Saint Jerome聖杰羅姆

General Information 一般信息

Jerome (Eusebius Hieronymus), c.347-420, was a Father of the Church and Doctor of the Church, whose great work was the translation of the Bible into Latin, the edition known as the Vulgate (see Bible).杰羅姆(優西比烏海歐納莫斯) , c.347 - 420 ,是父親教會和醫生的教會巨大的工作是翻譯的聖經到拉美,該版本被稱為武加大 (見聖經) 。 He was born at Stridon on the borders of Dalmatia and Pannonia of a well-to-do Christian family.他出生在Stridon邊界的達爾馬提亞和潘諾尼亞一個富裕的基督教家庭。 His parents sent him to Rome to further his intellectual interests, and there he acquired a knowledge of classical literature and was baptized at the age of 19.他的父母送他到羅馬,以進一步他的智慧的利益,而且他獲得了知識,古典文學和洗禮的年齡為19 。 Shortly thereafter he journeyed to Trier in Gaul and to Aquileia in Italy, where he began to cultivate his theological interests in company with others who, like himself, were ascetically inclined.此後不久,他到特里爾journeyed在高盧和阿奎在意大利,在那裡他開始培養他的神學公司的利益與他人誰,就像自己被ascetically傾斜。

About 373, Jerome set out on a pilgrimage to the East.關於373 ,杰羅姆規定了朝聖的地區。 In Antioch, where he was warmly received, he continued to pursue his humanist and monastic studies.在安提阿,在那裡他受到熱烈歡迎,他繼續推行他的人道主義者和寺院的研究。 He also had a profound spiritual experience, dreaming that he was accused of being "a Ciceronian, not a Christian."他還深刻的精神體驗,做夢,他被指控為“一個Ciceronian ,而不是一個基督徒。 ” Accordingly, he determined to devote himself exclusively to the Bible and theology, although the translator Rufinus (345-410), Jerome's close friend, suggested later that the vow was not strictly kept.因此,他決心投身專門為聖經和神學,但翻譯Rufinus ( 345-410 ) ,杰羅姆的密友,建議以後的誓言沒有得到嚴格遵守。 Jerome moved to the desert of Chalcis, and while practicing more rigorous austerities, pursued his studies, including the learning of Hebrew.杰羅姆移到沙漠Chalcis ,同時實行更加嚴格的austerities ,推行他的研究,包括學習希伯來文。 On his return to Antioch in 378 he heard Apollinaris the Younger (c.310-c.390) lecture and was admitted to the priesthood (379) by Paulinus, bishop of Antioch.在他返回安提阿在378 ,他聽到Apollinaris年輕( c.310 - c.390 )講座和被接納為神父( 379 )由Paulinus ,安提阿主教。 In Constantinople, where he spent three years around 380, he was influenced by Gregory of Nazianzus.在君士坦丁堡,在那裡他花了三年時間約380個,他是受格雷戈里的高利。

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When Jerome returned to Rome Pope Damasus I appointed him confidential secretary and librarian and commissioned him to begin his work of rendering the Bible into Latin.當杰羅姆返回羅馬教皇達瑪斯我任命他的機要秘書和圖書館,並委託他開始他的工作使聖經成為拉丁美洲。 After the death (384) of Damasus, however, Jerome fell out of favor, and for a second time he decided to go to the East.後死亡( 384 )的達瑪斯然而,杰羅姆失寵,並第二次,他決定去東。 He made brief visits to Antioch, Egypt, and Palestine.他做了簡短的訪問安提阿,埃及和巴勒斯坦。 In 386, Jerome settled at Bethlehem in a monastery established for him by Paula, one of a group of wealthy Roman women whose spiritual advisor he had been and who remained his lifelong friend. 386 ,杰羅姆收於伯利恆的一個修道院為他設立的保之一,一組富有的羅馬婦女的精神顧問,他一直,誰是他一生的朋友。 There he began his most productive literary period, and there he remained for 34 years, until his death.在那裡,他開始了他的文學最有成效的時期,因此他仍然為34年,直到去世。 From this period come his major biblical commentaries and the bulk of his work on the Latin Bible.從這一時期是他的主要聖經評注和他的大部分工作拉丁美洲聖經。

The writings of Jerome express a scholarship unsurpassed in the early church and helped to create the cultural tradition of the Middle Ages.該著作的杰羅姆表達了無與倫比的獎學金在早期教會和幫助創造的文化傳統的中世紀。 He developed the use of philological and geographical material in his exegesis and recognized the scientific importance of archaeology.他開發出了使用語文和地理材料在他的註釋和公認的科學考古的重要性。 In his interpretation of the Bible he used both the allegorical method of the Alexandrian and the realism of the Antiochene schools.在他的解釋,他用聖經的寓言方法的亞歷山大和現實主義的Antiochene學校。 A difficult and hot-tempered man, Jerome made many enemies, but his correspondence with friends and enemies alike is of great interest, particularly that with Saint Augustine. His greatest gifts were in scholarship, and he is a true founder of scientific biblical exegesis in the West. Feast day: Sept. 30 (Western).困難和性急的人,杰羅姆提出了許多敵人,但他的信件與朋友和敵人都非常感興趣,尤其是與聖奧古斯丁。 他最大的禮物是在獎學金,他是一個真正的科學的創始人在聖經註釋西方。盛宴一天: 9月30日(西方) 。

Ross Mackenzie羅斯麥肯齊

Bibliography 目錄
Berschin, W., Greek Letters and the Latin Middle Ages, rev. Berschin ,美國,希臘字母和拉丁中世紀,轉速。 ed.版。 (1989); Kelly, JND, Jerome, His Life, Writings, and Controversies (1975); Steinmann, Jean, Saint Jerome and His Times (1959); Wiesen, David S., St. Jerome as a Satirist (1949; repr. 1964). ( 1989年) ;凱利, JND ,杰羅姆,他的生活,寫作,和爭議( 1975年) ;坦曼,讓,聖杰羅姆和他的時代( 1959年) ;維森,戴維S ,聖杰羅姆作為一個諷刺( 1949年; repr 。 1964年) 。


