Saint John聖約翰

General Information 一般信息

Saint John, a Galilean fisherman and the son of Zebedee, was one of the Twelve Apostles.聖約翰的伽利略和漁民的兒子, 6號Zebedee ,是一個十二門徒。 John and his brother, Saint James (the Great), were called Boanerges, or Sons of Thunder, by Christ.約翰和他的弟弟,聖詹姆斯(大) ,被稱為Boanerges ,或父子的防雷,由基督。 Several passages in the Bible imply that this describes their intense loyalty and aggressive zeal (Mark 9:38; Luke 9:49, 54).有幾個段落聖經中的暗示,這說明其密集的忠誠和積極的熱情(馬克9點38分;盧克9點49 , 54 ) 。 John was one of the inner circle among the Twelve.約翰是一個內圈之間的12個。 Saint Peter, James, and John witnessed the Transfiguration (Matt. 17:1; Mark 9:2; Luke 9:28) and went to Gethsemane with Jesus (Matt. 26:37; Mark 14:33).聖彼得,詹姆斯和約翰目睹了變(瑪特泰17:1 ;馬克9點02分;盧克9時28 ) ,並到客西馬尼與耶穌(瑪特泰26:37 ;馬克14:33 ) 。

Many people believe that John was the beloved disciple referred to in the fourth gospel.許多人認為,約翰是心愛的弟子中提到的第四個福音。 If so, he was beside Jesus at the Last Supper (John 13:23), was asked to care for Jesus' mother Mary (John 19:26), and was the first to comprehend Jesus' Resurrection (John 20:2-9).如果是這樣,他旁邊的耶穌在最後的晚餐(約13時23分) ,被要求照顧耶穌的母親瑪利亞(約翰19:26 ) ,並且是第一個理解耶穌的復活(約翰20:2-9 ) 。 John had a prominent role in the early church (Acts 1:13, 8:14). Traditionally, five New Testament books are ascribed to him: the fourth gospel, three Epistles, and the Book of Revelation.約翰了突出的作用在早期教會(使徒1:13 , 8:14 ) 。傳統上,五年新約聖經的書籍歸咎於他說:第四福音,三個書信和啟示錄。 Feast day: Dec. 27 (Western); Sept. 26 (Eastern).盛宴一天: 12月27日(西) ; 9月26日(東部時間) 。

