Jainism耆那教

General Information 一般信息

Jainism is a religious faith of India that is usually said to have originated with Mahavira, a contemporary of the Buddha (6th century BC).耆那教是一種宗教信仰,印度通常是據說源於Mahavira ,當代佛(公元前6世紀) 。 Jains, however, count Mahavira as the last of 24 founders, or Tirthamkaras, the first being Rishabha.耆那教徒,但指望Mahavira作為最後的24個創始人,或Tirthamkaras ,首先是Rishabha 。 In 1990 the number of Jains worldwide was estimated at 3,650,000, almost all of whom live in India. Jainism has been present in India since Mahavira's time without interruption, and its influence has been significant.在1990年的人數耆那教徒全世界估計為365.0萬,幾乎所有的人生活在印度。耆那教目前已在印度,因為Mahavira的時間沒有中斷,而且其影響力已顯著。

The major distinction within Jainism is between the Digambara and Svetambara sects, a schism that appears to date from about the 1st century AD.主要區別是在耆那教之間的Digambara和Svetambara教派分裂,似乎日期從1世紀的廣告。 The major difference between them is that whereas the Svetambaras wear white clothes, the Digambaras traditionally go naked. Fundamentally, however, the views of both sects on ethics and philosophy are identical.主要的區別是,而Svetambaras穿白色的衣服,傳統的Digambaras去赤身裸體。從根本上說,但是,雙方的意見教派道德和哲學是相同的。

The most notable feature of Jain ethics is its insistence on noninjury to all forms of life. Jain philosophy finds that every kind of thing has a soul; therefore strict observance of this precept of nonviolence (ahimsa) requires extreme caution in all activity. 最顯著的特點,耆那教道德是堅持noninjury一切形式的生命。耆那教哲學認為,每一種東西有靈魂,因此嚴格遵守這一戒律的非暴力(阿含沙區) ,需要極其謹慎的一切活動。 Jain monks frequently wear cloths over their mouths to avoid unwittingly killing anything by breathing it in, and Jain floors are kept meticulously clean to avert the danger of stepping on a living being.耆那教僧人經常穿衣服了他們的嘴,以避免無意中造成任何的呼吸中,和耆那教樓存放認真清理,以避免危險,加強對生活福祉。 Jains regard the intentional taking of life, or even violent thoughts, however, as much more serious. Jain philosophy posits a gradation of beings, from those with five senses down to those with only one sense.耆那教徒方面蓄意採取的生活,甚至暴力的想法,但是,更為嚴重。耆那教哲學假定一層次的人,從那些五官下降到那些只有一個常識。

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Ordinary householders cannot help harming the latter, although they should strive to limit themselves in this regard by refraining from eating meat, certain fruits, or honey or from drinking wine.普通市民不能幫助後者傷害,但他們應努力限制自己在這方面不吃肉,某些水果,或蜂蜜,或飲用葡萄酒。 In addition Jain householders are expected to practice other virtues, similar to those in Hinduism.此外賈殷住戶將其他美德的做法,類似於印度教。 The vows taken by the Jain monks are more severe.的誓言所採取的耆那教僧人更加嚴重。 They eventually involve elements of Asceticism: fasting, peripatetic begging, learning to endure bodily discomfort, and various internal austerities constituting a Jain variety of Yoga. Jainism is unique in allowing the very spiritually advanced to hasten their own death by certain practices (principally fasting) and under specified circumstances.他們最終涉及的內容禁慾主義:空腹,流動乞討,學習要忍受身體的不適,和各種內部austerities構成了各種各樣的耆那教瑜伽。 耆那教的獨特之處在於允許非常先進的精神,以加快自己死亡的某些做法(主要是空腹)並在特定情況下。

