANT, De la religion (Paris, 1824-31); BLUNTSCHLI, Allgemeine Staatslehre (Stuttgart, 1875), 472; SAMUEL, Liberalism (1902); DEVAS, Political Economy (London, 1901), 122, 531, 650 seq.; VILLIERS, Opportunity of Liberalism (1904); RUDEL, Geschichte des Liberalismus und der deutschen Reichsverfassung (1891); DEBIDOUR, Histoire des rapports de l'église et de l'état 1789-1905 (Paris, 1898-1906); BRUSK, Die Geheimen Gesellschaften in Spanien (1881); Handworterbuch der Staatswissenschaften, I, 296-327, sv Anarchismus; Ferrer im Lichte der Wahrheit in Germania (Berlin, 1909); MEFFERT, Die Ferrer-Bewegung als Selbstentlarvung des Freidenkertums (1909).恆(巴黎, 1872年) ;不變,德拉魯阿宗教(巴黎, 1824年至1831年) ;布倫奇利,匯報Staatslehre (斯圖加特, 1875年) , 472 ;薩穆埃爾,自由主義( 1902 ) ; DEVAS ,政治經濟學(倫敦, 1901年) , 122 , 531 , 650起。 ;維利耶,機遇自由主義( 1904年) ; RUDEL ,史自由主義與德國Reichsverfassung ( 1891年) ; DEBIDOUR ,史白皮書法國教堂和法國1789年至1905年政變(巴黎, 1898年-1906 ) ; BRUSK ,模具Geheimen Gesellschaften在西班牙( 1881年) ; Handworterbuch之Staatswissenschaften ,我296-327 ,希沃特Anarchismus ;費雷爾免疫Lichte之真理在德國(柏林, 1909年) ;梅斐爾德,模具費雷爾,運動作為Selbstentlarvung萬Freidenkertums ( 1909年) 。

Works concerning ecclesiastical Liberalism:- (A) Protestant Churches:- GOYAU, L'Allemagne religieuse, le protestantisme (Paris, 1898); SABATIER, Religions of Authority and the Religion of the Spirit; POLLOCK, Religious Equality (London, 1890); REVILLE, Liberal Christianity (London, 1903); IDEM, Anglican Liberalism (London, 1908).工程涉及教會自由主義: -(甲)基督教: - GO YAU,歐萊雅Al lemagne宗教,樂p r otestantisme(巴黎,1 8 98年) ;薩巴蒂爾,宗教機構和宗教精神;波洛克,宗教平等(倫敦,1 8 90年) ;雷維爾,自由基督教(倫敦, 1903年) ;同上,聖公會自由主義(倫敦, 1908年) 。 (B) Concerning Catholic Liberalism:- WEILL, Histoire de Catholicisme libéral en France, 1828-1908 (Paris, 1909). ( b )關於天主教自由主義: -威爾,史C atholicisme自由法國, 1 828年至0 8年(巴黎, 1 909年) 。 (C) Concerning Modernism: SCHELL, Katholizismus als Prinzip des Fortschritts (1897); IDEM, Die neue Zeit und der neue Glaube (1898); MAŒLER, Reformkatholizismus (these three works are on the Index); STUFLER, Die heiligkeit Gottes in Zeit. ( c )關於現代主義:夏偉,作為原則Katholizismus萬Fortschritts ( 1897年) ;同上,模具和新時代之新信仰( 1898年) ; MAŒLER , Reformkatholizismus (這三項工程的指標) ; STUFLER ,模具heiligkeit上帝的時代。 f롴h. f 롴小時 Theol. (Innsbruck, 1908), 100-114; 364-368. Theol 。 (因斯布魯克, 1908年) , 100-114 ; 364-368 。

