Infallibility犯錯誤

General Information 一般信息

Infallibility means, literally, immunity from error.犯錯誤的手段,字面上看,免於錯誤。 In Christian theology, the term is applied to the whole church, which, it is believed by many Christians, cannot err in its teaching of revealed truth because it is aided by the Holy Spirit.在基督教神學中,是適用於整個教堂,相信許多基督徒,不能犯錯誤在其教學中的發現真理,因為它是輔助的聖靈。

Christians disagree, however, about how infallibility can be recognized.基督徒反對,然而,有關如何絕對可以得到承認。 Some accept as infallible those doctrines universally taught and believed from antiquity.一些接受這些理論萬無一失普遍傳授,並認為從古代。 Others recognize as infallible the doctrinal decisions of the ecumenical councils of the church.其他承認犯錯的理論決定的基督教會的教堂。

Roman Catholics believe that the pope can make infallible definitions on faith or morals when he speaks ex cathedra--as head of the church--and when he has the clear intention of binding the whole church to accept as dogma whatever he is defining.羅馬天主教會認為,教皇可以萬無一失的定義,信仰或道德當他談到前教堂-擔任教堂-當他有明確的意圖結合整個教堂接受的教條無論他是界定。 Papal infallibility was formally defined at the First Vatican Council (1870).教皇犯錯誤被正式確定在第一次梵蒂岡會議( 1870年) 。 The doctrine was reaffirmed at the Second Vatican Council (1962-65), which also stressed that the entire body of bishops in union with the pope teach infallibly when all concur in a single viewpoint on matters of faith and morals.理論重申了梵蒂岡第二次會議( 1962年至1965年) ,其中還強調,全體工會主教與教宗教導infallibly當所有同意在一個單一的角度看問題的信念和道德。

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Bibliography 目錄
Kirvan, John, ed., The Infallibility Debate (1971); Kung, Hans, Infallible? Kirvan ,約翰,版。 ,在犯錯誤的辯論( 1971年) ;西貢,漢斯,萬無一失? An Inquiry (1971).一項調查( 1971年) 。


Infallibility犯錯誤

General Information 一般信息

Infallibility, in Christian theology, is the doctrine that in matters of faith and morals the church, both in teaching and in believing, is protected from substantive error by divine dispensation.犯錯誤,在基督教神學,是理論問題,在信仰和道德的教堂,無論是在教學和相信,是受保護的實質性錯誤,神聖的分配。 The doctrine is generally associated with the Roman Catholic church, but it is also applied by the Orthodox church to decisions of ecumenical councils.理論一般是與羅馬天主教會,但它也是適用的東正教教堂的決定基督教理事會。 The doctrine is widely rejected by Protestants on the grounds that only God can be described as infallible.該學說被廣泛新教徒拒絕的理由是,只有上帝可以被描述為萬無一失。

Roman Catholic theology asserts that the entire church is infallible (and therefore cannot err in matters of faith) when, from bishops to laity, it shows universal agreement in matters of faith and morals. Only the following persons in the church - those who hold its highest teaching office - are believed to proclaim Christian doctrine infallibly:羅馬天主教神學聲稱,整個教堂是萬無一失(因此不能犯錯在信仰方面)時,由主教俗人,它表明普遍一致的事項的信念和道德。 只有下列人士在教堂裡-那些誰舉行最高的教學辦公室-被認為宣布基督教教義i nfallibly:

According to the definition promulgated in 1870 by the First Vatican Council the pope exercises an infallible teaching office only when根據定義在1870年頒布的第一梵蒂岡教皇演習的萬無一失教學辦公室只有當

The pope is never considered infallible in his personal or private views. Since the middle of the 19th century, only two ex cathedra pronouncements have been made in the Roman Catholic church: the definition of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception in 1854 by Pope Pius IX, and the definition of the Assumption of the Virgin in 1950 by Pope Pius XII.教皇是從未考慮過在他犯錯的個人或私人的意見。 自19世紀中葉,只有兩個教堂前的聲明已在羅馬天主教會:定義的教條的聖母無染原罪堂於1854年由教皇庇護九,並定義升天維爾京於1950年由教皇庇護十二。

Infallibility is not regarded by its adherents as something miraculous or as a kind of clairvoyance.犯錯誤並不認為其信徒視為奇蹟,或作為一種洞察力。 Rather, it is considered a grace, or divine gift, that is biblically and theologically grounded.相反,它被認為是一個寬限期,或神聖的禮物,這是聖經和神學的基礎。 Proponents point to many scriptural passages, such as the farewell discourses in John, especially the promise of the Spirit of truth (see John 14:17; 15:26; 16:13).支持者指向許多聖經段落,如在告別話語約翰,尤其是承諾精神的真相(見約翰14:17 ; 15:26 ; 16:13 ) 。 They hold that the church derives this gift from God, who alone is the ultimate source of infallibility.他們認為,教堂源於這份禮物來自上帝,誰僅僅是最終的來源犯錯誤。 The matters subject to infallibility are doctrines rooted in Scripture and in the ancient traditions of the church, neither of which can be contradicted; thus, novel doctrines and other innovations are believed to be excluded.該事項須經犯錯誤的理論根植於聖經和古老傳統的教會,都不可以違背,因此,新的理論和其他技術革新被認為是被排除在外。 Infallibility is therefore seen as a gift that is to be exercised with the utmost care in the service of the gospel.犯錯誤,因此被視為一個禮物,是在行使這一權利悉心服務的福音。


Infallibility犯錯誤

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Infallibility is the state of being incapable of error.犯錯誤是狀態不能錯誤。 The word "infallible" occurs in the AV in Acts 1:3 with reference to the resurrection of Christ.單詞“萬無一失”發生在房室的行為1:3提及基督的復活。 There is no corresponding word in the Greek, however, and it is omitted in later versions.有沒有相應的詞在希臘,然而,它省略更新版本。

That the revelation of God in Jesus Christ is infallible, in the general sense that it presents mankind with the infallible way of salvation, would be accepted by all Christian, but the seat of infallibility is a matter of controversy.這啟示的上帝耶穌基督是萬無一失的,在一般意義上,它提出了人類與可靠的方式救亡,將大家所接受基督教,但所在地犯錯誤是一個有爭議的問題。 Three main lines of thought may be discerned corresponding to the three main divisions of Christendom.三個主要思路可以看出相應的三個主要部門的基督教。 The Eastern Orthodox Church believes that general councils of the Church are guided by the Holy Spirit so as not to err; the Roman Catholic Church believes that the pope is personally preserved from error by God; and Protestant thought relies on the sufficiency of Holy Scripture as the guide to God's self-revelation.東正教認為,一般理事會的教會的指導聖靈,以便不犯錯誤;羅馬天主教會認為,教皇是由個人保存錯誤的上帝和基督教思想依賴於足夠的聖經作為該指南以上帝的自我啟示。 We can relate these three theories in the following way.我們可以與這三個理論在以下方式。 Christians of all traditions accord to Holy Scripture a unique place in the determination of the gospel, and there exists an extensive body of common belief derived from it.基督徒的所有傳統的協議聖經一個獨特的地方在確定福音,並存在著廣泛的共同信念源於它。 This common belief is further described and defined by the councils held in the early centuries, four of which at any rate command universal approval.這種共同的信念是進一步說明和界定的理事會舉行世紀初,其中4個在任何命令率普遍批准。 The Orthodox Church continues to rely on councils, the Latin Church has finally come to define the seat of infallibility as the papacy, while Protestants look to the Scriptures as the ultimate source of authority.東正教會繼續依靠議會,拉美教會終於確定所在地的犯錯誤的教皇,而新教徒期待聖經作為最終的權力來源。 Particular attention must be given to the doctrine of papal infallibility, and the Protestant doctrine of the sufficiency and supremacy of Scripture.必須特別注意的學說的教皇犯錯誤,和基督教教義的自給自足和至高無上的聖經。

The doctrine of the infallibility of the pope was defined by the Roman Catholic Church in the year 1870.該理論犯錯誤的教皇是確定的羅馬天主教會在1870年一年。 It declares that the pope is enabled by God to express infallibly what the church should believe concerning questions of faith and morals when he speaks in his official capacity as "Christ's vicar on earth," or ex cathedra.它宣布,教皇是啟用的上帝表示infallibly什麼教會應該相信有關問題的信念和道德當他談到在他的官方身份是“基督的副主教地球上” ,或前教堂。

Behind this dogma lie three assumptions which are disputed by other Christians: (1) that Christ established an office of "vicar" for his church on earth; (2) that this office is held by the bishop of Rome; and (3) that Christ's vicar is infallible in his declarations of faith and morals.這一教條的背後存在三個假設這是有爭議的其他基督徒: ( 1 )基督設立了一個辦公室的“牧師” ,他在地球上教堂; ( 2 ) ,這個辦公室是由羅馬主教;和( 3 )基督的牧師是絕對在他的聲明的信仰和道德。 The grounds upon which the Church of Rome bases these assumptions may be summarized as follows: (1) Our Lord's saying to Peter recorded in Matt.其理由在此基礎上羅馬教會基地這些假設可歸納如下: ( 1 )我們的上帝說彼得記錄在馬特。 16:18, "Thou art Peter, and on this rock I will build my church," implies that Christ made Peter the head of the church, or his "vicar on earth." 16:18 , “你是彼得,並在此岩石,我將建立我的教會” ,意味著基督了頭部彼得教堂,或者他的“地球上的副主教。 ” (2) Peter was bishop at Rome, and thereby constituted this see the supreme bishopric over the church, transmitting to his successors the prerogative of being Christ's vicar. (3) The vicar of Christ must be infallible by the very nature of the case. ( 2 )彼得在羅馬教區主教,從而構成了這見的最高主教的教堂,轉交他的繼任者的特權被基督的副主教。 ( 3 )副主教基督必須是萬無一失的根本性質的案件。 All three arguments are necessary to the doctrine of papal infallibility, and all three display a fallibility which makes it impossible for the Orthodox and Protestant churches to accept them.所有這三個論點是必要的理論教皇犯錯誤,所有三個顯示出錯這使得不可能的東正教和新教教堂接受。

Recently, Roman Catholic attitudes toward papal infallibility have shifted somewhat in response to ecumenical dialogue, historical investigation, and most recently Hans Kung's book.最近,羅馬天主教教皇的態度已轉向犯錯誤有所回應基督教的對話,歷史的調查,以及最近的漢斯昆的書。 Kung's challenge, provoked by the papal ruling on contraception, set off a large and still unresolved debate inside Catholicism.西貢的挑戰,激起了教皇的裁決避孕,引發了大辯論仍然沒有得到解決內部天主教。 Kung argued that the papal teaching office (magisterium) had in fact made many contradictory and erroneous rulings over the centuries, and that Catholics should therefore speak only of an "indefectibility of the Church," a position strikingly similar to that of some Protestants, as many Catholics pointed out.西貢認為,教皇的教學辦公室( magisterium )實際上已經提出了許多矛盾和錯誤的裁決數百年,而且天主教徒因此應該只講一個“ indefectibility教會”的立場驚人地相似,一些新教徒,作為許多天主教徒指出。 The debate has forced all Catholics to define more clearly just what papal infallibility entails, thus cutting back many exaggerated notions of it; and many progressive Catholics have sought to include bishops, theologians, and even the whole church in their notion of an infallibly preserved tradition of the true faith.辯論迫使所有的天主教徒更明確地界定什麼教皇的絕對需要,從而減少許多誇大它的概念;和許多進步的天主教徒尋求包括主教,神學家,甚至整個教會的概念,保留傳統infallibly真正的誠意。 In the mean-time historians have shown that indefectibility of the church was the received view in the West down to about 1200, slowly replaced then by infallibility of the church and finally by infallibility of the papacy, a position first proposed around 1300 but hotly debated in the schools and never officially sanctioned until 1870.在平均時間歷史學家表明, indefectibility教堂是收到認為在西方下降到約1200 ,然後慢慢地取代了犯錯誤的教堂,最後由犯錯誤的教皇一職首次提出1300年左右,但激烈辯論在學校和從來沒有正式認可,直到1870年。

When we turn to Protestant or evangelical thought on this matter, we find that, in so far as it is used at all, infallibility is ascribed to the OT and NT Scriptures as the prophetic and apostolic record.當我們轉向或福音派新教認為在這個問題上,我們發現,只要用它在所有,犯錯誤是歸咎於催產素和NT聖經的先知和使徒的紀錄。 It is so in the fourfold sense (1) that the word of God infallibly achieves its end, (2) that it gives us reliable testimony to the saving revelation and redemption of God in Christ, (3) that it provides us with an authoritative norm of faith and conduct, and (4) that there speaks through it the infallible Spirit of God by whom it is given.它是如此的四倍意義: ( 1 )上帝的話, infallibly達到其目的, ( 2 ) ,它為我們提供可靠的證詞,以節省啟示和贖回上帝在基督裡, ( 3 ) ,它為我們提供了一個權威性規範的信念和行為,以及( 4 ) ,有說通過它的絕對精神的上帝是誰給它。

In recent years concentration upon historical and scientific questions, and suspicion of the dogmatic infallibility claimed by the papacy, has led to severe criticism of the whole concept even as applied to the Bible; and it must be conceded that the term itself is not a biblical one and does not play any great part in actual Reformation theology.近年來濃度時的歷史和科學問題,並涉嫌犯錯誤的教條所主張的教皇,導致嚴重的批評,甚至整個概念適用於聖經;而且必須承認,這個詞本身不是聖經一,不發揮任何很大一部分在實際改革神學。 Yet in the senses indicated it is well adapted to bring out the authority and authenticity of Scripture.然而,在感官表明它是很好地適應帶來的權威和真實性的聖經。 The church accepts and preserves the infallible Word as the true standard of its apostolicity; for the Word itself, ie, Holy Scripture, owes its infallibility, not to any intrinsic or independent quality, but to the divine subject and author to whom the term infallibility may properly be applied.該教堂接受和維護可靠的Word作為真正的標準,其apostolicity ;這個詞本身,即聖經,歸功於其犯錯誤,而不是任何內在的或獨立的質量,而是為了神聖的主題和作者的人犯錯誤的任期可以適當採用。

Ironically, attacks upon biblical infallibility, which for over a century came mainly from liberal Protestants, have come in the last decade from conservatives, who argue that only "interrancy" (another word not found in Scripture) adequately protects the utter truthfulness and reliability of the Bible.諷刺的是,攻擊聖經犯錯誤,這一個多世紀主要來自自由派新教徒,已經在過去十年中從保守派,誰認為只有“ interrancy ” (一個字沒有發現聖經)有足夠的保護完全真實性和可靠性聖經。 Mainstream evangelicals, therefore, especially those who accept some of the methods and findings of modern scriptural study, are forced to defend the traditional concept of biblical infallibility over against liberals as a necessary basis for receiving divine revelation, and over against conservatives as an adequate basis.主流福音,因此,特別是那些誰接受的一些方法和結論的現代聖經研究,被迫進行自衛的傳統概念聖經犯錯誤了對自由派的一個必要基礎,接受神的啟示,並在對保守派作為一個適當的基礎。

WCG Proctor and J Van Engen WCG的普羅克特和J範根
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography H.閣下書目 Kung, Infallible?西貢,萬無一失? G. Salmon, The Infallibility of the Church; BB Warfield, The Inspiration and Authority of the Bible.灣鮭魚,在犯錯誤的教會;體沃菲爾德,啟示和權威的聖經。


Infallibility犯錯誤

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

In general, exemption or immunity from liability to error or failure; in particular in theological usage, the supernatural prerogative by which the Church of Christ is, by a special Divine assistance, preserved from liability to error in her definitive dogmatic teaching regarding matters of faith and morals.一般來說,豁免或免於賠償責任的錯誤或失敗;特別是在神學用法,超自然的特權,其中基督教會是由一個特別神聖的援助,維護法律責任的錯誤,她最終教條式教學有關事項的信念和道德。

In this article the subject will be treated under the following heads:本文的主題將處理以下元首:

I. True Meaning of Infallibility一,真正意義上犯錯誤

II.二。 Proof of the Church's Infallibility證明教會的犯錯誤

III.三。 Organs of Infallibility機關犯錯誤

Ecumenical Councils基督教議會

The Pope教皇

Their Mutual Relations其相互關係

IV.四。 Scope and Object of Infallibility範圍和對象犯錯誤

V. What Teaching is Infallible?五,什麼是錯的教學?

I. TRUE MEANING OF INFALLIBILITY一,真正意義上犯錯誤

It is well to begin by stating the ecclesiological truths that are assumed to be established before the question of infallibility arises.眾所周知首先說明ecclesiological事實被假定為建立之前犯錯誤的問題出現。 It is assumed:假定:

that Christ founded His Church as a visible and perfect society; that He intended it to be absolutely universal and imposed upon all men a solemn obligation actually to belong to it, unless inculpable ignorance should excuse them;基督建立他的教會的有形和完善社會;說,他打算這是絕對普遍性和強加給所有的人莊嚴的義務實際上屬於它,除非inculpable無知他們應該藉口;

that He wished this Church to be one, with a visible corporate unity of faith, government, and worship; and that他希望這會是一個,一個明顯的企業統一的誠意,政府和崇拜;和

in order to secure this threefold unity, He bestowed on the Apostles and their legitimate successors in the hierarchy -- and on them exclusively -- the plenitude of teaching, governing, and liturgical powers with which He wished this Church to be endowed.為了確保這三個統一,賦予他的使徒和他們的合法繼承者的層次-和他們完全-在豐富的教學,管理,權力和禮儀與他希望這會賦予。