Saint Jerome聖杰羅姆

General Information 一般信息

Saint Jerome, [in Latin, Eusebius Hieronymus] (347?-419 or 420), was Father of the Church, Doctor of the Church, and biblical scholar, and whose most important work was a translation of the Bible into Latin (see Vulgate).聖杰羅姆, [在拉丁美洲,優西比烏海歐納莫斯] ( 347 ? -419或420 ) ,是父親教會,醫生的教會,和聖經學者,其最重要的工作是翻譯聖經到拉丁美洲(見武加大) 。 Jerome was born in Stridon, on the border of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia and Pannonia, about 347.杰羅姆出生於Stridon ,邊界上的羅馬省份的達爾馬提亞和潘諾尼亞,約347 。 After a period of literary study in Rome, he withdrew to the desert, where he lived as an ascetic and pursued the study of Scripture.經過一段時期的文學研究在羅馬,他撤回到沙漠,他在那裡生活作為一個禁慾和追求的研究聖經。 In 379 he was ordained a priest.在379 ,他被任命一名神父。 He then spent three years in Constantinople (present-day Ýstanbul) with the Eastern church father, Saint Gregory of Nazianzus.然後,他花了三年時間在君士坦丁堡(現在的Ýstanbul )與東方教會的父親,聖格里高利的高利。 In 382 he returned to Rome, where he was made secretary to Pope Damasus I and became an influential figure. Many people placed themselves under his spiritual direction, including a noble Roman widow named Paula and her daughter, both of whom followed him to the Holy Land in 385 after the death of Damasus. Jerome fixed his residence at Bethlehem in 386, after Paula (later Saint Paula) founded four convents there, three for nuns and one for monks; the latter was governed by Jerome himself.在382他回到羅馬,在那裡他是書記,教皇達瑪斯一世,成為有影響力的人物。許多人把自己根據他的精神方向,其中包括一項崇高的羅馬名為保寡婦和她的女兒,兩人跟著他到羅馬385土地去世後,達瑪斯。杰羅姆固定住所在伯利恆386後,保(後來聖保)成立四個修道院有三個尼姑和一個和尚,後者是由杰羅姆自己。 There he pursued his literary labors and engaged in controversy not only with heretics Jovinian and Vigilantius and the adherents of Pelagianism, but also with monk and theologian Tyrannius Rufinus and with Saint Augustine.在那裡,他繼續他的文學和從事勞動爭議不僅同異教徒Jovinian和Vigilantius和信徒Pelagianism ,而且還與僧人和神學Tyrannius Rufinus和聖奧古斯丁。 Because of his conflict with the bishop of Jerusalem, by about 395 Jerome found himself threatened with expulsion by the Roman civil authorities.由於他的衝突,耶路撒冷主教,約395杰羅姆發現自己被驅逐威脅的羅馬民事當局。 Although this threat was averted, Jerome's later years were overshadowed by the sack of Rome in 410, the death of Paula and her daughter, and his own increasing isolation.雖然這種威脅是可以避免,杰羅姆晚年被掩蓋了一袋羅馬410 ,死亡的保和她的女兒,和他自己越來越孤立。

In addition to his work on the Bible, Jerome's literary activity was extensive and varied.除了他的工作聖經,杰羅姆的文學活動是廣泛和多樣的。 He continued the Chronicle of Eusebius of Caesarea, which covered sacred and profane history from the birth of Abraham to AD303, bringing the narrative to the year 378. For his De Viris Illustribus (On Famous Men), Jerome drew upon the Ecclesiastical History of the same Eusebius.他繼續紀事的優西比烏的愷撒,其中包括神聖和世俗的歷史,亞伯拉罕出生到AD303 ,使敘事到378 。對於他的德Viris Illustribus (名人論) ,杰羅姆提請各教會的歷史同樣的優西比烏。 He also wrote a number of commentaries on various books of the Bible, as well as polemical treatises against various theological opponents.他還寫了一些評論的各種書籍,聖經,以及有爭議的論文對各種神學的對手。 Jerome was a brilliant and prolific correspondent; more than 150 of his letters survive.杰羅姆是一個多產的光輝和記者; 150多封信他的生存。 His feast day is September 30.他的盛宴一天是9月30日。


Saint Jerome聖杰羅姆

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(ca. 347-419) (約公元347-419 )

Jerome was a Biblical scholar and translator who aimed to introduce the best of Greek learning to Western Christianity.杰羅姆是一個聖經學者,翻譯誰旨在引進最好的希臘學習西方的基督教。 He sensed the inferiority of the West, and he labored to add scholarship to the public glory of the church.他感覺到自卑西,他吃力新增獎學金向公眾榮耀的教會。

Jerome, whose Latin name was Eusebius Hieronomous, was born in the little town of Strido near the border of Italy and Dalmatia (today's Yugoslavia).杰羅姆,其拉丁名字是優西比烏Hieronomous ,出生在小城鎮的Strido邊境附近的意大利和達爾馬提亞(今天的南斯拉夫) 。 His parents were well-to-do Catholics who sent their son to Rome for his higher education.他的父母小康天主教徒誰發出他們的兒子在羅馬,他接受高等教育。 There he heard the great grammarian Donatus, laid the foundation of his library of classical Latin authors, and adopted Cicero as his model of Latin style. At the end of his studies, when about twenty years of age, he set off for Gaul.在那裡,他聽到了巨大的grammarian圖斯,奠定了他收藏的古典拉丁美洲作家,並通過西塞羅他的模型,拉丁美洲的風格。在結束他的學業時,大約20歲,他動身前往高盧。 In Treves, the imperial capital, he experienced a type of conversion, renouncing a secular career for meditation and spiritual work.在特雷韋斯,資本帝國,他經歷了一個類型的轉換,放棄一個世俗的職業生涯的冥想和精神文明工作。 This change of career led him back to his home and to neighbouring Aquilia, where he met Rufinus and other clergymen and devout women interested in asceticism.這種變化的職業生涯使他回到他的家和鄰國Aquilia ,他在那裡會見Rufinus和其他神職人員和虔誠的婦女感興趣的禁慾主義。 Thus began his career of cultivating ascetic and scholarly interests.因此,開始他的職業生涯培養禁慾和學術利益。