Critique and condemnation of Liberalism:- FAGUET, Le Libéralisme (Paris, 1906); FRANTZ, Die Religion des National-liberalismus (1872).批判和譴責自由主義: -F AGUET,樂L ibéralisme(巴黎, 1 906年) ;方,模具之宗教國家,自由主義( 1 872年) 。 From the Catholic standpoint:- DONAT, Die Freiheit der Wissenschaft (1910); VON KETTELER, Freiheit Autorit䴠und Kirche (Mainz, 1862); IDEM, Die Arbeiterfrage und das Christenthum (Mainz, 1864); DECHAMPS, Le libéralisme (1878); DONOSO CORTɓ, Catholicism, Liberalism and Socialism (tr. Philadelphia, 1862); H. PESCH, Liberalismus, Sozialismus und christliche Gesellschaftsordnung (Freiburg, 1893-99); CATHREIN, Der Sozialismus (Freiburg, 1906); PALLEN, What is Liberalism?從天主教的觀點: -多納特,模具自由之科學( 1 910) ;馮克林德,自由A utorit䴠與教堂(茨, 1 862年) ;同上,模具A rbeiterfrage和存在C hristenthum(美茵茨, 1 864年) ; D ECHAMPS,樂l ibéralisme( 1 878年) ;諾索CORTɓ ,天主教,自由主義和社會主義(編輯部費城, 1862年) ;閣下佩施,自由主義,社會主義和基督教Gesellschaftsordnung (弗賴堡, 1893年至1899年) ; CATHREIN ,明鏡社會主義(弗賴堡, 1906年) ; PALLEN ,什麼是自由主義? (St. Louis, 1889); MOREL, Somme contre le catholicisme libéral (Paris, 1876); Die Encyklika Pius IX. (聖路易斯, 1889年) ;毛磊,索姆河catholicisme反對自由主義(巴黎, 1876年) ;模具Encyklika碧岳九。 vom 8 Dez.馮埃爾南德斯8日。 1864 in Stimmen aus Maria-Laach; CHR. 1864年在澳大利亞Stimmen瑪麗亞Laach ;中心。 PESCH, Theologische Zeitfragen, IV (1908); HEINER, Der Syllabus (Pius IX.) (1905); Der Syllabus Pius X.佩施,神學Zeitfragen ,四( 1908年) ;海納,明鏡教學大綱(碧岳九。 ) ( 1905年) ;明鏡教學大綱庇護十 und das Dekret des hl.與之Dekret萬hl 。 Offiziums "Lamentabili" vom 3 Juli, 1907 (1908); BROWNSON, Conversations on Liberalism and the Church (New York, 1869), reprinted in his Works, VII (Detroit, 1883-87), 305; MING, Data of Modern Ethics Examined (New York, 1897), x, xi; MANNING, Liberty of the Press in Essays, third series (London, 1892); BALMES, European Civilization (London, 1855), xxxiv, xxxv, lxvii; IDEM, Letters to a Sceptic (tr. Dublin, 1875), letter 7; GIBBONS, Faith of Our Fathers (Baltimore, 1871), xvii, xviii; The Church and Liberal Catholicism, pastoral letter of the English bishops, reprinted in Messenger of the Sacred Heart XXXVI (New York, 1901). Offiziums “ Lamentabili ”視覺第3朱莉, 1907年( 1908年) ;布朗森,對話的自由主義和教會(紐約, 1869年) ,重印他的作品,第七章(底特律, 1883年至1887年) , 305 ;明,數據的現代倫理審查(紐約, 1897年) ,十,十一;曼寧,自由的出版社在散文,第三個系列(倫敦, 1892年) ; BALMES ,歐洲文明(倫敦, 1855年) ,三十四,三十五, lxvii ;同上,信函的懷疑論者(編輯部都柏林, 1875年) ,信7 ;長臂猿,信仰的父輩(巴爾的摩, 1871年) ,十七,十八;教會和自由天主教,牧函的英文主教,重印通聖心三十六(紐約, 1901年) 。 180-93; cf. 180-93 ;比照。 also Dublin Review, new series, XVIII, 1, 285; XXV, 202; XXVI, 204, 487; third series XV, 58.還都柏林審查,新系列,十八, 1 , 285 ;二十五, 202 ;二十六, 204 , 487 ;第三個系列十五, 58 。


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