And this being assumed, the question that concerns us is whether, and in what way, and to what extent, Christ has made His Church to be infallible in the exercise of her doctrinal authority.這是假設,這一問題涉及到我們是否,以及以何種方式,以及在何種程度上取得了耶穌教會他要萬無一失在行使她的理論權威。

It is only in connection with doctrinal authority as such that, practically speaking, this question of infallibility arises; that is to say, when we speak of the Church's infallibility we mean, at least primarily and principally, what is sometimes called active as distinguished from passive infallibility.只有在理論方面的權威,例如說,實際上,這一問題產生的犯錯誤;這就是說,當我們談論教會的犯錯誤,我們的意思是,至少主要和主要,什麼是有時稱為積極的作為區別於被動犯錯誤。 We mean in other words that the Church is infallible in her objective definitive teaching regarding faith and morals, not that believers are infallible in their subjective interpretation of her teaching.我們的意思,換句話說,教會是萬無一失的,她的目標明確的教學方面的信念和道德,而不是信徒絕對的主觀解釋她的教學。 This is obvious in the case of individuals, any one of whom may err in his understanding of the Church's teaching; nor is the general or even unanimous consent of the faithful in believing a distinct and independent organ of infallibility.這是顯而易見的情況下個人,任何一個人可能寧可在他的理解,教會的教學;也不是一般,甚至一致同意,忠實地相信一個獨特和獨立的機構,犯錯誤。 Such consent indeed, when it can be verified as apart, is of the highest value as a proof of what has been, or may be, defined by the teaching authority, but, except in so far as it is thus the subjective counterpart and complement of objective authoritative teaching, it cannot be said to possess an absolutely decisive dogmatic value.這種同意的確,當它可以核實遙遠,是最高的價值,證明已經或可能,確定的教學權威,但是,除了在迄今因為它是這樣的主觀對應和補充客觀權威的教學,不能說擁有絕對的決定性的教條式的價值。 It will be best therefore to confine our attention to active infallibility as such, as by so doing we shall avoid the confusion which is the sole basis of many of the objections that are most persistently and most plausibly urged against the doctrine of ecclesiastical infallibility. Infallibility must be carefully distinguished both from Inspiration and from Revelation.這將是最好的因此只限於我們注意積極犯錯誤這樣,因為這樣,我們應避免混淆這是唯一依據的許多反對意見,最堅持,最令人信服敦促對理論的教會犯錯誤。犯錯誤必須認真區分從啟示和啟示。

Inspiration signifies a special positive Divine influence and assistance by reason of which the human agent is not merely preserved from liability to error but is so guided and controlled that what he says or writes is truly the word of God, that God Himself is the principal author of the inspired utterance; but infallibility merely implies exemption from liability to error.啟示標誌著一個特別神聖的積極影響和援助的原因,其中人類代理人不僅是維護法律責任的錯誤,但這樣的指導和控制,他說,或寫入是真正的話,上帝,這是上帝的主要作者激勵的話語,但絕對只是意味著免除賠償責任的錯誤。 God is not the author of a merely infallible, as He is of an inspired, utterance; the former remains a merely human document.上帝不是作者的僅僅是萬無一失的,因為他是一個鼓舞,話語;前仍然只是一個人的文件。

Revelation, on the other hand, means the making known by God, supernaturally of some truth hitherto unknown, or at least not vouched for by Divine authority; whereas infallibility is concerned with the interpretation and effective safeguarding of truths already revealed.啟示,另一方面,是指決策知道上帝, supernaturally一些未知真理,或至少不憑證由神聖的權力;而犯錯誤關注的是解釋和有效的維護已經發現的真理。 Hence when we say, for example, that some doctrine defined by the pope or by an ecumenical council is infallible, we mean merely that its inerrancy is Divinely guaranteed according to the terms of Christ's promise to His Church, not that either the pope or the Fathers of the Council are inspired as were the writers of the Bible or that any new revelation is embodied in their teaching.因此,當我們說,例如,一些理論所界定的教皇或由基督教理事會是萬無一失的,我們的意思,它僅僅是神inerrancy保證按照規定的條件基督的承諾,他的教會,也不是教皇或父親安理會感到鼓舞的是作家的聖經或任何新的啟示體現在他們的教學。

It is well further to explain:眾所周知進一步解釋:

that infallibility means more than exemption from actual error; it means exemption from the possibility of error;這絕對不僅僅意味著免於實際誤差;這意味著免於錯誤的可能性;

that it does not require holiness of life, much less imply impeccability in its organs; sinful and wicked men may be God's agents in defining infallibly; and finally that the validity of the Divine guarantee is independent of the fallible arguments upon which a definitive decision may be based, and of the possibly unworthy human motives that in cases of strife may appear to have influenced the result.它不需要聖潔的生活,更意味著無罪其器官;罪惡和邪惡的男子可能是上帝的代理人在確定infallibly ;最後的有效性神聖保證是獨立於犯錯誤的論點賴以最終決定可能依據,以及可能不配人類動機的情況下的衝突可能會影響結果。 It is the definitive result itself, and it alone, that is guaranteed to be infallible, not the preliminary stages by which it is reached.這是最終的結果本身,它本身,這是保證萬無一失的,而不是初步階段,其中達到。

If God bestowed the gift of prophecy on Caiphas who condemned Christ (John 11:49-52; 18:14), surely He may bestow the lesser gift of infallibility even on unworthy human agents.如果上帝賦予的禮物的預言就譴責誰Caiphas基督(約翰11:49-52 ; 18:14 ) ,當然他可以賦予較低的禮物犯錯誤甚至不配人類代理人。 It is, therefore, a mere waste of time for opponents of infallibility to try to create a prejudice against the Catholic claim by pointing out the moral or intellectual shortcomings of popes or councils that have pronounced definitive doctrinal decisions, or to try to show historically that such decisions in certain cases were the seemingly natural and inevitable outcome of existing conditions, moral, intellectual, and political.因此,僅僅是浪費時間的對手犯錯誤,試圖建立一個偏見天主教主張,指出在道義上或智力缺陷,教皇或理事會已宣布最終決定理論,或嘗試顯示歷史上的這樣的決定在某些情況下,似乎是自然和必然結果,現有的條件下,在品德,智力,政治。 All that history may be fairly claimed as witnessing to under either of these heads may freely be granted without the substance of the Catholic claim being affected.所有這一切可能是歷史上相當聲稱目睹下這兩個首長可以自由地不給予實質的天主教聲稱受到影響。

II.二。 PROOF OF THE CHURCH'S INFALLIBILITY證明了教會的犯錯誤

That the Church is infallible in her definitions on faith and morals is itself a Catholic dogma, which, although it was formulated ecumenically for the first time in the Vatican Council, had been explicitly taught long before and had been assumed from the very beginning without question down to the time of the Protestant Reformation.該教會是絕對的定義,她對信仰和道德本身就是一個天主教的教條,儘管這是制定ecumenically首次在梵蒂岡理事會,已明確告訴很久以前,並已承擔從一開始就毫無疑問到時候,新教改革。 The teaching of the Vatican Council is to be found in Session III, cap.教學梵蒂岡理事會於第三次會議,帽。 4, where it is declared that "the doctrine of faith, which God has revealed, has not been proposed as a philosophical discovery to be improved upon by human talent, but has been committed as a Divine deposit to the spouse of Christ, to be faithfully guarded and infallibly interpreted by her"; and in Session IV, cap. 4 ,如宣稱“理論的信仰,上帝透露,到目前為止,還沒有提出一個哲學的發現得到改善時人才,但一直致力於作為一個神聖的存款,其配偶的基督,是忠實地守衛和infallibly解釋她的“ ,並在第四次會議,帽。 4, where it is defined that the Roman pontiff when he teaches ex cathedra "enjoys, by reason of the Divine assistance promised to him in blessed Peter, that infallibility with which the Divine Redeemer wished His Church to be endowed in defining doctrine regarding faith and morals". 4 ,它的定義是說,羅馬教皇時,他教前教堂“ ,享有因神的援助承諾給他的祝福彼得,這絕對與神聖救世主希望他的教會賦予確定的理論信仰和有關道德“ 。 Even the Vatican Council, it will be seen, only introduces the general dogma of the Church's infallibility as distinct from that of the pope obliquely and indirectly, following in this respect the traditional usage according to which the dogma is assumed as an implicate of ecumenical magisterial authority. Instances of this will be given below and from these it will appear that, though the word infallibility as a technical term hardly occurs at all in the early councils or in the Fathers, the thing signified by it was understood and believed in and acted upon from the beginning.即使是梵蒂岡理事會,它將可以看出,不僅介紹了一般的教條的教會犯錯誤作為不同於教皇和間接斜之後,在這方面,傳統的使用根據該承擔的教條是作為一個牽連的基督教神權威。實例這將是下文,從這些它會出現,雖然這個詞絕對是一個技術術語幾乎發生在所有的早期理事會或在父親的事情表明了大家的理解,並相信在和採取行動後從一開始。 We shall confine our attention in this section to the general question, reserving the doctrine of papal infallibility for special treatment.我們將我們的注意力局限於本節中的一般性問題,保留的理論,教皇犯錯誤的特殊待遇。 This arrangement is adopted not because it is the best or most logical, but because it enables us to travel a certain distance in the friendly company of those who cling to the general doctrine of ecclesiastical infallibility while rejecting the papal claims.這樣的安排是通過不是因為它是最好的或最合乎邏輯的,而是因為它使我們的旅行一定距離的友好公司的人誰堅持一般理論,教會犯錯誤,而拒絕了教皇的要求。 Taking the evidence both scriptural and traditional as it actually stands, one may fairly maintain that it proves papal infallibility in a simpler, more direct, and more cogent way than it proves the general doctrine independently; and there can be no doubt but that this is so if we accept as the alternative to papal infallibility the vague and unworkable theory of ecumenical infallibility which most High-Church Anglicans would substitute for Catholic teaching.考慮雙方的證據聖經和傳統,因為它實際上主張,有人可能會相當堅持認為,它證明教皇犯錯誤的更簡單,更直接,更令人信服的方式證明它比一般的理論獨立;和毫無疑問的,但,這是因此,如果我們接受的替代教皇犯錯誤的含糊和行不通的理論,基督教絕對多數高聖公會教堂將取代天主教教學。 Nor are the Eastern schismatical Churches much better off than the Anglican in this respect, except that each has retained a sort of virtual belief in its own infallibility, and that in practice they have been more faithful in guarding the doctrines infallibly defined by the early ecumenical councils.也不是東歐分裂的教會更比英國聖公會在這方面,除了保留了每一種虛擬的信念在自己犯錯誤,並在實踐中,他們已經在忠實地守衛infallibly理論所界定的早期基督教理事會。 Yet certain Anglicans and all the Eastern Orthodox agree with Catholics in maintaining that Christ promised infallibility to the true Church, and we welcome their support as against the general Protestant denial of this truth.然而,某些聖公會和所有的東正教與天主教會同意在維護基督答應犯錯誤的真正教會,我們歡迎他們的支持對一般新教否認這一事實。

PROOF FROM SCRIPTURE從經文的證據

1 In order to prevent misconception and thereby to anticipate a common popular objection which is wholly based on a misconception it should be premised that when we appeal to the Scriptures for proof of the Church's infallible authority we appeal to them merely as reliable historical sources, and abstract altogether from their inspiration. 1為了防止誤解,從而預測流行的一個共同反對這是完全基於一種誤解應該為前提,當我們呼籲證明聖經的教會的絕對權威,我們呼籲他們僅僅作為歷史的可靠來源,抽象完全從他們的靈感。 Even considered as purely human documents they furnish us, we maintain, with a trustworthy report of Christ's sayings and promises; and, taking it to be a fact that Christ said what is attributed to Him in the Gospels, we further maintain that Christ's promises to the Apostles and their successors in the teaching office include the promise of such guidance and assistance as clearly implies infallibility.即使被視為純粹的人,他們提供的文件,我們保持與一個值得信賴的報告基督的說法和承諾; ,並考慮這是一個事實,即耶穌說什麼,是因為他的福音,我們還堅持認為,耶穌的承諾使徒和他們的繼任者在教學辦公室包括許諾的這種指導和幫助顯然意味著犯錯誤。 Having thus used the Scriptures as mere historical sources to prove that Christ endowed the Church with infallible teaching authority it is no vicious circle, but a perfectly legitimate iogical procedure, to rely on the Church's authority for proof of what writings are inspired.因此,使用了聖經僅僅作為歷史來源證明,賦予基督與教會的權威可靠的教學是沒有的惡性循環,而是完全合法的iogical程序,依靠教會的權威的證據是什麼著作的啟發。

2 Merely remarking for the present that the texts in which Christ promised infallible guidance especially to Peter and his successors in the primacy might be appealed to here as possessing an a fortiori value, it will suffice to consider the classical texts usually employed in the general proof of the Church's infallibility; and of these the principal are:第2僅僅議論本的案文中基督答應萬無一失的指導尤其是對彼得和他的繼任者的首要可能會呼籲這裡藏有更何況價值,將足以古典考慮文本通常採用的一般證明教會的犯錯誤;和這些主要是:

Matthew 28:18-20; Matthew 16:18; John 14, 15, and 16; I Timothy 3:14-15; and Acts 15:28 sq.馬修28:18-20 ;馬修16:18 ;約翰14 , 15和16日,我蒂莫3:14-15 ;和行為15:28平方米

Matthew 28:18-20馬太28:18-20

In Matthew 28:18-20, we have Christ's solemn commission to the Apostles delivered shortly before His Ascension: "All power is given to me in heaven and in earth. Going therefore, teach ye all nations; baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and behold I am with you all days, even to the consummation of the world."馬太28:18-20 ,我們有基督的莊嚴委員會交付使徒前不久他的阿森松島: “一切權力是給我在天堂和地球。走出因此,教你們所有國家;洗禮他們的名字父親和兒子,和聖靈;教導他們遵守所有的事情我有什麼命令你:和你看我跟你所有日子,甚至圓滿的世界。 “ In Mark 16:15-16, the same commission is given more briefly with the added promise of salvation to believers and the threat of damnation for unbelievers; "Go ye into the whole world, and preach the gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be condemned."在馬克16:15-16 ,同樣的委員會給予更多的簡短的補充承諾,以拯救信徒和威脅的詛咒為信教; “去你們到整個世界,並宣揚福音每一個動物。他的信是受洗應保存,但他的信沒有應予以譴責。 “

Now it cannot be denied by anyone who admits that Christ established a visible Church at all, and endowed it with any kind of effective teaching authority, that this commission, with all it implies, was given not only to the Apostles personally for their own lifetime, but to their successors to the end of time, "even to the consummation of the world".現在,不能否認的人誰也承認,基督設立了一個可見的教堂所有,並賦予它任何一種有效的教學權威,這一委員會,所有這意味著,獲得不僅是使徒親自為自己的一生,但其繼任者年底的時間內, “甚至到了圓滿的世界。 ” And assuming that it was the omniscient Son of God Who spoke these words, with a full and clear realization of the import which, in conjunction with His other promises, they were calculated to convey to the Apostles and to all simple and sincere believers to the end of time, the only reasonable interpretation to put upon them is that they contain the promise of infallible guidance in doctrinal teaching made to the Apostolic College in the first instance and then to the hierarchical college that was to succeed it.並假設這是無所不知上帝之子誰講這段話,並充分和明確的實現進口的,連同他的其他承諾,他們進行了計算,向使徒和所有簡單和真誠的信仰結束的時間,唯一合理的解釋,對他們提出的是,它們含有的許諾絕對的指導理論教學向使徒學院初審,然後到大學層次是它取得成功。

In the first place it was not without reason that Christ prefaced His commission by appealing to the fullness of power He Himself had received: "All power is given to me", etc. This is evidently intended to emphasize the extraordinary character and extent of the authority He is communicating to His Church -- an authority, it is implied, which He could not personally communicate were not He Himself omnipotent.首先,它不是沒有原因,他的基督序委員會呼籲豐滿的權力他本人已收到: “一切權力是給我”等等,這顯然是意在強調非凡的性質和程度權威,他是溝通,他教會-的權威,這是隱含的,其中他不能親自溝通沒有他自己無所不能。 Hence the promise that follows cannot reasonably be understood of ordinary natural providential guidance, but must refer to a very special supernatural assistance.因此,承諾如下不能合理地理解普通自然天賜的指導,但必須提到一個非常特殊的超自然的援助。