In 373 Jerome decided to travel to the East.在373杰羅姆決定前往該地區。 He settled for a time in the Syrian desert southeast of Antioch.他解決了一段時間在敘利亞沙漠東南部的安提阿。 There he mastered Hebrew and perfected his Greek.在那裡,他掌握了希伯來文和希臘完善。 After ordination at Antioch he went to Constantinople and studied with Gregory of Nazianzus.經過協調在安提阿他前往君士坦丁堡,並研究了格雷戈里的高利。 In 382 he returned to Rome, where he became the friend and secretary of Pope Damasus.在382他回到羅馬,在那裡他成為朋友和秘書教皇達瑪斯。 We have Damasus to thank for the first impulse toward Jerome's Latin translation of the Bible, the Vulgate.我們已經達瑪斯感謝的第一個衝動的杰羅姆的拉丁美洲翻譯聖經,拉丁文聖經。

When Damasus died, late in 384, Jerome for the second time decided to go to the East.當達瑪斯死亡,在384年底,杰羅姆第二次決定去東。 After some wandering, first to Antioch then Alexandria, he settled in Bethlehem, where he remained for the rest of his life.經過一段徘徊,首先是安提然後亞歷山大,他定居在伯利恆,他在那裡停留在餘下的生命裡。 He found companions in a monastery and served as a spiritual adviser to some wealthy women who had followed him from Rome.他發現同伴在一個寺院,並作為一種精神顧問,一些有錢的婦女誰曾跟隨他從羅馬。

Jerome's greatest accomplishment was the Vulgate.杰羅姆的最大成就是武加大。 The chaos of the older Latin translation was notorious.混亂的老年人拉丁美洲是臭名昭著的翻譯。 Working from the Hebrew OT and the Greek NT, Jerome, after twenty-three years of labor, gave Latin Christianity its Bible anew.工作從加時賽希伯來文和希臘新台幣,杰羅姆,經過二三年的勞動,給拉丁美洲的基督教聖經新。 Although the text became corrupted during the Middle Ages, its supremacy was reaffirmed by the Council of Trent in 1546, and it remains to this day the classical Latin Bible.雖然損壞的文本成為在中世紀,其優勢也重申了安理會在第1546特倫特,它仍然是這一天的古典拉丁聖經。

A second and related part of Jerome's heritage lies in his expositions of Scripture.第二次和相關的一部分杰羅姆的遺產在於他的論述聖經。 Like all biblical interpreters of the early church, Jerome affirmed a threefold (historical, symbolic, and spiritual) meaning of Scripture and repudiated an exclusively historical interpretation as "Jewish."像所有的聖經翻譯的早期教堂,杰羅姆肯定了三倍(歷史,象徵性的,和精神)的意義和聖經完全否定歷史解釋為“猶太人” 。 The mere letter kills.僅僅殺死信。 What he demanded was only that the historical interpretation should not be considered inferior to the allegorical (or spiritual).他要求只是說,歷史解釋不應被視為劣勢的寓言(或精神) 。

Jerome was no creative theologian, no great teacher of the church.杰羅姆沒有創造性的神學,沒有偉大的導師的教堂。 He engaged in one bitter controversy after another with vindictive passion.他參與了激烈的爭論之一又與報復性的激情。 Yet for all his personal weaknesses, Jerome's reputation as a biblical scholar endures.然而,所有他的個人弱點,杰羅姆的聲譽作為一個聖經學者死去。

BL Shelley基本法雪萊
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
H. von Campenhausen, Men Who Shaped the Western Church; JND Kelly, Jerome; CC Mierow, Saint Jerome: The Sage of Bethlehem; FX Murphy, ed.閣下馮Campenhausen ,人塑造了西方教會; JND凱利,杰羅姆;連鑄Mierow ,聖杰羅姆:聖人伯利恆;外匯墨菲版。 A Monument to Saint Jerome; JG Nolan, Jerome and Jovinian; J. Steinmann, Saint Jerome and His Times.一個紀念碑,聖杰羅姆; JG諾蘭,杰羅姆和Jovinian ;學者坦曼,聖杰羅姆和他的時代。


St. Jerome聖杰羅姆

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Born at Stridon, a town on the confines of Dalmatia and Pannonia, about the year 340-2; died at Bethlehem, 30 September, 420.出生於Stridon ,一個小鎮上的局限和達爾馬提亞潘諾尼亞,大約一年340-2 ;死在伯利恆, 9月30日, 420 。

He went to Rome, probably about 360, where he was baptized, and became interested in ecclesiastical matters.他到羅馬,大概360 ,在那裡他受洗,並成為教會感興趣的問題。 From Rome he went to Trier, famous for its schools, and there began his theological studies.從羅馬前往特里爾,著名的學校,並開始了他的神學研究。 Later he went to Aquileia, and towards 373 he set out on a journey to the East.後來,他去阿奎,並實現373他動身的地區。 He settled first in Antioch, where he heard Apollinaris of Laodicea, one of the first exegetes of that time and not yet separated from the Church.他首先在解決安提阿,在那裡他聽到Apollinaris的老底嘉,第一個exegetes的時間,還沒有脫離教會。 From 374-9 Jerome led an ascetical life in the desert of Chalcis, south-west of Antioch.從374-9杰羅姆率領一個ascetical生活在沙漠中的Chalcis ,西南安提阿。 Ordained priest at Antioch, he went to Constantinople (380-81), where a friendship sprang up between him and St.晉鐸在安提阿,他前往君士坦丁堡( 380-81 ) ,其中友誼興起他與街 Gregory of Nazianzus.格雷戈里的高利。 From 382 to August 385 he made another sojourn in Rome, not far from Pope Damasus.從382到385 8月,他又在羅馬逗留,而不是遠離教皇達瑪斯。 When the latter died (11 December, 384) his position became a very difficult one.當後者死亡( 12月11日, 384 )他的立場是一個非常艱難的一年。 His harsh criticisms had made him bitter enemies, who tried to ruin him.他嚴厲批評了他痛苦的敵人,誰試圖毀滅他。 After a few months he was compelled to leave Rome.後幾個月,他被迫離開羅馬。 By way of Antioch and Alexandria he reached Bethlehem, in 386.的方式安提阿和亞歷山大他走到伯利恆,在386 。 He settled there in a monastery near a convent founded by two Roman ladies, Paula and Eustochium, who followed him to Palestine.他定居在那裡的一個修道院附近的修道院創辦的兩個羅馬女士們,保和Eustochium ,誰跟著他交給巴勒斯坦人。 Henceforth he led a life of asceticism and study; but even then he was troubled by controversies which will be mentioned later, one with Rufinus and the other with the Pelagians.此後,他率領的苦行生活和學習,但即使在那時,他感到不安的爭論將提到後來,一個Rufinus和其他與Pelagians 。

