Gnosticism諾斯替主義

General Information 一般信息

Gnosticism was a religious philosophical dualism that professed salvation through secret knowledge, or gnosis. The movement reached a high point of development during the 2d century AD in the Roman and Alexandrian schools founded by Valentius.諾斯替主義是一個宗教哲學的二元論宣稱救贖通過秘密的知識,或直覺。運動達到一個高點的發展在公元2世紀的羅馬和亞歷山大創立的學校Valentius 。 Scholars have attributed the origins of gnosticism to a number of sources: the Greek mystery cults; Zoroastrianism; the Kabbalah of Judaism; and Egyptian religion.學者們認為,起源諾斯替主義的一些資料來源:希臘神秘的邪教;拜火教;的卡巴拉猶太教;和埃及的宗教。 The early Christians considered Simon Magus (Acts 8:9 - 24) the founder of gnosticism. His doctrine, like that of other gnostic teachers, had nothing in common with the knowledge of the mysteries of God that Saint Paul called wisdom (1 Cor. 2:7).早期的基督徒認為西蒙賢者(使徒8時09分-2 4)的創始人諾斯替主義。他的學說一樣,其他諾斯底教師,沒有什麼共同的知識的奧秘上帝,聖保羅所謂的智慧( 1肺心病。 2點07分) 。

Christian leaders looked upon gnosticism as a subtle, dangerous threat to Christianity during the 2d century, a time marked by religious aspirations and philosophical preoccupations about the origins of life, the source of evil in the world, and the nature of a transcendent deity. Gnosticism was perceived as an attempt to transform Christianity into a religious philosophy and to replace faith in the mysteries of revelation by philosophical explanations.基督教領袖呼籲諾斯替主義看作為一個微妙的,危險的威脅,基督教在2世紀,當時的宗教標誌的願望和哲學關注的有關生命起源的來源,罪惡的世界,和性質超越的神。諾斯替主義被視為企圖把基督教變成一個宗教哲學,以取代信仰的奧秘啟示的哲學解釋。

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The gnostic sects set forth their teachings in complex systems of thought.諾斯底教派的闡述他們的教誨在複雜系統的思想。 Characteristic of their position was the doctrine that all material reality is evil.特徵是其立場的理論,所有物質的現實是邪惡。 One of their central convictions was that salvation is achieved by freeing the spirit from its imprisonment in matter. Elaborate explanations were given on how this imprisonment came to be and how the deliverance of the soul was to be accomplished.他們的一個核心信念是,救恩是解放所取得的精神從監禁問題。擬訂給予解釋就如何實現這一監禁後來被以及如何解脫的靈魂是要完成。 The transcendent God was removed from all matter by a succession of intermediary eternal beings called aeons.在至高無上的上帝是從所有事項的繼承的中介被稱為永恆的aeons 。 The aeons emanated as couples (male and female); the complete series (usually 30) constituted the Pleroma, the fullness of the Godhead. aeons產生的夫婦(男性和女性) ;完整的系列(通常是30 )構成了Pleroma的豐滿的神體。 Beyond the Pleroma were the material universe and human beings to be saved.除了Pleroma的物質宇宙和人類得到挽救。

In gnostic thought, a divine seed was imprisoned in every person.在諾斯底思想,神聖的種子被關押在每個人。 The purpose of salvation was to deliver this divine seed from the matter in which it was lost.的目的是為了拯救這個神聖的提供種子的問題,其中丟失。 Gnostics classified people according to three categories: (1) gnostics, or those certain of salvation, because they were under the influence of the spirit (pneumatikoi); (2) those not fully gnostics, but capable of salvation through knowledge (psychikoi); and (3) those so dominated by matter that they were beyond salvation (hylikoi). Gnostics歸類人民根據三類: ( 1 ) gnostics ,或某些拯救,因為他們的影響下,精神( pneumatikoi ) ; ( 2 )那些沒有充分gnostics ,但能夠通過知識得救( psychikoi ) ; ( 3 )這些所謂的問題為主的,他們除了拯救( hylikoi ) 。 Gnostics often practiced excessive asceticism, because they believed that they were thus liberated by the spirit. Gnostics經常練習過度禁慾主義,因為他們認為他們解放了這樣的精神。

Gnosticism was denounced by the Christian theologians Irenaeus, Hippolytus, and Tertullian.諾斯替主義是譴責基督教神學依,西波呂,並良。 In the 3d century, Clement of Alexandria attempted to formulate an orthodox Christian gnosticism to explain the difference in perfection attained by individuals in their response to the gospel. Gnosticism gradually merged with Manichaeism. Today, the Mandeans are the only surviving sect of Gnostics.在3D的世紀,克萊門特亞歷山大試圖制定一項正統基督教解釋諾斯替主義的差異達到完美的個人在其回應福音。 諾斯替主義逐步合併摩尼教。今天, Mandeans是唯一倖存的Gnostics節。 The research of scholars has been greatly enhanced since 1945, when a Coptic gnostic library was discovered near Nag Hammadi (Nag Hammadi Papyri), in upper Egypt.這項研究的學者已大大加強自1945年以來,當一個科普特諾斯底庫附近被發現的拿哈瑪地(拿哈瑪地紙莎草紙) ,在上埃及。

Agnes Cunningham艾格尼絲坎寧安

Bibliography 目錄
G Filoramo, Gnosticism (1990); RM Grant, Gnosticism and Early Christianity (1966); H Jonas, The Gnostic Religion (1963); J Lacarriere, The Gnostics (1977); E Pagels, The Gnostic Gospels (1981); JM Robinson, The Nag Hammadi Library (1977). G Filoramo ,諾斯替主義( 1990年) ;產品格蘭特,諾斯替主義和早期基督教( 1966 ) ; H文,在諾斯底宗教( 1963年) ; J Lacarriere ,該Gnostics ( 1977年) ;電子郵件Pagels ,在諾斯底福音( 1981年) ; JM羅賓遜,該拿哈瑪地圖書館( 1977年) 。


Gnosticism諾斯替主義

General Information 一般信息

Introduction導言

Gnosticism is an esoteric religious movement that flourished during the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD and presented a major challenge to orthodox Christianity.諾斯替主義是一個深奧的宗教運動在蓬勃發展的第2和第3世紀和公元提出了一個重大的挑戰正統基督教。 Most Gnostic sects professed Christianity, but their beliefs sharply diverged from those of the majority of Christians in the early church.大多數諾斯底教派宣稱基督教,但他們的信仰大幅偏離大多數人的基督教徒在早期教堂。 The term Gnosticism is derived from the Greek word gnosis ("revealed knowledge").諾斯替主義的任期是來自希臘字預後( “發現知識” ) 。 To its adherents, Gnosticism promised a secret knowledge of the divine realm.其追隨者,諾斯替主義答應一個秘密知識的神聖境界。 Sparks or seeds of the Divine Being fell from this transcendent realm into the material universe, which is wholly evil, and were imprisoned in human bodies.火花或種子的神從這個至高無上的境界到宇宙的物質,這完全是邪惡的,和被囚禁在人類屍體。 Reawakened by knowledge, the divine element in humanity can return to its proper home in the transcendent spiritual realm.重新喚起了知識,神聖的元素人類能夠回到正確的家中是至高無上的精神境界。

Mythology神話

To explain the origin of the material universe, the Gnostics developed a complicated mythology.為了解釋起源的物質宇宙, Gnostics制定了一個複雜的神話。 From the original unknowable God, a series of lesser divinities was generated by emanation.從原來的不可知的上帝,一系列較小的神是由氣。 The last of these, Sophia ("wisdom"), conceived a desire to know the unknowable Supreme Being.在過去的這些,索菲亞( “智慧” ) ,構思希望了解不可知的最高存在。 Out of this illegitimate desire was produced a deformed, evil god, or demiurge, who created the universe.在這個非法的願望產生了變形,邪惡之神,或demiurge ,誰創造了宇宙。 The divine sparks that dwell in humanity fell into this universe or else were sent there by the supreme God in order to redeem humanity.神聖的火花,這在人類居住落入這個宇宙或者被送往那裡的最高神,以贖回人類。 The Gnostics identified the evil god with the God of the Old Testament, which they interpreted as an account of this god's efforts to keep humanity immersed in ignorance and the material world and to punish their attempts to acquire knowledge. Gnostics確定的邪惡之神與神的舊約,他們解釋為到這一上帝的努力,使人類沉浸在無知和物質世界和懲罰他們企圖獲取知識。 It was in this light that they understood the expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise, the flood, and the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah.正是在這種情況下,他們理解驅逐亞當和夏娃從天堂,洪水,並破壞所多瑪和蛾摩拉。

Gnosticism and Christianity諾斯替主義與基督教

Although most Gnostics considered themselves Christians, some sects assimilated only minor Christian elements into a body of non-Christian Gnostic texts. The Christian Gnostics refused to identify the God of the New Testament, the father of Jesus, with the God of the Old Testament, and they developed an unorthodox interpretation of Jesus' ministry. 雖然大多數Gnostics認為自己是基督徒,一些教派吸收只有輕微的基督教內容納入一個機構的非基督教諾斯底文本。基督教Gnostics拒絕確定上帝的新約,父親耶穌與上帝的舊約他們制定了一個非正統的解釋耶穌的省。 The Gnostics wrote apocryphal Gospels (such as the Gospel of Thomas and the Gospel of Mary) to substantiate their claim that the risen Jesus told his disciples the true, Gnostic interpretation of his teachings: Christ, the divine spirit, inhabited the body of the man Jesus and did not die on the cross but ascended to the divine realm from which he had come.該Gnostics寫道未經福音(如福音托馬斯和福音瑪麗) ,以證實其聲稱耶穌復活的告訴他的弟子真,諾斯底解釋他的教導:基督神聖的精神,居住在機構的男子耶穌並沒有死在十字架上,但登上神聖的境界,他從已經成熟。 The Gnostics thus rejected the atoning suffering and death of Christ and the resurrection of the body.該Gnostics從而駁回了贖罪的痛苦和死亡的基督和復活的屍體。 They also rejected other literal and traditional interpretations of the Gospels.他們還拒絕了其他文字和傳統的解釋福音。

Rites禮記

Some Gnostic sects rejected all sacraments; others observed baptism and the Eucharist, interpreting them as signs of the awakening of gnosis.一些諾斯底教派拒絕了所有聖禮;其他觀察洗禮和聖體,解釋他們的跡象覺醒的直覺。 Other Gnostic rites were intended to facilitate the ascent of the divine element of the human soul to the spiritual realm.其他諾斯底儀式的目的是要促進登上神聖的因素,人類靈魂的精神境界。 Hymns and magic formulas were recited to help achieve a vision of God; other formulas were recited at death to ward off the demons who might capture the ascending spirit and imprison it again in a body.讚美詩和神奇的公式背誦,以幫助實現理想的上帝;其他公式背誦死亡抵擋惡魔誰可能捕捉升序精神和監禁再次在一個機構。 In the Valentinian sect (followers of Valentinus, a Gnostic teacher of the early 2nd century AD), a special rite, called the bridal chamber, celebrated the reunion of the lost spirit with its heavenly counterpart.在瓦倫蒂安節(追隨者瓦倫廷,一個諾斯底教師早日公元二世紀) ,一個特殊的儀式,稱為洞房,慶祝團圓的精神,失去了其神聖的對應。

Ethics倫理

The ethical teachings of the Gnostics ranged from asceticism to libertinism.道德教誨的Gnostics從禁慾主義,以放蕩。 The doctrine that the body and the material world are evil led some sects to renounce even marriage and procreation. Other Gnostics held that because their souls were completely alien to this world, it did not matter what they did in it.該學說認為身體和物質世界是邪惡的,有些教派甚至放棄婚姻和生育。其他Gnostics舉行,因為他們的靈魂是完全陌生的世界,但它並沒有什麼問題,他們沒有在它。 Gnostics generally rejected the moral commandments of the Old Testament, regarding them as part of the evil god's effort to entrap humanity. Gnostics普遍反對道德誡命舊約,關於他們的一部分,邪惡之神的努力,坑害人類。

Sources來源

Much scholarly knowledge of Gnosticism comes from anti-Gnostic Christian texts of the 2nd and 3rd centuries, which provide the only extensive quotations in the Greek of the original Gnostic texts.許多學術知識的諾斯替主義來自反諾斯底基督教文本的第2和第3世紀,提供了廣泛的報價只有在希臘的原始諾斯底文本。 Most surviving Gnostic texts are in Coptic, into which they had been translated when Gnosticism spread to Egypt in the late 2nd and the 3rd centuries.大部分倖存的諾斯底文本在科普特人,到他們已經被翻譯時,諾斯替主義蔓延到埃及已故的第2和第3世紀。 In 1945 an Egyptian peasant found 12 codices containing more than 50 Coptic Gnostic writings near Naj'?ammâdî.在1945年埃及工農codices發現12個含有超過50科普特諾斯底附近的著作Naj ' ? ammâdî 。 It has been determined that these codices were copied in the 4th century in the monasteries of the region.它已被確定,這些codices被複製的4世紀的寺院地區。 It is not known whether the monks were Gnostics, or were attracted by the ascetic nature of the writings, or had assembled the writings as a study in heresy.目前還不清楚是否僧侶被Gnostics ,或所吸引苦行性質的著作,或組裝的著作作為研究的異端邪說。

History歷史

Gnostic texts reveal nothing about the history of the various sects or about the lives of their most prominent teachers.諾斯底案文沒有透露有關的歷史,各教派,或對生活的最突出的教師。 Consequently, the history of the movement must be inferred from the traditions reflected in the texts and from anti-Gnostic writings.因此,歷史的運動必須推定的傳統體現在文本和反諾斯底著作。 The question of whether Gnosticism first developed as a distinct non-Christian doctrine has not been resolved, but pagan Gnostic sects did exist. Gnostic mythology may have been derived from Jewish sectarian speculation centered in Syria and Palestine during the late 1st century AD, which in turn was probably influenced by Persian dualistic religions (see Mithraism; Zoroastrianism).是否第一次諾斯替主義發達國家作為一個獨特的非基督教學說一直沒有解決,但異教諾斯底教派確實存在。諾斯底神話可能已被來自猶太宗派猜測集中在敘利亞和巴勒斯坦後期公元1世紀,在反過來可能是受波斯二元宗教(見Mithraism ;拜火教) 。 By the 2nd century, Christian Gnostic teachers had synthesized this mythology with Platonic metaphysical speculation and with certain heretical Christian traditions.到2世紀,基督教諾斯底教師這個神話的合成與柏拉圖形而上學的投機活動和某些邪教基督教傳統。 The most prominent Christian Gnostics were Valentinus and his disciple Ptolemaeus, who during the 2nd century were influential in the Roman church.最突出的是基督教Gnostics瓦倫廷和他的弟子Ptolemaeus ,誰在第二世紀有影響力的羅馬教會。 Christian Gnostics, while continuing to participate in the larger Christian community, apparently also gathered in small groups to follow their secret teachings and rituals.基督教Gnostics ,同時繼續參與大基督教社區,顯然也聚集在小團體按照其秘密的教義和儀式。

During the 2nd century another strain of Gnosticism emerged in eastern Syria, stressing an ascetic interpretation of Jesus' teachings.在2世紀另一株諾斯替主義東部出現了敘利亞,並強調了解釋苦修耶穌的教義。 Later in the century Gnosticism appeared in Egypt, and the emergence of monasticism there may be linked with the influence of the Syrian ascetic sects.後來在新的世紀諾斯替主義出現在埃及,並出現了修道可能存在與影響的敘利亞禁慾主義教派。

By the 3rd century Gnosticism began to succumb to orthodox Christian opposition and persecution.到3世紀諾斯替主義開始屈從於正統基督教反對派和迫害。 Partly in reaction to the Gnostic heresy, the church strengthened its organization by centralizing authority in the office of bishop, which made its effort to suppress the poorly organized Gnostics more effective. Furthermore, as orthodox Christian theology and philosophy developed, the primarily mythological Gnostic teachings began to seem bizarre and crude.部分反應諾斯底異端,教會加強了其組織的權力集中在辦公室裡的主教,這使得其努力制止有組織Gnostics很差更加有效。此外,作為正統基督教神學和哲學的發展,主要是希臘神話中的諾斯底教義開始似乎離奇和原油。 Both Christian theologians and the 3rd-century Neoplatonist philosopher Plotinus attacked the Gnostic view that the material world is essentially evil.這兩個基督教神學家和3世紀的哲學家普羅提諾Neoplatonist攻擊諾斯底認為,物質世界基本上是邪惡。 Christians defended their identification of the God of the New Testament with the God of Judaism and their belief that the New Testament is the only true revealed knowledge.基督徒捍衛自己的身份上帝的新約聖經與上帝的猶太教和他們認為新約是唯一真正揭示知識。 The development of Christian mysticism and asceticism satisfied some of the impulses that had produced Gnosticism, and many Gnostics were converted to orthodox beliefs.發展基督教神秘主義和禁慾主義滿意一些衝動產生了諾斯替主義,許多Gnostics轉化為正統的信仰。 By the end of the 3rd century Gnosticism as a distinct movement seems to have largely disappeared.到了3世紀諾斯替主義作為一個獨特的運動似乎已經基本上消失了。

Survivals生存率

One small non-Christian Gnostic sect, the Mandaeans, still exists in Iraq and Iran, although it is not certain that it began as part of the original Gnostic movement.一個小非基督教諾斯底教派的曼德安,仍然存在於伊拉克和伊朗,但不能肯定它開始的一部分,原來的諾斯底運動。 Although the ancient sects did not survive, aspects of the Gnostic world view have periodically reappeared in many forms: the ancient dualistic religion called Manichaeism and the related medieval heresies of the Albigenses, Bogomils, and Paulicians; the medieval Jewish mystical philosophy known as Cabala (Kaballah); the metaphysical speculation surrounding the alchemy of the Renaissance; 19th-century theosophy; 20th-century existentialism and nihilism; and the writings of the 20th-century Swiss psychologist Carl Jung.雖然古老的教派沒有生存方面的諾斯底的世界觀有定期重新出現在許多形式:古老的宗教所謂的二元摩尼教和有關中世紀的異端邪說的Albigenses , Bogomils ,並Paulicians ;中世紀猶太神秘哲學稱為Cabala ( Kaballah ) ;形而上的猜測圍繞著煉金術文藝復興; 19世紀的神智學; 20世紀的生存和虛無主義;和著作20世紀的瑞士心理學家榮格。 The essence of Gnosticism has proved very durable: the view that the inner spirit of humanity must be liberated from a world that is basically deceptive, oppressive, and evil.的本質諾斯替主義已證明是非常持久的:認為內在精神的人類必須擺脫的世界基本上是欺騙,壓迫,和邪惡。