In the next place there is question particularly in this passage of doctrinal authority -- of authority to teach the Gospel to all men -- if Christ's promise to be with the Apostles and their successors to the end of time in carrying out this commission means that those whom they are to teach in His name and according to the plenitude of the power He has given them are bound to receive that teaching as if it were His own; in other words they are bound to accept it as infallible.在接下來的地方有問題尤其是在這個理論通過權力-權力的福音教給所有男人-如果基督的許諾將與使徒和他們的繼任結束的時間開展這項佣金意味著那些人,他們是在教導他的名字,並根據豐富的電力他已經給了他們必將收到教學,好像這是他自己的,換句話說他們必然要接受它的萬無一失。 Otherwise the perennial assistance promised would not really be efficacious for its purpose, and efficacious Divine assistance is what the expression used is clearly intended to signify.否則,長期的援助承諾不會真正有效的目的,並有效神聖的援助是用來表達顯然是意在象徵。 Supposing, as we do, that Christ actually delivered a definite body of revealed truth, to be taught to all men in all ages, and to be guarded from change or corruption by the living voice of His visible Church, it is idle to contend that this result could be accomplished effectively -- in other words that His promise could be effectively fulfilled unless that living voice can speak infallibly to every generation on any question that may arise affecting the substance of Christ's teaching. Without infallibility there could be no finality regarding any one of the great truths which have been identified historically with the very essence of Christianity; and it is only with those who believe in historical Christianity that the question need be discussed.假如我們這樣做,是基督實際交付一定的機構,發現真理,要教給所有男性不分年齡人人共享,並加以防護,從改變或腐敗的生活聲音,看見他的教會,這是閒置的,以主張這一結果可以有效的-換句話說,他的承諾可以有效地履行,除非生活的聲音可以說i nfallibly以每一代人都對任何問題可能產生的影響實質基督的教學。不犯錯誤,不可能有任何終局一個偉大的真理已經確定與歷史的精髓基督教; ,只有那些誰相信基督教的歷史,這個問題需要加以討論。 Take, for instance, the mysteries of the Trinity and Incarnation.考慮,例如,神秘的三一和化身。 If the early Church was not infallible in her definitions regarding these truths, what compelling reason can be alleged today against the right to revive the Sabellian, or the Arian, or the Macedonian, or the Apollinarian, or the Nestorian, or the Eutychian controversies, and to defend some interpretation of these mysteries which the Church has condemned as heretical?如果初期教會沒有絕對的定義,她對這些真理,什麼令人信服的理由可以對涉嫌今日的權利,恢復Sabellian ,或阿里安,或馬,或Apollinarian ,或景教,或Eutychian爭議,和捍衛一些解釋這些神秘的教會譴責邪教?

One may not appeal to the inspired authority of the Scriptures, since for the fact of their inspiration the authority of the Church must be invoked, and unless she be infallible in deciding this one would be free to question the inspiration of any of the New Testament writings.人們可能不會上訴的啟發權威的聖經,因為事實上他們的靈感的權威,教會必須援引,除非她是萬無一失的決定這將是免費的靈感問題的任何新約著作。 Nor, abstracting from the question of inspiration, can it be fairly maintained, in face of the facts of history, that the work of interpreting scriptural teaching regarding these mysteries and several other points of doctrine that have been identified with the substance of historical Christianity is so easy as to do away with the need of a living voice to which, as to the voice of Christ Himself, all are bound to submit.而且,從抽象問題的靈感,才能保持公平,面對歷史事實,即工作的解釋聖經教學就這些奧秘和其他幾個點的理論,已經確定的實質內容是基督教的歷史如此簡單的要取消,需要一個生活的聲音,如的聲音基督本人,都必將提交。

Unity of Faith was intended by Christ to be one of the distinctive notes of His Church, and the doctrinal authority He set up was intended by His Divine guidance and assistance to be really effective in maintaining this unity; but the history of the early heresies and of the Protestant sects proves clearly, what might indeed have been anticipated a priori, that nothing less than an infallible public authority capable of acting decisively whenever the need should rise and pronouncing an absolutely final and irreformable judgment, is really efficient for this purpose.統一的信念是由基督是一個獨特的注意到他的教會,和理論權威,他成立的目的是由他的神聖的指導和幫助,真正有效地維護這種團結,但歷史的早期邪說和新教教派清楚地證明,什麼可能確實已經事先預料,這不亞於一個可靠的公共當局能夠採取果斷的行動,只要有需要,應該增加和發音絕對irreformable最後判決,是真正有效的用於這一目的。 Practically speaking the only alternative to infallibility is private judgment, and this after some centuries of trial has been found to lead inevitably to utter rationalism.實際上唯一的選擇,以絕對是私人的判斷,而這數百年後的審判中被認定為不可避免地導致完全理性。 If the early definitions of the Church were fallible, and therefore reformable, perhaps those are right who say today that they ought to be discarded as being actually erroneous or even pernicious, or at least that they ought to be re-interpreted in a way that substantially changes their original meaning; perhaps, indeed, there is no such thing as absolute truth in matters religious!如果早期的定義,教會了犯錯誤,因此reformable ,也許這是正確的誰今天說,他們應該被丟棄的實際錯誤的,甚至有害的,或者至少,他們應該重新解釋的方式,大大改變其原來的含義,也許,事實上,沒有這樣的事絕對真理的宗教事務中! How, for example, is a Modernist who takes up this position to be met except by insisting that definitive teaching is irreversible and unchangeable; that it remains true in its original sense for all time; in other words that it is infallible?如何舉例來說,是一個現代派誰佔用了這一立場得到滿足除了堅持明確的教學是不可逆轉的,不可改變的; ,它仍然是在其原有意義上的所有時間;換言之,這是萬無一失的? For no one can reasonably hold that fallible doctrinal teaching is irreformable or deny the right of later generations to question the correctness of earlier fallible definitions and call for their revision or correction, or even for their total abandonment.因為沒有人可以合理認為,犯錯誤的理論教學是irreformable或拒絕的權利,後人對問題的正確性早些時候犯錯誤的定義,並要求修改或更正,甚至為他們徹底放棄。

From these considerations we are justified in concluding that if Christ really intended His promise to be with His Church to be taken seriously, and if He was truly the Son of God, omniscient and omnipotent, knowing history in advance and able to control its course, then the Church is entitled to claim infallible doctrinal authority.從這些考慮,我們有理由得出結論認為,如果耶穌真的打算自己的諾言將與他的教會必須認真對待,如果他是真正的上帝的兒子,無所不知,無所不能,了解歷史的前進,並能夠控制其當然,然後教會有權要求萬無一失的理論權威。 This conclusion is confirmed by considering the awful sanction by which the Church's authority is supported: all who refuse to assent to her teaching are threatened with eternal damnation.這一結論證實了可怕的考慮制裁該教會的權威的支持:所有誰拒絕同意她的教學受到威脅與永恆的詛咒。 This proves the value Christ Himself set upon His own teaching and upon the teaching of the Church commissioned to teach in His name; religious indifferentism is here reprobated in unmistakable terms.這證明了自己的價值建立基督在他自己的教學和對教學的教會委託任教的他的名字;宗教indifferentism這裡reprobated明確的條款。

Nor does such a sanction lose its significance in this connection because the same penalty is threatened for disobedience to fallible disciplinary laws or even in some cases for refusing to assent to doctrinal teaching that is admittedly fallible.也沒有這樣的制裁失去其意義在這方面,因為同樣的處罰威脅不服從紀律犯錯誤的法律,甚至在某些情況下,因拒絕同意,以理論教學這是無可否認犯錯誤。 Indeed, every mortal sin, according to Christ's teaching, is punishable with eternal damnation.事實上,每一個彌天大罪,根據基督的教學,可判處永恆的詛咒。 But if one believes in the objectivity of eternal and immutable truth, he will find it difficult to reconcile with a worthy conception of the Divine attributes a command under penalty of damnation to give unqualified and irrevocable internal assent to a large body of professedly Divine doctrine the whole of which is possibly false.但是,如果有人認為在客觀的永恆的和不可改變的事實,他將很難調和的一個有價值的概念,神聖屬性的命令下罰款詛咒讓不合格的和不可逆轉的內部同意了大量的表面的神聖原則整個這可能是假的。 Nor is this difficulty satisfactorily met, as some have attempted to meet it, by calling attention to the fact that in the Catholic system internal assent is sometimes demanded, under pain of grievous sin, to doctrinal decisions that do not profess to be infallible.也不是令人滿意的這一困難實現,因為有些人企圖以滿足它的要求注意一個事實,即在天主教系統內部的同意,有時要求,根據疼痛的嚴重罪過,以理論上的決定,不信奉是萬無一失的。 For, in the first place, the assent to be given in such cases is recognized as being not irrevocable and irreversible, like the assent required in the case of definitive and infallible teaching, but merely provisional; and in the next place, internal assent is obligatory only on those who can give it consistently with the claims of objective truth on their conscience -- this conscience, it is assumed, being directed by a spirit of generous loyalty to genuine Catholic principles.因為,首先,同意給予在這種情況下,被確認為不被不可改變的和不可逆轉的,如同意在需要的情況下最終和可靠的教學,而僅僅是臨時性的;和未來的地方,是內部批准強制性只對那些誰可以給它一貫的主張客觀真理的良知-這良心,這是假設,即指示精神,慷慨的忠誠真正的天主教會的原則。

To take a particular example, if Galileo who happened to be right while the ecclesiastical tribunal which condemned him was wrong, had really possessed convincing scientific evidence in favour of the heliocentric theory, he would have been justified in refusing his internal assent to the opposite theory, provided that in doing so he observed with thorough loyalty all the conditions involved in the duty of external obedience.要特別舉例來說,如果發生伽利略誰是正確的,而教會法庭,譴責他是錯誤的,確實具有說服力的科學證據支持黃理論,他將一直理由拒絕其內部同意相反的理論規定,這樣做,他觀察到徹底忠誠的所有條件參與義務外部服從。 Finally it should be observed that fallible provisional teaching, as such, derives its binding force principally from the fact that it emanates from an authority which is competent, if need be, to convert it into infallible definitive teaching.最後應當指出,犯錯誤的臨時教學,因此,源於其約束力主要來自事實,即它來自於一個機構,這是主管,如有需要,將其轉換成絕對明確的教學。 Without infallibility in the background it would be difficult to establish theoretically the obligation of yielding internal assent to the Church's provisional decisions.如果沒有犯錯誤的背景就很難建立在理論上的義務內部收益率贊同教會的臨時決定。

Matthew 16:18馬修16:18

In Matthew 16:18, we have the promise that "the gates of hell shall not prevail" against the Church that is to be built on the rock; and this also, we maintain, implies the assurance of the Church's infallibility in the exercise of her teaching office.在馬修16:18 ,我們的承諾說: “地獄之門不得佔上風”對教會是建立在岩石; ,這也,我們堅持,意味著保證教會的絕對行使她的教學辦公室。 Such a promise, of course, must be understood with limitations according to the nature of the matter to which it is applied.這樣的承諾,當然,必須理解的局限性根據的事項的性質,它是適用。 As applied to sanctity, for example, which is essentially a personal and individual affair, it does not mean that every member of the Church or of her hierarchy is necessarily a saint, but merely that the Church, as whole, will be conspicuous among other things for the holiness of life of her members.適用於神聖舉例來說,基本上是個人和個人的事,這並不意味著每一個成員的教會或她的等級必然是一個聖人,只是,教會,作為整體,將除其他顯眼事情的聖潔的生活,她的成員。 As applied to doctrine, however -- always assuming, as we do, that Christ delivered a body of doctrine the preservation of which in its literal truth was to be one of the chief duties of the Church -- it would be a mockery to contend that such a promise is compatible with the supposition that the Church has possibly erred in perhaps the bulk of her dogmatic definitions, and that throughout the whole of her history she has been threatening men with eternal damnation in Christ's name for refusing to believe doctrines that are probably false and were never taught by Christ Himself.適用於理論,但-始終承擔,因為我們這樣做,是基督發表了一套理論保存在其字面真理是一個主要的職責是教會-這將是一個嘲弄對付這樣的承諾符合假定教會可能是錯誤的也許是她的大部分教條式的定義,而且在整個歷史上她,她一直與男子威脅永恆的詛咒在基督的名字而拒絕相信理論是虛假和可能從來沒有教的基督自己。 Could this be the case, would it not be clear that the gates of hell can prevail and probably have prevailed most signally against the Church?請問這種情況,如果不能清楚地表明,地獄之門能佔上風,也許最普遍signally對教會?

John 14-16約翰14-16

In Christ's discourse to the Apostles at the Last Supper several passages occur which clearly imply the promise of infallibility: "I will ask the Father, and he shall give you another Paraclete, that he may abide with you forever. The spirit of truth . . . he shall abide with you, and shall be in you" (John 14:16, 17). "But the Paraclete, the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things, and bring all things to your mind, whatsoever I shall have said to you" (ibid. 26).在基督的話語向使徒在最後的晚餐幾個段落發生這顯然意味著犯錯誤的承諾: “我會請爸爸,他應給你另一個聖靈,他可能會遵守與你永遠。精神的真相。 。 。他應遵守與您,並應在你“ (約14:16 , 17 ) 。 ”但聖靈,聖靈,他父親將在我的名字,他會教你所有東西,把所有事情到您記住,無論我必須對你說“ (同上26 ) 。 "But when he, the spirit of truth, is come, he will teach you all truth (John 16:13). And the same promise is renewed immediately before the Ascension (Acts 1:8). Now what does the promise of this perennial and efficacious presence and assistance of the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of truth, mean in connection with doctrinal authority, except that the Third Person of the Blessed Trinity is made responsible for what the Apostles and their successors may define to be part of Christ's teaching? But insofar as the Holy Ghost is responsible for Church teaching, that teaching is necessarily infallible: what the Spirit of truth guarantees cannot be false. “但是,當他的精神真理,是今後,他將教你所有真相(約16:13 ) 。而且同樣的承諾重新前夕阿森松島(使徒1:8 ) 。現在什麼承諾,這長期和有效的存在和援助的聖靈,聖靈的真理,意味著方面的理論權威,但第三人的祝福三一是負責什麼使徒和其繼承人可以定義的一部分基督的教學?但因為聖靈是教會負責教學,教學必然是萬無一失的:什麼真理的精神保證不能是假的。

I Timothy 3:15餘蒂莫3:15

In I Timothy 3:15, St. Paul speaks of "the house of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth"; and this description would be something worse than mere exaggeration if it had been intended to apply to a fallible Church; it would be a false and misleading description.在I蒂莫3:15 ,聖保祿講的“上帝的房子,這是教會的生活上帝的支柱和地面的真相” ,這說明將更糟的東西比單純的誇張,如果已旨在適用於教會犯錯誤,那將是一種虛假和誤導性的描述。 That St. Paul, however, meant it to be taken for sober and literal truth is abundantly proved by what he insists upon so strongly elsewhere, namely, the strictly Divine authority of the Gospel which he and the other Apostles preached, and which it was the mission of their successors to go on preaching without change or corruption to the end of time.這聖保祿然而,意味著將要採取的清醒和字面的事實是充分證明他所堅持如此強烈地在其他地方,即嚴格的神聖權力的福音,他和其他使徒宣揚,這是使命的繼任去鼓吹不改變或貪污結束的時間。 "When you had received of us", he writes to the Thessalonians, "the word of the hearing of God, you received it not as the word of men, but (as it is indeed) the word of God, who worketh in you that have believed" (1 Thessalonians 2:13). “當你收到了我們” ,他寫的尼迦“一詞的聽證會的上帝,您收到沒有這個詞的男人,但(因為它確實是)上帝的話, ,誰在你worketh那些認為“ (帖撒羅尼迦前書二時13分) 。 The Gospel, he tells the Corinthians, is intended to bring "into captivity every understanding unto the obedience of Christ" (2 Corinthians 10:5).福音,他講述了科林蒂安,旨在實現“每到圈養的理解服從祂的基督” (哥林多後書10時05 ) 。 Indeed, so fixed and irreformable is the doctrine that has been taught that the Galatians (1:8) are warned to anathematize any one, even an angel from heaven, who should preach to them a Gospel other than that which St. Paul had preached.事實上,這樣的固定和irreformable是理論,已經告訴我們,在加拉太( 1:8 )的警告,詛咒任何人,甚至一個天使從天上,誰應該向他們宣講福音1以外的聖保祿了鼓吹。 Nor was this attitude -- which is intelligible only on the supposition that the Apostolic College was infallible -- peculiar to St.也不是這樣的態度-這是可以理解的只有假定使徒學院萬無一失-特有的街 Paul.保羅。 The other Apostles and apostolic writers were equally strong in anathematizing those who preached another Christianity than that which the Apostles had preached (cf. 2 Peter 2:1 sqq.; 1 John 4:1 sqq.; 2 John 7 sqq.; Jude 4); and St. Paul makes it clear that it was not to any personal or private views of his own that he claimed to make every understanding captive, but to the Gospel which Christ had delivered to the Apostolic body.其他使徒和使徒的作家也同樣強勁, anathematizing那些鼓吹另一個誰比基督教的使徒了鼓吹(參見彼得後書2:1 sqq 。 ;約翰一書4:1 sqq 。 ;約翰二書7日sqq 。 ;裘德第4 ) ;和聖保羅清楚地表明,它不是任何個人或私人的意見自己聲稱,他盡一切理解俘虜,但對基督福音已交付使徒機構。 When his own authority as an Apostle was challenged, his defense was that he had seen the risen Saviour and received his mission directly from Him, and that his Gospel was in complete agreement with that of the other Apostles (see, vg, Galatians 2:2-9).當他自己的權威作為一個使徒受到質疑,他的防守,他看到復活的救主,並收到他的任務直接從他,他的福音完全同意與其他使徒(見蛋白,加拉太2 : 2-9 ) 。