CHRONOLOGY年代

The literary activity of St. Jerome, although very prolific, may be summed up under a few principal heads: works on the Bible; theological controversies; historical works; various letters; translations.文學活動的聖杰羅姆,雖然非常豐富,可以概括以下幾個主要負責人:工程聖經;神學的爭議;歷史著作;各種通知書;翻譯。 But perhaps the chronology of his more important writings will enable us to follow more easily the development of his studies.但也許他的年表更重要的著作使我們能夠更容易地後續的發展他的學業。

A first period extends to his sojourn in Rome (382), a period of preparation. From this period we have the translation of the homilies of Origen on Jeremias, Ezechiel, and Isaias (379-81), and about the same time the translation of the Chronicle of Eusebius; then the "Vita S. Pauli, prima eremitae" (374-379). A second period extends from his sojourn in Rome to the beginning of the translation of the Old Testament from the Hebrew (382-390).第一期延伸到他在羅馬逗留( 382 ) ,一個時期的準備。從這個期間,我們翻譯的講道詞的奧利就Jeremias , Ezechiel ,並伊薩亞斯( 379-81 ) ,和大約在同一時間的翻譯編年史的優西比烏,然後在“簡歷由保利,初步eremitae ” ( 374-379 ) 。第二期延長他在羅馬逗留的開始翻譯舊約的希伯來文( 382-390 ) 。 During this period the exegetical vocation of St. Jerome asserted itself under the influence of Pope Damasus, and took definite shape when the opposition of the ecclesiastics of Rome compelled the caustic Dalmatian to renounce ecclesiastical advancement and retire to Bethlehem.在此期間,訓詁使命的聖杰羅姆主張本身的影響下,教皇達瑪斯,並採取一定的形狀時,反對羅馬教區迫使燒鹼達爾馬提亞放棄教會進步和退休的伯利恆。 In 384 we have the correction of the Latin version of the Four Gospels; in 385, the Epistles of St. Paul; in 384, a first revision of the Latin Psalms according to the accepted text of the Septuagint (Roman Psalter); in 384, the revision of the Latin version of the Book of Job, after the accepted version of the Septuagint; between 386 and 391 a second revision of the Latin Psalter, this time according to the text of the "Hexapla" of Origen (Gallican Psalter, embodied in the Vulgate).在384我們已經糾正拉丁美洲版本的四福音;在385 ,在書信的聖保羅;在384 ,第一次修訂拉美詩篇根據公認的文譯本(羅馬Psalter ) ;在384 ,修訂拉丁美洲版本的約伯記後,接受版本的譯本;之間的386和391第二次修訂拉丁美洲Psalter ,這一次是按照文字的“ Hexapla ”的奧利(高盧聖Psalter ,體現在武加大譯本) 。 It is doubtful whether he revised the entire version of the Old Testament according to the Greek of the Septuagint.這是令人懷疑他是否在整個修訂版的舊約根據希臘的譯本。 In 382-383 "Altercatio Luciferiani et Orthodoxi" and "De perpetua Virginitate B. Mariae; adversus Helvidium".在382-383 “ Altercatio Luciferiani等Orthodoxi ”和“德佩爾佩Virginitate灣Mariae ; adversus Helvidium ” 。 In 387-388, commentaries on the Epistles to Philemon, to the Galatians, to the Ephesians, to Titus; and in 389-390, on Ecclesiastes.在387-388 ,評注的書信,以腓利門書,到加拉太,向以弗所書,以泰特斯;和389-390上傳道書。

Between 390 and 405, St. Jerome gave all his attention to the translation of the Old Testament according to the Hebrew, but this work alternated with many others.在390和405 ,聖杰羅姆給他的所有注意翻譯的舊約根據希伯來文,但這項工作的交替與其他許多人。 Between 390-394 he translated the Books of Samuel and of Kings, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Canticle of Canticles, Esdras, and Paralipomena. 390-394之間,他翻譯的書塞繆爾和國王,就業,諺語,傳道書的頌歌的Canticles ,埃斯德拉斯,並Paralipomena 。 In 390 he translated the treatise "De Spiritu Sancto" of Didymus of Alexandria; in 389-90, he drew up his "Quaestiones hebraicae in Genesim" and "De interpretatione nominum hebraicorum."在390他翻譯了論文“德Spiritu Sancto ”的Didymus亞歷山大;在389-90 ,他提請他“ Quaestiones hebraicae在Genesim ”和“德interpretatione nominum hebraicorum 。 ” In 391-92 he wrote the "Vita S. Hilarionis", the "Vita Malchi, monachi captivi", and commentaries on Nahum, Micheas, Sophonias, Aggeus, Habacuc.在391-92 ,他寫出了“南Hilarionis簡歷”中, “簡歷Malchi , monachi captivi ” ,並評注的那鴻, Micheas , Sophonias , Aggeus , Habacuc 。 In 392-93, "De viris illustribus", and "Adversus Jovinianum"; in 395, commentaries on Jonas and Abdias; in 398, revision of the remainder of the Latin version of the New Testament, and about that time commentaries on chapters 13-23 of Isaias; in 398, an unfinished work "Contra Joannem Hierosolymitanum"; in 401, "Apologeticum adversus Rufinum"; between 403-406, "Contra Vigilantium"; finally from 398 to 405, completion of the version of the Old Testament according to the Hebrew. In the last period of his life, from 405 to 420, St. Jerome took up the series of his commentaries interrupted for seven years. In 406, he commented on Osee, Joel, Amos, Zacharias, Malachias; in 408, on Daniel; from 408 to 410, on the remainder of Isaias; from 410 to 415, on Ezechiel; from 415-420, on Jeremias. From 401 to 410 date what is left of his sermons; treatises on St. Mark, homilies on the Psalms, on various subjects, and on the Gospels; in 415, "Dialogi contra Pelagianos".在392-93 , “德viris illustribus ”和“ Adversus Jovinianum ” ;在395 ,文評注和Abdias ;在398 ,修訂剩餘的拉丁美洲版本的新約,約,當時評章節13 -23的伊薩亞;在398 ,一個未完成的工作“魂斗羅Joannem Hierosolymitanum ” 401 “ , Apologeticum adversus Rufinum ” ; 403-406之間, “魂斗羅Vigilantium ” ;終於由398至405 ,完成版本的舊約根據 ”希伯來文。在過去的一段他的生命,從405到420 ,聖杰羅姆了一系列的評論,他中斷了7年。在406 ,他評論Osee ,喬爾,阿莫斯,撒迦利亞, Malachias ;在408 ,關於丹尼爾;從408到410 ,對剩餘的伊薩亞;從410到415 ,就Ezechiel ;從415-420 ,在Jeremias 。從401到410的日期是他的左邊的說教;論文在聖馬克,講道詞的詩篇,就各種問題,以及關於福音;在415 “ , Dialogi禁忌Pelagianos ” 。