Jain philosophy is based on a fundamental distinction between living and nonliving matter.耆那教哲學的基礎是一個根本的區別的生活和nonliving問題。 Living souls are divided into bound and liberated; the living souls are found in both mobile and immobile loci.活的靈魂分為約束和解放;的生活的靈魂是在移動和固定座位。 Nonliving matter is composed of karman or very fine particles that enter a soul and produce changes in it, thus causing its bondage. This influx of karman is induced by activity and has to be burned off by experience. Nonliving此事是由業或非常細顆粒進入靈魂和生產的變化,從而導致其勞役。湧入,這業是誘導活動,並要關閉燒的經驗。 Karmans are of infinitely numerous varieties and account for all distinctions noted in the world. Karmans是無限眾多品種和帳戶的所有的區別中所指出的世界。 By nonattachment, however, an individual can prevent influx of further karmans and thus escape from the bonds of action.由nonattachment然而,個人可以防止流入進一步karmans ,從而擺脫束縛的行動。 A soul, which is thought of as having the same size as its body, at liberation has lost the matter that weights it down and thus ascends to the top of the universe, where it remains forever.一個靈魂,這是被視為具有相同的大小,其機構,在解放後已經失去了重量的問題,它下跌,從而上升到頂端的宇宙,在那裡永遠。

Jainism recognizes no supreme deity; its ideal is the perfection attained by the 24 Tirthamkaras.耆那教不承認最高神,其理想是完美的達到24 Tirthamkaras 。 Numerous temples have been built celebrating the perfected souls; a notable example is the temple at Mount Abu in Rajasthan.許多寺廟已建成慶祝完善的靈魂;一個明顯的例子是在山神廟阿布在拉賈斯坦邦。

Karl H. Potter卡爾閣下哈利波特

Bibliography 目錄
Chatterjee, AK, A Comprehensive History of Jainism, 2 vols.查特吉,支AK ,全面的歷史的耆那教,第2卷。 (1978); Gopalan, Subramania, Outlines of Jainism (1973); Humphrey, C., ed., The Assembly of Listeners (1990); Marathe, MP, et al., eds., Studies in Jainism (1986); Roy, AK, A History of the Jains (1984); Stevenson, ST, The Heart of Jainism (1915; repr. 1970); Vahar, PC, and Shosh, KC, eds., An Encyclopedia of Jainism (1988). ( 1978年) ;葛帕蘭, Subramania ,耆那教綱要( 1973年) ;漢弗萊角,編輯。 ,大會的聽眾( 1990年) ; Marathe ,議員等人。合編。 ,研究的耆那教( 1986年) ;羅伊,支AK ,史耆那教徒( 1984年) ;史蒂文森,意,心的耆那教( 1915年; repr 。 1970年) ; Vahar , PC和Shosh ,架KC合編。 ,一個百科全書耆那教( 1988 ) 。


Jainism耆那教

General Information 一般信息

Introduction導言

Jainism is a religion of India concentrated largely in Gujarât and Râjasthân, in parts of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), and in the state of Karnâtaka (Mysore), as well as in the larger cities of the Indian peninsula.耆那教是一種宗教,印度主要集中在古吉拉特邦和拉賈斯坦邦,部分地區的孟買(原孟買) ,並在卡納塔克邦(邁索爾) ,以及在較大的城市,印度半島。 The Jains totaled about 3.7 million as the 1990s began, but they exert an influence in the predominantly Hindu community far out of proportion to their numbers; they are mainly traders, and their wealth and authority have made their comparatively small sect one of the most important of living Indian religions.在耆那教徒總計約370萬美元作為20世紀90年代開始,但他們施加影響的主要是印度社會遠不成比例,他們的人數;他們主要是商人,和他們的財富和權力已使他們相對較小節的一個最重要的印度的宗教生活。