Acts 15:28行為15:28

Finally, the consciousness of corporate infallibility is clearly signified in the expression used by the assembled Apostles in the decree of the Council of Jerusalem: "It hath seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us, to lay no further burden upon you", etc. (Acts 15:28).最後,企業的意識犯錯誤顯然是標誌著表達所使用的組裝使徒的法令理事會的耶路撒冷: “這似乎很好的上帝的聖靈和我們,奠定不再負擔你”等。 (使徒15:28 ) 。 It is true that the specific points here dealt with are chiefly disciplinary rather than dogmatic, and that no claim to infallibility is made in regard to purely disciplinary questions as such; but behind, and independent of, disciplinary details there was the broad and most important dogmatic question to be decided, whether Christians, according to Christ's teaching, were bound to observe the Old Law in its integrity, as orthodox Jews of the time observed it.誠然,具體問題處理在這裡主要是紀律,而不是教條的,沒有要求犯錯誤是關於純粹的紀律等問題,但後面,和獨立的,有紀律的細節是廣泛和最重要的教條式的問題作出決定,無論是基督徒,根據基督的教學,都必定要遵守舊法在其完整,正統猶太教徒的時間觀察它。 This was the main issue at stake, and in deciding it the Apostles claimed to speak in the name and with the authority of the Holy Ghost.這是主要問題,股權,並決定它聲稱使徒發言的名稱和權威的聖靈。 Would men who did not believe that Christ's promises assured them of an infallible Divine guidance have presumed to speak in this way?將男人誰不相信基督的承諾,向他們保證了萬無一失的神聖指導已推定說話呢? And could they, in so believing, have misunderstood the Master's meaning?可他們在這樣做時認為,誤解碩士意思?

PROOF FROM TRADITION從傳統的證據

If, during the early centuries, there was no explicit and formal discussion regarding ecclesiastical infallibility as such, yet the Church, in her corporate capacity, after the example of the Apostles at Jerusalem, always acted on the assumption that she was infallible in doctrinal matters and all the great orthodox teachers believed that she was so.如果在早期百年,但沒有明確和正式討論教會犯錯誤就這樣,還教會,在她的企業的能力,之後的例子使徒在耶路撒冷,始終採取的假設是,她是絕對的理論問題和所有偉大的正統的教師認為,她是如此。 Those who presumed, on whatever grounds, to contradict the Church's teaching were treated as representatives of Antichrist (cf. 1 John 2:18 sq.), and were excommunicated and anathematized.這些推定誰,不論其理由為何,違背了教會的教學被視為代表的反基督(參見約翰一書2時18平方米) ,以及被逐出教會和anathematized 。

It is clear from the letters of St. Ignatius of Antioch how intolerant he was of error, and how firmly convinced that the episcopal body was the Divinely ordained and Divinely guided organ of truth; nor can any student of early Christian literature deny that, where Divine guidance is claimed in doctrinal matters, infallibility is implied.顯然,從信件的聖伊格內修的安提阿如何容忍他的錯誤,以及如何堅信,祝身體是神神祝和指導機關的真理,也不能任何學生的早期基督教文獻否認,在那裡神聖的指導理論索賠問題,犯錯誤是不言而喻的。

So intolerant of error was St. Polycarp that, as the story goes, when he met Marcion on the street in Rome, he did not hesitate to denounce the heretic to his face as "the firstborn of Satan".所以不能容忍的錯誤是聖波利卡普,如不用的故事時,他會見了馬吉安在街道上在羅馬,他毫不猶豫地譴責邪教到了他的臉上是“初生的撒旦” 。 This incident, whether it be true or not, is at any rate thoroughly in keeping with the spirit of the age and such a spirit is incompatible with belief in a fallible Church.這起事件,不論它是不是真的,是無論如何徹底符合時代精神和這種精神是不相符的信念在犯錯誤教會。

St. Irenaeus, who in the disciplinary Paschal question favoured compromise for the sake of peace, took an altogether different attitude in the doctrinal controversy with the Gnostics; and the great principle on which he mainly relies in refuting the heretics is the principle of a living ecclesiastical authority for which he virtually claims infallibility.聖依,誰在紀律復活節贊成妥協的問題,為了和平,採取了完全不同的態度,在理論上的爭論與Gnostics ;和偉大的原則上,他主要依靠在駁斥異端的原則是一種生活教會的權力,他幾乎索賠犯錯誤。 For example he says: "Where the Church is, there also is the Spirit of God, and where the Spirit of God is there is the Church, and every grace: for the Spirit is truth" (Adv. Haer. III, xxiv, 1); and again, Where the charismata of the Lord are given, there must we seek the truth, ie with those to whom belongs the ecclesiastical succession from the Apostles, and the unadulterated and incorruptible word.例如,他說: “如果教會,也有精神的上帝,而上帝的聖靈是有教會,每一個寬限期:對於精神是真理” ( Adv. Haer 。三, 24 , 1 ) ;並再次,凡charismata上帝給出,但我們必須尋求真理,即這些人屬於教會繼承的使徒,以及純正和清廉字。 It is they who .這是他們誰。 . . are the guardians of our faith .監護人是我們的信仰。 . . and securely [sine periculo] expound the Scriptures to us" (op. cit., IV xxvi, 5). 。安全[正弦periculo ]闡述聖經給我們“ (同前。 ,四26 , 5 ) 。

Tertullian, writing from the Catholic standpoint, ridicules the suggestion that the universal teaching of the Church can be wrong: "Suppose now that all [the Churches] have erred . . . [This would mean that] the Holy Spirit has not watched over any of them so as to guide it into the truth, although He was sent by Christ, and asked from the Father for this very purpose -- that He might be the teacher of truth" (doctor veritatis -- "De Praescript", xxxvi, in PL, II, 49).良,寫作的天主教的角度來看, ridicules的建議,普遍教學的教會可以是錯誤的: “假設現在所有[教會]的錯誤。 。 。 [這意味著]聖靈還沒有看到任何其中,以引導它變成真理,雖然他被送往基督,並要求從父親這一根本目的-這可能是他的老師的真相“ (醫生v eritatis- ”德P r aescript“,三十六,在特等,二, 49 ) 。

St. Cyprian compares the Church to an incorruptible virgin: Adulterari non potest sponsa Christi, incorrupta est et pudica (De unitate eccl.).聖塞浦路斯比較教會廉潔處女: Adulterari非potest sponsa基督, incorrupta東部等pudica (德unitate傳道書。 ) 。

It is needless to go on multiplying citations, since the broad fact is indisputable that in the ante-Nicene, no less than in the post-Nicene, period all orthodox Christians attributed to the corporate voice of the Church, speaking through the body of bishops in union with their head and centre, all the fullness of doctrinal authority which the Apostles themselves had possessed; and to question the infallibility of that authority would have been considered equivalent to questioning God's veracity and fidelity.這是不必要去乘以引用,因為廣泛的事實是不容置疑的,在宰前尼西亞,不得少於後尼西亞,期間所有東正教基督徒歸因於企業的聲音會發言,通過機構的主教在工會的領導和中心,一切豐滿的法理權威的使徒自己擁有;和對問題的絕對的權力將被視為等同於質疑上帝的真實性和保真度。 It was for this reason that during the first three centuries the concurrent action of the bishops dispersed throughout the world proved to be effective in securing the condemnation and exclusion of certain heresies and maintaining Gospel truth in its purity; and when from the fourth century onwards it was found expedient to assemble ecumenical councils, after the example of the Apostles at Jerusalem, it was for the same reason that the doctrinal decision of these councils were held to be absolutely final and irreformable.正是出於這個原因,在頭三個世紀的並行行動主教分散在世界各地被證明是有效地保證了譴責,並排除某些異端邪說和維護真理的福音在其純度;時,從四世紀起,它發現適宜的組裝基督教理事會,例如後的使徒在耶路撒冷,這是出於同樣的原因的理論決定這些理事會舉行了有絕對最後irreformable 。 Even the heretics, for the most part recognized this principle in theory; and if in fact they often refused to submit, they did so as a rule on the ground that this or that council was not really ecumenical, that it did not truly express the corporate voice of the Church, and was not, therefore, infallible.即使是異端,大部分是公認的這一原則在理論上和實際上,如果他們往往拒絕服從,他們這樣做作為一項規則,理由是這個或那個國家沒有真正基督教,它沒有真正的表達企業聲音的教會,並沒有因此,萬無一失。 This will not be denied by anyone who is familiar with the history of the doctrinal controversies of the fourth and fifth centuries, and within the limits of this article we cannot do more than call attention to the broad conclusion in proof of which it would be easy to cite a great number of particular facts and testimonies.這將不是任何人都否認了誰是熟悉的歷史,理論爭議的第四次和第五次百年的時間,以及範圍內本條我們不能做更多的呼籲注意廣泛的結論,證明它很容易列舉了大量具體事實和證詞。

OBJECTIONS ALLEGED OBJECTIONS所稱

Several of the objections usually urged against ecclesiastical infallibility have been anticipated in the preceding sections; but some others deserve a passing notice here.一些通常的反對教會呼籲對犯錯誤預期已在前面幾節,但其他一些值得路過這裡的通知。

1 It has been urged that neither a fallible individual nor a collection of fallible individuals can constitute an infallible organ. 1它一直敦促既不是一個犯錯誤的個人,也不是收集犯錯誤個人可以構成一個可靠的機構。 This is quite true in reference to natural knowledge and would be also true as applied to Church authority if Christianity were assumed to be a mere product of natural reason. But we set out from an entirely different standpoint.這是很真實的參考自然知識和也將真正適用於教會基督教的權力,如果假定僅僅是一個產品的自然原因。但是,我們是從一個完全不同的觀點。 We assume as antecedently and independently established that God can supernaturally guide and enlighten men, individually or collectively, in such a way that, notwithstanding the natural fallibility of human intelligence, they may speak and may be known with certainty to speak in His name and with His authority, so that their utterance may be not merely infallible but inspired.我們承擔的先行和獨立設立的,上帝可以supernaturally引導和啟發人,單獨或集體,在這樣一種方式,儘管自然出錯人類的智慧,他們可以說話,可確知發言,他的名字和他的權力,使他們的話語可能不只是犯錯,但靈感。 And it is only with those who accept this standpoint that the question of the Church's infallibility can be profitably discussed.這是只有那些誰接受這個觀點的問題,教會的犯錯誤才能有利可圖討論。

2 Again, it is said that even those who accept the supernatural viewpoint must ultimately fall back on fallible human reasoning in attempting to prove infallibility; that behind any conclusion that is proposed on so-called infallible authority there always lurks a premise which cannot claim for itself more than a merely human and fallible certainty; and that, since the strength of a conclusion is no greater than that of its weaker premise, the principle of infallibility is a useless as well as an illogical importation into Christian theology.第2再次,這是說,即使是那些誰接受超自然的觀點必須最終回到犯錯誤人類的推理在試圖證明犯錯誤,這後面的任何結論,提出了所謂絕對的權力始終潛伏著一個前提,不能索賠超過本身只是一個人力和犯錯誤的確定性;和認為,由於國力的結論是不大於它的較弱的前提下,原則絕對是一個無用的,以及不符合邏輯的進口基督教神學。 In reply it is to be observed that this argument, if valid, would prove very much more than it is here introduced to prove; that it would indeed undermine the very foundations of Christian faith.在回答這是必須指出,這一論點,如果有效,將被證明非常多是在這裡介紹了證明; ,它的確會破壞的基礎信仰基督教。 For example, on purely rational grounds I have only moral certainty that God Himself is infallible or that Christ was the infallible mediator of a Divine Revelation; yet if I am to give a rational defense of my faith, even in mysteries which I do not comprehend, I must do so by appealing to the infallibility of God and of Christ. But according to the logic of the objection this appeal would be futile and the assent of faith considered as a rational act would be no firmer or more secure than natural human knowledge.例如,在純粹理性的理由,我只是道義上的肯定,上帝是萬無一失的,或者基督是萬無一失的調停人的神聖啟示,但如果我給一個合理的防衛我的信仰,甚至在其中奧秘我不理解,我必須這樣做,呼籲犯錯誤上帝和基督。但是,根據的邏輯反對這一呼籲,將是徒勞的和批准的信仰視為一種理性的行為將不堅定的或更安全的不是自然人類的知識。 The truth is that the inferential process here and in the case of ecclesiastical infallibility transcends the rule of formal logic that is alleged.事實的真相是,推理過程,並在這裡的情況教會絕對超越了法治的形式邏輯是指稱。 Assent is given not to the logical force of the syllogism, but directly to the authority which the inference serves to introduce; and this holds good in a measure even when there is question of mere fallible authority. Once we come to believe in and rely upon authority we can afford to overlook the means by which we were brought to accept it, just as a man who has reached a solid standing place where he wishes to remain no longer relies on the frail ladder by which he mounted.同意是不合乎邏輯的力量,三段論,而是直接向當局提供的推理介紹,這在擁有良好的措施,即使有問題,只是犯錯誤的權威。一旦我們來相信和依靠權威,我們不能忽視的手段,我們被帶到接受它,就像一個人誰達到了一個堅實的站立的地方,他希望留不再依賴體弱階梯由他發起。 It cannot be said that there is any essential difference in this respect between Divine and ecclesiastical infallibility.不能說有任何本質區別之間在這方面天主和教會犯錯誤。 The latter of course is only a means by which we are put under subjection to the former in regard to a body of truth once revealed and to be believed by all men to the end of time, and no one can fairly deny that it is useful, not to say necessary, for that purpose.後者當然只是一種手段,我們把隸屬下的前方面的一個機構的事實再一次表明,並相信所有男人的結束時間,沒有人可以理直氣壯地拒絕,這是有益的,並不是說必要的,用於這一目的。 Its alternative is private judgment, and history has shown to what results this alternative inevitably leads.其辦法是私人的判斷,歷史已經表明,以何種結果這不可避免地導致替代。

3 Again, it is urged that the kind of submission demanded by infallible authority is incompatible with the rights of reason and of legitimate inquiry and speculation, and tends to give to one's faith in his Creed a dry, formal, proud, and intolerant character which contrasts unfavourably with the warmhearted, humble, and tolerant faith of the man who believes on conviction after free personal inquiry.第3再次,這是敦促該種提交所要求的絕對權威是不符合權利的理由和合法的調查和猜測,並往往給一個人的信念,他的信條幹的,正式的,自豪,和不容忍性質的對比不利的熱情,謙虛,真誠和寬容的人誰相信定罪後,免費個人調查。 In reply it is sufficient to say that submission to infallible authority implies no abdication of reason, nor does it impose any undue check on the believer's freedom to pursue inquiry and speculation.在回答這是充分地說,提交給權力意味著絕對沒有放棄的理由,也沒有施加任何不必要的檢查信仰的自由追求的調查和猜測。 Were it so, how could one believe in revealed doctrine at all without being accused, as unbelievers do accuse Christians, of committing intellectual suicide?如果這樣,怎麼能相信一個理論揭示在所有不被指控,因為這樣做不信教指責基督徒,犯下的自殺呢? If one believes in revelation at all one does so in deference to God's authority an authority that is surely infallible; and so far as the principle of the objection is concerned there is no difference between ecclesiastical and Divine infallibility.如果有人認為,在所有的啟示之一這樣做是出於對上帝的權力的權威,肯定是萬無一失的;迄今的原則,反對感到關切的是沒有任何區別教會和神犯錯誤。 It is somewhat surprising, therefore, that professing Christians should recur to such an argument, which, if consistently urged, would be fatal to their own position. And as regards freedom of inquiry and speculation in reference to revealed doctrines themselves, it should be observed that true freedom in this as in other matters does not mean unbridled licence.這是有點讓人吃驚,因此,信奉基督信徒們應該發生這樣一個論點,如果一貫敦促,將是致命的,以自己的立場。與自由方面的調查和猜測在提到自己的理論表明,它應遵守真正的自由,這是在其他事項並不意味著毫無節制的牌照。 Really effective authoritative control is always necessary to prevent liberty from degenerating into anarchy, and in the sphere of Christian doctrine -- we are arguing only with those who admit that Christ delivered a body of doctrine that was to be held as eternally true -- from the very nature of the case, the only effective barrier against Rationalism -- the equivalent of political anarchy -- is an infallible ecclesiastical authority.真正有效的權威性的控制始終是必要的,以防止自由變成無政府狀態,並且在基督教領域的理論-我們認為只有那些誰承認,基督提供了一套理論,要舉行真正的永恆-從非常性質的情況下,唯一有效的屏障理性-相當於政治無政府狀態-是一個可靠的教會的權威。 This authority therefore, by its decisions merely curtails personal freedom of inquiry in religious matters in the same way, and by an equally valid title, as the supreme authority in the State, restricts the liberty of private citizens.這項權力因此,它的決定只是限制人身自由的調查宗教事務以同樣的方式,以及一個同樣有效所有權,作為最高權力機構中的國家,限制人身自由的公民個人。