Pheme Perkins學者培金司


Gnosticism諾斯替主義

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Prior to the first half of the twentieth century such early heresiologists (defenders of Christianity against heresy) as Irenaeus, Tertullian, Hippolytus, and Epiphanius were our principal sources of information concerning the Gnostics.之前的第一個二十世紀下半葉,例如早期heresiologists (捍衛基督教反對邪教)為依,良,西波呂,並埃皮法尼烏斯是我們的主要信息來源的有關Gnostics 。 These heresiologists were scathing in their denunciations of the Gnostics, who were perceived as leading Christians astray by the manipulation of words and the twisting of scriptural meanings.這些heresiologists了嚴厲的譴責的Gnostics ,誰被視為領導的基督信徒誤入歧途的操縱之詞和歪曲聖經的意義。 Of particular interest to Gnostic interpreters were the stories of Genesis, the Gospel of John, and the epistles of Paul.特別感興趣的諾斯底口譯員的故事起源,在約翰福音和保羅書信。 They used the biblical texts for their own purposes.他們用聖經文本,以供他們自己的目的。 Indeed, Gnostics such as Heracleon and Ptolemaeus were the first commentators on the Fourth Gospel.事實上, Gnostics如Heracleon和Ptolemaeus是第一個評論家第四福音。 But Irenaeus likens such interpretations to someone who takes apart a beautiful picture of a king and reassembles it into a picture of a fox (Adversus Haereses 1.8.1).但依把這種解釋的人誰需要除了美麗的圖片國王和重新組合成圖片的狐狸( Adversus Haereses 1.8.1 ) 。

The heresiologists regarded Gnosticism as the product of the combination of Greek philosophy and Christianity.該heresiologists認為諾斯替主義產品相結合的古希臘哲學和基督教。 For instance, after detailing the Gnostic heretics, Tertullian announces: "What indeed has Athens to do with Jerusalem? What concord is there between the Academy and the Church? What between heretics and Christians? Away with all attempts to produce a mottled Christianity of Stoic, Platonic, and dialectic composition" (On Prescription Against Heretics 7).例如,在詳細介紹了諾斯底異端,良宣布: “什麼確實有雅典與耶路撒冷什麼是和諧之間的有中國科學院和教會有什麼關係異教徒和基督教徒?客場同一切企圖產生一個斑駁的基督教斯多葛,柏拉圖,和辯證的成分“ (處方反對異端7 ) 。 The heresiologists' view concerning Gnosticism was generally regarded as acceptable even at the end of the nineteenth century, when Adolf Harnack defined Gnosticism as the "acute secularizing of Christianity."該heresiologists認為有關諾斯替主義是通常被視為可以接受的甚至在十九世紀末,當阿道夫哈納克諾斯替主義界定為“急性世俗的基督教。 ”

The history of religions school, of which Hans Jonas is a contemporary exponent, has challenged this definition.歷史上的宗教學校,其中漢斯•約納斯是當代指數,質疑這個定義。 According to Jonas, Gnosticism is a general religious phenomenon of the hellenistic world and is the product of the fusion or Greek culture and Oriental religion.據喬納斯,諾斯替主義是一般的宗教現象的希臘世界,是產品的融合或希臘文化和東方宗教。 The "Greek conceptualization" of Eastern religious traditions, ie, Jewish monotheism, Babylonian astrology, and Iranian dualism, is viewed as the basis for Gnosticism.在“希臘概念化”的東方宗教傳統,即猶太一神教,巴比倫占星術,以及伊朗的二元論,被認為是諾斯替主義的基礎。 While RM Wilson and RM Grant reject such a broad definition and affirm instead a primary basis in hellenistic Judaism or Jewish apocalyptic, the advantage of Jonas's view is that it recognizes the broad spectrum within Gnosticism.雖然產品威爾遜和產品格蘭特拒絕這種寬泛的定義,並申明不是一個主要依據古希臘猶太教或猶太世界末日,優勢喬納斯的觀點是,它承認了範圍廣泛的諾斯替主義。 The weakness is that the definition encompasses almost everything within the concept of hellenistic religions.的弱點是,這一定義包括幾乎所有的概念,希臘的宗教。

The breadth of Gnostic orientations, however, has been confirmed by the discovery of a Gnostic library at Nag Hammadi in Egypt.在諾斯底廣度的方向,然而,已證實發現了諾斯底圖書館拿哈瑪地在埃及。 In the thirteen ancient codices are included fifty two tractates are of various types and orientations.在古代codices 13包括52 tractates是不同類型和方向。 A large number clearly present a Christian Gnostic perspective, the most familiar being the three so - called Valentinian gospels: the Gospel of Thomas (composed of a series of brief sayings of Jesus), the Gospel of Philip (a collection of sayings, metaphors, and esoteric arguments), and the Gospel of Truth (a discourse on deity and unity reminiscent of the language of the Fourth Gospel but definitely bent in the direction of Gnostic mythology and possibly related to the Gospel of Truth by Valentinus noted in Irenaeus).一大批明確提出了基督教諾斯底的角度看,最熟悉的三個正在做-所謂瓦倫蒂安福音:福音托馬斯(由一系列簡短的名言耶穌) ,福音菲利普(收集諺語,隱喻,和深奧的論點) ,以及福音的真理(一論述神和團結想起了語言的第四次福音,但肯定彎曲的方向諾斯底神話,並可能涉及到的福音真理的瓦倫廷指出,依) 。 Also among the Christian Gnostic tractates are the Apocryphon of James, the Acts of Peter and the Twelve Apostles, the Treatise on the Resurrection, the long collection known as the Tripartite Tractate, and three editions of the Apocryphon of John (the fascinating story of creation which involves a reinterpretation of the Genesis accounts).還包括基督教諾斯底tractates是Apocryphon詹姆斯的行為彼得和十二門徒,傷寒論的復活,長期收集稱為三方短文,以及三個版本的Apocryphon約翰(迷人的故事創作其中涉及重新成因帳戶) 。

But not all the tractates reveal a pseudo - Christian orientation. The Paraphrase of Shem seems to reflect a Jewish Gnostic perspective. The Discourse on the Eighth and the Ninth is patently a Hermetic treatise.但是,並非所有的tractates揭示了偽-基督教的方向。釋義中的閃似乎反映了一個猶太諾斯底的觀點。話語的第八屆和第九屆顯然是全封閉的論文。 The longest tractate in the library (132 pages) bears the designation Zostrianos and purports to be from Zoroaster.最長的短文在圖書館( 132頁)熊指定Zostrianos和看來是從Zoroaster 。 One of the interesting features of this library is the presence of two editions of Eugnostos the Blessed, which seems to be a non - Christian philosophic document which has apparently been "Christianized" in a redacted tractate called the Sophia of Jesus Christ.一個有趣的特點,這個圖書館是存在兩個版本的Eugnostos的祝福,這似乎是一個非-基督教哲學的文件,它顯然已經被“ C hristianized”的編輯短文稱為索菲亞耶穌基督。 Finally, the presence of a segment from Plato's Republic among these documents gives further witness to the syncretistic nature of Gnostic thinking.最後,在場的一個部分從柏拉圖的共和國之間的這些文件提供了進一步的見證融性質的諾斯底思想。 As a result of Gnostic borrowing, readers will sense a certain fluidity in the Gnostic designations.由於諾斯底借款,讀者會感覺有一定的流動性在諾斯底稱號。

Types of Gnosticism類型的諾斯替主義

Despite a fluidity within Gnosticism, however, Jonas identifies two basic patterns or structures of Gnostic thought. Both are mythological structures which seek to explain the problem of evil in terms of its relationship to the process of creation.儘管在諾斯替主義的流動性,但喬納斯確定了兩個基本模式或結構的諾斯底思想。都是神話結構,尋求解釋的問題,邪惡的關係方面的進程創造。

Iranian伊朗

This branch of Gnosticism developed in Mesopotamia and reflects a horizontal dualism associated with Zoroastrian worship and is epitomized in its later Gnostic form of Manichaeism.這分行諾斯替主義發達國家在美索不達米亞,反映了二元橫向聯繫拜火教崇拜和集中體現在其後來諾斯底形式的摩尼教。 In this pattern light and darkness, the two primal principles or deities, are locked in a decisive struggle.在這種格局光明與黑暗,原始的兩個原則或神,被鎖在一個決定性的鬥爭。 This struggle has been positionalized by the fact that, since light transcends itself and shines beyond its own realm, light particles were subjected to capture by its jealous enemy, darkness.這場鬥爭一直positionalized的事實,就是自輕超越本身和光芒超越自己的境界,輕粒子受到捕捉其嫉妒的敵人,黑暗。 In order to launch a counterattack and recapture its lost particles, therefore, light gives birth to (or "emanates") a series of subordinate deities that are emanated for the purpose of doing battle.為了發動反擊並奪回其失去的粒子,因此,鑑於生(或“產生” )的一系列服從神的產生,目的是做鬥爭。 In defense, darkness likewise sets in motion a comparable birthing of subdeities and arranges for the entombment of the light particles in a created world.在國防,黑暗中也規定動作可比分娩的subdeities和安排塚光粒子在創造世界。 This cosmic realm becomes the sphere of combat for the protagonists.這成為宇宙境界領域的鬥爭的主角。 The object of the struggle is the winning of the human beings who bear the light particles and the effecting of their release from the prison of this world so that they may reenter the sphere of heavenly light.該物體的鬥爭是獲獎的人誰負擔輕粒子和影響其釋放從監獄這個世界,使他們可以重新領域的天堂輕。

Syrian敘利亞

This type arose in the area of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt and reflects a much more complex vertical dualism.這種類型出現在該地區的敘利亞,巴勒斯坦,埃及和反映了更為複雜的垂直二元。 In this system the ultimate principle is good, and the task of the Gnostic thinkers is to explain how evil emerged from the singular principle of good.在這個體系中,最終的原則是好的,任務的諾斯底思想家是解釋如何擺脫邪惡的奇異原則很好。 The method employed is the identification of some deficiency or error in the good.採用的方法是確定一些不足或錯誤的好。

The Valentinian solution to the problem of evil is that the good god (the ultimate depth) with his consort (silence) initiates the birthing process of (or "emanates") a series of paired deities.該瓦倫蒂安解決問題的辦法是邪惡的良好神(最終深度)與他的配偶(沉默)啟動分娩過程中(或“產生” )的一系列配對神。 The last of the subordinate deities (usually designated as Sophia, wisdom) is unhappy with her consort and desires, instead, a relationship with the ultimate depth.在過去的從屬神(通常指定為索菲亞,智慧)的不滿,她勾勾搭搭和願望,而是一種關係,最終引向深入。 This desire is unacceptable in the godhead and is extracted from Sophia and excluded from the heavenly realm (pleroma).這種願望是不能接受的神格,是提取索菲亞和排除在天上的境界( pleroma ) 。 While Sophia is thus rescued from her lust, the godhead has lost a portion of its divine nature.雖然索菲亞因此獲救慾望從她的神格已經失去了一部份的神性。 The goal, therefore, is the recovery of the fallen light.的目標,因此,恢復下降輕。

But the excluded desire (or lower Sophia) is unaware of its fallen nature, and depending on the various accounts, either it or its offspring, the Creator, begins a "demiurgical" or birthing process which partially mirrors the "emanating" process in the pleroma and ultimately results in the creation of the world.但是,被排除在外的願望(或更低索菲亞)不知道其下跌的性質,並根據不同帳戶,或者它或它的後代,造物主,開始了“ demiurgical ”或分娩過程中,部分反映了“產生”的過程中pleroma ,最終的結果是設立世界。 The upper godhead (pleroma) by its divine messenger (often called Christ or the Holy Spirit) tricks the Creator - Demiurge into breathing into man the breath of life, and thus the light particles are passed to a light man.上層神格( pleroma )由神的使者(通常稱為基督或聖靈)技巧造物主-造物主把呼吸到人的呼吸的生活,因此,輕粒子傳遞到輕的人。 The defense strategy of the lower godhead (realm of the Demiurge) is that the lightman is entombed in a body of death which, under the direction of the Demiurge, has been formed by its pseudosubdeities, also known as "the fates" or identified with the realm of the planets.在國防戰略較低神格(境界的造物主)的是, 5600是在掩埋屍體的死亡,根據方向的造物主,已經形成由pseudosubdeities ,也被稱為“命運”或確定境界的行星。

The Garden of Eden story is then transformed so that the biblical tree of the knowledge of good and evil becomes a vehicle of knowledge (gnosis) established by the heavenly or pleromatic realm. But the tree of life becomes a vehicle of bondage and dependence established by the demiurgical realm.伊甸園的故事,然後轉化,使聖經樹的知識善惡成為汽車知識(直覺)設立的天堂或pleromatic境界。但生命之樹變成載體的束縛和依賴設立在demiurgical境界。 The divine messenger from the pleroma encourages man to eat from the tree of knowledge; and in so eating, man discovers that the jealous Creator - Demiurge (often linked with misspelled forms of Yahweh such as Yaldabaoth or Yao) is not in fact the ultimate God but really an enemy of God.神聖的使者從pleroma鼓勵男人從吃樹的知識;並在這樣吃,發現男子的嫉妒造物主-造物主(往往與拼寫形式的耶和華如Y aldabaoth或姚明)事實上並非最終的上帝但真正的敵人,上帝。 Man, as a result of divine help, thus comes to know more than the Creator.人,由於神的幫助,從而來了解超過造物主。 In anger the Creator casts man into an earthly body of forgetfulness, and the pleromatic realm is forced to initiate a process of spiritual awakening through the divine messenger.在憤怒造物主給人類成為一個人間機構的健忘,以及pleromatic境界是被迫啟動一個進程的精神覺醒的神聖使者。

The divine messenger is frequently identified with the figure of the Christian's Jesus Christ, but such identification has some very significant alterations.神聖的使者常常是確定的數字是基督教的耶穌,但這種識別有一些非常重要的改建。 Since the divine realm is basically opposed to the creation of the lower realm, bodies at best are part of the created process and therefore need only to be regarded as vehicles which the divine may use for its own purposes.由於神聖的領域基本上是反對設立了較低的境界,機構在最好的一部分,創建過程,因此只需要被視為車輛的神聖可能會使用它自己的目的。 The divine messenger Christ, for the purpose of modeling the divine perspective, "adopted" the body of Jesus at a point such as the baptism and departed at a point such as just prior to the crucifixion.神聖的基督的使者,為造型的神聖的角度看, “通過”體內的耶穌在一個點,如洗禮,並於點,如之前的十字架。 It is the risen "Jesus" or Christ, devoid of bodily restrictions, that based on the modeling has power to awaken man from his sleep of forgetfulness.這是提高“耶穌”或基督,缺乏身體的限制,是基於建模有權喚醒男子從他的睡眠健忘。 This assumption of the body of Jesus by the divine messenger is generally termed as "adoptionism" and is related to docetism, wherein Christ merely appears to be a man.這種假設的身體耶穌的神的使者一般稱為“ adoptionism ”和有關幻影說,基督只是其中似乎是一個男人。

Gnostics are those set within a world where they are the spiritual persons (pneumatikoi) who possess the light particles and need only to be awakened in order to inherit their destinies. Gnostics是那些設置在一個世界裡,他們是精神的人( pneumatikoi )誰擁有輕粒子只需要將覺醒,以繼承自己的命運。 In the world there are also said to be psychic persons (psychikoi), who are a grade lower and need to work for whatever salvation they may be able to attain.在世界上也有說是精神的人( psychikoi ) ,誰是低年級和工作需要的任何救助,他們或許能夠實現。 The Gnostics often identified such psychics with Christians and understandably irritated the Christian heresiologists such as Irenaus.通常的Gnostics確定這種靈異師與基督徒和理解激怒了基督教heresiologists如Irenaus 。 The third division of this view of humanity is composed of material persons (hylikoi or sarkikoi), who have no chance to inherit any form of salvation but are destined for destruction.丙級這一觀點的人類是由物質的人( hylikoi或sarkikoi ) ,誰沒有機會繼承任何形式的救助,但注定銷毀。 Accordingly, it should be obvious that such a view of anthropology is very deterministic in orientation.因此,它應該是顯而易見,這種觀點的人類學是非常決定性的方向。

The Valentinian goal is reentry into the pleroma, which is often symbolized by terms such as "union" or "unity."該瓦倫蒂安的目標是再次進入pleroma ,這常常是象徵條款,如“工會”或“團結” 。 In documents such as the Gospel of Philip, however, the use of the term "bridal chamber" may suggest a sacrament of union.在文件,如菲利普福音,然而,使用“洞房”可能提出一個聖禮工會。 Such expressions highlight the fact that in many Gnostic documents sexually suggestive terminology is employed.這種表現強調了這樣一個事實,在許多諾斯底文件性暗示術語就業。 For some Gnostics sexual interests may be attached to a spiritual alternative within an ascetic life style which seems to issue in warning not to fragment further the light particles in one's self through conjugation or sexual intercourse.對於一些Gnostics性的利益可能會重視的精神替代在一個禁慾的生活作風問題似乎在警告不要進一步片段輕粒子在一個人的自我通過共軛或性交。 For others, however, such as the followers of Marcus, spiritual awareness was apparently transferred through copulative activity outside of marriage.對於其他人,但是,如追隨者馬庫斯,精神的認識顯然是通過係詞轉讓活動以外的婚姻。

At death the Gnostics, who had experienced awakening, shed the rags of mortality as they ascended through the realms of the fates (or planets).在死亡的Gnostics ,誰經歷了覺醒,擺脫衣衫襤褸的死亡率為他們登上通過境界的命運(或行星) 。 Thus, passing through the purgatory of the planets, they came at last to the limit (horos) or border (sometimes called the "cross") where, devoid of all that constitutes evil, they are welcomed into the eternal realm.因此,通過煉獄的行星,他們在去年到了極限( horos )或邊界(有時被稱為“跨” )在那裡,沒有這一切構成罪惡,他們是歡迎到永恆的境界。 The concept of purgatory in the Roman Catholic tradition is not unrelated to the purging pattern in Gnostic thought.的概念,煉獄中的羅馬天主教的傳統是不無關的清洗模式,諾斯底思想。