Origins起源

Jainism is somewhat similar to Buddhism, of which it was an important rival in India.耆那教是有點類似於佛教,它是一個重要的競爭對手印度。 It was founded by Vardhamana Jnatiputra or Nataputta Mahavira (599-527BC), called Jina (Spiritual Conqueror), a contemporary of Buddha.它是由Vardhamana Jnatiputra或Nataputta Mahavira ( 599 - 527BC ) ,所謂Jina (精神征服者) ,當代的佛像。 As do the Buddhists, the Jains deny the divine origin and authority of the Veda and revere certain saints, preachers of Jain doctrine from the remote past, whom they call tirthankaras ("prophets or founders of the path"). These saints are liberated souls who were once in bondage but became free, perfect, and blissful through their own efforts; they offer salvation from the ocean of phenomenal existence and the cycle of rebirths.至於這樣做佛教徒,耆那教徒否認了神聖的起源和權威的吠陀和敬仰某些聖人,傳教士的耆那教的理論從遠程過去,他們呼籲tirthankaras ( “先知或創始人的路徑” ) 。這些聖人是解放靈魂誰曾經被奴役,但成為自由,完美,幸福通過自己的努力;拯救他們提供從海洋中存在和出現的週期rebirths 。 Mahavira is believed to have been the 24th tirthankara. Mahavira被認為是24 tirthankara 。 Like adherents to their parent sect, Brahmanism, the Jains admit in practice the institution of caste, perform a group of 16 essential rites, called samskaras, prescribed for the first three varna (castes) of Hindus, and recognize some of the minor deities of the Hindu pantheon; nevertheless, their religion, like Buddhism, is essentially atheistic.像信徒的父母節,婆羅門教,耆那教徒承認的在實踐中,種姓制度,執行一組16個必不可少的儀式,呼籲samskaras ,訂明的前三個瓦爾納(種姓)的印度教徒,並承認一些輕微的神印度教萬神殿,但是, 他們的宗教,如佛教,基本上是無神論的。

Fundamental to Jainism is the doctrine of two eternal, coexisting, independent categories known as jiva (animate, living soul: the enjoyer) and ajiva (inanimate, nonliving object: the enjoyed).耆那教的基本原則是兩個永恆的,共存的,獨立的類別稱為吉瓦(靈,活的靈魂:在enjoyer )和ajiva (生命, nonliving對象:在享受) 。 Jains believe, moreover, that the actions of mind, speech, and body produce subtle karma (infra-atomic particles of matter), which become the cause of bondage, and that one must eschew violence to avoid giving hurt to life.耆那教徒認為,此外,行動的心態,言論和身體產生微妙的緣份(紅外線原子粒子的物質) ,這成為事業的束縛,這是必須避免暴力,以避免給受傷的生命。 The cause of the embodiment of the soul is thought to be karmic matter; one can attain salvation (moksha) only by freeing the soul of karma through the practice of the three "jewels" of right faith, right knowledge and right conduct.原因體現的靈魂被認為是業事項;一個可以實現救國(莫克夏)只有通過釋放的靈魂業的實踐中的三個“寶石”的正確信念,正確的知識和正確的行為。

Differences in Doctrine差異學說

These principles are common to all, but differences occur in the religious obligations of the monastic orders (whose members are called yatis) and the laity (sravakas).這些原則是共同的,但發生在不同的宗教義務的僧侶命令(其成員被稱為yatis )和俗人( sravakas ) 。 The yatis must observe five great vows (panca-mahavrata): refusal to inflict injury (ahimsa), truthfulness (satya), refusal to steal (asteya), sexual restraint (brahmacarya), and refusal to accept unnecessary gifts (aparigraha). In keeping with the doctrine of nonviolence, they carry the Jainist reverence for animal life to its most extreme lengths; the yati of the Svetambara sect, for example, wears a cloth over his mouth to prevent insects from flying into it and carries a brush to sweep the place on which he is about to sit, to remove any living creature from danger. The observation of the nonviolent practices of the yatis was a major influence on the philosophy of the Indian nationalist leader Mohandas Gandhi.該yatis必須遵守五大誓言(五欲, mahavrata ) :拒絕造成傷害(阿含沙區) ,真(真理) ,拒不偷走( asteya ) ,性克制( brahmacarya ) ,並拒絕接受不必要的禮物( aparigraha ) 。 在按照理論,非暴力,他們攜帶Jainist敬畏動物生命的最極端的長度;的yati的Svetambara節,例如,戴布對他的嘴裡,以防止昆蟲的飛入,並帶有毛筆掃地方上,他是坐,以消除任何生物的危險。觀察非暴力的做法yatis是一個重大影響的哲學,印度民族主義領袖甘地。 The secular sravaka, in addition to his observance of religious and moral duties, must engage in theadoration of the saints and of his more pious brethren, the yatis.世俗sravaka ,除了紀念他的宗教和道德義務,必須進行theadoration的聖人和他的弟兄們更虔誠的yatis 。