Moreover, as in a well ordered state there remains within the law a large margin for the exercise of personal freedom, so in the Church there is a very extensive domain which is given over to theological speculation; and even in regard to doctrines that have been infallibly defined there is always room for further inquiry so as the better to understand, explain, defend, and expand them.此外,作為在一個良好有序狀態仍然在法律範圍內有較大的行使個人自由,所以在教會有一個非常廣泛的領域是交給神學投機; ,甚至在理論方面已infallibly定義總是有餘地進一步調查,以便更好地理解,解釋,維護和擴大他們。 The only thing one may not do is to deny or change them.唯一的一個可能不會做的,是否定或改變。 Then, in reply to the charge of intolerance, it may be said that if this be taken to mean an honest and sincere repudiation of Liberalism and Rationalism, infallibilists must plead guilty to the charge; but in doing so they are in good company.然後,在回答負責的不容忍,可以說,如果這是指一個誠實的和真誠的否定自由主義和理性,必須infallibilists認罪的指控,但在這樣做,他們是在良好的公司。 Christ Himself was intolerant in this sense; so were His Apostles; and so were all the great champions of historical Christianity in every age.基督本人是不容忍在這個意義上,所以被他的門徒,等等都是偉大的冠軍的歷史基督教在每個年齡。 Finally it is altogether untrue, as every Catholic knows and feels, that faith which allows itself to be guided by infallible ecclesiastical authority is less intimately personal or less genuine in any way than faith based on private judgment.最後,是完全不真實的,因為每一個天主教知道,並認為,這種信心使自己指導的權威可靠教會不太密切的個人或更少真正以任何方式比信仰的基礎上私人的判斷。 If this docile loyalty to Divine authority which true faith implies means anything, it means that one must listen to the voice of those whom God has expressly appointed to teach in His name, rather than to one's own private judgment deciding what God's teaching ought to be.如果這種溫順忠誠,神聖的權威真正的信仰意味著什麼手段,這意味著我們必須傾聽的聲音,那些人神已明確任命任教的他的名字,而不是自己私人的判斷決定什麼上帝的教學應該是。 For to this, in final analysis, the issue is reduced; and he who chooses to make himself, instead of the authority which God has instituted, the final arbiter in matters of faith is far from possessing the true spirit of faith, which is the foundation of charity and of the whole supernatural life.對於這一點,在最後的分析,問題是減少;和他誰願意讓自己,而不是權力機構,上帝已制定,最後仲裁者在信仰方面還遠遠沒有擁有真正的精神信仰,這是慈善基金會和整個超自然的生活。

4 Again it is urged by our opponents that infallibility as exercised by the Catholic Church has shown itself to be a failure, since, in the first place, it has not prevented schisms and heresies in the Christian body, and, in the second place, has not attempted to settle for Catholics themselves many important questions, the final settlement of which would be a great relief to believers by freeing them from anxious and distressing doubts.四是再次敦促我們的對手是犯錯誤的行使天主教教會已表明自己是失敗的,這是因為,首先,它並不能阻止分裂和異端邪說的基督教機構,並在第二位,沒有試圖解決自己的天主教徒許多重要的問題,最終解決這將是一個極大的安慰信徒,釋放他們焦慮和沮喪的疑慮。 In reply to the first point it is enough to say that the purpose for which Christ endowed the Church with infallibility was not to prevent the occurrence of schisms and heresies, which He foresaw and foretold, but to take away all justification for their occurrence; men were left free to disrupt the unity of Faith inculcated by Christ in the same way as they were left free to disobey any other commandment, but heresy was intended to be no more justifiable objectively than homicide or adultery.在回答第一點是不夠說的目的,賦予基督的教會與不犯錯誤,防止發生分裂和歪理邪說,其中他預見和預言,而是要帶走所有的理由發生;男子離開了自由破壞團結的信念灌輸基督同樣的方式離開他們自由地服從任何其他戒律,但異端邪說的目的是不會再有正當的客觀比殺人或通姦。 To reply to the second point we would observe that it seems highly inconsistent for the same objector to blame Catholics in one breath for having too much defined doctrine in their Creed and, in the next breath, to find fault with them for having too little.要回复的第二點,我們將看到,它似乎非常不相同反對者指責天主教徒一口氣了太多的理論界定的信條,並在未來的氣息,尋找故障與他們為太少。 Either part of the accusation, in so far as it is founded, is a sufficient answer to the other.任何一部分的指控,只要它是建立,是一個足夠的答案的。 Catholics as a matter of fact do not feel in any way distressed either by the restrictions, on the one hand, which infallible definitions impose or, on the other hand, by the liberty as to non-defined matters which they enjoy, and they can afford to decline the services of an opponent who is determined at all costs to invent a grievance for them.天主教徒其實並不覺得以任何方式都痛心的限制,一方面,這萬無一失的定義強加或另一方面,由自由作為非確定的事項,他們享受,他們可以負擔減少服務的對手確定誰是不惜一切代價,發明一種對他們的申訴。 The objection is based on a mechanical conception of the function of infallible authority, as if this were fairly comparable, for example, to a clock which is supposed to tell us unerringly not only the large divisions of time such as the hours, but also, if it is to be useful as a timekeeper, the minutes and even the seconds.反對是基於概念的機械功能的絕對權威,如果這是相當類似的,例如,一個時鐘是要告訴我們,不僅unerringly大分裂的時間,如時間,而且如果它是有用的作為計時的分鐘,甚至秒鐘。 Even if we admit the propriety of the illustration, it is obvious that a clock which records the hours correctly, without indicating the smaller fractions of time, is a very useful instrument, and that it would be foolish to refuse to follow it because it is not provided with a minute or a second hand on the dial.即使我們承認適當的插圖,很明顯,一個時鐘記錄的時間是否正確,沒有表明較小的分數的時間,是一個非常有用的工具,這將是愚蠢的拒絕遵循它,因為它是不提供一分鐘或二手的撥號。 But it is perhaps best to avoid such mechanical illustrations altogether.但是,也許是最好的,以避免此類機械插圖完全。 The Catholic believer who has real faith in the efficiency of Christ's promises will not doubt but that the Holy Ghost Who abides in the Church, and Whose assistance guarantees the infallibility of her definitions, will also provide that any definition that may be necessary or expedient for the safeguarding of Christ's teaching will be given at the opportune moment, and that such definable questions as are left undefined may, for the time being at least, be allowed to remain so without detriment to the faith or morals of the faithful.天主教相信誰具有真正的信仰的效率基督的承諾不會懷疑,但聖靈是誰恪守在教會,其援助的絕對保證她的定義,也將提供任何的定義,可能有必要或合宜維護基督的教學將在適當的時機,而且這種定義的問題,留待未定義可為至少在目前,被允許繼續下去而不損害的信仰或道德的忠誠。

5 Finally, it is objected that the acceptance of ecclesiastical infallibility is incompatible with the theory of doctrinal development which Catholics commonly admit.五最後,這是反對接受教會犯錯誤是不符合理論的理論發展的普遍承認的天主教徒。 But so far is this from being true that it is impossible to frame any theory of development, consistent with Catholic principles, in which authority is not recognized as a guiding and controlling factor.但到目前為止,這是從正在誠然,這是不可能的框架任何理論的發展,符合天主教的原則,在這種權力是不承認作為指導和控制的因素。 For development in the Catholic sense does not mean that the Church ever changes her definitive teaching, but merely that as time goes on and human science advances, her teaching is more deeply analyzed, more fully comprehended, and more perfectly coordinated and explained in itself and in its bearings on other departments of knowledge.對於發展中的天主教意義上並不意味著會改變她以往任何時候都明確教學,只是,隨著時間的推移和人類科學的進步,她的教學更深入的分析,更充分地理解和更完美的協調和解釋本身和在軸承的其他部門的知識。 It is only on the false supposition that development means change in definitive teaching that the objection has any real force.這只是虛假的假設,發展手段的改變最終的教學,反對任何真正的力量。 We have confined our attention to what we may describe as the rational objections against the Catholic doctrine of infallibility, omitting all mention of the interminable exegetical difficulties which Protestant theologians have raised against the Catholic interpretation of Christ's promises to His Church.我們必須局限於我們注意什麼,我們可稱之為理性反對天主教教義的犯錯誤,省略了所有提及無休止的訓詁困難,新教神學家提出了反對天主教的解釋基督的承諾,他的教會。 The necessity for noticing these latter has been done away with by the growth of Rationalism, the logical successor of old-time Protestantism.必須注意到這些後者已取消了增長的理性,邏輯繼承老新教。 If the infallible Divine authority of Christ, and the historicity of His promises to which we have appealed be admitted, there is no reasonable escape from the conclusion which the Catholic Church has drawn from those promises.如果絕對權威的神基督和他的歷史性的承諾,我們呼籲承認,沒有合理擺脫結論天主教會從這些承諾。

III.三。 ORGANS OF INFALLIBILITY機關犯錯誤

Having established the general doctrine of the Church's infallibility, we naturally proceed to ask what are the organs through which the voice of infallible authority makes itself heard.確定了一般性原則,教會的犯錯誤,我們自然開始問什麼是機關通過的聲音,絕對的權力使自己聽到。 We have already seen that it is only in the episcopal body which has succeeded to the college of Apostles that infallible authority resides, and that it is possible for the authority to be effectively exercised by this body, dispersed throughout the world, but united in bonds of communion with Peter's successor, who is its visible head and centre.我們已經看到,這是只有在主教機構,已成功地向學院使徒的絕對權威所在,而且是可能的權力得到有效行使本機構,分散在世界各地,但美國債券共融與彼得的繼任者,誰是其明顯的頭部和中心。 During the interval from the council of the Apostles at Jerusalem to that of their successors at Nicaea this ordinary everyday exercise of episcopal authority was found to be sufficiently effective for the needs of the time, but when a crisis like the Arian heresy arose, its effectiveness was discovered to be inadequate, as was indeed inevitable by reason of the practical difficulty of verifying that fact of moral unanimity, once any considerable volume of dissent had to be faced.在此期間由理事會的使徒在耶路撒冷是其繼承人在尼西亞這個普通的日常行使權力的主教被認為是充分有效的需求的時候,但是當危機像亞略異端站起身來,其效力被發現是不夠的,因為確實是不可避免的原因進行了實際困難核實這一事實的道德一致,一旦大量的不同必須面對。 And while for subsequent ages down to our own day it continues to be theoretically true that the Church may, by the exercise of this ordinary teaching authority arrive at a final and infallible decision regarding doctrinal questions, it is true at the same time that in practice it may be impossible to prove conclusively that such unanimity as may exist has a strictly definitive value in any particular case, unless it has been embodied in a decree of an ecumenical council, or in the ex cathedra teaching of the pope, or, at least, in some definite formula such as the Athanasian Creed.而以後的年齡,以我們自己的一天它仍然是理論上如此,教會可通過行使這一權力普通教學達成最後的決定,並就萬無一失理論問題,這是真的在同一時間,在實踐中它可能無法證實,這種一致可能存在有嚴格明確的價值在任何特定情況下,除非它已體現在一項法令,一個基督教會,或在教堂前教學的教皇,或至少在一些明確的公式,如Athanasian信條。 Hence, for practical purposes and in so far as the special question of infallibility is concerned, we may neglect the so called magisterium ordinarium ("ordinary magisterium") and confine our attention to ecumenical councils and the pope.因此,實際的目的,在迄今的特殊問題犯錯誤感到關切的是,我們可能忽視了所謂的magisterium ordinarium ( “普通magisterium ” ) ,並僅限我們注意基督教理事會和教宗。

A. Ecumenical Councils字母a.基督教理事會

1. 1 。

An ecumenical or general, as distinguished from a particular or provincial council, is an assembly of bishops which juridically represents the universal Church as hierarchically constituted by Christ; and, since the primacy of Peter and of his successor, the pope, is an essential feature in the hierarchical constitution of the Church, it follows that there can be no such thing as an ecumenical council independent of, or in opposition to, the pope.一個基督教或一般,不同於某一特定或省議會,是一個組裝的主教這在法律上代表了普世教會的層次構成的基督; ,並自至高無上的彼得和他的繼任者,教宗,是一個基本特徵在憲法層次的教會,因此,就不可能有這樣的東西作為一個國家普世獨立的,或反對,教宗。 No body can perform a strictly corporate function validly without the consent and co-operation of its head.任何機構能夠嚴格執行公司的有效運作的同意和合作,其頭部。 Hence:因此:

the right to summon an ecumenical council belongs properly to the pope alone, though by his express or presumed consent given ante or post factum, the summons may be issued, as in the case of most of the early councils, in the name of the civil authority.有權傳喚一個屬於基督教會妥善僅教皇,但他的明示或推定同意事前或事後,該傳票可發出的情況一樣,大多數的早期議會的名義,民間權威。 For ecumenicity in the adequate sense all the bishops of the world in communion with the Holy See should be summoned, but it is not required that all or even a majority should be present. As regards the conduct of the deliberations, the right of presidency, of course, belongs to the pope or his representative; while as regards the decisions arrived at unanimity is not required.對於ecumenicity在充分意義上的所有主教的世界與聖座共融應傳喚,但它並不是要求所有或什至大多數應在場。至於進行審議的權利,總統,當然,屬於教皇或其代表;而就作出的決定,一致並不是必需的。

Finally, papal approbation is required to give ecumenical value and authority to conciliar decrees, and this must be subsequent to conciliar action, unless the pope, by his personal presence and conscience, has already given his official ratification (for details see GENERAL COUNCILS).最後,教皇的讚許須給予普世價值和權威conciliar法令,這必須在以後的conciliar行動,除非教宗,由他個人的存在和良心,已經給他的正式批准(詳見總理事會) 。

2 That an ecumenical council which satisfies the conditions above stated is an organ of infallibility will not be denied by anyone who admits that the Church is endowed with infallible doctrinal authority. 2 ,一個基督教會滿足的條件是上述機構的絕對不會被任何人否認了誰承認,教會是賦予了可靠的理論權威。 How, if not through such an organ, could infallible authority effectively express itself, unless indeed through the pope?如何,如果不是通過這樣一個機構,可以萬無一失的權力有效地表達自己,除非確實通過教皇? If Christ promised to be present with even two or three of His disciples gathered together in His name (Matthew 18:20), a fortiori He will be present efficaciously in a representative assembly of His authorized teachers; and the Paraclete whom He promised will be present, so that whatever the council defines may be prefaced with the Apostolic formula, "it has seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us."如果基督答應出席,甚至兩個或三個,他的弟子聚集在他的名字(馬太18:20 ) ,更何況他將在本有效的代表大會,他授權的教師;和聖靈其中他答應將目前,這樣,無論安理會的定義可能是前面的使徒公式“ ,它似乎良好的聖靈和我們。 ” And this is the view which the councils held regarding their own authority and upon which the defender of orthodoxy insisted.這是鑑於該理事會舉行了關於自己的權威和在此基礎上捍衛正統堅持。 The councils insisted on their definitions being accepted under pain of anathema, while St. Athanasius, for example, says that "the word of the Lord pronounced by the ecumenical synod of Nicaea stands for ever" (Ep. ad Afros, n. 2) and St. Leo the Great proves the unchangeable character of definitive conciliar teaching on the ground that God has irrevocably confirmed its truth "universae fraternitatis irretractabili firmavit assensu" (Ep. 120, 1).該委員會堅持其定義下被接受的痛苦詛咒,而聖亞他那修,例如,說: “這個詞的主顯著的基督教主教尼西亞以往任何時候都主張” ( Ep.廣告Afros ,注2 )和聖里奧大證明了不可改變的性質,明確conciliar教學在地面上,上帝已經不可逆轉地確認其真相“ universae fraternitatis irretractabili firmavit assensu ” ( Ep. 120 , 1 ) 。