CHARACTERISTICS OF ST.意法半導體特性。 JEROME'S WORK JEROME的工作

St. Jerome owes his place in the history of exegetical studies chiefly to his revisions and translations of the Bible.聖杰羅姆欠他在歷史上的訓詁研究他的主要修訂和翻譯的聖經。 Until about 391-2, he considered the Septuagint translation as inspired.直到391-2 ,他認為譯本翻譯的啟發。 But the progress of his Hebraistic studies and his intercourse with the rabbis made him give up that idea, and he recognized as inspired the original text only.但是,他的進步Hebraistic研究和他的交往與猶太教使他放棄這一想法,他承認為靈感的原始文字。 It was about this period that he undertook the translation of the Old Testament from the Hebrew.這是有關這一時期,他進行了翻譯舊約的希伯來文。 But he went too far in his reaction against the ideas of his time, and is open to reproach for not having sufficiently appreciated the Septuagint.但他走得太遠反應在他的思想對他的時間,並開放供責備沒有足夠的讚賞七十。 This latter version was made from a much older, and at times much purer, Hebrew text than the one in use at the end of the fourth century.這後一個版本是從老得多,有時更純潔,希伯來文比在使用結束時的第四世紀。 Hence the necessity of taking the Septuagint into consideration in any attempt to restore the text of the Old Testament.因此,有必要考慮的七十考慮到任何企圖恢復文舊約。 With this exception we must admit the excellence of the translation made by St. Jerome. His commentaries represent a vast amount of work but of very unequal value.由於這一例外,我們必須承認,優秀的翻譯所作的聖杰羅姆。他的評論代表了大量的工作,但對極不平等的價值。 Very often he worked exceedingly rapidly; besides, he considered a commentary a work of compilation, and his chief care was to accumulate the interpretations of his predecessors, rather than to pass judgment on them.常常,他非常迅速,而且,他認為評論的作品彙編,和他的首席保健積累解釋他的前任,而不是通過對他們的判決。 The "Quaestiones hebraicae in Genesim" is one of his best works.該“ Quaestiones hebraicae在Genesim ”是他最好的作品。 It is a philological inquiry concerning the original text.這是一個語文學調查有關的原始文字。 It is to be regretted that he was unable to continue, as had been his intention, a style of work entirely new at the time.遺憾的是,他無法繼續下去,因為他已經打算,一個工作作風,全新的時間。 Although he often asserted his desire to avoid excessive allegory, his efforts in that respect were far from successful, and in later years he was ashamed of some of his earlier allegorical explanations.雖然他常常聲稱他希望避免過多的寓言,他在這方面的努力遠未成功,在以後的幾年,他感到羞愧他的一些早期寓言的解釋。 He himself says that he had recourse to the allegorical meaning only when unable to discover the literal meaning.他本人說,他求助於寓言的含義只有在無法發現的字面意思。 His treatise, "De Interpretatione nominum hebraicorum", is but a collection of mystical and symbolical meanings.他的論文“德Interpretatione nominum hebraicorum ” ,只不過是一個收集的神秘和象徵意義。