The above description is a pattern for understanding the Syrian type of Gnostic structure.上述描述是一個模式的理解敘利亞類型的諾斯底結構。 While this structure should provide a helpful model for readers in interpreting Gnostic documents, it is imperative to recognize the syncretistic nature of Gnosticism and the wide variety of forms which are evident.雖然這種結構應該提供一個有用的模型,讓讀者在解釋諾斯底文件,當務之急是認識到融諾斯替主義的性質和多種多樣的形式是顯而易見的。 The Sethians, for example, used Seth as their human figurehead, whereas the Ophites concentrated on the role of the serpent in giving knowledge.該Sethians ,例如,使用塞思作為其人力有名無實,而Ophites集中於所起的作用給予蛇的知識。 The vast possibilities for variation in struction make Gnostic studies both an intriguing and exercising enterprise.絕大多數的可能性結構變化研究作出諾斯底既是一個耐人尋味和行使企業。

The Gnostics obviously used sources such as Platonic dualism and Eastern religious thought, including ideas derived from Christianity. Their use of sources, however, often resulted in an attack upon those sources. Gnostics明顯的使用來源,如柏拉圖式的二元論和東歐的宗教思想,包括思想源自基督教。及其使用的來源,然而,往往導致攻擊那些來源。 For example, the Gnostics employ the concept of wisdom (the goal of Greek philosophy) in such a way that it is made the cause of all evil in the world.例如, Gnostics僱用的概念,智慧(的目標,希臘哲學)以這樣一種方式,這是事業取得的一切邪惡的世界。 Such an ingenious attack on the concept of wisdom is far more hostile than Paul's statements in 1 Cor. 1:22 - 2:16.這種巧妙的攻擊概念的智慧更為敵對比保羅的報表1肺心病。 1點22分-2點1 6。

In addition to the Valentinian system and its many related forms Hermetic literature provides a somewhat similar vertical structured dualism.除了瓦倫蒂安系統及其許多相關的文學形式密封提供了一個有點類似垂直二元結構。 This arose in Egypt, and most of the writings seem to be generally unrelated to Christianity or Judaism, although the principal tractate of the Corpus Hermeticum known as Poimandres may not be totally unlike the thought world of the Fourth Gospel. Hermetic literature thus raises the problem of Gnostic origins.這是在埃及,和大多數著作總體看來是無關的基督教或猶太教,但主要的短文的語料庫Hermeticum稱為Poimandres也許不完全不同的思想世界第四福音。密封文學從而引起的問題在諾斯底起源。

The Problem of Dating問題的約會

Because of the methodological problems concerning Gnostic origins, it is imperative to mention briefly Mandaeanism.由於方法問題,諾斯底的起源,就必須提到簡要Mandaeanism 。 In the 1930s many scholars were referring to Mandaeanism as being pre - Christian, in spite of the fact that the documents used in the interpretive process were obtained from the small contemporary sect in Persia.在20世紀30年代被許多學者提及Mandaeanism作為前-基督教,儘管這一事實,即使用的證件在詮釋過程中獲得的小當代節波斯。 There is of course no doubt that the traditions of this baptismal sect (which refers to John the Baptist) come from a much earlier time.當然,毫無疑問,這種傳統的洗禮節(指施洗約翰)來自一個更早的時間。 But how long before the rise of Islam, which considered Mandaeans a valid religious group possessing both sacred writings and a prophet prior to Mohammed, is totally unknown. The matter of dating is, therefore, extremely problematic in the entire study of Gnosticism.但如何在長期的崛起伊斯蘭教,審議曼德安一個有效的宗教團體都擁有神聖的著作和先知穆罕默德之前,完全是未知的。此事的約會,因此極為困難在整個研究諾斯替主義。

Some documents like the Hermetic materials seem to evidence very few influences from Christianity, whereas a few documents, such as the Sophia of Jesus, may be Christianized redactions of earlier non - Christian documents.一些文件如密封材料的證據似乎很少從基督教的影響,而一些文件,如耶穌的索菲亞,可Christianized刪節以前的非-基督教的文件。 But the question that still remains to be answered is: When did Gnosticism arise?但是,問題仍然有待回答是:什麼時候產生的諾斯替主義? Clearly by the middle of the second century AD.顯然,中間的第二個世紀的廣告。 Gnosticism had reached its flowering.諾斯替主義已經達到了開花。 But contrary to Schmithals (Gnosticism in Corinth) the opponents of Paul in Corinth were hardly Gnostics.但是,相反Schmithals (諾斯替主義在科林斯)反對保羅科林斯幾乎Gnostics 。 Were the opponents described in Colossians or Ephesians Gnostics?是對手中描述歌羅西書或以弗所書Gnostics ? Were the opponents in the Johannine letters Gnostics?被對手在Johannine字母Gnostics ? It is hard to read the NT and gain any secure feeling at the present that canonical writers were attacking the Gnostic devotees or mythologizers.這是很難讀的NT和獲得任何安全的感覺,本是典型的作者們攻擊諾斯底信徒或mythologizers 。

GL Borchert吉爾歇特
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
DM Scholer, Nag Hammadi Bibliography 1948 - 1969; J Robinson, ed., The Nag Hammadi Library in English; RM Grant, ed., Gnosticism: A Source Book of Heretical Writings from the Early Christian Period; W Foerster, Gnosis: A Selection of Gnostic Texts; B Aland, Gnosis: Festschrift fur Hans Jonas; GL Borchert, "Insights into the Gnostic Threat to Christianity as Gained Through the Gospel of Philip," in New Dimensions in New Testament Study, ed.馬克肖勒,拿哈瑪地書目1948年至1969年; J羅賓遜版。 ,該拿哈瑪地圖書館英文;產品格蘭特版。 ,諾斯替主義:一種資料書寫作的邪教從早期基督教時期; W福斯特,預後:一種選擇在諾斯底文本;乙奧蘭,預後:紀念毛皮漢斯•約納斯;吉爾歇特“ ,深入了解諾斯底威脅基督教取得了菲利普福音” ,在新的尺寸在新約研究,編輯。 RN Longenecker and MC Tenney; RM Grant, Gnosticism and Early Christianity; H Jonas, The Gnostic Religion; E Pagels, The Gnostic Gospels; G Quispel, Gnosis als Weltreligion; W Schmithals, Gnosticism in Corinth and Paul and the Gnostics; RM Wilson, The Gnostic Problem and Gnosis and the New Testament; E Yamauchi, Pre - Christian Gnosticism.護士朗格和MC立;產品格蘭特,諾斯替主義和早期基督教; H文,諾斯底宗教的;電子郵件Pagels ,在諾斯底福音; G Quispel ,直覺作為Weltreligion ; W Schmithals ,諾斯替主義在科林斯和保羅和Gnostics ;產品威爾遜,在諾斯底存在的問題及預後和新約全書;電子郵件山,預-基督教諾斯替主義。


Nag Hammadi Library Alphabetical Index拿哈瑪地圖書館字母順序排列的索引

The articles above mention a massive Coptic gnostic library that was discovered near Nag Hammadi (Nag Hammadi Papyri), in upper Egypt, in 1945.上面的文章提到了大規模科普特諾斯底庫附近被發現的拿哈瑪地(拿哈瑪地紙莎草紙) ,在上埃及,在1945年。 The contents of the 52 tractates of this collection of scrolls includes the following:的內容52 tractates本收集春聯包括以下內容:

(BELIEVE contains the full text of of several of these) (相信包含全文的幾個)


Gnosticism諾斯替主義

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The doctrine of salvation by knowledge.理論知識得救。 This definition, based on the etymology of the word (gnosis "knowledge", gnostikos, "good at knowing"), is correct as far as it goes, but it gives only one, though perhaps the predominant, characteristic of Gnostic systems of thought.這一定義的基礎上,詞源的詞(直覺“知識” , gnostikos , “善知道” ) ,是正確的盡量不用,但它使只有一個,但也許是佔主導地位,特點,諾斯底系統的思想。 Whereas Judaism and Christianity, and almost all pagan systems, hold that the soul attains its proper end by obedience of mind and will to the Supreme Power, ie by faith and works, it is markedly peculiar to Gnosticism that it places the salvation of the soul merely in the possession of a quasi-intuitive knowledge of the mysteries of the universe and of magic formulae indicative of that knowledge.而猶太教和基督教,幾乎所有的異教系統,認為靈魂達到其應有的結束服從的心態和意志的最高權力,即信仰和作品,這是顯著特有的諾斯替主義的地方,它拯救的靈魂只是在擁有準直觀的了解神秘的宇宙和魔法公式表明,知識。 Gnostics were "people who knew", and their knowledge at once constituted them a superior class of beings, whose present and future status was essentially different from that of those who, for whatever reason, did not know. Gnostics是“人誰知道” ,他們的知識,一旦他們構成上級類別的人,其當前和未來的地位基本上是不同於那些誰,不管出於什麼原因,不知道。 A more complete and historical definition of Gnosticism would be:一個更加完整和歷史諾斯替主義的定義是:

A collective name for a large number of greatly-varying and pantheistic-idealistic sects, which flourished from some time before the Christian Era down to the fifth century, and which, while borrowing the phraseology and some of the tenets of the chief religions of the day, and especially of Christianity, held matter to be a deterioration of spirit, and the whole universe a depravation of the Deity, and taught the ultimate end of all being to be the overcoming of the grossness of matter and the return to the Parent-Spirit, which return they held to be inaugurated and facilitated by the appearance of some God-sent Saviour.一個集體的名字對許多大大變和pantheistic ,理想主義的教派,其中蓬勃發展的一段時間才能基督教時代到五世紀,其中,同時借款的用語和一些原則,主要宗教的一天,尤其是基督教,舉行了問題是一個惡化的精神,和整個宇宙墮落的神,並教的最終目標都將被克服的grossness的問題,並返回家長精神,即返回,他們將舉行落成,並提供便利的外觀有些上帝發出的救世主。

However unsatisfactory this definition may be, the obscurity, multiplicity, and wild confusion of Gnostic systems will hardly allow of another.然而令人不滿意這個定義可能是在默默無聞,多重,和野生的混亂諾斯底系統將很難讓另一個。 Many scholars, moreover, would hold that every attempt to give a generic description of Gnostic sects is labour lost.許多學者,此外,將舉行,每一個試圖給籠統描述諾斯底教派是勞動力喪失。

ORIGIN成因

The beginnings of Gnosticism have long been a matter of controversy and are still largely a subject of research.開始諾斯替主義長期以來一直是有爭議的問題,仍然基本上是一個問題的研究。 The more these origins are studied, the farther they seem to recede in the past.越是這些起源的研究,更遠,他們似乎後退了。

Whereas formerly Gnosticism was considered mostly a corruption of Christianity, it now seems clear that the first traces of Gnostic systems can be discerned some centuries before the Christian Era.諾斯替主義以前被視為是腐敗的基督教,但現在看來很清楚,第一次的痕跡諾斯底系統可以看出一些百年前的基督教時代。 Its Eastern origin was already maintained by Gieseler and Neander; F. Ch.其東部原產地已經保持Gieseler和尼安德;樓膽固醇。 Bauer (1831) and Lassen (1858) sought to prove its relation to the religions of India; Lipsius (1860) pointed to Syria and Phoenicia as its home, and Hilgenfeld (1884) thought it was connected with later Mazdeism.鮑爾( 1831年)和拉森( 1858 )試圖證明其與宗教的印度; Lipsius ( 1860 )指出,敘利亞和腓尼基作為其家庭和Hilgenfeld ( 1884年)認為這是與後來Mazdeism 。 Joel (1880), Weingarten (1881), Koffmane (1881), Anrich (1894), and Wobbermin (1896) sought to account for the rise of Gnosticism by the influence of Greek Platonic philosophy and the Greek mysteries, while Harnack described it as "acute Hellenization of Christianity".喬爾( 1880年) ,頓( 1881年) , Koffmane ( 1881年) , Anrich ( 1894 ) ,以及Wobbermin ( 1896年)爭取到的崛起諾斯替主義的影響,希臘柏拉圖哲學和希臘奧秘,而哈納克形容這是“急性Hellenization基督教” 。

For the past twenty-five years, however, the trend of scholarship has steadily moved towards proving the pre-Christian Oriental origins of Gnosticism.在過去的二十五年,但這一趨勢的獎學金已穩步走向證明前東方基督教起源的諾斯替主義。 At the Fifth Congress of Orientalists (Berlin, 1882) Kessler brought out the connection between Gnosis and the Babylonian religion.在第五次代表大會Orientalists (柏林, 1882年)提出了凱斯勒之間的聯繫直覺和巴比倫的宗教。 By this latter name, however, he meant not the original religion of Babylonia, but the syncretistic religion which arose after the conquest of Cyrus.通過這一後者的名字,然而,他的意思不是原始宗教的東風,但融宗教產生之後,居魯士征服。 The same idea is brought out in his "Mani" seven years later.同樣的想法是提出了在他的“嘛呢” ,七年過去了。 In the same year FW Brandt published his "Mandiäische Religion".同年防火牆勃蘭特發表了他的“ Mandiäische宗教” 。 This Mandaean religion is so unmistakably a form of Gnosticism that it seems beyond doubt that Gnosticism existed independent of, and anterior to, Christianity.這曼達宗教是如此明白無誤的一種形式諾斯替主義,它似乎毫無疑問,諾斯替主義獨立存在的,而且前方,基督教。

In more recent years (1897) Wilhelm Anz pointed out the close similarity between Babylonian astrology and the Gnostic theories of the Hebdomad and Ogdoad.近年來( 1897年)威廉安茨指出之間的相似巴比倫占星術和諾斯底理論Hebdomad和Ogdoad 。 Though in many instances speculations on the Babylonian Astrallehre have gone beyond all sober scholarship, yet in this particular instance the inferences made by Anz seem sound and reliable.雖然在許多情況下揣測巴比倫Astrallehre已超越所有清醒的獎學金,但在這一具體事例中,推論所作的安茨似乎健全和可靠的。 Researches in the same direction were continued and instituted on a wider scale by W. Bousset, in 1907, and led to carefully ascertained results.研究在同一方向繼續進行,並建立更大規模的美國Bousset ,於1907年,並導致仔細確定的結果。 In 1898 the attempt was made by M. Friedländer to trace Gnosticism in pre-Christian Judaism.在1898年嘗試了由M.德蘭德追踪諾斯替主義前基督教猶太教。 His opinion that the Rabbinic term Minnim designated not Christians, as was commonly believed, but Antinomian Gnostics, has not found universal acceptance.他認為,拉比長期Minnim不指定基督徒,如普遍認為,但Antinomian Gnostics ,一直沒有找到普遍接受。 In fact, E. Schürer brought sufficient proof to show that Minnim is the exact Armaean dialectic equivalent for ethne. Nevertheless Friedländer's essay retains its value in tracing strong antinomian tendencies with Gnostic colouring on Jewish soil.事實上,體育Schürer帶來了充分的證據表明, Minnim是確切的辯證相當於Armaean為ethne 。儘管如此德蘭德的散文保留其價值在追查傾向強烈antinomian與諾斯底著色猶太人土壤。

Not a few scholars have laboured to find the source of Gnostic theories on Hellenistic and, specifically, Alexandrian soil.也有不少學者們辛勤找到來源的諾斯底理論的古希臘,特別是亞歷山大的土壤。 In 1880 Joel sought to prove that the germ of all Gnostic theories was to be found in Plato.喬爾於1880年試圖證明,細菌的所有理論是諾斯底中可以找到柏拉圖。 Though this may be dismissed as an exaggeration, some Greek influence on the birth, but especially on the growth, of Gnosticism cannot be denied.雖然這可能會被視為一種誇張,有些希影響生育,但特別是在增長,諾斯替主義不能否認的。 In Trismegistic literature, as pointed out by Reitzenstein (Poimandres, 1904), we find much that is strangely akin to Gnosticism.在Trismegistic文學,所指出Reitzenstein ( Poimandres , 1904年) ,我們發現許多奇怪的是類似於諾斯替主義。 Its Egyptian origin was defended by E. Amélineau, in 1887, and illustrated by A. Dietrich, in 1891 (Abraxas Studien) and 1903 (Mithrasliturgie).埃及起源及其辯護的E. Amélineau ,於1887年,並說明由A.迪特里希,於1891年(衛矛尺Studien )和1903年( Mithrasliturgie ) 。 The relation of Plotinus's philosophy to Gnosticism was brought out by C. Schmidt in 1901.關係普羅提諾的哲學諾斯替主義是提出了由C.施密特在1901年。 That Alexandrian thought had some share at least in the development of Christian Gnosticism is clear from the fact that the bulk of Gnostic literature which we possess comes to us from Egyptian (Coptic) sources.亞歷山大認為這有一定的份額至少在基督教的發展諾斯替主義是明確的事實是大部分的諾斯底文獻我們擁有給我們留下埃及(埃及)來源。 That this share was not a predominant one is, however, acknowledged by O. Gruppe in his "Griechische Mythologie und Religionsgeschichte" (1902).這一份額並不佔主導地位之一,但是,承認了我國集團在他的“希臘神話與Religionsgeschichte ” ( 1902年) 。 It is true that the Greek mysteries, as G. Anrich pointed out in 1894, had much in common with esoteric Gnosticism; but there remains the further question, in how far these Greek mysteries, as they are known to us, were the genuine product of Greek thought, and not much rather due to the overpowering influence of Orientalism.的確,希臘奧秘,因為灣Anrich指出, 1894年,具有許多共同點的諾斯替主義與深奧,但仍然存在進一步的問題,在多大程度上這些希臘之謎,因為他們知道,我們是真正的產品希臘思想,並沒有多少,而由於壓倒性的影響東方。

Although the origins of Gnosticism are still largely enveloped in obscurity, so much light has been shed on the problem by the combined labours of many scholars that it is possible to give the following tentative solution: Although Gnosticism may at first sight appear a mere thoughtless syncretism of well nigh all religious systems in antiquity, it has in reality one deep root-principle, which assimilated in every soil what is needed for its life and growth; this principle is philosophical and religious pessimism.雖然起源諾斯替主義在很大程度上仍然籠罩在默默無聞,如此輕流過這個問題的辛勤勞動相結合的許多學者,有可能給以下暫定的解決辦法:雖然諾斯替主義可能乍一看似乎只是輕率合一在幾乎所有的宗教制度在古代,它已在現實中一個深根的原則,每吸收土壤中所需要的生活和成長;這一原則的哲學和宗教悲觀。