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Saint John聖約翰

Advanced Information 先進的信息


St. John the Evangelist聖約翰福音

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

I. New Testament Accounts一,新約全書帳戶

II.二。 The Alleged Presbyter John據稱牧師約翰

III.三。 The Later Accounts of John後來約翰帳戶

IV.四。 Feasts of St. John節日聖約翰

V. St. John in Christian Art五聖。約翰基督教藝術

I. NEW TESTAMENT ACCOUNTS一,新賬戶證明

John was the son of Zebedee and Salome, and the brother of James the Greater.約翰的兒子號Zebedee和莎樂美,和弟弟詹姆斯大。 In the Gospels the two brothers are often called after their father "the sons of Zebedee" and received from Christ the honourable title of Boanerges, ie "sons of thunder" (Mark 3:17).在福音的兩個兄弟往往被稱為後,他們的父親“的兒子號Zebedee ” ,並收到來自基督的光榮稱號Boanerges ,即“兒子的雷聲” (馬克3時17分) 。 Originally they were fishermen and fished with their father in the Lake of Genesareth.原來他們是漁民和捕撈與他們的父親在湖Genesareth 。 According to the usual and entirely probable explanation they became, however, for a time disciples of John the Baptist, and were called by Christ from the circle of John's followers, together with Peter and Andrew, to become His disciples (John 1:35-42).根據通常的和完全可能的解釋他們成為然而,一段時間門徒施洗約翰,以及被稱為基督的圓圈,從約翰的追隨者,連同彼得和安德魯,成為他的門徒(約1時35分- 42 ) 。 The first disciples returned with their new Master from the Jordan to Galilee and apparently both John and the others remained for some time with Jesus (cf. John ii, 12, 22; iv, 2, 8, 27 sqq.).第一個弟子帶著他們新的主從約旦加利利和約翰顯然都和其他仍有一段時間與耶穌(參見約翰二世, 12 , 22 ;四, 2日, 8日, 27 sqq 。 ) 。 Yet after the second return from Judea, John and his companions went back again to their trade of fishing until he and they were called by Christ to definitive discipleship (Matthew 4:18-22; Mark 1:16-20).然而,在第二次返回朱迪亞,約翰和他的同伴再次回到他們的貿易捕魚,直到他和他們所謂的基督最終門徒(馬太4:18-22 ;馬克1:16-20 ) 。 In the lists of the Apostles John has the second place (Acts 1:13), the third (Mark 3:17), and the fourth (Matthew 10:3; Luke 6:14), yet always after James with the exception of a few passages (Luke 8:51; 9:28 in the Greek text; Acts 1:13).名單中的使徒約翰的第二位(使徒1:13 ) ,第三(馬克3時17分) ,和第四(馬太十點03 ;盧克6點14分) ,但始終詹姆斯後,除了幾個通道(路八時五十一; 9點28分在希臘文字;行為1:13 ) 。

From James being thus placed first, the conclusion is drawn that John was the younger of the two brothers.從詹姆斯被從而使第一,得出約翰是年輕的兩兄弟。 In any case John had a prominent position in the Apostolic body.在任何情況下,約翰的顯眼位置,在使徒機構。 Peter, James, and he were the only witnesses of the raising of Jairus's daughter (Mark 5:37), of the Transfiguration (Matthew 17:1), and of the Agony in Gethsemani (Matthew 26:37).彼得,詹姆斯,他是唯一的證人的提高Jairus的女兒(馬克5點37分)的變形(馬太17:1 ) ,並在痛苦中Gethsemani (馬太26:37 ) 。 Only he and Peter were sent into the city to make the preparation for the Last Supper (Luke 22:8).只有他和彼得已進入城市,使籌備工作的最後的晚餐(盧克22時08分) 。 At the Supper itself his place was next to Christ on Whose breast he leaned (John 13:23, 25).在晚餐本身他旁邊的是基督在其乳腺癌的他正俯身(約翰13時23分, 25歲) 。

According to the general interpretation John was also that "other disciple" who with Peter followed Christ after the arrest into the palace of the high-priest (John 18:15).根據一般的解釋約翰也說, “其他門徒”誰與基督彼得隨後被捕後進入宮殿的高牧師(約翰18:15 ) 。 John alone remained near his beloved Master at the foot of the Cross on Calvary with the Mother of Jesus and the pious women, and took the desolate Mother into his care as the last legacy of Christ (John 19:25-27).約翰僅保持在接近他心愛的碩士腳下的十字架上各各他與耶穌的母親和虔誠的婦女,並採取了荒涼的母親照顧他的最後遺留下來的基督(約19:25-27 ) 。

After the Resurrection John with Peter was the first of the disciples to hasten to the grave and he was the first to believe that Christ had truly risen (John 20:2-10).經過復活約翰與彼得是第一的弟子,以加快的嚴重,他首先認為,真正的基督已上升(約20:2-10 ) 。 When later Christ appeared at the Lake of Genesareth John was also the first of the seven disciples present who recognized his Master standing on the shore (John 21:7).後來當基督出現在湖Genesareth約翰也是第一個在七個弟子目前誰承認他的主站在岸上(約21點07 ) 。 The Fourth Evangelist has shown us most clearly how close the relationship was in which he always stood to his Lord and Master by the title with which he is accustomed to indicate himself without giving his name: "the disciple whom Jesus loved".第四傳播者,亦顯示出我們最清楚如何密切的關係,他始終站在他的上帝和碩士學位的冠軍,他是習慣於以表明自己沒有給自己的名字: “他的弟子耶穌愛” 。 After Christ's Ascension and the Descent of the Holy Spirit, John took, together with Peter, a prominent part in the founding and guidance of the Church.在基督的阿森松島和聖靈降臨,約翰了,連同彼得,突出參與和指導,成立了教會。 We see him in the company of Peter at the healing of the lame man in the Temple (Acts 3:1 sqq.).我們看到他在該公司的彼得在癒合的跛腳男子廟(使徒3:1 sqq 。 ) 。 With Peter he is also thrown into prison (Acts 4:3).彼得他也扔進監獄(使徒4:3 ) 。 Again, we find him with the prince of the Apostles visiting the newly converted in Samaria (Acts 8:14).同樣,我們找到他的王子使徒訪問新轉換的撒馬利亞(使徒8:14 ) 。