Excepting the "Commentarius in ep. ad Galatas", which is one of his best, his explanations of the New Testament have no great value.除的“ Commentarius在上皮。廣告加拉塔斯” ,這是他的一個最好的,他解釋新約沒有具有極大的價值。 Among his commentaries on the Old Testament must be mentioned those on Amos, Isaias, and Jeremias.在他的評注舊約必須提到那些阿莫斯伊薩亞斯,並Jeremias 。 There are some that are frankly bad, for instance those on Zacharias, Osee, and Joel. To sum up, the Biblical knowledge of St. Jerome makes him rank first among ancient exegetes.也有一些是坦率地壞,例如關於撒迦利亞, Osee ,和Joel 。總之,聖經知識的聖杰羅姆使他排名第一的古代exegetes 。 In the first place, he was very careful as to the sources of his information.首先,他是非常小心的來源,他的信息。 He required of the exegete a very extensive knowledge of sacred and profane history, and also of the linguistics and geography of Palestine.他要求exegete一個非常廣泛的知識的神聖和世俗的歷史,也是語言學和地理巴勒斯坦。 He never either categorically acknowledged or rejected the deuterocanonical books as part of the Canon of Scripture, and he repeatedly made use of them.他從來都承認或斷然拒絕了deuterocanonical書籍的一部分,佳能的聖經,他多次利用它們。 On the inspiration, the existence of a spiritual meaning, and the freedom of the Bible from error, he holds the traditional doctrine.論靈感,存在著一種精神意義,自由的聖經的錯誤,他認為傳統的理論。 Possibly he has insisted more than others on the share which belongs to the sacred writer in his collaboration in the inspired work.也許,他一直堅持比別人更多的份額屬於神聖的作家,他的合作,激勵工作。 His criticism is not without originality.他的批評是沒有獨創性。 The controversy with the Jews and with the Pagans had long since called the attention of the Christians to certain difficulties in the Bible.爭議的猶太人和異教徒早就呼籲注意的基督徒一定困難的聖經。 St. Jerome answers in various ways.聖杰羅姆的答案以不同的方式。 Not to mention his answers to this or that difficulty, he appeals above all to the principle, that the original text of the Scriptures is the only one inspired and free from error.更不用提他的答案,這樣或那樣的困難,他呼籲所有上述的原則,即原始文字的聖經是唯一一個啟發,不受錯誤。 Therefore one must determine if the text, in which the difficulties arise, has not been altered by the copyist.因此,我們必須確定文中出現的困難,沒有改變的抄寫。 Moreover, when the writers of the New Testament quoted the Old Testament, they did so not according to the letter but according to the spirit.此外,當作家的新約引用舊約,他們這樣做沒有根據,但據信的精神。 There are many subtleties and even contradictions in the explanations Jerome offers, but we must bear in mind his evident sincerity.有許多微妙之處,甚至矛盾的解釋杰羅姆提供,但我們必須牢記自己明顯的誠意。 He does not try to cloak over his ignorance; he admits that there are many difficulties in the Bible; at times he seems quite embarrassed. Finally, he proclaims a principle, which, if recognized as legitimate, might serve to adjust the insufficiencies of his criticism.他沒有試圖掩飾他的無知;他承認,有許多困難,在聖經; ,有時他似乎很尷尬。最後,他宣布一項原則,如果承認為合法,可以調整其不足批評。 He asserts that in the Bible there is no material error due to the ignorance or the heedlessness of the sacred writer, but he adds: "It is usual for the sacred historian to conform himself to the generally accepted opinion of the masses in his time" (PL, XXVI, 98; XXIV, 855).他聲稱,在聖經中沒有重大錯誤由於無知或heedlessness神聖的作家,但他補充說: “這是正常的神聖的歷史學家,以符合自己普遍接受的意見的群眾在他的時間” (特等,二十六, 98 ; 24 , 855 ) 。

Among the historical works of St. Jerome must be noted the translation and the continuation of the "Chronicon Eusebii Caesariensis", as the continuation written by him, which extends from 325 to 378, served as a model for the annals of the chroniclers of the Middle Ages; hence the defects in such works: dryness, superabundance of data of every description, lack of proportion and of historical sense.在歷史著作的聖杰羅姆必須指出的翻譯和繼續推進“ Chronicon Eusebii Caesariensis ” ,因為繼續他寫的,其中涵蓋了從325到378名,擔任模型史冊的千秋功業的編年史中世紀;因此,在這種缺陷的作品:乾燥,過剩的數據都說明,缺乏比例和歷史意義。 The "Vita S. Pauli Eremitae" is not a very reliable document. The "Vita Malchi, monachi" is a eulogy of chastity woven through a number of legendary episodes.在“簡歷由保利Eremitae ”不是一個非常可靠的文件。的“簡歷Malchi , monachi ”是一個悼詞的貞操梭織通過一些傳奇事件。 As to the "Vita S. Hilarionis", it has suffered from contact with the preceding ones.至於“南Hilarionis簡歷” ,它經歷了與前面的。 It has been asserted that the journeys of St. Hilarion are a plagiarism of some old tales of travel.已經斷言,旅途的聖伊拉里是剽竊的一些老故事的旅行。 But these objections are altogether misplaced, as it is really a reliable work.但是,這些反對意見是完全錯誤的,因為它確實是一個可靠的工作。 The treatise "De Viris illustribus" is a very excellent literary history.該論文“德Viris illustribus ”是一個非常優秀的文學史。 It was written as an apologetic work to prove that the Church had produced learned men.這是作為一個書面道歉的工作證明,教會產生了教訓男子。 For the first three centuries Jerome depends to a great extent on Eusebius, whose statements he borrows, often distorting them, owing to the rapidity with which he worked. His accounts of the authors of the fourth century however are of great value. The oratorical consist of about one hundred homilies or short treatises, and in these the Solitary of Bethlehem appears in a new light.首三個世紀杰羅姆在很大程度上取決於對優西比烏,其發言,他借用,往往是他們扭曲,由於速度快,使他的工作。他賬戶的作者不過第四世紀是具有極大的價值。組成的演講約100講道詞或短論文,並在這些孤伯利恆出現在一個新的輕。 He is a monk addressing monks, not without making very obvious allusions to contemporary events.他是一名僧人解決僧侶,沒有決策非常明顯暗示當代的事件。 The orator is lengthy and apologizes for it.在演說是漫長和道歉的。 He displays a wonderful knowledge of the versions and contents of the Bible.他顯示一個奇妙知識的版本和內容的聖經。 His allegory is excessive at times, and his teaching on grace is Semipelagian.他的寓言是過分的時候,他的教學是Semipelagian寬限期。 A censorious spirit against authority, sympathy for the poor which reaches the point of hostility against the rich, lack of good taste, inferiority of style, and misquotation, such are the most glaring defects of these sermons.阿censorious對權威的精神,同情窮人到達點的敵視富人,缺乏良好的口味,自卑的作風, misquotation ,例如是最明顯的缺陷,這些說教。 Evidently they are notes taken down by his hearers, and it is a question whether they were reviewed by the preacher. The correspondence of St. Jerome is one of the best known parts of his literary output.顯然,他們注意到取下他的聽眾,這是一個問題是否進行了審查佈道者。信函聖杰羅姆是一個部分最著名的文學輸出。 It comprises about one hundred and twenty letters from him, and several from his correspondents.它由大約120封信他,和幾個從他的通訊員。 Many of these letters were written with a view to publication, and some of them the author even edited himself; hence they show evidence of great care and skill in their composition, and in them St. Jerome reveals himself a master of style.許多這些信件都是書面,以期出版,其中有些作者甚至自己編輯的,因此他們的證據表明極為謹慎和技能的組成,並在聖杰羅姆他們發現自己是主人的風格。 These letters, which had already met with great success with his contemporaries, have been, with the "Confessions" of St. Augustine, one of the works most appreciated by the humanists of the Renaissance.這些信件,這已經會見了巨大的成功與他的同時代人,已與“懺悔錄”的聖奧古斯丁,一個工程的最讚賞人文主義文藝復興時期。 Aside from their literary interest they have great historical value.除了文學的興趣,他們有很大的歷史價值。 Relating to a period covering half a century they touch upon most varied subjects; hence their division into letters dealing with theology, polemics, criticism, conduct, and biography.有關期間為半世紀,他們談一談最多樣的主體,因此其分為信件處理神學,論戰,批評,行為,與傳記。 In spite of their turgid diction they are full of the man's personality.儘管他們turgid文辭他們是充滿了人的個性。 It is in this correspondence that the temperament of St. Jerome is most clearly seen: his waywardness, his love of extremes, his exceeding sensitiveness; how he was in turn exquisitely dainty and bitterly satirical, unsparingly outspoken concerning others and equally frank about himself.正是在這種信函的氣質聖杰羅姆是最清楚地看到:他的任性,他的愛的極端,他超過敏感性;他是如何又精緻可口和強烈的諷刺,毫無保留地公開有關他人和同樣坦率本人。