The two main sects of Jainism, the Digambara (space-clad, or naked) and the Svetambara (white-clad, wearers of white cloth), have produced a vast body of secular and religious literature in the Prakrit and Sanskrit languages.兩個主要教派的耆那教的Digambara (太空包,或赤身裸體)和Svetambara (白包,戴的白布) ,產生了大量的世俗和宗教文獻普拉克利特語和梵文的語言。 The art of the Jains, consisting primarily of cave temples elaborately decorated in carved stones and of illustrated manuscripts, usually follows Buddhist models but has a richness and fertility that mark it as one of the peaks of Indian art.藝術的耆那教徒,主要包括洞穴廟宇精心裝飾雕刻石塊和手稿的說明,通常如下佛教模式,但有著豐富和生育率標誌著它作為一個高峰的印度藝術。 Some sects, particularly the Dhundia and the Lunka, which reject the worship of images, were responsible for the destruction of many works of art in the 12th century, and Muslim raids were responsible for the looting of many temples in northern India.一些教派,特別是Dhundia和Lunka ,它拒絕崇拜的圖像,負責銷毀的許多藝術作品在12世紀,穆斯林襲擊負責搶劫的許多寺廟在印度北部。 In the 18th century another important sect of Jainism was founded; it exhibited Islamic inspiration in its iconoclasm and rejection of temple worship.在18世紀的另一項重要的耆那教節成立,它展示伊斯蘭的靈感在其iconoclasm和拒絕寺廟朝拜。 Complex rituals were abandoned in favor of austere places of worship called sthanakas, from which the sect is called Sthanakavasi.複雜的儀式被遺棄主張簡樸的禮拜場所稱為sthanakas ,從該節被稱為Sthanakavasi 。