We have no positive information concerning the duration of this activity in Palestine.我們已經沒有任何積極的信息的期限這一活動在巴勒斯坦。 Apparently John in common with the other Apostles remained some twelve years in this first field of labour, until the persecution of Herod Agrippa I led to the scattering of the Apostles through the various provinces of the Roman Empire (cf. Acts 12:1-17).顯然約翰共同與其他使徒仍有一些十二年在這第一場的勞動,直到迫害的希律王阿格里帕我率領的散射使徒通過各省羅馬帝國(參見行為12:1-17 ) 。 Notwithstanding the opinion to the contrary of many writers, it does not appear improbable that John then went for the first time to Asia Minor and exercised his Apostolic office in various provinces there.儘管輿論與此相反,許多作家,似乎沒有不可能約翰接著第一次小亞細亞和行使其使徒辦公室在各省存在。 In any case a Christian community was already in existence at Ephesus before Paul's first labours there (cf. "the brethren", Acts 18:27, in addition to Priscilla and Aquila), and it is easy to connect a sojourn of John in these provinces with the fact that the Holy Ghost did not permit the Apostle Paul on his second missionary journey to proclaim the Gospel in Asia, Mysia, and Bithynia (Acts 16:6 sq.).在任何情況下的基督教社會已經存在之前,在以弗所保羅的第一個勞動那裡(見“的兄弟” ,行為18:27 ,除了普里西拉和雕) ,很容易連接逗留在這些約翰各省的事實,即聖靈不允許使徒保羅第二次宣教旅程宣布福音在亞洲, Mysia ,並螺(使徒16時06平方米) 。 There is just as little against such an acceptation in the later account in Acts of St. Paul's third missionary journey.有一樣沒有對這種驗收後在帳戶中行為聖保祿第三傳教的旅程。 But in any case such a sojourn by John in Asia in this first period was neither long nor uninterrupted.但是,在任何情況下,這種由約翰逗留在亞洲的第一期既不長也不中斷。 He returned with the other disciples to Jerusalem for the Apostolic Council (about AD 51).他回到與其他門徒到耶路撒冷的使徒理事會(約公元51 ) 。 St. Paul in opposing his enemies in Galatia names John explicitly along with Peter and James the Less as a "pillar of the Church", and refers to the recognition which his Apostolic preaching of a Gospel free from the law received from these three, the most prominent men of the old Mother-Church at Jerusalem (Galatians 2:9).聖保祿反對他的敵人在加拉太約翰明確的名字連同彼得和詹姆斯欠作為“支柱的教會” ,是指承認他的使徒宣揚的福音不受法律收到這些三,最突出的男子的老母親在耶路撒冷教會(加拉太2點09分) 。 When Paul came again to Jerusalem after the second and after the third journey (Acts 18:22; 21:17 sq.) he seems no longer to have met John there.當保羅再次來到耶路撒冷後,第二次和第三次之後的旅程(使徒18:22 ; 21:17平方米) ,他似乎不再滿足約翰那裡。 Some wish to draw the conclusion from this that John left Palestine between the years 52 and 55.一些想得出這樣的結論從這個約翰離開巴勒斯坦歲之間的52和55 。