The Gnostics, it is true, borrowed their terminology almost entirely from existing religions, but they only used it to illustrate their great idea of the essential evil of this present existence and the duty to escape it by the help of magic spells and a superhuman Saviour.該Gnostics ,這是真的,借他們的術語幾乎完全是從現有的宗教,但他們只用它來說明他們的偉大構想的基本邪惡的本存在,並有責任逃脫它的幫助下,魔法和超人的救世主。 Whatever they borrowed, this pessimism they did not borrow -- not from Greek thought, which was a joyous acknowledgment of and homage to the beautiful and noble in this world, with a studied disregard of the element of sorrow; not from Egyptian thought, which did not allow its elaborate speculations on retribution and judgment in the netherworld to cast a gloom on this present existence, but considered the universe created or evolved under the presiding wisdom of Thoth; not from Iranian thought, which held to the absolute supremacy of Ahura Mazda and only allowed Ahriman a subordinate share in the creation, or rather counter-creation, of the world; not from Indian Brahminic thought, which was Pantheism pure and simple, or God dwelling in, nay identified with, the universe, rather than the Universe existing as the contradictory of God; not, lastly, from Semitic thought, for Semitic religions were strangely reticent as to the fate of the soul after death, and saw all practical wisdom in the worship of Baal, or Marduk, or Assur, or Hadad, that they might live long on this earth.不管他們借來的,這悲觀他們不借錢-而不是從希臘認為,這是一個愉快的承認,並表示敬意的美麗和崇高在這個世界上,一個研究無視元素的悲哀;不是來自埃及認為,這不允許其擬定的報復猜測和判斷中的地獄,以投下了陰影對本存在,但認為宇宙的創造或進化的主持下智慧的托提;不是來自伊朗的思想,舉行了向絕對優勢的胡馬自達並只允許Ahriman下屬份額的創造,而不是對抗或創造,對世界,而不是從印度Brahminic認為,這是泛神論純粹和簡單,或住在上帝,不查明,宇宙,而不是宇宙現有的矛盾上帝;沒有,最後,來自猶太人的思想,為猶太人的宗教有奇怪的沉默,以命運的死亡後的靈魂,看到一切實際智慧的崇拜巴力,或馬爾杜克,或亞述,或哈達,他們可能長期生活在地球上。

This utter pessimism, bemoaning the existence of the whole universe as a corruption and a calamity, with a feverish craving to be freed from the body of this death and a mad hope that, if we only knew, we could by some mystic words undo the cursed spell of this existence -- this is the foundation of all Gnostic thought.這完全悲觀,惋惜的存在,整個宇宙作為一個腐敗和災難,以狂熱的渴求,以擺脫這個機構的死亡和瘋狂的希望,如果我們只知道,我們可以通過一些神秘的話撤消詛咒這說明存在-這是一切的基礎諾斯底思想。 It has the same parent-soil as Buddhism; but Buddhism is ethical, it endeavours to obtain its end by the extinction of all desire; Gnosticism is pseudo-intellectual, and trusts exclusively to magical knowledge.它具有相同的父土佛教,但佛教是道德,它的努力最終獲得了瀕臨滅絕的所有願望;諾斯替主義是偽知識,並相信神奇的專門知識。 Moreover, Gnosticism, placed in other historical surroundings, developed from the first on other lines than Buddhism.此外,諾斯替主義,放置在其他歷史環境,從第一次在其他線路比佛教。

When Cyrus entered Babylon in 539 BC, two great worlds of thought met, and syncretism in religion, as far as we know it, began.當進入巴比倫賽勒斯在公元前539 ,世界上兩個偉大的思想會見,並融合在宗教,據我們所知,開始了。 Iranian thought began to mix with the ancient civilization of Babylon.伊朗思想開始組合與古巴比倫文明。 The idea of the great struggle between evil and good, ever continuing in this universe, is the parent idea of Mazdeism, or Iranian dualism.這個想法的偉大邪惡之間的鬥爭和良好的,任何時候都繼續在這個宇宙,是父母想法Mazdeism ,或伊朗的二元論。 This, and the imagined existence of numberless intermediate spirits, angels and devas, are the conviction which overcame the contentedness of Semitism.這和想像的存在無數中間的精神,天使和devas ,是信念克服了知足的反猶太主義。

On the other hand, the unshakable trust in astrology, the persuasion that the planetary system had a fatalistic influence on this world's affairs, stood its ground on the soil of Chaldea.另一方面,不可動搖的信任占星術,在勸說的行星系統有宿命論的影響這個世界的事務,站在地面上的土壤Chaldea 。 The greatness of the Seven -- the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, the Sun, Jupiter, and Saturn -- the sacred Hebdomad, symbolized for millenniums by the staged towers of Babylonia, remained undiminished.偉大的七-月球,水星,金星,火星,太陽,木星和土星- He bdomad的神聖,象徵著幾千年的舉辦巴比倫塔,依然不減。 They ceased, indeed, to be worshipped as deities, but they remained archontes and dynameis, rules and powers whose almost irresistible force was dreaded by man. Practically, they were changed from gods to devas, or evil spirits.他們停止了,實際上是作為神靈崇拜,但他們仍然archontes和dynameis ,規則和權力的幾乎不可抗拒的力量是可怕的男子。實際上,他們是從神來devas ,或辟邪。 The religions of the invaders and of the invaded effected a compromise: the astral faith of Babylon was true, but beyond the Hebodomad was the infinite light in the Ogdoad, and every human soul had to pass the adverse influence of the god or gods of the Hebdomad before it could ascend to the only good God beyond.宗教的入侵者和入侵影響的妥協:在星光巴比倫的信仰是真實的,但超出了Hebodomad的無限光在Ogdoad ,每個人的靈魂已經通過了不利影響神或神的Hebdomad才能晉升到只有良好的上帝超越。 This ascent of the soul through the planetary spheres to the heaven beyond (an idea not unknown even to ancient Babylonian speculations) began to be conceived as a struggle with adverse powers, and became the first and predominant idea in Gnosticism.這種上升的靈魂通過行星領域的天堂超越(一個想法並非不知道什至古巴比倫猜測)開始被設想為鬥爭不利的權力,並成為第一個和主要思想諾斯替主義。

The second great component of Gnostic thought is magic, properly so called, ie the power ex opere operato of weird names, sounds, gestures, and actions, as also the mixture of elements to produce effects totally disproportionate to the cause.第二大組成部分,諾斯底思想是神奇的,所謂正確,即權力前opere operato許多稀奇古怪的名字,聲音,手勢,和行動,這也是該混合物的內容產生影響完全不相稱的事業。 These magic formulae, which caused laughter and disgust to outsiders, are not a later and accidental corruption, but an essential part of Gnosticism, for they are found in all forms of Christian Gnosticism and likewise in Mandaeism. No Gnosis was essentially complete without the knowledge of the formulae, which, once pronounced, were the undoing of the higher hostile powers.這些神奇的公式,造成笑聲和厭惡外人,是不是以後和意外腐敗,而是一個必不可少的組成部分諾斯替主義,因為他們是發現各種形式的基督教靈知主義,並同樣在Mandaeism 。沒有直覺基本上是完整的知識公式,其中,一旦明顯,是解開較高敵對的權力。 Magic is the original sin of Gnosticism, nor is it difficult to guess whence it is inherited. To a certain extent it formed part of every pagan religion, especially the ancient mysteries, yet the thousands of magic tablets unearthed is Assyria and Babylonia show us where the rankest growth of magic was to be found.魔術是原罪的諾斯替主義,它也不是很難猜測何處是繼承。為了在一定程度上它的組成部分每一個異教徒的宗教,尤其是古老的奧秘,但成千上萬的魔術片出土的亞述和巴比倫我們展示rankest增長的魔術是被找到。 Moreover, the terms and names of earliest of Gnosticism bear an unmistakable similarity to Semitic sounds and words.此外,術語和名稱最早的諾斯替主義承擔一個明白無誤的相似猶太人聲音和文字。

Gnosticism came early into contact with Judaism, and it betrays a knowledge of the Old Testament, if only to reject it or borrow a few names from it. Considering the strong, well-organized, and highly-cultured Jewish colonies in the Euphrates valley, this early contact with Judaism is perfectly natural. Perhaps the Gnostic idea of a Redeemer is not unconnected with Jewish Messianic hopes.諾斯替主義是早期接觸到猶太教,它暴露了知識的舊約,如果只有拒絕或借用幾個名字來自它。考慮到強,組織嚴密,具有很強的培養猶太殖民地幼發拉底河流域,這個早期接觸猶太教是完全自然的。也許諾斯底想法,救世主是不無猶太彌賽亞的希望。 But from the first the Gnostic conception of a Saviour is more superhuman than that of popular Judaism; their Manda d'Haye, or Soter, is some immediate manifestation of the Deity, a Light-King, an Æon (Aion), and an emanation of the good God.但是,從第一次的諾斯底概念的救世主是超人相比,受歡迎的猶太教;其德海牙曼達,或蘇特,是一些直接體現了神,一個光國王,一個永旺(上傳圖片) ,以及氣良好的上帝。

When Gnosticism came in touch with Christianity, which must have happened almost immediately on its appearance, Gnosticism threw herself with strange rapidity into Christian forms of thought, borrowed its nomenclature, acknowledged Jesus as Saviour of the world, simulated its sacraments, pretended to be an esoteric revelation of Christ and His Apostles, flooded the world with apocryphal Gospels, and Acts, and Apocalypses, to substantiate its claim.當來到諾斯替主義接觸基督教,必須有發生幾乎立即就其外觀,諾斯替主義扔奇怪,她迅速把基督教形式的思想,借用其名稱,承認耶穌是救主的世界,模擬其聖禮,假裝是一個深奧的啟示基督和他的門徒,淹沒世界未經福音,和行為,並啟示,來證實其索賠。 As Christianity grew within and without the Roman Empire, Gnosticism spread as a fungus at its root, and claimed to be the only true form of Christianity, unfit, indeed, for the vulgar crowd, but set apart for the gifted and the elect.作為內基督教和增長的羅馬帝國,諾斯替主義蔓延作為一種真菌在其根源,並聲稱自己是唯一真正的基督教形式不適宜,甚至在庸俗的人群,但除了規定的天賦和選舉。 So rank was its poisonous growth that there seemed danger of its stifling Christianity altogether, and the earliest Fathers devoted their energies to uprooting it. Though in reality the spirit of Gnosticism is utterly alien to that of Christianity, it then seemed to the unwary merely a modification or refinement thereof.因此,它的排名是有毒的增長,人們似乎危險的基督教完全扼殺,並儘早父親他們的精力投入到剷除它。雖然在現實中的精神諾斯替主義是完全陌生的基督教,然後它似乎在不謹慎的僅僅是一個修改或改進不足。 When domiciled on Greek soil, Gnosticism, slightly changing its barbarous and Seminitic terminology and giving its "emanatons" and"syzygies" Greek names, sounded somewhat like neo-Platonism, thought it was strongly repudiated by Plotinus.當希臘籍土壤,諾斯替主義,稍微改變其野蠻和Seminitic用語並給予其“ emanatons ”和“ syzygies ”希臘名字,聽起來有點像新柏拉圖主義,認為這是堅決否定普羅提諾。 In Egypt the national worship left its mark more on Gnostic practice than on its theories.在埃及的國家崇拜留下了痕跡更多的諾斯底的做法,而不是它的理論。

In dealing with the origins of Gnosticism, one might be tempted to mention Manichaeism, as a number of Gnostic ideas seem to be borrowed from Manichaeism, where they are obviously at home.在處理的起源諾斯替主義,人們可能會受到誘惑而提到摩尼教,因為一些諾斯底的想法似乎是從摩尼教借來的,他們顯然是在家裡。 This, however, would hardly be correct. Manichaeism, as historically connected with Mani, its founder, could not have arisen much earlier than AD 250, when Gnosticism was already in rapid decline. Manichaeism, however, in many of its elements dates back far beyond its commonly accepted founder; but then it is a parallel development with the Gnosis, rather than one of its sources.然而,這幾乎是正確的。摩尼教,作為歷史上與瑪尼,其創始人,不能出現要早得多公元250以上時,諾斯替主義已經在迅速減少。摩尼教然而,在它的許多內容可以追溯到遠超出其普遍接受的創始人;但它是一個平行發展的直覺,而不是它的一個來源。 Sometimes Manichaeism is even classed as a form of Gnosticism and styled Parsee Gnosis, as distinguished from Syrian and Egyptian Gnosis.有時甚至摩尼教列為一種形式和風格的諾斯替主義帕西直覺,不同於敘利亞和埃及的直覺。 This classification, however, ignores the fact that the two systems, though they have the doctrine of the evil of matter in common, start from different principles, Manichaeism from dualism, while Gnosticism, as an idealistic Pantheism, proceeds from the conception of matter as a gradual deterioration of the Godhead.這種分類,但忽略了一個事實,這兩個系統,雖然他們的理論,邪惡的共同問題,從不同的原則,摩尼教從二元論,而諾斯替主義,作為一個理想主義的泛神論,所得的概念事項逐漸惡化的神體。

DOCTRINES理論

Owing to the multiplicity and divergence of Gnostic theories, a detailed exposition in this article would be unsatisfactory and confusing and to acertain extent even misleading, since Gnosticism never possessed a nucleus of stable doctrine, or any sort of depositum fidei round which a number of varied developments and heresies or sects might be grouped; at most it had some leading ideas, which are more or less clearly traceable in different schools.由於多重性和分歧的諾斯底理論,詳細闡述本文將不能令人滿意,困惑和acertain程度甚至誤導,因為諾斯替主義從未擁有核心的穩定理論,或任何種類的信輪depositum了一些不同的發展和異端邪說或教派可能是分組,至多只領先了一些想法,這是或多或少追查清楚在不同的學校。 Moreover, a fair idea of Gnostic doctrines can be obtained from the articles on leaders and phases of Gnostic thought (eg BASILIDES; VALENTINUS; MARCION; DOCETAE; DEMIURGE).此外,公平的想法,諾斯底教義可從文章的領導人和各階段的諾斯底思想(如巴西里德;瓦倫廷;馬吉安; DOCETAE ; DEMIURGE ) 。 We shall here only indicate some main phases of thought, which can be regarded as keys and which, though not fitting all systems, will unlock most of the mysteries of the Gnosis.我們將在這裡只能表明一些主要階段的思想,它可被視為鍵和,雖然不是所有系統的安裝,將釋放多數神秘的直覺。

(a) Cosmogony (一)宇宙進化論

Gnosticism is thinly disguised Pantheism.諾斯替主義是稍加偽裝的泛神論。 In the beginning was the Depth; the Fulness of Being; the Not-Being God; the First Father, the Monad, the Man; the First Source, the unknown God (Bythos pleroma, ouk on theos, propator, monas, anthropos, proarche, hagnostos theos), or by whatever other name it might be called.一開始是深度;的豐富的存在;並非作為上帝;第一父親的單子,人的第一來源,未知的神( Bythos pleroma ,旭對上帝, propator ,假單胞菌, anthropos , proarche , hagnostos上帝) ,或以任何其他名稱可能是所謂的。 This undefined infinite Something, though it might be addressed by the title of the Good God, was not a personal Being, but, like Tad of Brahma of the Hindus, the "Great Unknown" of modern thought.這未定義無限的東西,但它可能加以解決的標題天哪,是不是個人的存在,但是,像泰德的梵的印度教徒, “偉大的未知”的現代思想。 The Unknown God, however, was in the beginning pure spirituality; matter as yet was not.未知的上帝,然而,在開始時純粹的精神;問題尚未不是。

This source of all being causes to emanate (proballei) from itself a number of pure spirit forces.此來源的所有正在產生的原因( proballei )由本身的一些純精神力量。 In the different systems these emanations are differently named, classified, and described, but the emanation theory itself is common too all forms of Gnosticism.在這些不同的系統emanations是不同的命名,分類,並描述,但氣理論本身也共同所有形式的諾斯替主義。 In the Basilidian Gnosis they are called sonships (uiotetes), in Valentinianism they form antithetic pairs or "syzygies" (syzygoi); Depth and Silence produce Mind and Truth; these produce Reason and Life, these again Man and State (ekklesia).在Basilidian直覺,他們被稱為sonships ( uiotetes ) ,在Valentinianism他們形成對立的對或“ syzygies ” ( syzygoi ) ;深度和沉默產生心靈和真理;這些生產和生活的原因,這些人再次和國家( ekklesia ) 。 According to Marcus, they are numbers and sounds.據馬庫斯,它們是數字和聲音。

These are the primary roots of the Æons.這些是主要的根源Æons 。 With bewildering fertility hierarchies of Æons are thus produced, sometimes to the number of thirty.隨著撲朔迷離的生育率等級Æons因此產生,有時一些30 。 These Æons belong to the purely ideal, noumenal, intelligible, or supersensible world; they are immaterial, they are hypostatic ideas.這些Æons屬於純粹的理想,本體,可理解,或supersensible世界,它們是無關緊要的,它們是本質的想法。 Together with the source from which they emanate they form the pleroma.加上來源,它們產生的,他們形成了pleroma 。

The transition from the immaterial to the material, from the noumenal to the sensible, is brought about by a flaw, or a passion, or a sin, in one of the Æons.過渡到非物質的材料,從本體的明智的,是所帶來的一個漏洞,或激情,或一種罪過,在一個Æons 。 According to Basilides, it is a flaw in the last sonship; according to others it is the passion of the female Æon Sophia; according to others the sin of the Great Archon, or Æon-Creator, of the Universe.據巴西里德,這是一個漏洞在過去sonship ;根據他人這是熱情的女性永旺索菲亞;根據他人的罪惡大執政官,或旺,造物主,宇宙。

The ultimate end of all Gnosis is metanoia, or repentance, the undoing of the sin of material existence and the return to the Pleroma.最終結束所有直覺是metanoia ,或懺悔的毀滅的罪惡的物質存在和返回Pleroma 。

(b) Sophia-Myth (二)索菲亞神話

In the greater number of Gnostic systems an important role is played by the Æon Wisdom -- Sophia or Achamoth.在越來越多的諾斯底系統的一個重要作用是發揮Aeon的智慧-索菲亞或A chamoth。 In some sense she seems to represent the supreme female principle, as for instance in the Ptolemaic system, in which the mother of the seven heavens is called Achamoth, in the Valentinian system, in which he ano Sophia, the Wisdom above, is distinguished from he kato Sophia, or Achamoth, the former being the female principle of the noumenal world, and in the Archotian system, where we find a "Lightsome Mother" (he meter he photeine), and in which beyond the heavens of the Archons is he meter ton panton and likewise in the Barbelognosis, where the female Barbelos is but the counterpart of the Unknown Father, which also occurs amongst the Ophites described by Irenaeus (Adv. Haeres., III, vii, 4).在某種意義上,她似乎代表女性的最高原則,例如在托勒密系統,其中母親的七個天空被稱為Achamoth ,在瓦倫蒂安系統,他在納米索菲亞,上述的智慧,是區別於他下上智,或Achamoth ,前者女性原則的本體世界,並在Archotian系統,在那裡我們找到了“婷媽媽” (他米,他photeine ) ,並在以後天上的執政官是他米噸的潘頓,同樣在Barbelognosis ,那裡的女性Barbelos不過是對應的未知之父,這中間也出現了Ophites描述了依( Adv. Haeres 。 ,三,七, 4 ) 。

