Transliteration of Hebrew Letters in the Bible音譯希伯來字母的聖經

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As is well known, only the consonants were written in early Hebrew and, in general, the consonants are of more importance in carrying the meaning of a Hebrew word while the vowels are more significant in marking the form. There are twenty-two consonants (twenty-three if Sin and Shin are distinguished) and most of these have a parallel in the English alphabet. 眾所周知,只寫輔音早期希伯來文和,一般來說,輔音是更重要的意義進行了希伯來字的元音,而更重要的紀念形式。有22輔音( 23 ,如果單是申尊敬)和大多數這些有一個平行的英文字母。 The Hebrew letters Zayin, Lamed, Mem, Nun, Samekh, Qoph, Resh and Shin are easily represented as the English letters z, l, m, n, s, q, r, and sh.在希伯來字母Zayin , Lamed ,內存,尼姑, Samekh , Qoph , Resh和申很容易的代表英文字母則升,男,氮,硫,廠廠和上海。 See the transliteration table.見音譯就座。

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There are six Hebrew consonants whose pronunciation may be "hard" or "soft."有6個希伯來輔音的發音可能是“硬”或“軟” 。 These are the so-called Beghadh- Kephath letters, b, g, d, k, p, t: the Hebrew letters Beth, Gimel, Daleth, Kaph, Pe and Taw.這些都是所謂的Beghadh - Kephath信件,乙,克,天,鉀,磷,電話:希伯來字母的貝斯, Gimel , Daleth , Kaph , PE和托。 When written with a hardening dot in the middle, these letters are pronounced like their English equivalents.當寫有硬化點在中間,這些信件是顯著像他們的英語等同。 If there is a vowel sound before them (and if they are not doubled) they are pronounced differently, but mean exactly the same thing (ie they differ phonetically, but not phonemically).如果有健全的元音之前,他們(如果他們不增加一倍) ,他們都明顯不同,但意思完全一樣的東西(即不同的發音,但不是phonemically ) 。

Technically speaking, these six letters are stops, but they receive a fricative pronunciation, ie the point of articulation is not entirely closed, if a vowel sound precedes them.從技術上講,這6個字母的停止,但他們收到擦音發音,即點的發音並不完全封閉,如果一個健全的元音之前他們。 This variant pronunciation may be represented approximately as b/v, g/gh, d/th (as th in "that"), k/kh, p/f, and t/th (as th in "thin").這種變異的發音可派大約為桶/日五,克/生長激素,數/次(如次在“說” ) ,公里/鏈接,磷/女,和T /次(如次在“薄” ) 。 Some systems of transliteration represent this variation of these six stops.有些制度的音譯代表這種變化的這6個站。 But since it makes no difference at all in the meaning of the words, it has been judged better to represent all these letters always by their sound as stops - the "hard" pronunciation.但是,由於它沒有在所有差異中的含義,它已被認為能夠更好地代表所有這些信件一直由他們的聲音停止-“硬”的發音。 So Beth is always b; Gimel, g; Daleth, d; Kaph, k; Pe, p; and Taw, t.因此,貝絲始終是B組; Gimel ,克; Daleth , D節; Kaph ,鉀;體育,磷和托,噸 (In some systems of transliteration the soft pronunciation is represented thus, bh, gh, dh, kh, ph, th; in others it is b, g, d, k, p, and t.) (在某些系統的轉軟的發音是代表因此,波黑,生長激素,衛生署,鏈接, pH值,次;在另一些是B ,克,天,鉀,磷,和T. )

Two consonants are called emphatics.兩個輔音被稱為emphatics 。 Their ancient pronunciation is difficult to determine accurately, but the Teth is some kind of a "t" and the Tsadhe some kind of an "s."其古老的發音很難確定準確的,但一些Teth是一種“ T ”形和Tsadhe某種“條” They are represented as t and s respectively. (In some systems of transliteration the Tsadhe is written "ts".)他們派噸和s分別。 (在某些系統的Tsadhe直譯是書面“溫度” 。 )

Three more consonants have no equivalent in English. They are guttural sounds made in the larynx.三個輔音有沒有相應的英文。他們喉嚨的聲音在喉。 They are usually represented thus: 'Aleph by an apostrophe ('), and 'Ayin by a reverse apostrophe (`), and Heth by a h.他們通常代表為: '麻原彰晃的撇號( ' ) ,和' Ayin的反向單引號( ' ) ,並通過Heth小時 There is another kind of "h" used in Ugaritic, Arabic and Akkadian, not in Hebrew, which is made with the tongue not quite against the roof of the mouth (technically a voiceless palatal fricative).有另一種的“ H ”中使用的烏加里特文,阿拉伯文和阿卡德人,而不是在希伯來文,這是用舌頭不太對屋頂的嘴( 1無聲技術上腭擦音) 。 This is represented, when it occurs, by h.這是代表,當它發生時,閣下