Of the other New-Testament writings, it is only from the three Epistles of John and the Apocalypse that anything further is learned concerning the person of the Apostle.其他新約聖經的著作,它只是從三個約翰書信和啟示,任何進一步的了解關於人的使徒。 We may be permitted here to take as proven the unity of the author of these three writings handed down under the name of John and his identity with the Evangelist.我們可能被允許在這裡需要證明的團結作者,這三個著作流傳的名字約翰和他的身份與傳播者。 Both the Epistles and the Apocalypse, however, presuppose that their author John belonged to the multitude of personal eyewitnesses of the life and work of Christ (cf. especially 1 John 1:1-5; 4:14), that he had lived for a long time in Asia Minor, was thoroughly acquainted with the conditions existing in the various Christian communities there, and that he had a position of authority recognized by all Christian communities as leader of this part of the Church.無論是書信和啟示,但先決條件,他們的作者約翰屬於眾多的個人目擊者的生活和工作的基督(參見特別是約翰一書1:1-5 ; 4點14分) ,他已住了很長一段時間,小亞細亞,被徹底熟悉現有的條件在各基督教社區那裡,他有權力地位大家公認的基督教社區領袖的這一部分教會。 Moreover, the Apocalypse tells us that its author was on the island of Patmos "for the word of God and for the testimony of Jesus", when he was honoured with the heavenly Revelation contained in the Apocalypse (Revelation 1:9).此外,啟示錄告訴我們,它的作者是島上的帕特摩斯“這個詞的上帝和耶穌的證詞”時,他很榮幸與神聖的啟示中所載的啟示(啟示一時09分) 。

II.二。 THE ALLEGED PRESBYTER JOHN據稱牧師約翰

The author of the Second and Third Epistles of John designates himself in the superscription of each by the name (ho presbyteros), "the ancient", "the old". Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis, also uses the same name to designate the "Presbyter John" as in addition to Aristion, his particular authority, directly after he has named the presbyters Andrew, Peter, Philip, Thomas, James, John, and Matthew (in Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", III, xxxix, 4).作者第二和第三的約翰書信指定自己的每一個superscription的名稱(浩presbyteros ) , “古” , “舊” 。帕皮亞,主教希拉波利斯,也使用相同的名稱,指定“牧師約翰“作為除了Aristion ,他的特別權力,直接,他已任命安德魯的長老,彼得,菲利普,托馬斯,詹姆斯,約翰,和馬修(中優西比烏” ,組織胺。傳道書。 “ ,第三章,第39屆,第4 ) 。 Eusebius was the first to draw, on account of these words of Papias, the distinction between a Presbyter John and the Apostle John, and this distinction was also spread in Western Europe by St. Jerome on the authority of Eusebius.優西比烏是首次提請,考慮到這些話帕皮亞,之間的區別牧師約翰和使徒約翰,以及這種區別也蔓延在西歐的聖杰羅姆的權威優西比烏。 The opinion of Eusebius has been frequently revived by modern writers, chiefly to support the denial of the Apostolic origin of the Fourth Gospel.該意見的優西比烏已經常死灰復燃的現代作家,主要以支持否認使徒血統第四福音。 The distinction, however, has no historical basis.這種區別,但是,沒有任何歷史依據。 First, the testimony of Eusebius in this matter is not worthy of belief.第一,證明了優西比烏在這個問題上是不值得相信。 He contradicts himself, as in his "Chronicle" he expressly calls the Apostle John the teacher of Papias ("ad annum Abrah 2114"), as does Jerome also in Ep.他違背了自己,因為在他的“紀事” ,他明確呼籲使徒約翰的老師帕皮亞( “廣告每年Abrah 2114 ” )一樣,杰羅姆也內啡肽。 lxxv, "Ad Theodoram", iii, and in "De viris illustribus", xviii. lxxv , “廣告Theodoram ” ,三,並在“德viris illustribus ” ,十八。 Eusebius was also influenced by his erroneous doctrinal opinions as he denied the Apostolic origin of the Apocalypse and ascribed this writing to an author differing from St. John but of the same name.優西比烏也影響他的錯誤的理論見解,他否認使徒起源的啟示,並為其撰寫本報告的作者從不同的聖約翰,但相同的名稱。 St. Irenæus also positively designates the Apostle and Evangelist John as the teacher of Papias, and neither he nor any other writer before Eusebius had any idea of a second John in Asia (Adv. haer., V, xxxiii, 4).聖依還積極指定使徒約翰和傳播者的教師帕皮亞,既不他或任何其他作家之前,優西比烏有任何想法,第二次在亞洲的約翰( Adv. haer 。 ,五,三十三, 4 ) 。 In what Papias himself says the connection plainly shows that in this passage by the word presbyters only Apostles can be understood.在什麼帕皮亞自己說的連接顯然表明,在這一段的文字只有長老使徒是可以理解的。 If John is mentioned twice the explanation lies in the peculiar relationship in which Papias stood to this, his most eminent teacher.如果約翰是兩次提到的解釋在於特殊的關係,帕皮亞站在這一點,他最傑出的教師。 By inquiring of others he had learned some things indirectly from John, just as he had from the other Apostles referred to.通過詢問他人,他學到了一些東西間接從約翰,就像他從其他使徒提到。 In addition he had received information concerning the teachings and acts of Jesus directly, without the intervention of others, from the still living "Presbyter John", as he also had from Aristion. Thus the teaching of Papias casts absolutely no doubt upon what the New-Testament writings presuppose and expressly mention concerning the residence of the Evangelist John in Asia.此外,他還收到了有關的教義和行為的直接耶穌,不干預其他國家,從仍然生活“牧師約翰” ,他還從Aristion 。因此,教學中的帕皮亞使人毫無疑問應是新,全書寫作的前提和明確提到的關於居住的傳播者約翰在亞洲。