Moreover, the Eucharistic prayer in the Acts of Thomas (ch. 1) seems addressed to this supreme female principle.此外,聖體祈禱中的行為托馬斯(章1 )似乎給這個最高女的原則。 W. Bousset's suggestion, that the Gnostic Sophia is nothing else than a disguise for the Dea Syra, the great goddess Istar, or Astarte, seems worthy of consideration.美國Bousset的建議,認為諾斯底索菲亞是沒有別的比偽裝的德亞Syra ,偉大的女神伊斯塔,或阿斯塔特,似乎值得考慮的。 On the other hand, the Æon Sophia usually plays another role; she is he Prouneikos or "the Lustful One", once a virginal goddess, who by her fall from original purity is the cause of this sinful material world.另一方面, Aeon的索菲亞通常扮演另一個角色,她是他Prouneikos或“淫蕩一” ,一旦處女女神,誰屬於她從原來的純度的原因是這個罪孽深重的物質世界。

One of the earliest forms of this myth is found in Simonian Gnosis, in which Simon, the Great Power, finds Helena, who during ten years had been a prostitute in Tyre, but who is Simon's ennoia, or understanding, and whom his followers worshipped under the form of Athena, the goddess of wisdom. According to Valentinus's system, as described by Hippolytus (Book VI, xxv-xxvi), Sophia is the youngest of the twenty-eight æons.最早的一個形式是這個神話中發現Simonian直覺,其中西門,大電廠,認定赫勒拿島,誰在十年一直是一名妓女在提爾,但誰是西蒙的ennoia ,或理解,他們崇拜他的追隨者根據形式的雅典娜女神的智慧。根據瓦倫廷的系統,所描述的西波呂(圖書六,二十五,二十六) ,索菲亞是最年輕的28 æons 。 Observing the multitude of æons and the power of begetting them, she hurries back into the depth of the Father, and seeks to emulate him by producing offspring without conjugal intercourse, but only projects an abortion, a formless substance.觀測的眾多æons和力量begetting他們,她趕著回深入的父親,並試圖仿效他的後代沒有產生夫妻關係,但只有項目流產,一個無形的實質內容。 Upon this she is cast out of Pleroma.在此,她是投了Pleroma 。 According to the Valentinian system as described by Irenaeus (op. cit., I) and Tertullian (Adv. Valent., ix), Sophia conceives a passion for the First Father himself, or rather, under pretext of love she seeks to know him, the Unknowable, and to comprehend his greatness.據瓦倫蒂安系統所描述的愛任紐(同前。 , I )和特土良( Adv.價。 ,九) ,索菲亞設想的激情第一神父本人,或者更確切地說,在愛的藉口她想知道他,不可知,並理解他的偉大之處。 She should have suffered the consequence of her audacity by ultimate dissolution into the immensity of the Father, but for the Boundary Spirit.她應該遭受的後果是她大膽的最終解體成的巨大父親,但對邊界精神。 According to the Pistis Sophia (ch. xxix) Sophia, daughter of Barbelos, originally dwelt in the highest, or thirteenth heaven, but she is seduced by the demon Authades by means of a ray of light, which she mistook as an emanation from the First Father. Authades thus enticed her into Chaos below the twelve Æons, where she was imprisoned by evil powers.據Pistis索菲亞(章二十九)索非亞,女兒Barbelos ,原來住在最高,或13天,但她是誘惑的惡魔Authades通過光線,她誤以為是氣從第一父親。 Authades從而誘使她進入混沌低於12 Æons ,在那裡她被監禁的邪惡力量。

According to these ideas, matter is the fruit of the sin of Sophia; this, however, was but a Valentinian development; in the older speculations the existence of matter is tacitly presupposed as eternal with the Pleroma, and through her sin Sophia falls from the realm of light into Chaos or realm of darkness.根據這些想法,問題是水果的罪惡索菲亞;然而,這只是瓦倫蒂安發展;中老年人投機存在的問題是默許的先決條件作為永恆的Pleroma ,並通過她的罪孽索菲亞瀑布從王國光進入混沌或領域的黑暗。

This original dualism, however, was overcome by the predominant spirit of Gnosticism, pantheistic emanationism.這種原始的二元論,然而,克服的主要精神,諾斯替主義, pantheistic emanationism 。 The Sophia myth is completely absent from the Basilidian and kindred systems.在索菲亞神話是完全不在Basilidian和親屬系統。 It is suggested, with great verisimilitude, that the Egyptian myth of Isis was the original source of the Gnostic "lower wisdom".有人建議,非常逼真,埃及神話伊希斯是原始的諾斯底“低智慧” 。 In many systems this Kato Sophia is sharply distinguished from the Higher Wisdom mentioned above; as, for instance, in the magic formula for the dead mentioned by Irenaeus (op. cit., I, xxi, 5), in which the departed has to address the hostile archons thus: "I am a vessel more precious than the female who made you. If your mother ignores the source whence she is, I know myself, and I known whence I am and invoke the incorruptible Sophia, whois in the Father, the mother of your mother, who has neither father nor husband. A man-woman, born from a woman, has made you, not knowing her mother, but thinking herself alone. But I invoke her mother."在許多系統這一加藤索菲亞是區別於急劇高等智慧上述; ,例如,在神奇公式為死者所提到的愛任紐(同前。 ,我21 , 5 ) ,其中離開了解決這樣的敵對執政官: “我是一個更珍貴的船隻比女性誰了你。如果您的母親忽視的來源何處,她是,我知道我自己,我知道何處我和援引廉潔索菲亞,域名中的父親的母親你的母親,誰沒有父親,也沒有丈夫。一名男子,女子,出生於一個女人,取得了你,不知道她的母親,但她獨自思考。但我援引她的母親。 “ This agrees with the system minutely described by Irenaeus (op. cit., I, iv-v), where Sophia Achamoth, or Lower Wisdom, the daughter of Higher Wisdom, becomes the mother of the Demiurge; she being the Ogdoad, her son the Hebdomad, they form a counterpart of the heavenly Ogdoad in the Pleromata.這同意該系統每分鐘所描述的愛任紐(同前。 ,我,四,五) ,在索菲亞Achamoth ,或下智慧的女兒高等智慧,成為母親的造物主,她被Ogdoad ,她的兒子在Hebdomad ,他們形成一個對應的天堂Ogdoad在Pleromata 。 This is evidently a clumsy attempt to fuse into one two systems radically different, the Basilidian and the Valentinian; the ignorance of the Great Archon, which is the central idea of Basilides, is here transferred to Sophia, and the hybrid system ends in bewildering confusion.這顯然是笨拙的企圖融合成一個兩種制度根本不同, Basilidian和瓦倫蒂安;無知的大執政官,這是中心思想巴西里德,在這裡轉移到索菲亞,以及混合動力系統在撲朔迷離結束混亂。

(c) Soteriology (三) Soteriology

Gnostic salvation is not merely individual redemption of each human soul; it is a cosmic process.諾斯底救贖不僅是個人的贖回每個人的靈魂,它是一種宇宙的進程。 It is the return of all things to what they were before the flaw in the sphere of the Æons brought matter into existence and imprisoned some part of the Divine Light into the evil Hyle (Hyle).這是歸還所有的事情他們面前的漏洞領域的Æons了存在的問題和監禁一部分光進入神聖的罪惡Hyle ( Hyle ) 。 This setting free of the light sparks is the process of salvation; when all light shall have left Hyle, it will be burnt up, destroyed, or be a sort of everlasting hell for the Hylicoi.此設置免費的火花是輕的過程中得救;時,所有光線應離開Hyle ,將被燒毀,消毀,或一種永恆的地獄的Hylicoi 。

In Basilidianism it is the Third Filiation that is captive in matter, and is gradually being saved, now that the knowledge of its existence has been brought to the first Archon and then to the Second Archon, to each by his respective Son; and the news has been spread through the Hebdomad by Jesus the son of Mary, who died to redeem the Third Filiation.在Basilidianism這是第三次親子關係是圈養的問題,並正在逐步被保存,現在的知識,它的存在,已提請第一執政官,然後給第二執政官,每個由他各自的兒子;和新聞已傳播到Hebdomad由耶穌的兒子,瑪麗,誰喪生贖回第三次親子關係。

In Valentinianism the process is extraordinarily elaborate.在Valentinianism的過程是非常詳細。 When this world has been born from Sophia in consequence of her sin, Nous and Aletheia, two Æons, by command of the Father, produce two new Æons, Christ and the Holy Ghost; these restore order in the Pleroma, and in consequence all Æons together produce a new Æon, Jesus Logos, Soter, or Christ, whom they offer to the Father.當這個世界已經從索非亞出生的後果,她罪孽,理性和真理,兩個Æons ,指揮的父親,兩個新的生產Æons ,基督和聖靈;這些恢復秩序的Pleroma ,並在所有的後果Æons一起製作一個新的永旺,耶穌,標識,索特,或基督,他們提供的神父。 Christ, the Son of Nous and Aletheia, has pity on the abortive substance born of Sophia and gives it essence and form.耶穌的兒子,理性和真理,也很可惜的流產藥物誕生的索菲亞和賦予其精神實質和形式。 Whereupon Sophia tries to rise again to the Father, but in vain.於是索菲婭試圖再次上升的父親,但都是徒勞的。 Now the Æon Jesus-Soter is sent as second Saviour, he unites himself to the man Jesus, the son of Mary, at his baptism, and becomes the Saviour of men.現在,永旺耶穌,索特發出第二的救世主,他本人團結的人耶穌,瑪麗的兒子,在他的洗禮,並成為救世主的男人。 Man is a creature of the Demiurge, a compound of soul, body, and spirit.人是動物的造物主,一個大院的靈魂,身體和精神。 His salvation consists in the return of his pneuma or spirit to the Pleroma; or if he be only a Psychicist, not a full Gnostic, his soul (psyche) shall return to Achamoth.他得救包括在返回他的靈魂或精神的Pleroma ;或者如果他僅僅是一個Psychicist ,而不是一個充分諾斯底,他的靈魂(精神)應返回Achamoth 。 There is no resurrection of the body.沒有復活的身體。 (For further details and differences see VALENTINUS.) (如需進一步的細節和差異見瓦倫廷。 )

In Marcionism, the most dualistic phase of Gnosticism, salvation consisted in the possession of the knowledge of the Good God and the rejection of the Demiurge.在馬吉安,最二元階段的諾斯替主義,拯救包括所掌握的知識,良好的上帝和拒絕造物主。 The Good God revealed himself in Jesus and appeared as man in Judea; to know him, and to become entirely free from the yoke of the World-Creator or God of the Old Testament, is the end of all salvation.善良的上帝發現自己在耶穌和男子出現在朱迪亞;知道他,並成為完全自由的枷鎖的世界,造物主或上帝的舊約,是結束所有得救。

The Gnostic Saviour, therefore, is entirely different from the Christian one. For the Gnostic Saviour does not save.在諾斯底救世主,因此是完全不同的基督教之一。對於諾斯底救世主不保存。 Gnosticism lacks the idea of atonement. There is no sin to be atoned for, except ignorance be that sin.諾斯替主義缺乏的想法贖罪。沒有任何罪惡的懲罰,但無知是罪孽。 Nor does the Saviour in any sense benefit the human race by vicarious sufferings.也沒有救世主在任何意義上造福人類的替代痛苦。 Nor, finally, does he immediately and actively affect any individual human soul by the power of grace or draw it to God.也沒有,最後,他立即和積極影響的任何個人人類靈魂的力量的寬限期或提請上帝。 He was a teacher, he once brought into the world the truth, which alone can save.他是一名教師,他再次帶入世界的真相,只有這樣才能保存。 As a flame sets naphtha on fire, so the Saviour's light ignites predisposed souls moving down the stream of time.作為一個聖火台消防石腦油,所以救世主的輕型點燃傾向於靈魂向下移動流的時間。 Of a real Saviour who with love human and Divine seeks out sinners to save them, Gnosticism knows nothing.一個真正的救世主誰愛的人力和神聖尋找罪人,拯救他們,諾斯替主義一無所知。

The Gnostic Saviour has no human nature, he is an æon, not a man; he only seemed a man, as the three Angels who visited Abraham seemed to be men.諾斯底救世主的沒有人性,他是一個永旺,而不是一個人,他似乎只有一個人,因為這三個天使誰訪問亞伯拉罕似乎是男人。 (For a detailed exposition see DOCETAE.) The Æon Soter is brought into the strangest relation to Sophia: in some systems he is her brother, in others her son, in other again her spouse. (詳細論述見DOCETAE 。 ) Aeon的索特被帶進了奇怪的關係索菲亞:在某些系統,他是她的哥哥,在另她的兒子,在其他再次她的配偶。 He is sometimes identified with Christ, sometimes with Jesus; sometimes Christ and Jesus are the same æon, sometimes they are different; sometimes Christ and the Holy Ghost are identified.他有時是確定與基督,有時與耶穌;有時基督耶穌是相同的永旺,有時它們是不同的,有時基督和聖靈確定。 Gnosticism did its best to utilize the Christian concept of the Holy Ghost, but never quite succeeded.諾斯替主義盡了最大利用基督教概念的聖靈,但從來沒有很成功。 She made him the Horos, or Methorion Pneuma (Horos, Metherion Pneuma), the Boundary-Spirit, the Sweet Odour of the Second Filiation, a companion æon with Christos, etc., etc. In some systems he is entirely left out.她使他Horos ,或Methorion牛馬( Horos , Metherion牛馬) ,在邊界的精神,甜蜜的氣味第二親子關係,同伴與克里斯托旺,等等,等等在一些系統中,他是完全排除在外。

(d) Eschatology (四)末世論

It is the merit of recent scholarship to have proved that Gnostic eschatology, consisting in the soul's struggle with hostile archons in its attempt to reach the Pleroma, is simply the soul's ascent, in Babylonian astrology, through the realms of the seven planets to Anu.它的優點是最近的獎學金證明,諾斯底末世論,包括在靈魂的鬥爭敵對執政官在其企圖達到Pleroma ,只不過是靈魂的上升,在巴比倫占星術,通過境界的七個行星阿努。

Origen (Contra Celsum, VI, xxxi), referring to the Ophitic system, gives us the names of the seven archons as Jaldabaoth, Jao, Sabaoth, Adonaios, Astaphaios, Ailoaios, and Oraios, and tells us that Jaldabaoth is the planet Saturn. Astraphaios is beyond doubt the planet Venus, as there are gnostic gems with a female figure and the legend ASTAPHE, which name is also used in magic spells as the name of a goddess.奧利(魂斗羅Celsum ,六,三十一) ,指的是Ophitic系統,使我們的名字7執政官作為Jaldabaoth ,饒,千萬軍馬, Adonaios , Astaphaios , Ailoaios ,並Oraios ,並告訴我們, Jaldabaoth是土星。 Astraphaios是不容置疑的金星,因為有諾斯底寶石的女性人物和傳說ASTAPHE ,這名字也被用於魔法的名稱女神。 In the Mandaean system Adonaios represents the Sun. Moreover, St. Irenæus tells us: "Sanctam Hebdomadem VII stellas, quas dictunt planetas, esse volunt."在曼達系統Adonaios代表太陽。此外,街依告訴我們: “ Sanctam Hebdomadem第七stellas , quas dictunt planetas ,存在volunt 。 ” It is safe, therefore, to take the above seven Gnostic names as designating the seven stars, then considered planets,它是安全的,因此,採取上述七個諾斯底名稱,指定七星級,然後考慮行星,

Jaldabaoth (Child of Chaos? -- Saturn, called "the Lion-faced", leontoeides) is the outermost, and therefore the chief ruler, and later on the Demiurge par excellence. Jaldabaoth (兒童的混沌? -土星,所謂的“獅子臉” , l eontoeides)是最外層,因此,長尺,以及後來的造物主卓越。

Jao (Iao, perhaps from Jahu, Jahveh, but possibly also from the magic cry iao in the mysteries) is Jupiter.饒( Iao ,也許從Jahu , Jahveh ,但也可能從魔術哭iao的奧秘)是木星。

Sabaoth (the Old-Testament title -- God of Hosts) was misunderstood; "of hosts" was thought a proper name, hence Jupiter Sabbas (Jahve Sabaoth) was Mars.千萬軍馬(老,全書標題-上帝的主機)被誤解; “主機”被認為適當的名稱,因此木星S abbas( J ahve千萬軍馬)是火星。

Astaphaios (taken from magic tablets) was Venus. Astaphaios (取自魔術片)是金星。

Adonaios (from the Hebrew term for "the Lord", used of God; Adonis of the Syrians representing the Winter sun in the cosmic tragedy of Tammuz) was the Sun; Adonaios (從長遠的希伯來文“上帝” ,上帝用;阿多尼斯的敘利亞代表的冬季陽光中的宇宙悲劇的齋戒日)是太陽;

Ailoaios, or sometimes Ailoein (Elohim, God), Mercury; Ailoaios ,有時Ailoein (瑩,上帝) ,汞;

Oraios (Jaroah? or light?), the Moon. Oraios ( Jaroah ?或輕? ) ,月球。

In the hellenized form of Gnosticism either all or some of these names are replaced by personified vices.在hellenized形式的諾斯替主義要么全部或部分這些名字所取代,個性化的惡習。 Authadia (Authades), or Audacity, is the obvious description of Jaldabaoth, the presumptuous Demiurge, who is lion-faced as the Archon Authadia. Authadia ( Authades ) ,或Audacity的,是明顯的說明Jaldabaoth ,造物主的狂妄,誰是獅子面臨的執政官Authadia 。 Of the Archons Kakia, Zelos, Phthonos, Errinnys, Epithymia, the last obviously represents Venus.的執政官Kakia , Zelos , Phthonos , Errinnys , Epithymia ,最後顯然代表金星。 The number seven is obtained by placing a proarchon or chief archon at the head.七年的數量得到了放置一個proarchon或首席執政官在頭部。 That these names are only a disguise for the Sancta Hebdomas is clear, for Sophia, the mother of them, retains the name of Ogdoas, Octonatio.這些名字只是一個偽裝的聖Hebdomas是明確的,對索菲亞的母親,其中,保留的名稱Ogdoas , Octonatio 。 Occasionally one meets with the Archon Esaldaios, which is evidently the El Shaddai of the Bible, and he is described as the Archon "number four" (harithmo tetartos) and must represent the Sun.有時,一個滿足的執政官Esaldaios ,這是明顯的El代聖經,他被描述為執政官“ 4號” ( harithmo tetartos ) ,並必須代表太陽。