The theological writings of St. Jerome are mainly controversial works, one might almost say composed for the occasion.神學著作的聖杰羅姆主要是有爭議的作品,人們可能會說,幾乎組成的時刻。 He missed being a theologian, by not applying himself in a consecutive and personal manner to doctrinal questions.他錯過了一個神學家,沒有申請自己的連續和個人,以理論上的問題。 In his controversies he was simply the interpreter of the accepted ecclesiastical doctrine.在他的爭議,他只不過是翻譯的接受教會的理論。 Compared with St. Augustine his inferiority in breadth and originality of view is most evident.與聖奧古斯丁在他自卑的廣度和原創性的觀點是最明顯的。

His "Dialogue" against the Luciferians deals with a schismatic sect whose founder was Lucifer, Bishop of Cagliari in Sardinia.他的“對話”對Luciferians涉及一個分裂的教派的創始人是路西法,主教在撒丁島卡利亞裡。 The Luciferians refused to approve of the measure of clemency by which the Church, since the Council of Alexandria, in 362, had allowed bishops, who had adhered to Arianism, to continue to discharge their duties on condition of professing the Nicene Creed. This rigorist sect had adherents almost everywhere, and even in Rome it was very troublesome.該Luciferians拒絕批准該措施的寬大處理,其中教會,因為安理會的亞歷山大,在362個,使主教,誰加入了Arianism ,繼續履行其職責的條件信奉的尼西亞信經。這rigorist節了幾乎所有地方的信徒,甚至在羅馬很麻煩。 Against it Jerome wrote his "Dialogue", scathing in sarcasm, but not always accurate in doctrine, particularly as to the Sacrament of Confirmation.反對杰羅姆寫下“對話” ,嚴厲的嘲諷,但並不總是準確的理論,特別是在聖認可。

The book "Adversus Helvidium" belongs to about the same period.這本書“ Adversus Helvidium ”屬於對同一時期。 Helvidius held the two following tenets: Helvidius舉行了以下兩個原則:

Mary bore children to Joseph after the virginal birth of Jesus Christ;瑪麗膛兒童約瑟夫處女後的耶穌基督誕生;

from a religious viewpoint, the married state is not inferior to celibacy. Earnest entreaty decided Jerome to answer.從宗教的角度看,已婚狀態是不劣於獨身。兒戲懇求決定杰羅姆回答。 In doing so he discusses the various texts of the Gospel which, it was claimed, contained the objections to the perpetual virginity of Mary.在這樣做時,他討論了各種文本的福音其中有人聲稱,載有異議,永久童貞的瑪麗。 If he did not find positive answers on all points, his work, nevertheless, holds a very creditable place in the history of Catholic exegesis upon these questions.如果他還沒有找到積極的答案對所有點,他的工作,但是,擁有一個非常值得讚揚的地方歷史的天主教註釋這些問題。

The relative dignity of virginity and marriage, discussed in the book against Helvidius, was taken up again in the book "Adversus Jovinianum" written about ten years later.相對尊嚴的貞操和婚姻,討論這本書對Helvidius ,是再次在“ Adversus Jovinianum ”書面大約10年後。 Jerome recognizes the legitimacy of marriage, but he uses concerning it certain disparaging expressions which were criticized by contemporaries and for which he has given no satisfactory explanation.杰羅姆認識到婚姻的合法性,但他使用的某些詆毀它表達了批評同時代和他有沒有令人滿意的解釋。 Jovinian was more dangerous than Helvidius. Jovinian更危險的是比Helvidius 。 Although he did not exactly teach salvation by faith alone, and the uselessness of good works, he made far too easy the road to salvation and slighted a life of asceticism.他雖然沒有確切的教救國的信念,僅和無用的優秀作品,他太容易的道路和輕視拯救生命的禁慾主義。 Every one of these points St. Jerome took up.每一個這些點聖杰羅姆了。