III.三。 THE LATER ACCOUNTS OF JOHN後來約翰帳戶

The Christian writers of the second and third centuries testify to us as a tradition universally recognized and doubted by no one that the Apostle and Evangelist John lived in Asia Minor in the last decades of the first century and from Ephesus had guided the Churches of that province.基督教作家的第二次和第三次百年證明我們作為一個傳統的公認和懷疑沒有一個使徒和傳播者約翰住在小亞細亞在過去幾十年的二十一世紀,從指導以弗所教會的省。 In his "Dialogue with Tryphon" (Chapter 81) St. Justin Martyr refers to "John, one of the Apostles of Christ" as a witness who had lived "with us", that is, at Ephesus.他在“對話Tryphon ” ( 81章)聖賈斯汀烈士指的是“約翰,一個基督的使徒”作為證人誰住“與我們” ,也就是說,在以弗所。 St. Irenæus speaks in very many places of the Apostle John and his residence in Asia and expressly declares that he wrote his Gospel at Ephesus (Adv. haer., III, i, 1), and that he had lived there until the reign of Trajan (loc. cit., II, xxii, 5). With Eusebius (Hist. eccl., III, xiii, 1) and others we are obliged to place the Apostle's banishment to Patmos in the reign of the Emperor Domitian (81-96). Previous to this, according to Tertullian's testimony (De praescript., xxxvi), John had been thrown into a cauldron of boiling oil before the Porta Latina at Rome without suffering injury.聖依說在許多地方的使徒約翰和他的住所在亞洲和明確宣布,他寫他的福音在以弗所( Adv. haer 。 ,三,一, 1 ) ,並說,他在那裡生活,直到統治圖拉真(如上。 ,二, 22 , 5 ) 。隨著優西比烏( Hist.傳道書。 ,三,十三, 1 )和其他我們不得不把使徒的流放中,以帕特摩斯在位皇帝多米田( 81 - 96 ) 。前此,根據良的證詞(德praescript 。 ,三十六) ,約翰被扔進大鍋沸騰的石油門之前在羅馬拉丁無痛苦損傷。 After Domitian's death the Apostle returned to Ephesus during the reign of Trajan, and at Ephesus he died about AD 100 at a great age.經過多米田的死亡使徒返回以弗所時期的圖拉真,並在以弗所他死於公元100約在一個偉大時代。 Tradition reports many beautiful traits of the last years of his life: that he refused to remain under the same roof with Cerinthus (Irenaeus "Ad. haer.", III, iii, 4); his touching anxiety about a youth who had become a robber (Clemens Alex., "Quis dives salvetur", xiii); his constantly repeated words of exhortation at the end of his life, "Little children, love one another" (Jerome, "Comm. in ep. ad. Gal.", vi, 10).傳統報告許多美麗的性狀過去幾年他的生活:他拒絕繼續在同一屋簷下的克林妥(依“廣告。 haer 。 ” ,三,三, 4 ) ;他的感人焦慮的青年誰已成為一個強盜(克萊門斯阿萊克斯。 “ Quis跳水salvetur ” ,十三) ;他不斷重複的話告誡結束時,他的生命, “小的兒童,彼此相愛” (杰羅姆, “通信。在上皮。廣告。乳糖。 ” ,六, 10 ) 。 On the other hand the stories told in the apocryphal Acts of John, which appeared as early as the second century, are unhistorical invention.另一方面,故事在未經行為的約翰,似乎早在二世紀,是unhistorical的發明。