In the system of the Gnostics mentioned by Epiphanius we find, as the Seven Archons, Iao, Saklas, Seth, David, Eloiein, Elilaios, and Jaldabaoth (or no. 6 Jaldaboath, no. 7 Sabaoth).在該系統中的Gnostics提到的埃皮法尼烏斯我們發現,由於七執政官, Iao , Saklas ,塞思,大衛, Eloiein , Elilaios ,並Jaldabaoth (或根本沒有。 6日Jaldaboath ,沒有。七日千萬軍馬) 。 Of these, Saklas is the chief demon of Manichaeism; Elilaios is probably connected with En-lil, the Bel of Nippur, the ancient god of Babylonia.這些, Saklas是首席惡魔摩尼教; Elilaios可能是與恩小小,在貝爾的尼普爾,古巴比倫之神。 In this, as in several other systems, the traces of the planetary seven have been obscured, but hardly in any have they become totally effaced. What tended most to obliterate the sevenfold distinction was the identification of the God of the Jews, the Lawgiver, with Jaldabaoth and his designation as World-creator, whereas formerly the seven planets together ruled the world.在此,因為在其他幾個系統,痕跡七個行星已模糊不清,但幾乎在任何有他們成為完全抹去。什麼往往最抹殺的七倍區別是確定上帝的猶太人,立法者,與Jaldabaoth和他被指定為世界創造者,而原來的七個行星一起統治世界。 This confusion, however, was suggested by the very fact that at least five of the seven archons bore Old-Testament names for God -- El Shaddai, Adonai, Elohim, Jehovah, Sabaoth.這種混亂,但是,所建議的事實,至少有5個執政官膛七老全書中的名字為上帝-薩爾瓦多代,阿多奈,瑩,耶和華,千萬軍馬。

(e) Doctrine of the Primeval Man (戊)學說的原始人類

The speculations on Primeval Man (Protanthropos, Adam) occupy a prominent place in several Gnostic systems.在揣測遠古人( Protanthropos ,亞當)佔有突出的地位在一些諾斯底制度。

According to Irenaeus (I, xxix, 3) the Æon Autogenes emits the true and perfect Anthrôpos, also called Adamas; he has a helpmate, "Perfect Knowledge", and receives an irresistible force, so that all things rest in him.據愛任紐(一,二十九, 3 )永旺Autogenes發出的真實和完善Anthrôpos ,也稱為Adamas ;他有一個幫手, “完美的知識” ,並收到不可抗拒的力量,因此,一切事物在他休息。 Others say (Irenaeus, I, xxx) there is a blessed and incorruptible and endless light in the power of Bythos; this is the Father of all things who is invoked as the First Man, who, with his Ennœa, emits "the Son of Man", or Euteranthrôpos. According to Valentinus, Adam was created in the name of Anthrôpos and overawes the demons by the fear of the pre-existent man (tou proontos anthropou).還有人說(依,我三十)有一種神聖和廉潔和無休止的輕的力量Bythos ;這是父親的一切事物誰是援引的第一人,誰,他Ennœa ,排放“的兒子人“ ,或Euteranthrôpos 。根據瓦倫廷,亞當已建立的名義Anthrôpos和overawes惡魔的恐懼前存在的男子(頭proontos anthropou ) 。 In the Valentinian syzygies and in the Marcosian system we meet in the fourth (originally the third) place Anthrôpos and Ecclesia.在瓦倫蒂安syzygies和Marcosian系統,我們舉行的第四次(原為第三次)發生Anthrôpos和教會。 In the Pistis Sophia the Æon Jeu is called the First Man, he is the overseer of the Light, messenger of the First Precept, and constitutes the forces of the Heimarmene.在Pistis索菲亞Aeon的遊戲所謂的第一人,他是監督員輕,送信的第一規範,並構成了部隊的Heimarmene 。 In the Books of the Jeu this "great Man" is the King of the Light-treasure, he is enthroned above all things and is the goal of all souls.在圖書的遊戲這個“偉大的人”是國王的光寶,他是上述坐床和一切事物的目標是所有的靈魂。 According to the Naassenes, the Protanthropos is the first element; the fundamental being before its differentiation into individuals.據Naassenes的Protanthropos是第一要素;基本被前分化成個人。 "The Son of Man" is the same being after it has been individualized into existing things and thus sunk into matter. The Gnostic Anthrôpos, therefore, or Adamas, as it is sometimes called, is a cosmogonic element, pure mind as distinct from matter, mind conceived hypostatically as emanating from God and not yet darkened by contact with matter. “兒子的人”是相同的正後,已納入現有的個性化的東西,從而陷入此事。諾斯底Anthrôpos ,因此,或Adamas ,因為它有時被稱為是一個cosmogonic元,純銘記有別於事項,銘記設想hypostatically作為來自上帝和尚未漆黑的接觸問題。 This mind is considered as the reason of humanity, or humanity itself, as a personified idea, a category without corporeality, the human reason conceived as the World-Soul.這考慮到被認為是人類的原因,或人類本身,作為一個人格化的想法,一類不corporeality ,人類有理由認為是世界的靈魂。

This speculation about the Anthrôpos is completely developed in Manichaeism, where, in fact, it is the basis of the whole system.這種猜測是完全Anthrôpos開發的摩尼教,而事實上,它是根據整個系統。 God, in danger of the power of darkness, creates with the help of the Spirit, the five worlds, the twelve elements, and the Eternal Man, and makes him combat the darkness.上帝,在危險的力量,黑暗,創造的幫助下,精神,五個世界的12要素,以及永恆的人,並讓他打擊黑暗。 But this Man is somehow overcome by evil and swallowed up by darkness.但是,這人是不知克服了邪惡和吞噬的黑暗。 The present universe is in throes to deliver the captive Man from the powers of darkness.目前的宇宙是在陣痛提供俘虜男人的權力黑暗之中。 In the Clementine Homilies the cosmogonic Anthrôpos is strangely mixed up with the historical figure of the first man, Adam.在克萊門汀講道詞的cosmogonic Anthrôpos是奇怪的混合與歷史人物的第一人,亞當。 Adam "was the true prophet, running through all ages, and hastening to rest"; "the Christ, who was from the beginning and is always, who was ever present to every generation in a hidden manner indeed, yet ever present".亞當“是真正的先知,貫穿所有的年齡,和加快休息” , “基督,誰是從一開始就和往常一樣,誰是以往任何時候都向每一代人都在一個隱藏的方式確實,但始終存在” 。 In fact Adam was, to use Modernist language, the Godhead immanent in the world and ever manifesting itself to the inner consciousness of the elect.事實上亞當是,使用現代語言,神體內在世界和以往任何時候都表現出自己的內在意識的選舉。

The same idea, somewhat modified, occurs in Hermetic literature, especially the "Poimandres".同樣的想法,經略加修改,發生在封閉的文獻,特別是“ Poimandres ” 。 It is elaborated by Philo, makes an ingenious distinction between the human being created first "after God's image and likeness" and the historic figures of Adam and Eve created afterwards.這是闡述哲學,使一個巧妙的區別正在創造人類第一次“後,上帝的形象和肖像”和歷史人物的亞當和夏娃之後創建的。 Adam kat eikona is: "Idea, Genus, Character, belonging to the world, of Understanding, without body, neither male nor female; he is the Beginning, the Name of God, the Logos, immortal, incorruptible" (De opif. mund., 134-148; De conf. ling.,146).亞當吉eikona是: “理念,屬,特徵,屬於世界,理解,沒有機構,既不男性也不女性,他是從,以上帝的名義,標識,不朽的,廉潔” (德opif 。 mund 。 , 134-148 ;德置信。玲。 , 146 ) 。 These ideas in Talmudism, Philonism, Gnosticism, and Trismegistic literature, all come from once source, the late Mazdea development of the Gayomarthians, or worshipper of the Super-Man.這些想法在Talmudism , Philonism ,諾斯替主義,並Trismegistic文學,都來自曾經來源,已故的Mazdea發展Gayomarthians ,或信徒的超滿。

(f) The Barbelo ( f )在Barbelo

This Gnostic figure, appearing in a number of systems, the Nicolaites, the "Gnostics" of Epiphanius, the Sethians, the system of the "Evangelium Mariae" and that in Irenaeus, I, xxix, 2 sq., remains to a certain extent an enigma.這諾斯底的數字,出現在了一些制度, Nicolaites的“ Gnostics ”的埃皮法尼烏斯的Sethians ,該系統的“福音Mariae ” ,在愛任紐,我二十九, 2平方米,仍然在一定程度上一個謎。 The name barbelo, barbeloth, barthenos has not been explained with certainty. barbelo的名稱, barbeloth , barthenos還沒有確切解釋。 In any case she represents the supreme female principle, is in fact the highest Godhead in its female aspect.在任何情況下,她代表女性的最高原則,實際上是最高神體在其女性方面的問題。 Barbelo has most of the functions of the ano Sophia as described above. Barbelo了大部分的職能肛門索菲亞如上所述。 So prominent was her place amongst some Gnostics that some schools were designated as Barbeliotae, Barbelo worshippers of Barbelognostics. She is probably none other than the Light-Maiden of the Pistis Sophia, the thygater tou photos or simply the Maiden, parthenos.因此,突出的是她之間的一些Gnostics ,一些學校被指定為Barbeliotae , Barbelo做禮拜的Barbelognostics 。她很可能不是別人,正是光少女的Pistis索菲亞, thygater頭的照片或簡單的少女,嫩。 In Epiphanius (Haer., xxvi, 1) and Philastrius (Haer., xxxiii) Parthenos (Barbelos) seems identical with Noria, whoplays a great role as wife either of Noah or of Seth.在埃皮法尼烏斯( Haer. , 26 , 1 )和Philastrius ( Haer. ,三十三)嫩( Barbelos )似乎相同諾里亞, whoplays了巨大作用妻子任諾亞或塞思。 The suggestion, that Noria is "Maiden", parthenos, Istar, Athena, Wisdom, Sophia, or Archamoth, seems worthy of consideration.有人建議,即諾里亞是“少女” ,嫩,伊斯塔,雅典娜,智慧,索菲亞,或Archamoth ,似乎值得考慮的。

RITES禮記

We are not so well informed about the practical and ritual side of Gnosticism as we are about its doctrinal and theoretical side.我們沒有這麼好了解的實際和禮儀方面的諾斯替主義我們即將其學說和理論方面。 However, St. Irenæus's account of the Marcosians, Hippolytus's account of the Elcesaites, the liturgical portions of the "Acta Thomae", some passages in the Pseudo-Clementines, and above all Coptic Gnostic and Mandaean literature gives us at least some insight into their liturgical practices.然而,聖依的帳戶Marcosians ,西波呂的帳戶Elcesaites的禮儀部分“ Thomae學報” ,一些段落中的偽Clementines ,最重要的科普特諾斯底和曼達文學使我們至少有一些了解其禮儀習俗。

(a) Baptism (一)洗禮

All Gnostic sects possessed this rite in some way; in Mandaeism daily baptism is one of the great practices of the system.諾斯底教派的所有擁有這一儀式以某種方式,在每天的洗禮Mandaeism是一個偉大實踐的制度。 The formulae used by Christian Gnostics seem to have varied widely from that enjoyed by Christ.該公式所使用的基督教Gnostics似乎差異很大享有的基督。 The Marcosians said: "In [eis] the name of the unknown Father of all, in [eis] the Truth, the Mother of all, in him, who came down on Jesus [eis ton katelthonta eis Iesoun]". The Elcesaites said: "In [en] the name of the great and highest God and in the name of his Son, the great King".該Marcosians說: “在[順]的名字未知之父,在[順]真相的母親,在他的誰下來上耶穌[順噸katelthonta順Iesoun ] ” 。說的Elcesaites : “在[英文]的名字和偉大的上帝和最高的名義,他的兒子,偉大的國王” 。 In Irenaeus (I, xxi, 3) we find the formula: "In the name that was hidden from every divinity and lordship and truth, which [name] Jesus the Nazarene has put on in the regions of light" and several other formulae, which were sometimes pronounced in Hebrew or Aramaic.在愛任紐(我, 21 , 3 )我們發現的公式: “在名稱,是每一個隱藏的神和貴族身份和真理,這[名稱]的拿撒勒耶穌已經在該地區的光”和其他幾個公式,有時明顯希伯來文或阿拉姆。 The Mandaeans said: "The name of the Life and the name of the Manda d'Haye is named over thee".該曼德安說: “名稱的生活和的名字曼達德名為海牙超過你。 ” In connection with Baptism the Sphragis was of great importance; in what the seal or sign consisted wherewith they were marked is not easy to say.關於洗禮的Sphragis是非常重要的;在什麼印章或簽署wherewith組成,他們明顯是不容易的說。 There was also the tradition of a name either by utterance or by handing a tablet with some mystic word on it.也有傳統的名稱由話語或移交平板與一些神秘的字上。

(b) Confirmation ( b )認可

The anointing of the candidate with chrism, or odoriferous ointment, is a Gnostic rite which overshadows the importance of baptism.該anointing的候選人與chrism ,或有氣味的軟膏,是諾斯底而黯然失色禮儀的重要性的洗禮。 In the "Acta Thomae", so some scholars maintain, it had completely replaced baptism, and was the sole sacrament of initiation.在“ Thomae學報” ,因此有些學者,它已完全取代的洗禮,並且是唯一的聖禮開始。 This however is not yet proven.不過,這尚未得到證實。 The Marcosians went so far as to reject Christian baptism and to substitute a mixture of oil and water which they poured over the head of the candidate.該Marcosians竟然拒絕基督教的洗禮和替代混合油和水,他們倒在頭上的候選人。 By confirmation the Gnostics intended not so much to give the Holy Ghost as to seal the candidates against the attacks of the archons, or to drive them away by the sweet odour which is above all things (tes uter ta hola euodias).通過確認的Gnostics不打算這麼多,讓聖靈以印章的候選人對襲擊的執政官,或促使它們走的甜蜜氣味高於一切事物(檢驗uter大霍拉euodias ) 。 The balsam was somehow supposed to have flowed from the Tree of Life, and this tree was again mystically connected with the Cross; for the chrism is in the "Acta Thomae" called "the hidden mystery in which the Cross is shown to us".在苦瓜在某種程度上應該有源自生命之樹,這種樹再次mystically與交叉;為chrism是在“ Thomae學報”所謂的“隱藏的奧秘,其中跨證明是我們” 。

(c) The Eucharist ( c )在聖

It is remarkable that so little is known of the Gnostic substitute for the Eucharist.值得注意的是,如此之少是眾所周知的諾斯底替代體。 In a number of passages we read of the breaking of the bread, but in what this consisted is not easy to determine.在一些段落我們讀到的打破麵包,但在這個由什麼是不容易的決定。 The use of salt in this rite seems to have been important (Clem., Hom. xiv), for we read distinctly how St. Peter broke the bread of the Eucharist and "putting salt thereon, he gave first to the mother and then to us".使用的鹽在這個儀式似乎已經重要( Clem. ,紅。十四) ,因為我們清楚如何讀聖彼得打破了麵包的聖體和“把鹽就此,他第一次給母親,然後我們“ 。 There is furthermore a great likelihood, though no certainty, that the Eucharist referred to in the "Acta Thomae" was merely a breaking of bread without the use of the cup.此外,有很大的可能性,但不能肯定,該體中提到的“ Thomae學報”僅僅是一個破麵包不使用的杯子。 This point is strongly controverted, but the contrary can hardly be proven.這一點是強烈controverted ,但相反就很難證明。 It is beyond doubt that the Gnostics often substituted water for the wine (Acta Thomae, Baptism of Mygdonia, ch. cxxi).這是毫無疑問, Gnostics往往取代水的葡萄酒(學報Thomae , Mygdonia洗禮,膽固醇。 cxxi ) 。 What formula of consecration was used we do not know, but the bread was certainly signed with the Cross.什麼公式,用奉獻,我們不知道,但麵包肯定是簽署了交叉。 It is to be noted that the Gnostics called the Eucharist by Christian sacrificial terms -- prosphora, "oblation", Thysia (II bk. of Jeû, 45).這是應當指出,所謂的Gnostics基督教聖祭祀條款-p rosphora, “祭品” , T hysia(二淺灘。的遊戲, 4 5歲) 。 In the Coptic Books (Pistis Sophia, 142; II Jeû, 45-47) we find a long description of some apparently Eucharistic ceremonies carried out by Jesus Himself.在科普特書籍( Pistis索菲亞, 142 ;二遊戲, 45-47 )我們找到一個長期的說明一些顯然聖儀式進行了耶穌本人。 In these fire and incense, two flasks, and also two cups, one with water, the other with wine, and branches of the vine are used.在這些火災和香爐,兩個瓶,也兩杯,一水,其他與葡萄酒和分支機構的藤蔓使用。 Christ crowns the Apostles with olive wreaths, begs Melchisedech to come and change wine into water for baptism, puts herbs in the Apostles' mouths and hands. Whether these actions in some sense reflect the ritual of Gnosticism, or are only imaginations of the author, cannot be decided.冠基督使徒橄欖樹花圈,迴避Melchisedech來改變葡萄酒在水中的洗禮,使中草藥在使徒嘴巴和手。無論這些行動在一定程度上反映了儀式諾斯替主義,或只是想像力的作者,不能決定。 The Gnostics seem also to have used oil sacramentally for the healing of the sick, and even the dead were anointed by them to be rendered safe and invisible in their transit through the realms of the archons.該Gnostics似乎也有廢油sacramentally的癒合的病人,甚至死者是受膏者由他們提供安全和無形的過境領域的執政官。

(d) The Nymphôn ( d )在Nymphôn

They possessed a special Gnostic sacrament of the bridechamber (nymphon) in which, through some symbolical actions, their souls were wedded to their angels in the Pleroma.他們擁有一個特殊諾斯底聖禮的bridechamber ( nymphon ) ,其中,通過一些象徵性的行動,他們的靈魂是拘泥於他們的天使在Pleroma 。 Details of its rites are not as yet known.詳情儀式尚未清楚。 Tertullian no doubt alluded to them in the words "Eleusinia fecerunt lenocinia".良毫無疑問,他們提到的話“ Eleusinia fecerunt lenocinia ” 。