Royal W. Weiler皇家總統魏勒
Rasik Vihari Joshi Rasik Vihari爾喬希


Jainism耆那教

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

A form of religion intermediate between Brahminism and Buddhism, originated in India in pre-Christian times, and has maintained its heretical attitude towards Brahminism down to the present day.的形式,宗教之間的中間Brahminism和佛教起源於印度,前基督教倍,保持了其邪教的態度Brahminism下降到目前的一天。 The name is derived from jina, conqueror, one of the epithets popularly applied to the reputed founder of the sect. Jainism bears a striking resemblance to Buddhism in its monastic system, its ethical teachings, its sacred texts, and in the story of its founder.這個名稱來自jina ,征服者,一個綽號普遍適用於著名創始人節。耆那教有驚人的相似之處,在其佛教寺院制度,其道德教義,其神聖的文本,並在故事,其創始人。 This closeness of resemblance has led not a few scholars-such as Lassen, Weber, Wilson, Tiele, Barth-to look upon Jainism as an offshoot of Buddhism and to place its origin some centuries later than the time of Buddha.這種親密的相似性,導致不少學者,如拉森,韋伯,威爾遜, Tiele ,巴特對視耆那教的一個分支佛教,並將其原產地的一些百年不遲於時間的佛像。 But the prevailing view today-that of Bühler, Jacobi, Hopkins, and others-is that Jainism in its origin is independent of Buddhism and, perhaps, is the more ancient of the two.但是今天普遍的看法,即比勒,雅可比,霍普金斯大學等,是耆那教在其原產地是獨立的佛教,也許是更古老的兩個。 The many points of similarity between the two sects are explained by the indebtedness of both to a common source, namely the teachings and practices of ascetic, monastic Brahminism.許多相似點,兩國之間的教派的解釋是,欠債的一個共同的來源,即教義和做法的苦行,寺院Brahminism 。 Of the reputed founder of Jainism we have but few details, and most of these are so like what we read of the beginnings of Buddhism that one is strongly led to suspect that here at least one is dealing with a variation of the Buddha-legend.著名的耆那教的創始人,但我們有幾個細節,其中大部分是如此喜歡我們讀到的開端佛教的一個強烈導致懷疑,這裡至少有一個是處理變化的佛傳奇。 According to Jainist tradition, the founder lived in the sixth century BC, being either a contemporary or a precursor of Buddha.據Jainist傳統的創始人,生活在公元前6世紀,是不是一種當代或前體的佛像。 His family name was Jnatriputra (in Prakrit, Nattaputta), but, like Gotama, he was honoured with the laudatory names of Buddha, the enlightened, Mahavira, the great hero, and Jina, the conqueror. These last two epithets came to be his distinctive titles, while the name Buddha was associated almost exclusively with Gotama.他的家族的名字Jnatriputra (在普拉克利特語, Nattaputta ) ,但是,像喬達摩,他很榮幸與讚美名字的佛像,開明, Mahavira ,偉大的英雄, Jina ,征服者。最後兩個綽號後來被他的獨特的遊戲,而佛的名字是聯繫幾乎完全是喬達摩。 Like Buddha, Jina was the son of a local raja who held sway over a small district in the neighbourhood of Benares.像佛陀, Jina的父親是當地的拉賈誰支配舉行的一個小縣附近的貝拿勒斯。 While still a young man he felt the emptiness of a life of pleasure, and gave up his home and princely station to become an ardent follower of the Brahmin ascetics.雖然仍然是一個年輕男子,他覺得空虛,生活的樂趣,並放棄了他的家和王侯站成為一個熱心追隨者的婆羅門修行。 If we may trust the Jainist scriptures, he carried the principle of self-mortification to the extent that he went about naked, unsheltered from the sun, rain, and winds, and lived on the rudest vegetarian fare, practising incredible fasts.如果我們可以信任的Jainist經文,他的原則進行自我屈辱的程度,他去的衣服, unsheltered來自太陽,雨,風勢,並住在粗暴食物,執業難以置信的齋戒。 Accepting the principle of the Brahmin ascetics, that salvation is by personal effort alone, he took the logical step of rejecting as useless the Vedas and the Vedic rites.接受的原則,婆羅門修行,這救恩是個人的努力,僅他的合乎邏輯的步驟拒絕作為無用的吠陀和吠陀儀式。 For this attitude towards the Brahmin traditions he was repudiated as a heretic.出於這一態度婆羅門傳統,他否定作為一個邪教。 He gathered eleven disciples around him, and went about preaching his doctrine of salvation.他收集的11個門徒在他周圍,繼續鼓吹他的學說的救贖。 Like Buddha he made many converts, whom he organized under a monastic rule of life. Associated with them were many who accepted his teaching in theory, but who in practice stopped short of the monastic life of extreme asceticism.佛陀一樣,他提出了許多轉換,他組織下的僧侶統治的生活。與他們有聯繫的許多誰接受了他的教學理論,但誰停止在實踐中短期的僧侶生活的極端禁慾主義。 These were the lay Jainists, who, like the lay Buddhists, contributed to the support of the monks.這是奠定Jainists ,誰一樣,奠定佛教徒,有助於支持僧侶。