3 It remains to be observed, in opposition to the theory of conciliar infallibility usually defended by High Church Anglicans that once the requisite papal confirmation has been given the doctrinal decisions of an ecumenical council become infallible and irreformable; there is no need to wait perhaps hundreds of years for the unanimous acceptance and approbation of the whole Christian world. 3仍有待觀察,反對理論的conciliar犯錯誤通常捍衛教會聖公會高,一旦必要的教皇確認已經得到理論決定的基督教會成為可靠和irreformable ;有沒有必要等待也許數百幾年的一致認可和讚許整個基督教世界。 Such a theory really amounts to a denial of conciliar infallibility, and sets up in the final court of appeal an altogether vague and ineffective tribunal.這樣的理論真的等於剝奪conciliar犯錯誤,並提出了在最終上訴法院的一個完全模糊和無效的法庭。 If the theory be true, were not the Arians perfectly justified in their prolonged struggle to reverse Nicaea, and has not the persistent refusal of the Nestorians down to our own day to accept Ephesus and of the Monophysites to accept Chalcedon been sufficient to defeat the ratification of those councils?如果理論是真實的,不是Arians天經地義的長期鬥爭,以扭轉尼西亞,並沒有持續拒絕Nestorians到我們自己每天接受以弗所和Monophysites接受卡爾西足以打敗批准這些議會呢? No workable rule can be given for deciding when such subsequent ratification as this theory requires becomes effective and even if this could be done in the case of some of the earlier councils whose definitions are received by the Anglicans, it would still be true that since the Photian schism it has been practically impossible to secure any such consensus as is required -- in other words that the working of infallible authority, the purpose of which is to teach every generation, has been suspended since the ninth century, and that Christ's promises to His Church have been falsified.沒有可行的規則可以為決定何時這種後繼批准這一理論的要求生效,即使這樣做對於某些早期議會的定義是所收到的聖公會,這將仍然是真實的,因為Photian分裂已幾乎不可能,以確保任何這類的共識,需要-換句話說,工作的絕對權威,其目的是教導每一代人,已暫停自9世紀,並基督的承諾他教會了偽造的。 It is consoling, no doubt, to cling to the abstract doctrine of an infallible authority but if one adopts a theory which represents that authority as unable to fulfil its appointed task during the greater part of the Church's life, it is not easy to see how this consolatory belief is anything more than a delusion.這是安慰,毫無疑問,緊緊的抽象理論的一個萬無一失的權力,但如果採用一種理論認為這是權力未能履行其指定的任務期間,大部份教會的生活,是不容易看到這consolatory的信念是任何一個多妄想。

B. The Pope灣教皇

EXPLANATION OF PAPAL INFALLIBILITY解釋教皇犯錯誤

The Vatican Council has defined as "a divinely revealed dogma" that "the Roman Pontiff, when he speaks ex cathedra -- that is, when in the exercise of his office as pastor and teacher of all Christians he defines, by virtue of his supreme Apostolic authority, a doctrine of faith or morals to be held by the whole Church -- is, by reason of the Divine assistance promised to him in blessed Peter, possessed of that infallibility with which the Divine Redeemer wished His Church to be endowed in defining doctrines of faith and morals; and consequently that such definitions of the Roman Pontiff are irreformable of their own nature (ex sese) and not by reason of the Church's consent" (Densinger no. 1839 -- old no. 1680).梵蒂岡理事會已定義為“神發現教條”說: “羅馬教皇,當他談到前教堂-這是時,在行使其擔任牧師和教師的所有基督徒,他的定義,憑藉其最高使徒的權威,理論的信仰或道德舉行的整個教會-是,由於神聖的援助承諾給他的祝福彼得,擁有的絕對與神聖救世主希望他的教會賦予確定理論的信仰和道德的需要; ,因此,這樣的定義的羅馬教皇是irreformable自己的性質(當然塞塞)和不因教會的同意“ ( Densinger沒有。 1839年-舊沒有。 1 680) 。 For the correct understanding of this definition it is to be noted that:正確理解這一定義,需要指出的是:

what is claimed for the pope is infallibility merely, not impeccability or inspiration (see above under I).什麼是聲稱教皇僅僅是犯錯誤,而不是無罪或啟發(見上文一) 。

the infallibility claimed for the pope is the same in its nature, scope, and extent as that which the Church as a whole possesses; his ex cathedra teaching does not have to be ratified by the Church's in order to be infallible. infallibility is not attributed to every doctrinal act of the pope, but only to his ex cathedra teaching; and the conditions required for ex cathedra teaching are mentioned in the Vatican decree:對犯錯誤聲稱教宗是相同的性質,範圍和程度是該教會作為一個整體擁有;他的前教堂教學沒有得到批准的教會,才能萬無一失。犯錯誤並不歸因每一個理論的行為,教皇,但只有他的前教堂教學;和所需的條件前教堂教學中提到的梵蒂岡的命令:

The pontiff must teach in his public and official capacity as pastor and doctor of all Christians, not merely in his private capacity as a theologian, preacher or allocutionist, nor in his capacity as a temporal prince or as a mere ordinary of the Diocese of Rome.教宗必須在他的教導公眾和官方身份的牧師和醫生的所有基督徒,而不是僅僅在他的私人身份作為一個神學家,傳教士或allocutionist ,也不在他的能力,顳王子或僅僅是一個普通的羅馬教區。 It must be clear that he speaks as spiritual head of the Church universal.必須明確指出,他講的精神領袖,教會的普遍性。

Then it is only when, in this capacity, he teaches some doctrine of faith or morals that he is infallible (see below, IV).然後,只有當,在這方面,他教的一些理論的信仰或道德的,他是可靠的(見下文,四) 。

Further it must be sufficiently evident that he intends to teach with all the fullness and finality of his supreme Apostolic authority, in other words that he wishes to determine some point of doctrine in an absolutely final and irrevocable way, or to define it in the technical sense (see DEFINITION).此外它必須有足夠明顯,他打算教所有的豐滿和終結他的最高使徒權威,換言之,他希望以確定一些點主張在一個絕對的最後和不可逆轉的方式,或以確定它的技術意義(見定義) 。 These are well-recognized formulas by means of which the defining intention may be manifested.這些都是公認的公式,通過這一手段確定意圖可能是體現。

Finally for an ex cathedra decision it must be clear that the pope intends to bind the whole Church.最後一個教堂前的決定必須明確一點,即在教宗打算結合整個教會。 To demand internal assent from all the faithful to his teaching under pain of incurring spiritual shipwreck (naufragium fidei) according to the expression used by Pius IX in defining the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin.要求內部同意從所有忠實於他的教導下疼痛引起的精神沉船( naufragium信)根據所使用的表達皮烏斯九大確定的聖母無染原罪聖母。 Theoretically, this intention might be made sufficiently clear in a papal decision which is addressed only to a particular Church; but in present day conditions, when it is so easy to communicate with the most distant parts of the earth and to secure a literally universal promulgation of papal acts, the presumption is that unless the pope formally addresses the whole Church in the recognized official way, he does not intend his doctrinal teaching to be held by all the faithful as ex cathedra and infallible.從理論上說,這一意圖可能是不夠明確提出在羅馬教皇的決定是只針對某一教會,但在當今條件下,當是很容易溝通的最遙遠的地方的泥土和保證字面普遍頒布教皇的行為,推定的是,除非教皇正式地址整個教會的正式承認,他並不打算他的理論教學將舉行由所有信徒當然教堂和萬無一失。

It should be observed in conclusion that papal infallibility is a personal and incommunicable charisma, which is not shared by any pontifical tribunal.應當指出的結論,即在教宗犯錯誤是個人和incommunicable的魅力,這是不同意任何宗座法庭。 It was promised directly to Peter, and to each of Peter's successors in the primacy, but not as a prerogative the exercise of which could be delegated to others. Hence doctrinal decisions or instructions issued by the Roman congregations, even when approved by the pope in the ordinary way, have no claim to be considered infallible.這是直接答應彼得,並給每個彼得的繼任者的首要,而不是作為一種特權的行使可委託給他人。因此理論上的決定或發出的指示的羅馬教會,即使批准了教皇普通的方式,都沒有要求被視為可靠的。 To be infallible they must be issued by the pope himself in his own name according to the conditions already mentioned as requisite for ex cathedra teaching.為了萬無一失,他們必須在教皇本人在自己的名字根據條件已經提到的必要條件前教堂教學。

PROOF OF PAPAL INFALLIBILITY FROM HOLY SCRIPTURE證明了由教皇犯錯誤聖經

From Holy Scripture, as already stated, the special proof of the pope's infallibility is, if anything, stronger and clearer than the general proof of the infallibility of the Church as a whole, just as the proof of his primacy is stronger and clearer than any proof that can be advanced independently for the Apostolic authority of the episcopate.從聖經如前所述,特別證明了教皇的絕對是,如果有的話,更有力和更明確的比一般證明犯錯誤的教會作為一個整體,就像證明他的首要是加強和明確的比任何證明,可以獨立先進的使徒權威的主教。

Matthew 16:18馬修16:18

"Thou art Peter (Kepha)", said Christ, "and upon this rock (kepha) I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it" (Matthew 16:18). Various attempts have been made by opponents of the papal claims to get rid of the only obvious and natural meaning of these words, according to which Peter is to be the rock-foundation of the Church, and the source of its indefectibility against the gates of hell. “你是彼得( Kepha )說, ”基督“ ,並在這個岩石( kepha )我將建立我的教會,和地獄之門不得戰勝它” (馬太16:18 ) 。各種嘗試已取得反對教皇索賠擺脫的唯一明顯的和自然意義的這些話,根據該彼得是岩石基礎的教會,以及其來源indefectibility對地獄之門。 It has been suggested, for example, that "this rock" is Christ Himself or that it is Peter's faith (typifying the faith of future believers), not his person and office, on which the Church is to be built.有人建議,例如,說: “這石頭”是自己或基督,這是彼得的信仰(典型化的信念,今後信徒) ,而不是他本人和辦公室,這是教會的建立。 But these and similar interpretations simply destroy the logical coherency of Christ's statement and are excluded by the Greek and Latin texts, in which a kind of play upon the words Petros (Petrus) and petra is clearly intended, and still more forcibly by the original Aramaic which Christ spoke, and in which the same word Kêpha must have been used in both clauses.但是,這些和類似的解釋,只是摧毀的邏輯一致性基督的聲明和被排斥的希臘和拉丁文字,其中一種發揮的話彼得羅斯(彼)和佩特拉顯然是打算,更強行原有的阿拉姆其中以基督,並在同一個詞Kêpha必須使用兩種條款。 And granting, as the best modern non-Catholic commentators grant, that this text of St. Matthew contains the promise that St. Peter was to be the rock-foundation of the Church, it is impossible to deny that Peter's successors in the primacy are heirs to this promise -- unless, indeed, one is willing to admit the principle, which would be altogether subversive of the hierarchial system, that the authority bestowed by Christ on the Apostles was not intended to be transmitted to their successors, and to abide in the Church permanently.和給予,是最好的現代非天主教評論家補助金,這一案文馬太包含了承諾,聖彼得大教堂將是岩石基礎的教會,也不可能否認,彼得的繼承人,是至高無上繼承人這一承諾-除非確實,一個是願意承認的原則,這將是完全顛覆的等級制度,即賦予的權力由基督的使徒並不打算轉交給其繼承人,並遵守在教會永久。 Peter's headship was as much emphasized by Christ Himself, and was as clearly recognized in the infant Church, as was the enduring authority of the episcopal body; and it is a puzzle which the Catholic finds it hard to solve, how those who deny that the supreme authority of Peter's successor is an essential factor in the constitution of the Church can consistently maintain the Divine authority of the episcopate.彼得的校長多是強調了基督自己,是因為清楚地認識到,嬰兒在教堂,因為是持久的權威,祝身體,它是一個益智的天主教難以解決的問題,如何將這些誰否認最高權威彼得的繼任者是一個關鍵因素在憲法中的教會能夠始終保持神聖權威的主教。 Now, as we have already seen, doctrinal indefectibility is certainly implied in Christ's promise that the gates of hell shall not prevail against His Church, and cannot be effectively secured without doctrinal infallibility; so that if Christ's promise means anything -- if Peter's successor is in any true sense the foundation and source of the Church's indefectibility -- he must by virtue of this office be also an organ of ecclesiastical infallibility.現在,我們已經看到,理論indefectibility當然是隱含在基督的承諾,在地獄之門不得戰勝他的教會,並不能得到有效保證,理論犯錯誤;因此,如果基督的承諾意味著什麼-如果彼得的繼任者是在任何真正意義上的基礎和源泉教會的indefectibility -他必須憑藉這個辦公室也機關的教會犯錯誤。 The metaphor used clearly implies that it was the rock-foundation which was to give stability to the superstructure, not the superstructure to the rock.使用的比喻顯然意味著它是岩石的基礎,是讓穩定的上層建築,上層建築不能向岩石。

Nor can it be said that this argument fails by proving too much -- by proving, that is, that the pope should be impeccable, or at least that he should be a saint, since, if the Church must be holy in order to overcome the gates of hell, the example and inspiration of holiness ought to be given by him who is the visible foundation of the Church's indefectibility.也不能說,這種說法沒有證明太多-證明,也就是說,教皇應該無可挑剔的,或者至少,他應該是一個聖人,因為如果教會必須是神聖的,以克服在地獄之門,榜樣和鼓舞的聖德應考慮由他誰是明顯的基礎教會的indefectibility 。 From the very nature of the case a distinction must be made between sanctity or impeccability, and infallible doctrinal authority.從根本性質的情況下,必須區分神聖或無罪,並可靠的理論權威。 Personal sanctity is essentially incommunicable as between men, and cannot affect others except in fallible and indirect ways, as by prayer or example; but doctrinal teaching which is accepted as infallible is capable of securing that certainty and consequent unity of Faith by which, as well as by other bonds, the members of Christ's visible Church were to be "compacted and fitly joined together" (Ephesians 4:16).個人神聖incommunicable基本上是作為男女之間,並不能影響他人,除非犯錯誤和間接的方式,通過祈禱或範例,但理論教學是接受萬無一失能夠確保該確定性和由此統一的信仰,其中,以及其他債券,其成員基督的教會是可見的是“壓縮和fitly共同” (以弗所書四時16分) 。 It is true, of course, that infallible teaching, especially on moral questions, helps to promote sanctity among those who accept, but no one will seriously suggest that, if Christ had made the pope impeccable as well as infallible, He would thereby have provided for the personal sanctity of individual believers any more efficiently than, on Catholic principles, He has actually done.這是真的,當然,這萬無一失的教學,特別是在道義上的問題,有助於促進這些神聖誰接受,但沒有人會認真表明,如果基督了教皇無可挑剔以及萬無一失,他將從而提供了個人神聖的信仰任何個人更有效地比對天主教的原則,他實際上已經完成。

Luke 22:31-32盧克22:31-32

Here Christ says to St. Peter and to his successors in the primacy: "Simon, Simon, behold Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat: But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and thou, being once converted, confirm thy brethren."在這裡說,基督聖彼得和他的繼任者的首要: “西蒙,西蒙,看見撒旦上帝希望你,他可能會篩選您小麥:但是,我祈求你,你的信念是不會失敗:和你,是一次轉換,確認你的兄弟。 “ This special prayer of Christ was for Peter alone in his capacity as head of the Church, as is clear from the text and context; and since we cannot doubt the efficacy of Christ's prayer, it followed that to St. Peter and his successors the office was personally committed of authoritatively confirming the brethren -- other bishops, and believers generally -- in the faith; and this implies infallibility.這種特殊的祈禱耶穌為彼得獨自在團長的身份,教會,這是清楚的文字和背景;和,因為我們不能懷疑的療效基督的祈禱,它遵循,為聖彼得和他的繼任辦公室本人承諾的權威性確認的兄弟-其他主教和信徒普遍-在信仰;這意味著犯錯誤。

John 21:15-17約翰21:15-17

Here we have the record of Christ's thrice-repeated demand for a confession of Peter's love and the thrice-repeated commission to feed the lambs and the sheep:在這裡,我們記錄基督的三次重複需求的供詞彼得的愛情和三次重複的委員會,以飼料羔羊和綿羊:

When therefore they had dined, Jesus said to Simon Peter: Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?因此,當他們共進晚餐,耶穌說,西門彼得:西蒙的兒子,約翰,你愛我多嗎? He said to him: Yes, Lord, you know that I love you.他對他說:是啊,上帝啊,你知道我愛你。 He said to him: Feed my lambs.他對他說:給我的羔羊。 He said to him again: Simon, son of John, do you love me?他說,他再次:西蒙的兒子,約翰,你愛我嗎? He said to him: Yes, Lord, you know that I love you.他對他說:是啊,上帝啊,你知道我愛你。 He said to him: Feed my lambs.他對他說:給我的羔羊。 He said to him the third time: Simon, son of John, do you love me?他說,他第三次:西蒙的兒子,約翰,你愛我嗎? Peter was grieved, because he had said to him the third time: Do you love me?彼得是悲痛,因為他對他說,第三次:你愛我嗎? And he said to him: Lord, you know all things: you know that I love you.他對他說:上帝啊,你知道所有的事情:你知道我愛你。 He said to him: Feed my sheep.他對他說:牧養我的羊群。