The "Apologeticum adversus Rufinum" dealt with the Origenistic controversies. St.該“ Apologeticum adversus Rufinum ”處理Origenistic爭議。街 Jerome was involved in one of the most violent episodes of that struggle, which agitated the Church from Origen's lifetime until the Fifth Ecumenical Council (553).杰羅姆曾參與的一個最暴力事件的鬥爭,激動的教會由奧利的一生,直到第五次大公會議( 553 ) 。 The question at issue was to determine if certain doctrines professed by Origen and others taught by certain pagan followers of Origen could be accepted.這個問題的問題是,以確定是否某些學說聲稱由奧利和其他教的某些異教信徒奧利是可以接受的。 In the present case the doctrinal difficulties were embittered by personalities between St. Jerome and his former friend, Rufinus.在目前情況下,理論上的困難,心懷怨恨的人物之間的聖杰羅姆和他的朋友, Rufinus 。 To understand Origen were by far the most complete exegetical collection then in existence, and the one most accessible to students.為了了解奧里是迄今為止最完整的訓詁然後收集存在,一個最容易給學生。 Hence a very natural tendency to make use of them, and it is evident that St. Jerome did so, as well as many others. But we must carefully distinguish between writers who made use of Origen and those who adhered to his doctrines.因此,很自然的傾向,利用他們,很顯然,聖杰羅姆這樣做,以及其他許多人。但是,我們必須仔細區分作家誰使用了奧利和誰堅持他的理論。 This distinction is particularly necessary with St. Jerome, whose method of work was very rapid, and consisted in transcribing the interpretations of former exegetes without passing criticism on them.這種區別是特別有必要與聖杰羅姆,他們的工作方法是非常迅速的,而且包括在抄寫解釋前exegetes而不對他們的批評。 Nevertheless, it is certain that St. Jerome greatly praised and made use of Origen, that he even transcribed some erroneous passages without due reservation.然而,可以確定的是,聖杰羅姆大大讚揚和利用俄利根說,他甚至轉錄一些錯誤通道沒有適當保留。 But it is also evident that he never adhered thinkingly and systematically to the Origenistic doctrines.但同樣顯而易見的是,他從來沒有遵守thinkingly和系統的Origenistic理論。

Under these circumstances it came about that when Rufinus, who was a genuine Origenist, called on him to justify his use of Origen, the explanations he gave were not free from embarrassment.在這種情況下,它是,當Rufinus ,誰是真正的Origenist ,要求他,使他有理由使用奧利,說明他沒有擺脫尷尬的處境。 At this distance of time it would require a very subtle and detailed study of the question to decide the real basis of the quarrel.在這個距離的時間,將需要一個非常微妙和深入研究的問題決定的真正基礎的爭吵。 However that may be, Jerome may be accused of imprudence of language and blamed for a too hasty method of work.但是,這種情況可能是,杰羅姆可能被指責為輕率的語言和指責過於草率的工作方法。 With a temperament such as his, and confident of his undoubted orthodoxy in the matter of Origenism, he must naturally have been tempted to justify anything.隨著氣質如他,並相信他不容置疑的正統在這個問題上的Origenism ,他自然必須一直很想證明什麼。 This brought about a most bitter controversy with his wily adversary, Rufinus.這帶來了一個最痛苦的爭議,與他狡猾的敵人, Rufinus 。 But on the whole Jerome's position is by far the stronger of the two, even in the eyes of his contemporaries.但對整個杰羅姆的立場是迄今為止強大的兩個,甚至在他的眼中的同時代人。 It is generally conceded that in this controversy Rufinus was to blame.人們普遍承認,在這一爭議Rufinus指責。 It was he who brought about the conflict in which he proved himself to be narrow-minded, perplexed, ambitious, even timorous.這是誰把他的衝突中,他證明了自己是狹隘的,困惑,雄心勃勃,甚至膽怯。 St. Jerome, whose attitude is not always above reproach, is far superior to him.聖杰羅姆,他們的態度並不總是無可指責,是遠遠優於他。

Vigilantius, the Gascon priest against whom Jerome wrote a treatise, quarrelled with ecclesiastical usages rather than matters of doctrine. Vigilantius ,牧師的加斯科涅語的人杰羅姆寫了論文,爭吵與教會的慣例,而不是問題的理論。 What he principally rejected was the monastic life and the veneration of saints and of relics. In short, Helvidius, Jovinian, and Vigilantius were the mouthpieces of a reaction against asceticism which had developed so largely in the fourth century.但他拒絕了,主要是寺院生活和崇拜的聖人和文物。總之, Helvidius , Jovinian ,並Vigilantius的喉舌的反應對禁慾主義已經制訂,使大部分在第四世紀。 Perhaps the influence of that same reaction is to be seen in the doctrine of the monk Pelagius, who gave his name to the principal heresy on grace: Pelagianism.也許的影響同樣反應是體現在理論的僧人伯拉糾,誰給了他的名字的主要異端的寬限期: Pelagianism 。 On this subject Jerome wrote his "Dialogi contra Pelagianos".關於這個問題的杰羅姆寫下“ Dialogi禁忌Pelagianos ” 。 Accurate as to the doctrine of original sin, the author is much less so when he determines the part of God and of man in the act of justification.準確的理論原罪,作者是少得多所以當他確定了一部分神和人的行為的理由。 In the main his ideas are Semipelagian: man merits first grace: a formula which endangers the absolute freedom of the gift of grace. The book "De situ et nominibus locorum hebraicorum" is a translation of the "Onomasticon" of Eusebius, to which the translator has joined additions and corrections.在主要的他的想法是Semipelagian :男子第一寬限期優點:一個公式危害絕對自由的禮物的寬限期。這本書“德原地等nominibus locorum hebraicorum ”是一個翻譯“ Onomasticon ”的優西比烏,該譯者加入了補充和更正。 The translations of the "Homilies" of Origen vary in character according to the time in which they were written.翻譯的“講道詞”的奧利在性質上有所不同根據時間,他們在寫。 As time went on, Jerome became more expert in the art of translating, and he outgrew the tendency to palliate, as he came across them, certain errors of Origen.隨著時間的推移,杰羅姆變得更加專家的藝術翻譯,他超越的趨勢減緩,因為他碰到他們,某些錯誤的奧利。 We must make special mention of the translation of the homilies "In Canticum Canticorum", the Greek original of which has been lost.我們必須特別提到翻譯的講道詞“在Canticum Canticorum ” ,希原來已丟失。

St. Jerome's complete works can be found in PL, XXII-XXX.聖杰羅姆的完整作品中可以找到特等,二十二,三十。

Publication information Written by Louis Saltet.出版信息撰稿路易Saltet 。 Transcribed by Sean Hyland. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.轉錄的肖恩海侖。天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat ,十月一日,一九一零年。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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