The Jainists seem never to have been so numerous as the Buddhists.該Jainists似乎從來沒有如此眾多的佛教徒。 Though they claim a membership of over a million believers, laity included, recent statistics of India show that their number is not greater than half a million. On the question of the propriety of going about naked, the Jainist monks have for ages been split into two sects.儘管他們聲稱的成員有100多萬信徒,信徒在內,最近的統計數字表明,印度的數目不大於50萬。論是否合適的問題將如何赤身裸體,僧侶的Jainist的年齡都被分成兩個教派。 The White-Robed Sect, whose monks.白長袍格魯派的僧侶。 are clothed in white garments, is the more numerous, flourishing chiefly in NW India.是穿著白色服裝,是相對較多,主要是在蓬勃發展西北印度。 To this sect belong a few communities of Jainist nuns.這一節屬於少數社區Jainist尼姑。 The naked ascetics, forming the other sect, are strongest in the South of India, but even here they have largely restricted the custom of nakedness to the time of eating. As the Buddhist creed is summed up in three words, Buddha, the Law, the Order, so the Jainist creed consists of the so-called three jewels, Right Belief, Right Knowledge, Right Conduct.赤裸裸的修行,形成了其他教派,是最強的南印度,但即使在這裡,他們在很大程度上限制了習慣,赤裸的時間進食。正如教義是佛教總結了三個詞,佛,法,該命令,所以Jainist信條組成所謂的三個珠寶,信仰的權利,權利的知識,權利的行為。 Right Belief embraces faith in Jina as the true teacher of salvation and the acceptance of the Jainist scriptures as his authoritative teaching.正確的信仰包括信仰Jina作為真正的老師拯救和接受Jainist經文他的權威教學。 These scriptures are less extensive, less varied, than the Buddhist, and, while resembling the latter to a large degree, lay great stress on bodily mortification.這些經文都沒有那麼廣泛,那麼不同的,而不是佛教,儘管相似,後者在很大程度上,在於十分重視身體的屈辱。 The canon of the White-robed Sect consists of forty-five Agamas, or sacred texts, in the Prakrit tongue.佳能的白色長袍組由45 Agamas ,或神聖的文本,在普拉克利特語母語。 Jacobi, who has translated some of these texts in the "Sacred Books of the East", is of the opinion that they cannot be older than 300 BC According to Jainist tradition, they were preceded by an ancient canon of fourteen so-called Purvas, which have totally disappeared.雅可比,誰已將其中的一些文本中的“聖書東” ,認為他們不能超過300公元前Jainist根據傳統,他們之前,古代經典的14所謂Purvas ,已完全消失。 With the Jainist, "Right Knowledge" embraces the religious view of life together with the end of man, while "Right Conduct" is concerned with the main ethical precepts and with the ascetic, monastic system.隨著Jainist ,他說: “知識”包含了宗教觀的生活連同年底的人,而“權利的行為”感到關切的是其主要的道德戒律與苦行,寺院制度。

The Jainist, like the Buddhist and the pantheistic Brahmin, takes for granted the doctrine of Karma and its implied rebirths.該Jainist ,如佛教和婆羅門pantheistic ,理所當然地需要理論的噶瑪和其隱含的rebirths 。 He, too, views every form of earthly, bodily existence as misery.他也認為各種形式的人間,身體存在的苦難。 Freedom from rebirth is thus the goal after which he aspires.從新生的自由,因此這一目標之後,他的期望。 But, while the pantheistic Brahmin and the primitive Buddhist looked for the realization of the end in the extinction of conscious, individual existence (absorption in Brahma, Nirvana), the Jainist has always tenaciously held to the primitive traditional belief in a final abode of bliss, where the soul, liberated from the necessity of rebirth on earth, enjoys forever a spiritual, conscious existence.但是,雖然pantheistic婆羅門和原始佛教期待為實現年底在滅絕的意識,個別的存在(吸附在梵,涅槃)中, Jainist一直頑強地舉行了原始的傳統信仰在最後居留權的幸福,那裡的靈魂,解放出來的必要性,地球上的新生,享有永遠的精神,自覺的存在。 To attain this end, the Jainist, like the Buddhist and the pantheistic Brahmin, holds that the traditional gods can aid but little.為了實現這一目的, Jainist ,如佛教和婆羅門pantheistic ,認為傳統的神明可以幫助,但不大。 The existence of the gods is not denied, but their worship is held to be of no avail and is thus abandoned.存在的神是不否認,但他們的禮拜舉行是徒勞的,因而放棄了。 Salvation is to be obtained by personal effort alone.救世軍是得到單獨的個人努力。 To reach the longed-for goal, it is necessary to purify the soul of all that binds it to a bodily existence, so that it shall aspire purely and solely after a spiritual life in heaven.為了達到渴望為目標,有必要淨化靈魂,所有綁定到身體的存在,因此,它應追求純粹只在精神文化生活的天堂。 This is accomplished by the life of severe mortification of which Jina set the example.這是由生命的嚴重屈辱的Jina樹立了榜樣。 Twelve years of ascetic life as a Jainist monk and eight rebirths are necessary to constitute the purgatorial preparation for the Jainist heaven. 12年的苦行生活的作為一個Jainist僧人和8 rebirths是必要的構成purgatorial準備Jainist天堂。 While the Jains are not worshippers of the Hindu gods, they erect imposing temples to Jina and other venerated teachers. The images of these Jainist saints are adorned with lights and flowers, and the faithful walk around them while reciting sacred mantras.雖然耆那教徒不做禮拜的印度教諸神,他們架設強制寺廟Jina和其他尊敬的教師。圖像這些Jainist聖人點綴燈光和鮮花,和忠實地走動,同時背誦神聖的咒語。 Jainist worship is thus little more than a veneration of a few saints and heroes of the past. Jainist崇拜,因此多崇拜的少數聖人和英雄的過去。