Here the complete and supreme pastoral charge of the whole of Christ's flock -- sheep as well as lambs -- is given to St. Peter and his successors, and in this is undoubtedly comprised supreme doctrinal authority.在這裡,完整和最高牧區負責整個基督羊群-羊以及羔羊-給聖彼得和他的繼任者,並在這無疑是包括最高理論權威。 But, as we have already seen, doctrinal authority in the Church cannot be really effective in securing the unity of faith intended by Christ, unless in the last resort it is infallible.但是,正如我們已經看到,理論權威在教會不能真正有效地保證統一的信仰基督教的意圖,除非在萬不得已是萬無一失的。 It is futile to contend, as non Catholics have often done, that this passage is merely a record of Peter's restoration to his personal share in the collective Apostolic authority, which he had forfeited by his triple denial.這是徒勞的爭論,作為非天主教徒常常這樣做,這個通道僅僅是一個創紀錄的彼得恢復他的個人分擔的集體使徒權威,這是他沒收其三否認了這一消息。 It is quite probable that the reason why Christ demanded the triple confession of love was as a set-off to the triple denial; but if Christ's words in this and in the other passages quoted mean anything, and if they are to be understood in the same obvious and natural way in which defenders of the Divine authority of the episcopate understand the words elsewhere addressed to the Apostles collectively, there is no denying that the Petrine and papal claims are more clearly supported by the Gospels than are those of a monarchical episcopate.這是非常可能的原因基督的三重要求招供的愛情是作為一個抵消的三重否定;但如果基督的話在這方面和在其他段落引用意味著什麼,如果他們是可以理解的同樣明顯的和自然的方式捍衛神聖權威的主教了解其他地方的話給使徒集體,但不容否認的是伯多祿和教皇的索賠更明確的支持福音比是一個帝王主教。 It is equally futile to contend that these promises were made, and this power given, to Peter merely as the representative of the Apostolic college: in the texts of the Gospel, Peter is individually singled out and addressed with particular emphasis, so that, unless by denying with the rationalist the genuineness of Christ's words, there is no logical escape from the Catholic position.這同樣是徒勞的爭論,這些承諾發了言,並賦予這項權力,彼得只是為代表的使徒大學:在文本的福音,彼得是單獨挑出來,並給特別強調,所以,除非否認與理性的真實性基督的話,沒有任何邏輯擺脫天主教的立場。 Furthermore, it is clear from such evidence as the Acts of the Apostles supply, that Peter's supremacy was recognized in the infant Church (see PRIMACY) and if this supremacy was intended to be efficacious for the purpose for which it was instituted, it must have included the prerogative of doctrinal infallibility.此外,它清楚地表明這種證據的使徒行傳供應,即彼得的優勢是公認的嬰兒教會(見至高無上) ,如果這個至高無上的用意是有效的目的是建立,它必須有包括特權理論犯錯誤。

PROOF OF PAPAL INFALLIBILITY FROM TRADITION證明教皇犯錯誤從傳統

One need not expect to find in the early centuries a formal and explicit recognition throughout the Church either of the primacy or of the infallibility of the pope in the terms in which these doctrines are defined by the Vatican Council.人們不能期望找到在世紀初正式和明確地承認整個教堂之一的首要或犯錯誤的教皇的條款,這些理論是指由梵蒂岡理事會。 But the fact cannot be denied that from the beginning there was a widespread acknowledgment by other churches of some kind of supreme authority in the Roman pontiff in regard not only to disciplinary but also to doctrinal affairs.但事實不容否認的是,從一開始就存在著廣泛的承認其他教會的某種形式的最高權力機構在羅馬教皇方面不僅要處分,而且理論上的內政。 This is clear for example, from:這是明確的,例如,來自:

Clement's Letter to the Corinthians at the end of the first century, the way in which, shortly afterwards, Ignatius of Antioch addresses the Roman Church;克萊門特的信科林蒂安結束時的二十一世紀,以何種方式,不久之後,伊格內修安提阿的處理羅馬教會;

the conduct of Pope Victor in the latter half of the second century, in connection with the paschal controversy;進行教皇維克多下半年的第二個世紀,結合逾越的爭議;

the teaching of St. Irenaeus, who lays it down as a practical rule that conformity with Rome is a sufficient proof of Apostolicity of doctrine against the heretics (Adv. Haer., III, iii);教學中的聖依,誰規定它作為一個實際規則,符合羅馬是一個足以證明Apostolicity理論對異教徒( Adv. Haer 。 ,三,三) ;

the correspondence between Pope Dionysius and his namesake at Alexandria in the second half of the third century;之間的來往信函教皇修斯和他的名字命名的亞歷山大在下半年的第三世紀;

and from many other facts that might be mentioned (see PRIMACY).和許多其他事實,可能會提到(見至高無上) 。

Even heretics recognized something special in the doctrinal authority of the pope, and some of them, like Marcion in the second century and Pelagius and Caelestius in the first quarter of the fifth, appealed to Rome in the hope of obtaining a reversal of their condemnation by provincial bishops or synods.即使是異端承認在一些特殊的理論權威的教皇,其中一些,像馬吉安在第二世紀和伯拉糾和Caelestius在第一季度的第五名,羅馬呼籲,希望得到扭轉他們譴責省主教或synods 。 And in the age of the councils, from Nicaea onwards, there is a sufficiently explicit and formal acknowledgment of the doctrinal supremacy of the Bishop of Rome.和年齡的理事會,由尼西亞起,有一個不夠明確和正式承認的理論至高無上的羅馬主教。

St. Augustine, for example, voices the prevailing Catholic sentiment when in reference to the Pelagian affair he declares, in a sermon delivered at Carthage after the receipt of Pope Innocent's letter, confirming the decrees of the Council of Carthage: "Rome's reply has come: the case is closed" (Inde etiam rescripta venerunt: causa finita est. Serm. 131, cx);聖奧古斯丁,例如,聲音普遍存在的情緒時,天主教在提及他的事Pelagian宣布,在講道交付迦太基在收到諾森的信,確認法令理事會的迦太基: “羅馬的答复已經到來:在已經結案“ (獨立etiam rescripta venerunt :因finita站血清。 131 , 138 ) ;

and again when in reference to the same subject he insists that "all doubt bas been removed by the letter of Pope Innocent of blessed memory" (C. Duas Epp. Pelag., II, iii, 5).當再次在提到同一問題,他堅持認為, “毫無疑問下的所有被刪除的信諾森的幸福記憶” (角Duas Epp. Pelag 。 ,二,三,五) 。

And what is still more important, is the explicit recognition in formal terms, by councils which are admitted to be ecumenical, of the finality, and by implication the infallibility of papal teaching.什麼是更重要的是,明確承認的正式條款,由議會的承認是基督教,終局的,並暗示了犯錯誤的教皇教學。

Thus the Fathers of Ephesus (431) declare that they "are compelled" to condemn the heresy of Nestorius "by the sacred canons and by the letter of our holy father and co-minister, Celestine the Bishop of Rome." Twenty years later (451) the Fathers of Chalcedon, after hearing Leo's letter read, make themselves responsible for the statement: "so do we all believe . . . Peter has spoken through Leo."因此,父親的以弗所( 431 )宣布,他們“被迫”譴責異端的聶斯脫裡“的大砲和神聖的信我們神聖的父親和合作部長,巴巴亞羅羅馬主教。 ” 20年後( 451 )的父親卡爾西,在聽取利奧的信閱讀,使自己負責的聲明說: “這樣做我們都相信。 。 。彼得曾通過利奧。 ”

More than two centuries later, at the Third Council of Constantinople (680-681), the same formula is repeated: "Peter has spoken through Agatho." After the lapse of still two other centuries, and shortly before the Photian schism, the profession of faith drawn up by Pope Hormisdas was accepted by the Fourth Council of Constantinople (869-870), and in this profession, it is stated that, by virtue of Christ's promise: "Thou art Peter, etc."; "the Catholic religion is preserved inviolable in the Apostolic See."兩個多世紀後,在第三次理事會君士坦丁堡( 680-681 ) ,同樣的公式是重複: “彼得曾通過Agatho 。 ”失效後仍然其他兩個世紀以來,與前不久Photian分裂,專業信仰起草了卡爾米斯達斯教皇接受了第四次理事會君士坦丁堡( 869-870 ) ,並在本行業中指出,由於基督的許諾: “你是彼得,等等” , “天主教是神聖不可侵犯保存在使徒見。 “

Finally the reunion Council of Florence (1438-1445), repeating what had been substantially contained in the profession of faith of Michael Palaeologus approved by the Second Council of Lyons (1274), defined "that the holy Apostolic see and the Roman pontiff holds the primacy over the whole world; and that the Roman pontiff himself is the successor of the blessed Peter Prince of the Apostles and the true Vicar of Christ, and the head of the whole Church, and the father and teacher of all Christians, and that to him in blessed Peter the full power of feeding, ruling and governing the universal Church was given by our Lord Jesus Christ, and this is also recognized in the acts of the ecumenical council and in the sacred canons (quemadmodum etiam . . . continetur. )最後的團聚理事會佛羅倫薩( 1438年至1445年) ,重複已大大中所載的信念邁克爾Palaeologus批准了第二屆理事會萊昂斯( 1274年) ,確定了“羅馬教廷見和羅馬教皇舉行優先於整個世界;和羅馬教皇本人的前身是幸運的彼得王子和使徒的真正的基督牧師,並負責整個教會,以及父親和老師的所有基督徒,並以他在彼得得天獨厚的全部力量餵養,執政黨和政府的普世教會是由我們的主耶穌基督,這也是承認的行為基督教理事會和神聖的信條(如鹿渴慕溪水etiam 。 。 。 continetur 。 )

Thus it is clear that the Vatican Council introduced no new doctrine when it defined the infallibility of the pope, but merely re-asserted what had been implicitly admitted and acted upon from the beginning and had even been explicitly proclaimed and in equivalent terms by more than one of the early ecumenical councils.因此,它是明確的,梵蒂岡沒有安理會介紹了新的理論時,確定了犯錯誤的教皇,而只是重新提出了哪些含蓄地承認並採取行動從一開始,甚至已經明確宣布,並在同等條件多一個早期基督教理事會。 Until the Photian Schism in the East and the Gallican movement in the West there was no formal denial of papal supremacy, or of papal infallibility as an adjunct of supreme doctrinal authority, while the instances of their formal acknowledgment that have been referred to in the early centuries are but a few out of the multitude that might be quoted.直到Photian分裂的地區和高盧聖運動在西方國家沒有正式否認教皇至高無上,或教皇犯錯誤作為輔助理論的最高權威,而他們的情況下正式承認,一直被稱為早期百年只不過是少數幾個出多種可能被引用。

OBJECTIONS ALLEGED OBJECTIONS所稱

The only noteworthy objections against papal infallibility, as distinct from the infallibility of the Church at large, are based on certain historical instances in which it is alleged that certain popes in the ex cathedra exercise of their office have actually taught heresy and condemned as heretical what has afterwards turned out to be true.唯一值得注意的反對羅馬教皇犯錯誤,有別於犯錯誤的教堂大,是基於一定的歷史情況中,據稱,在某些教皇前教堂行使他們的辦公室實際上已經教導異端邪說和譴責邪教什麼事後已被證明是正確的。 The chief instances usually appealed to are those of Popes Liberius, Honorius, and Vigilius in the early centuries, and the Galileo affair at the beginning of the seventeenth century.在通常情況下長呼籲那些對教皇Liberius ,挪留,並Vigilius在早期世紀,伽利略事件開始時的17世紀。

Pope Liberius教皇Liberius

Liberius, it is alleged, subscribed an Arian or Semi-Arian creed drawn up by the Council of Sirmium and anathematized St. Athanasius, the great champion of Nicaea, as a heretic. Liberius ,據稱,訂閱了阿里安或半阿里安信仰制定了理事會的米烏姆和anathematized聖亞他那修,偉大的冠軍尼西亞,作為一個邪教。 But even if this were an accurate statement of historical fact, it is a very inadequate statement.但是,即使這是一個正確的歷史事實,這是一個非常不足的發言。 The all-important circumstance should be added that the pope so acted under pressure of a very cruel coercion, which at once deprives his action of any claim to be considered ex cathedra, and that he himself, as soon as he had recovered his liberty, made amends for the moral weakness he had been guilty of.所有重要的情況下應該說,教皇這樣的壓力下採取行動的一個非常殘忍的脅迫,這一次剝奪了他的行動的任何索賠被視為前教堂,和他本人,只要他恢復了自由,作出修訂的道德弱點,他犯了。 This is a quite satisfactory answer to the objection, but it ought to be added that there is no evidence whatever that Liberius ever anathematized St. Athanasius expressly as a heretic, and that it remains a moot point which of three or four Sirmian creeds he subscribed, two of which contained no positive assertion of heretical doctrine and were defective merely for the negative reason that they failed to insist on the full definition of Nicaea.這是一個相當令人滿意的答案的異議,但應該說,沒有證據表明無論是Liberius以往任何時候都anathematized聖亞他那修明文作為一個邪教,它仍然是一個假設點三或四個Sirmian信條,他訂閱,其中有兩個沒有積極主張邪教的理論和有缺陷僅僅是消極的原因,他們未能堅持全面的定義尼西亞。

Pope Honorius何諾

The charge against Pope Honorius is a double one: that, when appealed to in the Monothelite controversy, he actually taught the Monothelite heresy in his two letters to Sergius; and that he was condemned as a heretic by the Sixth Ecumenical Council, the decrees of which were approved by Leo II.該指控何諾是雙重的:當呼籲在Monothelite爭議,他實際上教Monothelite異端在他的兩封信塞爾吉烏斯; ,他譴責為異端的基督教第六屆理事會,法令批准了這些利奧二世。 But in the first place it is quite clear from the tone and terms of these letters that, so far from intending to give any final, or ex cathedra, decision on the doctrinal question at issue, Honorius merely tried to allay the rising bitterness of the controversy by securing silence.但是,擺在首位很明顯的基調和職權這些信件指出,迄今從打算放棄任何最終的,或前教堂,決定對理論問題的問題,何諾只是試圖緩解不斷上升的苦味爭議,確保沉默。 In the next place, taking the letters as they stand, the very most that can be clearly and incontrovertibly deduced from them is, that Honorius was not a profound or acute theologian, and that he allowed himself to be confused and misled by the wily Sergius as to what the issue really was and too readily accepted the latter's misrepresentation of his opponents' position, to the effect that the assertion of two wills in Christ meant two contrary or discordant wills.在接下來的地方,採取的字母,他們的立場,充其量可以明確和雄辯地推導出它們是,挪留不深刻或急性神學,而且他自己允許混淆和誤導的老謀深算塞爾吉烏斯什麼問題真的是太容易被接受後者的歪曲他的對手的立場,即主張在兩個遺囑基督意味著兩種相反的或不協調的遺囑。 Finally, in reference to the condemnation of Honorius as a heretic, it is to be remembered that there is no ecumenical sentence affirming the fact either that Honorius's letters to Sergius contain heresy, or that they were intended to define the question with which they deal.最後,在提及譴責何諾作為一個邪教,這是必須記住,沒有基督教一句肯定的事實,要么挪留的信,塞爾吉烏斯包含異端,或他們的目的是要界定的問題與他們交易。 The sentence passed by the fathers of the council has ecumenical value only in so far as it was approved by Leo II; but, in approving the condemnation of Honorius, his successor adds the very important qualification that he is condemned, not for the doctrinal reason that he taught heresy, but on the moral ground that he was wanting in the vigilance expected from him in his Apostolic office and thereby allowed a heresy to make headway which he should have crushed in its beginnings.該句通過父親安理會普世價值只有在迄今因為它是批准了利奧二世; ,但在批准的譴責挪留,他的繼任者增加了非常重要的資格,他是譴責,而不是理論的原因他教導異端邪說,但在道義上的理由是,他是想在警惕預計他在使徒辦公室,從而使異端取得進展,他應該有碎石在其開端。

Pope Vigilius教皇Vigilius

There is still less reason for trying to found an objection to papal infallibility on the wavering conduct of Pope Vigilius in connection with the controversy of the Three Chapters; and it is all the more needless to delay upon this instance as most modern opponents of the papal claims no longer appeal to it.仍然有不足的原因試圖找到了反對羅馬教皇犯錯誤的搖擺開展教皇Vigilius與爭議的三個章節,它更是不必要的拖延這一例如,最現代化的反對羅馬教皇債權不再向它提出上訴。