(e) The Magic Vowels ( e )在魔術元音

An extraordinary prominence is given to the utterance of the vowels: alpha, epsilon, eta, iota, omicron, upsilon, omega.特別突出的話語的元音: α ,己,埃塔,絲毫的懈怠, omicron ,埃普西隆,歐米加。 The Saviour and His disciples are supposed in the midst of their sentences to have broken out in an interminable gibberish of only vowels; magic spells have come down to us consisting of vowels by the fourscore; on amulets the seven vowels, repeated according to all sorts of artifices, form a very common inscription.救世主和他的弟子理應處於他們的刑期已經爆發了一個無休止的胡言亂語只有元音;魔法都可以歸結為我們組成的元音的fourscore ;的護身符的七個母音,反复根據各種的技巧,形成一個非常常見的題詞。 Within the last few years these Gnostic vowels, so long a mystery, have been the object of careful study by Ruelle, Poirée, and Leclercq, and it may be considered proven that each vowel represents one of the seven planets, or archons; that the seven together represent the Universe, but without consonants they represent the Ideal and Infinite not yet imprisoned and limited by matter; that they represent a musical scale, probably like the Gregorian 1 tone re-re, or d, e, f, g, a, b, c, and many a Gnostic sheet of vowels is in fact a sheet of music.在過去幾年這些諾斯底元音,只要一個謎,一直是認真研究茹勒, Poirée ,並勒克萊爾,它可被視為證明,每個元音之一的七個行星,或執政官;的七一起代表宇宙,但沒有輔音它們所代表的理想和無限尚未被監禁的和有限的問題; ,他們代表了音階,很可能像公曆1基調重新恢復,或D , E , F型,克,一個, B , C和許多諾斯底資產負債表的元音實際上是一張音樂。 But research on this subject has only just begun.但是,研究這個問題才剛剛開始。 Among the Gnostics the Ophites were particularly fond of representing their cosmogonic speculations by diagrams, circles within circles, squares, and parallel lines, and other mathematical figures combined, with names written within them.在Gnostics的Ophites特別喜歡代表其cosmogonic猜測的圖表,界內界,廣場,以及平行線,和其他數學人物結合起來,同姓名的書面之內。 How far these sacred diagrams were used as symbols in their liturgy, we do not know.有多遠這些神聖的圖表被用作符號的禮儀,我們不知道。

SCHOOLS OF GNOSTICISM學校的諾斯替主義

Gnosticism possessed no central authority for either doctrine or discipline; considered as a whole it had no organization similar to the vast organization of the Catholic Church.諾斯替主義有沒有一個中央權力要么理論或紀律;作為一個整體考慮,沒有組織類似組織廣大天主教。 It was but a large conglomeration of sects, of which Marcionism alone attempted in some way to rival the constitution of the Church, and even Marcionism had no unity.這是一個大,但教派聚集,其中僅馬吉安試圖以某種方式對憲法的競爭對手的教會,甚至馬吉安沒有統一。 No other classification of these sects is possible than that according to their main trend of thought.沒有任何其他分類的這些教派有可能比說,根據他們的主要思潮。 We can therefore distinguish: (a) Syrian or Semitic; (b) Hellenistic or Alexandrian; (c) dualistic; (d) antinomian Gnostics.因此,我們可以區分: (一)敘利亞或猶太人; (二)希臘或亞歷山大; (三)二元; (四) antinomian Gnostics 。

(a) The Syrian School (一)敘利亞學校

This school represents the oldest phase of Gnosticism, as Western Asia was the birthplace of the movement.這所學校是最古老的階段諾斯替主義,作為西亞的誕生地運動。 Dositheus, Simon Magus, Menander, Cerinthus, Cerdo, Saturninus Justin, the Bardesanites, Sevrians, Ebionites, Encratites, Ophites, Naassenes, the Gnostics of the "Acts of Thomas", the Sethians, the Peratae, the Cainites may be said to belong to this school. Dositheus ,西蒙空氣,米南德,克林妥, Cerdo ,撒端黎納賈斯汀的Bardesanites , Sevrians ,以便尼派, Encratites , Ophites , Naassenes的Gnostics的“行為的托馬斯”的Sethians的Peratae的Cainites可以說屬於到這所學校。

The more fantastic elements and elaborate genealogies and syzygies of æons of the later Gnosis are still absent in these systems.更精彩的內容和闡述族譜和syzygies的æons後的預後仍然沒有在這些系統。 The terminology is some barbarous form of Semitic; Egypt is the symbolic name for the soul's land of bondage.術語是一些野蠻形式的反猶;埃及是具有象徵意義的名稱靈魂的土地的束縛。

The opposition between the good God and the World-Creator is not eternal or cosmogonic, though there is strong ethical opposition to Jehovah the God of the Jews.反對派之間的良好的上帝和世界造物主不是永恆的,或cosmogonic ,儘管有強烈的道德反對耶和華上帝的猶太人。 He is the last of the seven angels who fashioned this world out of eternally pre-existent matter.他是去年的7個天使誰老式這個世界的永恆預先存在問題。 The demiurgic angels, attempting to create man, created but a miserable worm, to which the Good God, however, gave the spark of divine life.該demiurgic天使,試圖創建人,創建,但只有可憐的蠕蟲病毒,該天哪然而,引發了神聖的生活。 The rule of the god of the Jews must pass away, for the good God calls us to his own immediate service through Christ his Son.法治的神的猶太人必須仙逝,為良好的上帝要求我們自己的服務立即通過他的兒子耶穌。 We obey the Supreme Deity by abstaining from flesh meat and marriage, and by leading an ascetic life.我們服從最高法院神投棄權票的肉和肉的婚姻,並領導一個苦行生活。

Such was the system of Saturninus of Antioch, who taught during the reign of Hadrian (c. AD 120).這是該系統的撒端黎納安提阿的,誰教時期哈德良(公元120角) 。 The Naassenes (from Nahas, the Hebrew for serpent) were worshippers of the serpent as a symbol of wisdom, which the God of the Jews tried to hide from men.該Naassenes (從納哈斯,希伯來文的蛇)是信徒的蛇象徵著智慧,而上帝的猶太人試圖隱藏從男子。 The Ophites (ophianoi, from ophis, serpent), who, when transplanted on Alexandrian soil, supplied the main ideas of Valentinianism, become one of the most widely spread sects of Gnosticism.該Ophites ( ophianoi ,來自ophis ,蛇) ,誰時,移植亞歷山大土壤,提供了主要觀點Valentinianism ,成為一種最普遍的教派諾斯替主義。 Though not strictly serpent-worshippers, they recognized the serpent as symbol of the supreme emanation, Achamoth or Divine Wisdom.雖然沒有嚴格蛇,信徒,他們認識到蛇作為象徵最高氣, Achamoth或神的智慧。 They were styled Gnostics par excellence. The Sethians saw in Seth the father of all spiritual (pneumatikoi) men; in Cain and Abel the father of the psychic (psychikoi) and hylic (hylikoi) men. According to the Peratae there exists a trinity of Father, Son, and Hyle (Matter).他們被稱為Gnostics卓越。 Sethians看到的在塞斯的父親一切精神( pneumatikoi )男子在該隱和亞伯的父親精神( psychikoi )和物質( hylikoi )男子。根據Peratae存在著一個三位一體的父親,兒子,和Hyle (物) 。 The Son is the Cosmic Serpent, who freed Eve from the power of the rule of Hyle.兒子是宇宙巨蛇,誰釋放了除夕的力量,法治的Hyle 。

The universe they symbolized by a triangle enclosed in a circle.宇宙的象徵,他們一個三角形封閉在一個圓圈。 The number three is the key to all mysteries. 3號是關鍵的所有奧秘。 There are three supreme principles: the not-generated, the self-generated, the generated.有三個最高原則:不生成,自我生成,生成的。 There are three logoi, of gods; the Saviour has a threefold nature, threefold body, threefold power, etc. They are called Peretae (peran) because they have "crossed over" out of Egypt, through the Red Sea of generation.有三個logoi ,神;救世主了三個性質,三個機構,三個權力,等等他們被稱為Peretae ( peran ) ,因為它們“越過”出埃及,通過紅海的一代。 They are the true Hebrews, in fact (the word comes from the Hebrew meaning "to cross over").他們是真正的希伯來人,事實上(一詞來源於希伯來語意為“跨越” ) 。 The Peratae were founded by Euphrates and Celbes (Acembes?) and Ademes.該Peratae成立了由幼發拉底河和Celbes ( Acembes ? )和Ademes 。 This Euphrates, whose name is perhaps connected with the name Peratae itself, is said to be the founder of the Ophites mentioned by Celsus about AD 175.這幼發拉底河,他的名字也許是與名稱Peratae本身,據說是創始人Ophites提到的駁克里索約公元175 。 The Cainites were so called because they venerated Cain, and Esau, and the Sodomites, and Core, and Judas, because they had all resisted the god of the Jews.該Cainites是所謂的,因為他們尊敬的凱恩,並以掃,並Sodomites和核心,並猶大,因為他們都抗拒神的猶太人。

(b) The Hellenistic or Alexandrian School ( b )在希臘或亞歷山大學校

These systems were more abstract, and philosophical, and self-consistent than the Syrian.這些系統更抽象的,與哲學,並自洽比敘利亞。 The Semitic nomenclature was almost entirely replaced by Greek names.在猶太人的名稱幾乎完全取代希臘的名字。 The cosmogonic problem had outgrown all proportions, the ethical side was less prominent, asceticism less strictly enforced.該cosmogonic問題已超出所有的地步,道德方面不那麼突出,禁慾主義不到嚴格執行。

The two great thinkers of this school were Basilides and Valentinus.這兩個偉大的思想家的這所學校是巴西里德和瓦倫廷。

Though born at Antioch, in Syria, Basilides founded his school in Alexandria (c. AD 130), and was followed by his son Isidorus.雖然出生在安提阿,敘利亞,巴西里德創立他的學校在亞歷山德里亞(角公元130 ) ,其次是他的兒子Isidorus 。 His system was the most consistent and sober emanationism that Gnosticism ever produced.他的系統是最穩定的和清醒的emanationism的諾斯替主義以往任何時候都生產。 His school never spread so widely as the next to be mentioned, but in Spain it survived for several centuries.他的學校從來沒有如此廣泛的傳播作為下一個被提及的,但在西班牙的存活數百年。

Valentinus, who taught first at Alexandria and then at Rome (c. AD 160), elaborated a system of sexual duality in the process of emanation; a long series of male and female pairs of personified ideas is employed to bridge over the distance from the unknown God to this present world.瓦倫廷,誰教首先在亞歷山德里亞,然後在羅馬(公元160角) ,制定了一項制度性的二元的過程中,氣;了一系列的男性和女性對人格化的想法是採用橋樑的距離未知上帝本世界。 His system is more confused than Basilidianism, especially as it is disturbed by the intrusion of the figure or figures of Sophia in the cosmogonic process.他的系統更比Basilidianism混淆,尤其是因為它是不安的是入侵的數字或數字索菲亞在cosmogonic進程。 Being Syrian Ophitism in Egyptian guise, it can claim to be the true representative of the Gnostic spirit.正在敘利亞在埃及Ophitism幌子,它可以聲稱自己是真正的代表諾斯底的精神。

The reductio ad absurdum of these unbridled speculations can be seen in the Pitis Sophia, which is light-maidens, paralemptores, spheres, Heimarmene, thirteen æons, light-treasures, realms of the midst, realms of the right and of the left, Jaldabaoth, Adamas, Michael, Gabriel, Christ, the Saviour, and mysteries without number whirl past and return like witches in a dance.在歸謬法這些肆無忌憚的投機可以看出在索菲亞Pitis ,這是輕姑娘, paralemptores ,領域, Heimarmene , 13 æons ,輕寶藏,境界之中,境界的權利和左, Jaldabaoth , Adamas ,邁克爾,加布里埃爾,基督救世主,並沒有一些奧秘旋轉過去,回到像巫婆的舞蹈。 The impression created on the same reader can only be fitly described in the words of "Jabberwocky": "gyre and gimble on the wabe".給人的印象建立在相同的讀者只能fitly中描述的話“ Jabberwocky ” : “渦旋和gimble的wabe ” 。

We learn from Hippolytus (Adv. Haer., IV, xxxv), Tertullian (Adv. Valent., iv) and Clemens Alex.我們從西波呂( Adv. Haer 。 ,四,三十五) ,良( Adv.價。 ,四)和克萊門斯亞歷克斯。 (Exc. ex Theod., title) that there were two main schools of Valentinianism, the Italian and the Anatolian or Asiatic. ( Exc.前Theod 。所有權) ,有兩個主要的學校Valentinianism ,意大利和土耳其或亞洲。 In the Italian school were teachers of note: Secundus, who divided the Ogdoad within the Pleroma into two tetrads, Right and Left; Epiphanes, who described this Tetras as Monotes, Henotes, Monas, and To Hen; and possibly Colorbasus, unless his name be a misreading of Kol Arba "All Four".在意大利的學校被老師請注意: Secundus ,誰分裂Ogdoad內Pleroma分為四分,左,右;伊皮法尼斯,誰形容這次Tetras作為Monotes , Henotes ,滴蟲,並母雞; ,並可能Colorbasus ,除非他的名字是一個誤讀的科爾爾巴迪“所有四個。 ” But the most important were Ptolemy and Heracleon.但最重要的是托勒密和Heracleon 。

Ptolemy is especially known to fame by his letter to Flora, a noble lady who had written to him as Prom Presbyter (Texte u. Unters., NS, XIII, Anal. z. alt. Gesch. d. Chr.) to explain the meaning of the Old Testament.托勒密尤其是眾所周知的名利,他寫信給植物區系,一個崇高的夫人誰曾寫信給他的舞會發起人(文本美國Unters 。 ,生理鹽水,十三,肛門。威爾舊。 Gesch 。 d.染色體。 )解釋含義舊約。 This Ptolemy split up the names and numbers of the æons into personified substances outside the deity, as Tertullian relates.這托勒密分裂的姓名和號碼æons到人格化的物質之外的神,因為良涉及。 He was given to Biblical studies, and was a man of unbridled imagination.他考慮到聖經的研究,是一個男人肆無忌憚的想像力。

Clemens Alex.克萊門斯亞歷克斯。 (Strom., IV, ix, 73) calls Heracleon the most eminent teacher of the Valentinian school. ( Strom. ,四,九, 73歲)要求Heracleon最傑出教師瓦倫蒂安學校。 Origen devotes a large part of his commentary on St. John to combating Heracleon's commentary on the same Evangelist.奧利投入的很大一部分他的評注聖約翰打擊Heracleon的評論在同一傳播者。 Heracleon called the source of all being Anthropos, instead of Bythos, and rejected the immortality of the soul -- meaning, probably, the merely psychic element. Heracleon所謂的來源正在Anthropos所有,而不是Bythos ,並拒絕了不朽的靈魂-這意味著,也許僅僅心理因素。 He apparently stood nearer to the Catholic Church than Ptolemy and was a man of better judgment.他顯然站在靠近天主教比托勒密和是一位更好的判斷。

Tertullian mentions two other names (Valent., iv), Theotimus and (De Carne Christ, xvii) Alexander.良提到了另外兩個名字( Valent. ,四) , Theotimus和(德卡爾內基督,十七)亞歷山大。

The Anatolian school had as a prominent teacher Axionicus (Tertullian, Adv. Valent., iv; Hipp., Adv. Haer., VI, 30) who had his collegium at Antioch about AD 220, "the master's most faithful disciple".安納托利亞學校作為一個突出的教師Axionicus (良,腺病毒。價。 ,四; Hipp 。 ,腺病毒。 Haer 。 ,六, 30 )誰,他在學院安提約公元220個, “主人的最忠實信徒” 。 Theodotus is only known to us from the fragment of his writings preserved by Clement of Alexandria. Theodotus只是我們知道的片段他的著作保存了克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞。 Marcus the Conjuror's system, an elaborate speculation with ciphers and numbers, is given by Irenaeus (I, 11-12) and also by Hippolytus (VI, 42).馬庫斯的Conjuror的制度,精心投機,密碼和數字,是由依(我, 11-12 ) ,也由西波呂(六, 42 ) 。 Irenaeus's account of Marcus was repudiated by the Marcosians, but Hippolytus asserts that they did so without reason.愛任紐的帳戶馬庫斯是否定的Marcosians ,但西波呂聲稱,他們這樣做沒有道理。 Marcus was probably an Egyptian and a contemporary of Irenaeus. A system not unlike that of the Marcosians was worked out by Monoimus the Arabian, to whom Hippolytus devotes chapters 5 to 8 of Book VIII, and who is mentioned only by Theodoret besides him.馬庫斯可能是埃及和當代的依。制度沒有什麼不同,在工作Marcosians是由Monoimus阿拉伯海,向誰西波呂專門章節5日至8圖書八,是誰只提到了Theodoret除了他。 Hippolytus is right in calling these two Gnostics imitations of Pythagoras rather than Christians.西波呂是正確的,要求這兩個Gnostics仿畢達哥拉斯,而不是基督教徒。 According to the Epistles of Julian the Apostate, Valentinian collegia existed in Asia Minor up to his own times (d. 363).根據書信的朱利安的叛教者,瓦倫蒂安collegia中存在的小亞細亞了他自己的時代(草363 ) 。

(c) The Dualistic School (三)二元學校

Some dualism was indeed congenital with Gnosticism, yet but rarely did it overcome the main tendency of Gnosticism, ie Pantheism.一些二元確實是先天性的諾斯替主義,但但很少沒有克服的主要趨勢諾斯替主義,即泛神論。 This, however, was certainly the case in the system of Marcion, who distinguished between the God of the New Testament and the God of the Old Testament, as between two eternal principles, the first being Good, agathos; the second merely dikaios, or just; yet even Marcion did not carry this system to its ultimate consequences.然而,這無疑是案件的制度,馬吉安,誰區分上帝的新約和上帝的舊約,因為兩國之間永恆的原則,首先是良好的, agathos ;第二只是dikaios ,或剛才;然而,即使馬吉安沒有攜帶該系統的最終後果。 He may be considered rather as a forerunner of Mani than a pure Gnostic.他可以考慮,而作為先行者的嘛呢比一個純粹的諾斯底。 Three of his disciples, Potitus, Basilicus, and Lucanus, are mentioned by Eusebius as being true to their master's dualism (HE, V, xiii), but Apelles, his chief disciple, though he went farther than his master in rejecting the Old-Testament Scriptures, returned to monotheism by considering the Inspirer of Old-Testament prophecies to be not a god, but an evil angel.他的三個弟子, Potitus , Basilicus ,並Lucanus ,是所提到的優西比烏視為真正的主人的二元論(何,五,十三) ,但阿佩萊斯,他的首席弟子,但他做得比他的主人拒絕老舊約聖經,回到一神教考慮的是鼓動舊聖經的預言是不是神,而是一種邪惡的天使。 On the other hand, Syneros and Prepon, also his disciples, postulated three different principles.另一方面, Syneros和Prepon ,也是他的弟子,假設三種不同的原則。 A somewhat different dualism was taught by Hermogenes in the beginning of the second century at Carthage.一種略為不同的二元結構是由何摩金斯教授在年初的第二個世紀在迦太基。 The opponent of the good God was not the God of the Jews, but Eternal Matter, the source of all evil.對手的良好上帝不是上帝的猶太人,但永恆的問題,來源的所有罪惡。 This Gnostic was combatted by Theophilus of Antioch and Tertullian.這是諾斯底的提阿combatted安提和良。