IV.四。 FEASTS OF ST.節日的ST 。 JOHN約翰

St. John is commemorated on 27 December, which he originally shared with St. James the Greater.聖約翰是紀念12月27日,他原先同聖雅各福群大。 At Rome the feast was reserved to St. John alone at an early date, though both names are found in the Carthage Calendar, the Hieronymian Martyrology, and the Gallican liturgical books.在羅馬的節日是保留給聖約翰僅早日,但兩個名稱是在迦太基日曆, Hieronymian Martyrology ,以及高盧聖禮儀的書籍。 The "departure" or "assumption" of the Apostle is noted in the Menology of Constantinople and the Calendar of Naples (26 September), which seems to have been regarded as the date of his death.在“離開”或“假設”的使徒中指出Menology君士坦丁堡和日曆那不勒斯( 9月26日) ,這似乎已經被看作是死者死亡的日期。 The feast of St. John before the Latin Gate, supposed to commemorate the dedication of the church near the Porta Latina, is first mentioned in the Sacramentary of Adrian I (772-95).在節日前聖約翰拉丁美洲門,理應為紀念奉獻教堂附近的門拉丁,首先提到的Sacramentary阿德里安口( 772-95 ) 。

V. ST.五,意法半導體。 JOHN IN CHRISTIAN ART約翰在基督教藝術

Early Christian art usually represents St. John with an eagle, symbolizing the heights to which he rises in the first chapter of his Gospel.早期基督教藝術通常聖約翰同一個老鷹球,象徵著高度的上升,他在第一章他的福音。 The chalice as symbolic of St. John, which, according to some authorities, was not adopted until the thirteenth century, is sometimes interpreted with reference to the Last Supper, again as connected with the legend according to which St. John was handed a cup of poisoned wine, from which, at his blessing, the poison rose in the shape of a serpent.該杯作為象徵性的聖約翰,而根據一些機構,沒有獲得通過,直到13世紀,有時是解釋參照最後的晚餐,又與傳奇根據該聖約翰交給了一杯葡萄酒的毒害,其中,在他的祝福,毒藥上升形狀的蛇。 Perhaps the most natural explanation is to be found in the words of Christ to John and James "My chalice indeed you shall drink" (Matthew 20:23).也許最自然的解釋是可以找到的話基督約翰和詹姆斯: “我確實杯你喝” (馬太20:23 ) 。

Publication information Written by Leopold Fonck.出版信息撰稿利奧波德Fonck 。 Transcribed by Michael Little. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.轉錄邁克爾小。天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat ,十月一日,一九一零年。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


Also, see:此外,見:
Book of John 圖書約翰
Epistles of John 約翰書信
Apostles 使徒


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