A second "s" apparently was pronounced exactly like Samekh, "s," though it looks like Shin (having a dot over the left upper corner instead of the right).第二個“ S ”形顯然是明顯Samekh完全一樣, “硫, ”雖然看起來申(有一個點在左上角落,而不是右) 。 To distinguish this letter Sin from the Samekh we use an acute accent over the Sin, thus: s.為了區分黃大仙這封信從Samekh我們使用一種急性口音的罪惡,從而:第

The remaining three consonants, He, Waw, and Yodh are sometimes pronounced and sometimes silent, being used in conjunction with vowels.其餘三個輔音,他瓦烏,並Yodh有時明顯,有時沉默,被用來與元音。 When they are pronounced, their pronunciation is like that of their English equivalents. He, h; Waw, w; and Yodh, y.當他們宣布,他們的發音是一樣,他們的英語等同。他設;瓦烏,瓦特;和Yodh ,元 In some systems of transliteration the Waw is called Vav and pronounced "v" because of past German influence on Hebrew studies.在一些系統中的直譯的瓦烏被稱為變風量和明顯的“ V ” ,因為過去的德國的影響希伯來文的研究。 If, however, these letters are used as vowels, the long vowel resulting is always (and only then) marked with a circumflex accent ^.但是,如果這些信件被用作元音,長元音造成的始終是(只有這樣)標有迴旋口音^ 。 Examples will be given below.例如將給予如下。

All double consonants (those marked in Hebrew by a doubling dot in the middle of the letter) are simply written twice in the transliteration.所有雙輔音(這些標誌著由希伯來文翻一番點中的信)僅僅是書面兩次直譯。

The consonantal transliterations may be listed as follows: transliterations的consonantal可能會列出如下:

'Aleph , ' '麻原彰晃, '
Beth , b貝絲,乙
Gimel , g Gimel ,克
Daleth , d Daleth , d
He (pronounced hay) , h他(發音乾草)設
Waw , w瓦烏,瓦特
Zayin , z Zayin廠
Heth (or Het) , h Heth (或黑)設
Teth , t Teth ,噸
Yodh (or Yod) , y Yodh (或Yod )坐標
Kaph , k Kaph ,鉀
Lamedh , l Lamedh ,升
Mem , m內存,男
Nun (pronounced noon) , n尼姑(發音為12:00 ) ,正
Samekh , s Samekh氏
Ayin , ` Ayin , `
Pe (pronounced pay) , p體育(發音支付) ,磷
Tsadhe , s Tsadhe氏
Qoph (English q, but not qu), q Qoph (英文廠但不能曲)廠
Resh , r Resh河
Sin (pronounced seen) , s黃大仙(明顯看出) ,第S
Shin (pronounced sheen) , sh申(發音光澤) ,上海
Taw , t托,噸

There are thirteen full vowels in Hebrew and four half-vowels.有13充分元音希伯來文和4個半元音。 Another sign, which marks the end of a syllable (the silent shewa) has no sound and is not marked in the present system.另一個跡象,這標誌著結束了音節(沉默shewa )沒有健全的和未標示在本系統。 The transliterations of these vowels and also their pronunciation following the letter "m" are as follows:該transliterations這些元音和他們的發音還按照英文字母“ M ”型如下:

Pathah , a, ma as in man Pathah ,一個,馬在男子
Qames , a, ma as in ma Qames ,一個,馬中馬
Final Qames with vocalic He , a, ma as in ma最後Qames與母音的他,一個,馬中馬
Hiriq , i, mi as in pin Hiriq ,我在美銷
Hiriq with Yodh , i, mi as ee in seen Hiriq與Yodh ,我作為美中看到呀
Seghol , e, me as in met Seghol ,電子商務,我在開會
Sere , e, me as ay in may塞雷,電子商務,我在艾可
Sere with Yodh , e, me as ay in may塞雷與Yodh ,電子商務,我在艾可
Qames-Hatuph Qames - Hatuph
(in closed syllable) , o, mo as au in naught (在閉音節) ,鄰,模作為非盟在一事無成
Holem , o, mo as in mole Holem ,鄰,鉬在摩爾
Holem with Waw , o, mo in mole Holem與瓦烏,鄰,於鼴鼠模
Qibbus (short in closed syllable), u, mu oo in nook Qibbus (短期在閉音節) ,口萬畝對象的角落
Shureq (always with Waw) , u, mu as oo in fool Shureq (總是瓦烏) ,鈾,每畝為對象的傻瓜

Various other combinations of vowels and silent consonants are self-explanatory:其他各種組合,元音和輔音沉默不言自明:

Qames with final consonantal He, ah, mah Qames最後consonantal他啊,麻將
Qames with final vocalic 'Aleph, a', ma' Qames最後母音'麻原彰晃,一個'馬'
Sere with final vocalic He , eh, meh塞雷最後母音的他,嗯,苯
Seghol with final vocalic He , eh, meh Seghol最後母音的他,嗯,苯

The half-vowels are all pronounced virtually alike -- like "o" in Democrat:半元音都明顯幾乎都一樣-像“啊”的民主黨:

Shewa, e, me Shewa ,電子商務,我
Hateph-pathah, a, ma Hateph - pathah ,一個馬
Hateph-seghol, e, me Hateph - seghol ,電子商務,我
Hateph-qames, o, mo Hateph - qames ,鄰,模

For those less familiar with the use of Hebrew in transcription, a little attention to the above tables will make the visualization of the equivalent Hebrew letters easy.對於那些不太熟悉使用希伯來文中轉錄,有點注意上述表格將可視化相當於希伯來字母容易。 For those less familiar with the Hebrew characters, the use of transcription will make the word studies fully usable.對於那些不太熟悉的希伯來文字符,使用轉錄將使字的研究充分使用。

It may here be added that the transliteration is the same for Aramaic and similar for Arabic, Ugaritic, and Akkadian.它可能是在這裡說,直譯是一樣的阿拉姆語和類似的阿拉伯文,烏加里特文,並阿卡德人。 In Ugaritic and Arabic there are a few extra consonants: Ha, h for another kind of palatal "h" already mentioned; Ghain, g or g for another kind of Ayin; d and d for other kinds of "d"; z for another emphatic sibilant; and s often used for "sh."在烏加里特文和阿拉伯文有一些額外的輔音:哈,小時,另一種腭的“ H ”已經提到; Ghain , g或克的另一種Ayin ; D和D的其他種類的“ D ”類; ž另一強調sibilant ;和s常常被用於“上海。 ” The system found in LH Gray, Introduction to Semitic Comparative Linguistics (Columbia Univ., 1934) is followed.該系統發現的激素,格雷介紹猶太人比較語言學(哥倫比亞大學。 , 1934年)之後。

The asterisk preceding a verbal root indicates that although this root is quoted in the Qal form, it only appears in the derived stems, Piel, Hiphil, etc.前面的星號口頭根指出,儘管這根本是在引述堡形式,它只出現在衍生莖, Piel , Hiphil等

The dagger before a word indicates that this word is specifically treated in the discussions of meaning below.之前的匕首一個字表明,這個詞是專門治療的討論意義如下。

In Hebrew there is considerable freedom in writing the Holem with Waw (full writing) or without Waw (defective writing).在希伯來文有相當自由的書面Holem與瓦烏(全寫)或不瓦烏(缺陷書面) 。 The same applies to the Hiriq with or without the Yodh.這同樣適用於Hiriq或不Yodh 。 In most cases, both forms are given and are alphabetized accordingly in two different places. Sometimes, however, if the variant spelling is quite minor it may have been overlooked.在大多數情況下,兩種形式,並給出相應的alphabetized在兩個不同的地方。有時,但是,如果變異拼寫是相當輕微的,可能已被忽視。 So if, for instance, ___ hor is not found under Heth, Waw and Yodh, it would be advisable to look under ___ hor where it does appear. Remember always that to find a word in the Hebrew alphabetization that has been transcribed into English, it is necessary to consider only the consonants, but this includes the vowel letters which are indicated by the circumflex.所以,如果舉例來說, ___激素找不到下Heth ,瓦烏和Yodh ,最好是尋找下___激素而沒有出現。永遠記住,要找到一個詞在希伯萊語字母已被轉錄成英文,有必要考慮只有輔音,但是這包括元音字母是所指出的迴旋。 Thus, megora, mentioned above, would be alphabetized under Mem "m", Gimel "g", Waw "w", Resh "r", and He "h."因此, megora ,如上所述,將根據內存alphabetized “男” , Gimel “克” ,瓦烏“瓦特” , Resh “ r ”開始,和他“閣下”

In cases where there is a difference in the Hebrew text between the written consonants (the Kethib) and the vowels attached (the Qere), both forms are not always noted, but an effort has been made to list one or the other reading.如果是有區別的希伯來文之間的書面輔音(該Kethib )和元音附後(在Qere ) ,這兩種形式並不總是注意到,但已作出努力,以清單一方或另一方讀。


Also, see:此外,見:
Romanized Bible Text 拼音聖經文本
Literal Translation 直譯
Septuagint and early Manuscripts 七十和早期手稿
Translating the Bible 翻譯聖經
A Thorough Presentation of Jewish Genesis 1 text 徹底猶太介紹文字起源-1

This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


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