Galileo伽利略

As to the Galileo affair, it is quite enough to point out the fact that the condemnation of the heliocentric theory was the work of a fallible tribunal.至於伽利略的事,這是相當不夠指出一個事實,即譴責心理論工作的犯錯誤法庭。 The pope cannot delegate the exercise of his infallible authority to the Roman Congregations, and whatever issues formally in the name of any of these, even when approved and confirmed in the ordinary official way by the pope, does not pretend to be ex cathedra and infallible.教皇不能代表行使他的絕對權威的羅馬聚會,什麼問題和正式的名稱任何這些,即使批准和確認的普通官員的方式,教皇,不假裝是前教堂和萬無一失。 The pope, of course, can convert doctrinal decisions of the Holy Office, which are not in themselves infallible, into ex cathedra papal pronouncements, but in doing so he must comply with the conditions already explained -- which neither Paul V nor Urban VIII did in the Galileo case.教皇,當然,可以轉換的理論決定的羅馬廳,這本身並不是十全十美,進入教堂前教宗的聲明,但在這樣做的,他必須遵守的條件已經解釋-這既不保羅V也沒有城市第八伽利略案件。

Conclusion結論

The broad fact, therefore, remains certain that no ex cathedra definition of any pope has ever been shown to be erroneous.廣泛的事實,因此,仍然確信,沒有教堂前的定義的任何教皇都被證明是錯誤的。

C. Mutual Relations of the Organs of Infallibility角相互關係的機關犯錯誤

A few brief remarks under this head will serve to make the Catholic conception of ecclesiastical infallibility still clearer.幾個簡短的發言根據本頭將有助於使天主教教會的概念犯錯誤仍然清晰。 Three organs have been mentioned:三個機關已提到:

the bishops dispersed throughout the world in union with the Holy See; ecumenical councils under the headship of the pope; and the pope himself separately.主教們分散在世界各地工會在與教廷;基督教議會下的校長的教皇和教皇本人分開。

Through the first of these is exercised what theologians describe as the ordinarium magisterium, ie the common or everyday teaching authority of the Church; through the second and third the magisterium solemne, or undeniably definitive authority.通過首先是行使什麼神學家稱之為ordinarium magisterium ,即共同或日常教學權威的教會;通過第二次和第三次的magisterium solemne ,或不可否認的最終權力。 Practically speaking, at the present day, and for many centuries in the past, only the decisions of ecumenical councils and the ex cathedra teaching of the pope have been treated as strictly definitive in the canonical sense, and the function of the magisterium ordinarium has been concerned with the effective promulgation and maintenance of what has been formally defined by the magisterium solemne or may be legitimately deduced from its definitions.實際上,在目前一天,許多世紀在過去,只有決定的基督教會和前教堂教學教皇已被視為嚴格明確的規範意識和功能的magisterium已ordinarium有關有效的頒布和維修已經正式確定由magisterium solemne或可合法地推導出其定義。

Even the ordinarium magisterium is not independent of the pope.即使ordinarium magisterium不是獨立的教宗。 In other words, it is only bishops who are in corporate union with the pope, the Divinely constituted head and centre of Christ's mystical body, the one true Church, who have any claim to share in the charisma by which the infallibility of their morally unanimous teaching is divinely guaranteed according to the terms of Christ's promises.換句話說,它是唯一的主教是誰在企業工會與教皇,構成了神頭中心基督的奧體,一個真正的教會,誰有任何索賠分享的魅力,其中犯錯誤的道義上的一致教學是按照神保障的條件基督的承諾。 And as the pope's supremacy is also an essential factor in the constitution of an ecumenical council -- and has in fact been the formal and determining factor in deciding the ecumenicity of those very councils whose authority is recognized by Eastern schismatics and Anglicans -- it naturally occurs to enquire how conciliar infallibility is related to papal.和教宗的優勢也是一個重要因素憲法的一個基督教國家-和事實上已經正式和決定性因素在決定e cumenicity這些非常議會的權力是公認的東歐s chismatics和聖公會-自然出現詢問如何conciliar犯錯誤有關教皇。 Now this relation, in the Catholic view, may be explained briefly as follows:現在,這一關係,在天主教會認為,原因可能是短暫如下:

Theories of conciliar and of papal infallibility do not logically stand or fall together, since in the Catholic view the co-operation and confirmation of the pope in his purely primatial capacity are necessary, according to the Divine constitution of the Church, for the ecumenicity and infallibility of a council.理論conciliar和教皇的絕對不符合邏輯的立場或下降一起,因為在天主教觀點的合作和確認教皇在他的純粹primatial能力是必要的,根據憲法神聖的教會,為ecumenicity和犯錯誤的一個委員會。 This has, de facto, been the formal test of ecumenicity; and it would be necessary even in the hypothesis that the pope himself were fallible.這事實上已經正式測試ecumenicity ;和有必要即使是在假設,即在教宗本人是犯錯誤。 An infallible organ may be constituted by the head and members of a corporate body acting jointly although neither taken separately is infallible.一個可靠的器官可能是由頭部和成員的法人團體聯合行動雖然既不是單獨採取萬無一失的。 Hence the pope teaching ex cathedra and an ecumenical council subject to the approbation of the pope as its head are distinct organs of infallibility.因此,教皇教學前教堂和基督教會受讚譽的教皇作為其頭部是不同的機關犯錯誤。

Hence, also, the Gallican contention is excluded, that an ecumenical council is superior, either in jurisdiction or in doctrinal authority, to a certainly legitimate pope, and that one may appeal from the latter to the former.因此,也有爭議的高盧聖被排除在外,一個基督教會是優越的,無論是在管轄範圍內或在理論上的權威,以合法的教皇肯定,並呼籲人們可以從後者前者。 Nor is this conclusion contradicted by the fact that, for the purpose of putting an end to the Great Western Schism and securing a certainly legitimate pope, the Council of Constance deposed John XXIII, whose election was considered doubtful, the other probably legitimate claimant, Gregory XII, having resigned.也不是這個結論矛盾的事實,目的是制止西部大分裂,並保證一定的合法教皇,安理會的康斯廢黜約翰二十三世,其選舉被認為是可疑的,其他可能的合法索賠,格雷戈里十二,辭去了。 This was what might be described as an extra-constitutional crisis; and, as the Church has a right in such circumstances to remove reasonable doubt and provide a pope whose claims would be indisputable, even an acephalous council, supported by the body of bishops throughout the world, was competent to meet this altogether exceptional emergency without thereby setting up a precedent that could be erected into a regular constitutional rule, as the Gallicans wrongly imagined.這就是可能被描述為一個額外的憲法危機; ,並教會有權利在這種情況下,消除合理懷疑,並提供一個教皇在其債權將是無可爭議的,甚至acephalous理事會的支持下,人體各地的主教世界上有能力滿足這種特殊的緊急情況完全不從而建立一個先例,可能是豎立成為一個經常性的憲法規則,作為Gallicans錯誤的想像。

A similar exceptional situation might arise were a pope to become a public heretic, ie, were he publicly and officially to teach some doctrine clearly opposed to what has been defined as de fide catholicâ.類似的特殊情況可能出現的是一個教皇成為公眾邪教,即是他公開正式傳授一些理論明確反對什麼被定義為德善意catholicâ 。 But in this case many theologians hoId that no formal sentence of deposition would be required, as, by becoming a public heretic, the pope would ipso facto cease to be pope. This, however, is a hypothetical case which has never actually occurred; even the case of Honorius, were it proved that he taught the Monothelite heresy, would not be a case in point.但是,在這種情況下,許多神學家hoId沒有正式一句沉積需要,因為成為一個公共邪教,教宗將事實上不再是教宗。然而,這是一個假設的案例從來沒有實際發生,甚至如何諾,被事實證明,他教Monothelite異端,不會是一個很好的例子。

IV.四。 SCOPE AND OBJECT OF INFALLIBILITY範圍和對象犯錯誤

1 In the Vatican definition infallibility (whether of fhe Church at large or of the pope) is affirmed only in regard to doctrines of faith or morals; but within the province of faith and morals its scope is not limited to doctrines that have been formally revealed. 1在梵蒂岡的定義犯錯誤(是否會fhe的大或教皇)是唯一肯定方面的理論的信仰或道德的需要;但在該省的信念和道德的範圍並不局限於理論,已正式披露。 This, however, is clearly understood to be what theologians call the direct and primary object of infallible authority: it was for the maintenance and interpretation and legitimate development of Christ's teaching that the Church was endowed with this charisma.然而,這顯然是理解是什麼神學要求的直接和主要對象的絕對權威:這是為維護和解釋,並合理發展基督的教學,教會被賦予了這一魅力。 But if this primary function is to be adequately and effectively discharged, it is clear that there must also be indirect and secondary objects to which infallibility extends, namely, doctrines and facts which, although they cannot strictly speaking be said to be revealed, are nevertheless so intimately connected with revealed truths that, were one free to deny the former, he would logically deny the latter and thus defeat the primary purpose for which infallibility was promised by Christ to His Church.但是,如果這一主要功能是要充分和有效地履行,很顯然,還必須有間接的和次要的物體而犯錯誤延伸,即理論和事實,雖然他們不能從嚴格意義上講應該說是發現,然而如此密切聯繫在一起揭示真理,是一個自由否認前,他將在邏輯上否定了後者,從而失敗的首要目的是保證絕對的基督,他教會。 This principle is expressly affrmed by the Vatican Council when it says that "the Church, which, together with the Apostolic office of teaching received the command to guard the deposit of faith, possesses also by Divine authority (divinitus) the right to condemn science falsely so called, lest anyone should be cheated by philosophy and vain conceit (cf. Colossians 2:8)" (Denz., 1798, old no. 1845).這一原則是明確affrmed由梵蒂岡會議時說, “教會,其中,連同使徒辦公室的教學收到了命令後衛存款的信心,也有神聖的權力( divinitus )的權利,譴責虛假科學所謂的,否則任何人都應該是被騙了哲學和徒勞的虛榮心(參見歌羅西書二時08 ) “ ( Denz. , 1798年,舊的沒有。 1845年) 。

2 Catholic theologians are agreed in recognising the general principle that has just been stated, but it cannot be said that they are equally unanimous in regard to the concrete applications of this principle.第2天主教神學家都同意在承認一般原則,即剛才所指出的,但不能說,他們也同樣一致方面的具體應用這一原則。 Yet it is generally held, and may be said to be theologically certain, (a) that what are technically described as "theological conclusions," ie inferences deduced from two premises, one of which is revealed and the other verified by reason, fall under the scope of the Church's infallible authority.然而,人們普遍舉行,可以說是某些神學, ( a )該有什麼技術上稱為“神學的結論, ”即推論推導出兩個前提,其中之一是發現和驗證了其他原因,屬於範圍教會的絕對權威。 (b) It is also generally held, and rightly, that questions of dogmatic fact, in regard to which definite certainty is required for the safe custody and interpretation of revealed truth, may be determined infallibly by the Church. (二)人們還普遍舉行,這是正確,即教條主義問題,事實上,這方面的明確肯定是需要的安全保管和解釋揭示真理,可確定infallibly教會。 Such questions, for example, would be: whether a certain pope is legitimate, or a certain council ecumenical, or whether objective heresy or error is taught in a certain book or other published document.這些問題,例如,將是:是否有某些教皇是合法的,或某個安理會基督教,還是客觀的異端邪說或錯誤教授在某本書或其他出版文件。 This last point in particular figured prominently in the Jansenist controversy, the heretics contending that, while the famous five propositions attributed to Jansenius were rightly condemned, they did not truly express the doctrine contained in his book "Augustinus".這最後一點尤其突出的Jansenist爭論,爭論的異端,雖然著名的五個命題歸因於Jansenius被正確地譴責,他們並沒有真正表達所載的理論在他的著作“奧古斯丁” 。 Clement XI, in condemning this subterfuge (see Denz., 1350, old no. 1317) merely reasserted the principle which had been followed by the fathers of Nicaea in condemning the "Thalia" of Arius, by the fathers of Ephesus in condemning the writings of Nestorius, and by the Second Council of Constantinople in condemning the Three Chapters.克萊門特十一,譴責這一花招(見Denz 。 , 1350 ,舊的沒有。 1319 )只是重申了這些原則已其次是父親尼西亞譴責“塔莉亞”的阿里烏斯,由父親以弗所譴責著作的聶斯脫裡,並由第二屆理事會君士坦丁堡譴責三個章節。 (c) It is also commonly and rightly held that the Church is infallible in the canonization of saints, that is to say, when canonization takes place according to the solemn process that has been followed since the ninth century. (三)它也經常和正確地認為,教會是絕對的封聖,這就是說,當封地按照莊嚴的進程,一直遵循自9世紀。 Mere beatification, however, as distinguished from canonization, is not held to be infallible, and in canonization itself the only fact that is infallibly determined is that the soul of the canonized saint departed in the state of grace and already enjoys the beatific vision.僅僅宣福然而,不同於封,是不是要舉行的萬無一失,並在封自己唯一的事實是infallibly確定的是,靈魂離開冊封聖在該州的寬限期,並且已經得到了幸福的遠景。 (d) As to moral precepts or laws as distinct from moral doctrine, infallibility goes no farther than to protect the Church against passing universal laws which in principle would be immoral. ( d )作為道德戒律或法律不同於道德學說,絕對不用任何超出,以保護教會的反對通過普遍的法律原則將是不道德的。 It would be out of place to speak of infallibility in connection the opportuneness or the administration of necessarily changing disciplinary laws although, of course, Catholics believe that the Church receives appropriate Divine guidance in this and in similar matters where practical spiritual wisdom is required.這將是不合時宜的,講方面犯錯誤的opportuneness或行政紀律處分一定變化規律,儘管當然,天主教徒認為,教會得到適當的指導神在這方面和在類似的問題在實際精神的智慧是必要的。

V. WHAT TEACHING IS INFALLIBLE?五,什麼是錯的教學?

A word or two under this head, summarizing what has been already explained in this and in other articles will suffice.一個字或兩本頭,總結什麼已經解釋了這一點,並在其他條款就足夠了。

As regards matter, only doctrines of faith and morals, and facts so intimately connected with these as to require infallible determination, fall under the scope of infallible ecclesiastical teaching.至於問題,只有理論的信念和道德,和事實,以便密切聯繫在一起,以這些要求萬無一失的決心,屬於範圍內不會錯教會教學。 These doctrines or facts need not necessarily be revealed; it is enough if the revealed deposit cannot be adequately and effectively guarded and explained, unless they are infallibly determined.這些理論或事實不一定透露,這是足夠的,如果發現存款不能得到充分和有效地保護和解釋,除非它們是infallibly確定。

As to the organ of authority by which such doctrines or facts are determined, three possible organs exist.至於機關的權威,這種理論或事實有決心,三種可能的機構存在。 One of these, the magisterium ordinarium, is liable to be somewhat indefinite in its pronouncements and, as a consequence, practically ineffective as an organ.其中,在magisterium ordinarium ,可有些無限期在其聲明和,因此,實際上無效的器官。 The other two, however, are adequately efficient organs, and when they definitively decide any question of faith or morals that may arise, no believer who pays due attention to Christ's promises can consistently refuse to assent with absolute and irrevocable certainty to their teaching.其他兩個然而,有足夠的有效的機關,當他們最終決定的任何問題或道德信念可能出現的,不相信誰付費應有的重視基督的一貫承諾,可以拒絕同意絕對的確定性和不可撤銷他們的教學。

But before being bound to give such an assent, the believer has a right to be certain that the teaching in question is definitive (since only definitive teaching is infallible); and the means by which the definitive intention, whether of a council or of the pope, may be recognized have been stated above. It need only be added here that not everything in a conciliar or papal pronouncement, in which some doctrine is defined, is to be treated as definitive and infallible.但在此之前必將給這樣的同意,對信徒有權利得到一定的教學中的問題是明確的(因為只有明確的教學是絕對) ;和手段,最終意圖,無論是議會或教皇,可確認已如上所述。它只需要在這裡說,並非所有在conciliar或教皇的言論,其中一些理論的定義,是被視為最終和萬無一失。 For example, in the lengthy Bull of Pius IX defining the Immaculate Conception the strictly definitive and infallible portion is comprised in a sentence or two; and the same is true in many cases in regard to conciliar decisions.例如,在漫長的車隊的庇護九界定聖母無染原罪堂嚴格的明確和可靠的組成部分是在一兩個句子;也是如此在許多情況下,就conciliar決定。 The merely argumentative and justificatory statements embodied in definitive judgments, however true and authoritative they may be, are not covered by the guarantee of infallibility which attaches to the strictly definitive sentences -- unless, indeed, their infallibility has been previously or subsequently established by an independent decision.議論的僅僅視為正當的陳述和體現在最終判決,但真正的和有權威的,他們可能是不適用的保障犯錯誤的重視嚴格明確的刑罰-除非確實,他們犯錯誤以前或以後成立的一個獨立的決定。

Publication information Written by PJ Toner. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.出版信息撰稿PJ墨粉。天主教百科全書,體積七。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat , 1910年6月1號。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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