On its ethical side-the sphere of Right Conduct-Jainism is largely at one with Brahminism and Buddhism.論道德的副作用方面的權利的行為,耆那教基本上是在一個Brahminism和佛教。 There are, however, a few differences in the application of the principle of not killing.但是,也有一些不同的適用原則,不殺戮。 The sacredness of all kinds of life implied in the doctrine of metempsychosis has been more scrupulously observed in practice by the Jain than by the Brahmin or the Buddhist.神聖的各種生活中所暗示的輪迴學說一直嚴格遵守更在實踐中的耆那教不是由婆羅門或佛教。 The Brahmin tolerates the slaughter of animals for food, to provide offerings for the sacrifice, or to show hospitality to a guest; the Buddhist does not scruple to eat meat prepared for a banquet; but the Jain reprobates meat-food without exception as involving the unlawful taking of life.在婆羅門容忍屠宰動物的食物,以提供產品為犧牲,或表明招待客人;佛教不顧忌吃肉準備的宴會,但耆那教reprobates肉類食品無例外地涉及到了非法奪取生命。 For similar reasons the Jain does not content himself with straining his drinking water and with remaining at home during the rainy season, when the ground is swarming with lower forms of life, but when he goes forth, he wears a veil before his mouth, and carries a broom with which he sweeps the ground before him to avoid destruction of insect life.出於同樣的原因,耆那教的內容並不緊張,自己的飲用水和留在家裡在雨季時,地面是一窩蜂較低形式的生命,但是當他不用了,他戴著面紗之前,他的嘴,並攜帶掃帚,使他打掃地面在他面前,以避免破壞昆蟲的生活。 The Jainist ascetic allows himself to be bitten by gnats and mosquitoes rather than risk their destruction by brushing them away.苦行僧的Jainist允許自己被咬傷gnats和蚊子,而不是破壞的風險,而他們的刷牙他們離開。 Hospitals for animals have been a prominent feature of Jainist benevolence, bordering at times on absurdity.動物醫院是一個突出的特點Jainist善,有時接壤的荒唐。 For example, in 1834 there existed in Kutch a temple hospital which supported 5000 rats.例如,在1834年存在的卡奇寺廟醫院,支持5000只。 With all this scrupulous regard for animal life the Jain differs from the Buddhist in his view of the lawfulness of religious suicide.所有這方面的嚴格動物生命的耆那教不同於佛教,他認為是否合法的宗教自殺。 According to Jainist ethics a monk who has practised twelve years of severe asceticism, or who has found after long trial that he cannot keep his lower nature in control, may hasten his end by self-destruction.據Jainist道德和尚誰實施了12年的嚴重禁慾主義,或誰發現經過長時間的審判,他不能保持較低的自然控制,可能會加快他最後自我毀滅。

Publication information Written by Charles F. Aiken.出版信息撰稿:查爾斯鄧巴艾肯。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯學者波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.專門為聖心耶穌基督天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat ,十月一日,一九一零年。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

JACOBI, The Jaina Sutras, vols.雅可比,經的吉安娜,第一卷和第二卷。 XXII and XLV of the Sacred Books of the East; HOPKINS, The Religions of India (Boston, 1895); HARDY, Der Buddhismus nach älteren Paliwerken (Münster, 1890); MONIER WILLIAMS, Buddhism (London, 1889); BARTH, The Religions of India (London. 1891).二十二和第四十五的聖書東;霍普金斯的宗教印度(波士頓, 1895年) ;哈,德佛教班上älteren Paliwerken (明斯特, 1890年) ;莫尼爾威廉姆斯,佛教(倫敦, 1889年) ;巴思,在宗教印度( London. 1891年) 。


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