(d) The Antinomian School (四)學校Antinomian

As a moral law was given by the God of the Jews, and opposition to the God of the Jews was a duty, the breaking of the moral law to spite its give was considered a solemn obligation.作為一個道義上的法律是由上帝的猶太人,反對上帝的猶太人是一種責任,打破道德法律儘管它給被認為是一個莊嚴的義務。 Such a sect, called the Nicolaites, existed in Apostolic times, their principle, according to Origen, was parachresthai te sarki.這樣一個邪教,叫做Nicolaites ,存在於使徒時代,他們的原則,根據俄利根,是parachresthai德sarki 。 Carpocrates, whom Tertullian (De animâ, xxxv) calls a magician and a fornicator, was a contemporary of Basilides. Carpocrates ,其中良(德靈魂,三十五)呼籲魔術師和fornicator ,是一種當代的巴西里德。 One could only escape the cosmic powers through discharging one's obligations to them by infamous conduct.只能逃避宇宙的權力通過履行自己的義務,他們的無恥行為。 To disregard all law and sink oneself into the Monad by remembering one's pre-existence in the Cosmic Unit -- such was the Gnosis of Carpocrates.無視所有的法律和匯到自己的單子記住一個人的前存在的宇宙股-這種是直覺的C arpocrates。 His son Epiphanes followed his father's doctrine so closely that he died in consequence of his sins at the age of seventeen.他的兒子伊皮法尼斯隨後他父親的學說如此緊密,他死亡的後果,他的罪孽,年僅十七歲的。 Antinomian views were further maintained by the Prodicians and Antitactae. Antinomian意見,進一步保持Prodicians和Antitactae 。 No more ghastly instance of insane immorality can be found than the one mentioned in Pistis Sophia itself as practised by some Gnostics.更可怕的任何實例瘋狂的不道德行為可以找到一個比中提到Pistis索菲亞本身實行的一些Gnostics 。 St. Justin (Apol., I, xxvi), Irenaeus (I, xxv, 3) and Eusebius (HE, IV, vii) make it clear that "the reputation of these men brought infamy upon the whole race of Christians".聖賈斯汀( Apol. ,我XXVI )號決議,依(一, 25 , 3 )和優西比烏(何,四,七)明確指出, “聲譽的這些人帶來的恥辱整場比賽的基督徒” 。

LITERATURE文學

The Gnostics developed an astounding literary activity, which produced a quantity of writings far surpassing contemporary output of Catholic literature. They were most prolific in the sphere of fiction, as it is safe to say that three-fourths of the early Christians romances about Christ and His disciples emanated from Gnostic circles.該Gnostics制定了一項驚人的文學活動,產生了大量的著作,遠遠超過當代輸出天主教文獻。他們是最豐富的領域的小說,因為它有把握地說,四分之三的早期基督徒浪漫的基督和他的弟子來自諾斯底界。 Besides these -- often crude and clumsy -- romances they possessed what may be called "theosophic" treatises and revelations of a highly mystical character.除了這些-通常原油和笨拙-浪漫他們擁有可能是所謂的“ t h eosophic”論文,並揭露了高度神秘的性質。 These are best described as a stupefying roar of bombast occasionally interrupted by a few words of real sublimity.這些都是最好的描述為stupefying轟鳴聲豪不時打斷了幾句話真正的崇高。 Traine remarks with justice: "Anyone who reads the teachings of the Gnostics breathes in an atmosphere of fever and fancies himself in a hospital, amongst delirious patients, who are lost in gazing at their own teeming thought and who fix their lustrous eyes on empty space" (Essais de crit. et d'histoire, Paris, 1904). Traine言論與正義: “任何誰的教義內容的Gnostics呼吸的氣氛中出現發燒和幻想自己在醫院,患者之間的錯亂,誰在損失望著自己滿以為,誰修復其光澤的眼睛空“ (論集臨界。研究和歷史,巴黎, 1904年) 。 Gnostic literature, therefore, possesses little or no intrinsic value, however great its value for history and psychology.諾斯底文獻,因此,擁有很少或根本沒有內在價值,但其價值巨大的歷史和心理。 It is of unparalleled importance in the study of the surroundings in which Christianity first arose. The bulk of it is unfortunately no longer extant.這是無與倫比的重要性的研究環境,其中基督教第一次出現。大部分不幸的是,它不再現存的。 With the exception of some Coptic translations and some expurgated or Catholicized Syriac versions, we possess only a number of fragments of what once must have formed a large library.除了一些科普特翻譯和一些expurgated或Catholicized敘利亞的版本,我們不僅擁有了一些什麼碎片一旦形成必須有一個大圖書館。 Most of this literature will be found catalogued under the names of Gnostic authors in the articles BASILIDES; BARDESANES; CERINTHUS; MARCION; SIMON MAGUS; PTOLEMY; VALENTINUS.其中大部分將文獻目錄下找到的名字諾斯底作者在文章巴希理; BARDESANES ;克林妥;馬吉安;西蒙空氣;托勒密;瓦倫廷。 We shall enumerate in the following paragraphs only anonymous Gnostic works and such writings as are not attributed to any of the above authors.我們將列舉在下面的段落中只有匿名諾斯底工程等著作的信息並不屬於上述任何作者。

The Nicolaites possessed "some books under the name of Jaldabaoth", a book called "Nôria" (the mythical wife of Noah), prophecy of Barcabbas, who was a soothsayer among the Basilidians, a "Gospel of the Consummation", and a kind of apocalypse called "the Gospel of Eva" (Epiph., Adv. Haer., xxv, xxvi; Philastr., 33). Nicolaites擁有的“幾本書的名字Jaldabaoth ” ,一本書所謂的“諾里亞” (傳說中諾亞的妻子) ,預言Barcabbas ,誰是預言家之間的Basilidians ,一個“福音的圓滿” ,以及一種世界末日所謂的“福音伊娃” ( Epiph. ,腺病毒。 Haer 。 ,第二十五,二十六; Philastr 。 , 33 ) 。 The Ophites possessed "thousands" of apocrypha, as Epiphanius tells us; among these he specially mentions: "Questions of Mary, great and small" (some of these questions are perhaps extant in the Pistis Sophia); also many books under the name of "Seth", "Revelations of Adam", Apocryphal Gospels attributed to Apostles; an Apocalypse of Elias, and a book called "Genna Marias".該Ophites擁有“成千上萬”的偽經,因為埃皮法尼烏斯告訴我們;其中他特別提到: “問題的瑪麗,大和小” (其中的一些問題也許是現存的Pistis索菲亞) ;也有許多書籍的名義下“賽斯” , “亞當的啟示” ,未經福音歸因於使徒;一個啟示埃利亞斯,一本書和所謂的“真納麗亞斯” 。 Of these writings some revelations of Adam and Seth, eight in number, are probably extant in an Armenian translation, published in the Mechitarist collection of the Old-Testament apocrypha (Venice, 1896).這些著作的一些啟示亞當和Seth , 8個號碼,可能是現存的一個亞美尼亞翻譯,出版的Mechitarist收集舊約偽經(威尼斯, 1896年) 。 See Preuschen "Die apocryph. Gnost. Adamschr."見Preuschen “模具apocryph 。 Gnost 。 Adamschr 。 ” (Giessen, 1900). (吉森, 1900 ) 。 The Cainites possessed a "Gospel of Judas", an "Ascension of Paul" (anabatikon Paulou) and some other book, of which we do not know the title, but which, according to Epiphanius, was full of wickedness.該Cainites擁有“猶大福音” ,是“阿森松島的保羅” ( anabatikon Paulou )和其他一些書籍,其中有我們不知道的標題,但據埃皮法尼烏斯,充滿了邪惡。 The Prodicians, according to Clem.該Prodicians ,根據克萊姆。 Alex., possessed apocrypha under the name of Zoroaster (Strom., I, xv, 69).亞歷克斯。 ,擁有偽經的名字Zoroaster ( Strom. ,我十五, 69歲) 。 The Antinomians had an apocryphon "full of audacity and wickedness" (Strom., III, iv, 29; Origen, "In Matth,", xxviii).該Antinomians了apocryphon “充滿了勇氣和邪惡” ( Strom. ,三,四, 29 ;奧利, “在Matth ” ,二十八) 。 The Naassenes had a book out of which Hippolytus largely quotes, but of which we do not know the title.該Naassenes了一本書,其中大部分西波呂報價,但我們不知道的標題。 It contained a commentary on Bible texts, hymns, and psalms. The Peratae possessed a similar book.它載有評注聖經文本,讚美詩,以及詩歌。 Peratae擁有的類似的書。 The Sethians possessed a "Paraphrasis Seth", consisting of seven books, explanatory of their system, a book called Allogeneis, or "Foreigners", an "Apocalypse of Adam", a book attributed to Moses, and others.該Sethians擁有“ Paraphrasis賽” ,由七本書,說明他們的系統,一書Allogeneis ,或“外國人” ,一個“亞當的啟示” ,一本書歸於摩西,和其他人。 The Archontians possessed a large and small book entitled "Symphonia"; this possibly extant in Pitra's "Analecta Sacra" (Paris, 1888).該Archontians擁有大國和小書,題為“交響曲” ,這可能是現存的羅弗的“ Analecta薩克拉” (巴黎, 1888年) 。 The Gnostics attacked by Plotinus possessed apocrypha attributed to Zoroaster, Zostrian, Nichotheus, Allogenes (the Sethian Book "Allogeneis"?), and others.該Gnostics攻擊普羅提諾擁有偽經歸因於Zoroaster , Zostrian , Nichotheus , Allogenes ( Sethian圖書的“ Allogeneis ” ? )等。

In addition to these writings the following apocrypha are evidently of Gnostic authorship:除了這些著作下面的偽經具有明顯的諾斯底作者:

"The Gospel of the Twelve" -- This is first referred to by Origen (Hom. I, in Luc.), is identical with the Gospel of the Ebionites, and is also called the "Gospel according to Matthew", because in it Christ refers to St. Matthew in the second person, and the author speaks of the other Apostles and himself as "we". “福音十二” -這是第一次提到的奧利( H om.我,在呂克。 )是相同的福音以便尼派,也是所謂的“馬太福音” ,因為它基督是指馬太在第二的人,作者談到其他使徒和他本人的“我們” 。 This Gospel was written before AD 200, and has no connection with the so-called Hebrew St. Matthew or the Gospel according to the Hebrews.這福音寫在公元200名,並沒有與所謂的希伯來文或馬太福音根據希伯來人。

"The Gospel according to the Egyptians", ie Christian countryfolk of Egypt, not Alexandrians. “福音按照埃及人” ,即基督教countryfolk埃及,而不是Alexandrians 。 It was written about AD 150 and referred to by Clem.這是寫反傾銷和150所提到的克萊姆。 Alex. (Strom., III, ix, 63; xiii, 93) and Origen (Hom. I, in Luc), and was largely used in non-Catholic circles.亞歷克斯。 ( Strom. ,三,九, 63歲;十三, 93 )和奧利( Hom.我,在呂克) ,並主要是用於非天主教界人士。 Only small fragments are extant in Clem.只有小片段是現存的克萊姆。 Alex. (Strom. and Excerp. ex Theod.).亞歷克斯。 ( Strom.和Excerp 。前Theod 。 ) 。 Some people have referred the Oxyrhynchus "Logia" and the Strasburg Coptic papyri to this Gospel, but this is a mere guess.有些人提到Oxyrhynchus “ Logia ”和斯特拉斯堡科普特紙莎草紙本福音,但是這僅僅是一種猜測。

"The Gospel of Peter", written about AD 140 in Antioch (see DOCETAE). Another Petrine Gospel, see description of the Ahmin Codex. “福音彼得” ,寫於公元140安提阿(見DOCETAE ) 。另一個伯多祿福音,見說明Ahmin法典。

A "Gospel of Matthias" written about AD 125, used in Basilidian circles (see BASILIDES).一個“福音馬蒂亞斯”書面約公元125 ,使用Basilidian界(見巴希理) 。

A "Gospel of Philip" and a "Gospel of Thomas".一個“菲利普福音”和“多馬福音” 。 According to the Pistis Sophia, the three Apostles Matthew [read Matthias], Thomas, and Philip received a Divine commission to report all Christ's revelations after His Resurrection.據Pistis索菲亞,三個使徒馬太[閱讀馬蒂亞斯] ,托馬斯和菲利普收到了神聖的委員會報告所有基督的啟示後,他的復活。

The Gospel of Thomas must have been of considerable length (1300 lines); part of it, in an expurgated recension, is possibly extant in the once popular, but vulgar and foolish, "Stories of the Infancy of Our Lord by Thomas, an Israelite philosopher", of which two Greek, as Latin, a Syriac, and a Slavonic version exist.福音托馬斯必須有很大的長度( 1300線) ;的一部分,在一個expurgated recension ,可能是現存的再次流行,但庸俗的和愚蠢的, “故事的我國嬰幼兒的主托馬斯,一個以色列人哲學家“ ,其中兩個希臘,作為拉丁美洲,一個敘利亞和斯拉夫語版本存在。

"Acts of Peter" (Praxis Petrou), written about AD 165. “行為的彼得” (實踐彼得魯) ,書面約公元165 。 Large fragments of this Gnostic production have been preserved to us in the original Greek and also in a Latin translation under the title of "Martyrdom of the Holy Apostle Peter", to which the Latin adds, "a Lino episcopo conscriptum".大片段的諾斯底生產已經給我們保存在原來的希臘和也是在拉丁美洲翻譯的標題下的“殉難聖彼得使徒” ,而拉丁美洲補充說, “一個利諾episcopo conscriptum ” 。 Greater portions of this apocryphon are translated in the so-called "Actus Petri cum Simone", and likewise in Sahidic and Slavonic, Arabic, and Ethiopic versions.大部份這apocryphon翻譯所謂的“現實的Petri暨西蒙娜” ,同樣在Sahidic和斯拉夫語,阿拉伯語,和埃塞俄比亞的版本。

These fragments have been gathered by Lipsius and Bonnet in "Acta apostolorum apocr."這些碎片已收集到的Lipsius和邦尼特在“學報apocr宗徒。 ” (Leipzig, 1891), I. Though these recensions of the "Acts of Peter" have been somewhat Catholicized, their Gnostic character is unmistakable, and they are of value for Gnostic symbolism. (萊比錫, 1891年) ,一,雖然這些recensions的“行為的彼得”已經有點Catholicized ,其特點是諾斯底無誤,他們的價值,諾斯底的象徵意義。

Closely connected with the "Acts of Peter" are the "Acts of Andrew" and the "Acts of John", which three have perhaps one and the same author, a certain Leucius Charinus, and were written before AD 200.緊密聯繫在一起的“行為的彼得”是“行為的安德魯”和“行為的約翰” ,其中有3也許是同一個作者,某Leucius Charinus ,並收到書面公元200人。 They have come down to us in a number of Catholic recensions and in different versions.他們來了,我們在一些天主教recensions並在不同的版本。 For the Acts of Andrew see Bonnet, "Acta", as above (1898), II, 1, pp.的行為安德魯見邦尼特, “學報” ,因為以上( 1898年) ,二, 1頁。 1-127; for "Acts of John", ibid., pp. 1-127 ;為“行為的約翰” ,同上。頁。 151-216. 151-216 。 To find the primitive Gnostic form in the bewildering variety and multiplicity of fragments and modifications is still a task for scholars.要找到原始的諾斯底形式的撲朔迷離品種和各種各樣的碎片和修改,仍然是一個學者的任務。

Of paramount importance for the understanding of Gnosticism are the "Acts of Thomas", as they have been preserved in their entirety and contain the earliest Gnostic ritual, poetry, and speculation.最為重要的是了解諾斯替主義是“行為的托馬斯” ,因為它們已保存的全部和遏制最早的諾斯底儀式,詩歌,和猜測。 They exist in two recensions, the Greek and the Syriac.它們存在於兩個recensions ,希臘和敘利亞。 It seems most likely, though not certain, that the original was Syriac; it is suggested that they were written about AD 232, when the relics of St. Thomas were translated to Edessa.看來最有可能的,但不是肯定的,原來是敘利亞,它是建議,他們寫公元232時,文物的聖托馬斯被翻譯為埃德薩。 Of the greatest value are the two prayers of Consecration, the "Ode to Wisdom" and the "Hymn of the Soul", which are inserted in the Syriac narrative, and which are wanting in the Greek Acts, though independent Greek texts of these passages are extant (Syriac with English translation by W. Wright, "Apocr. Acts of the Apost.", London, 1871).最大的價值是兩個祈禱神聖的“智慧頌”和“歌魂” ,這是插入到敘利亞的說明,並希望這是在希臘的行為,雖然是獨立希臘文的這些通道是現存的(敘利亞與英文譯本由美國懷特, “ Apocr 。行為的Apost 。 ”倫敦, 1871年) 。 The "Hymn to the Soul" has been translated many times into English, especially, by A. Bevan, "Texts and Studies", Cambridge 1897; cf.在“歌的靈魂”已被翻譯多次譯成英文,特別是由A.文, “文本和研究報告” ,劍橋1897年;比照。 F. Burkitt in "Journal of Theological Studies" (Oxford, 1900).在樓伯基特雜誌“神學研究” (牛津, 1900年) 。 The most complete edition of the Greek Acts is by M. Bonnet in "Acta", as above, II, 2 (Leipzig, 1903; see BARDESANES).最完整版的希臘行為是由M.邦尼特在“學報” ,如上,二, 2 (萊比錫, 1903年;見BARDESANES ) 。 The Acts, though written in the service of Gnosticism, and full of the weirdest adventures, are not entirely without an historical background.的行為,雖然書面服務的諾斯替主義,並充分的weirdest冒險,並非完全沒有歷史背景。

There are a number of other apocrypha in which scholars have claimed to find traces of Gnostic authorship, but these traces are mostly vague and unsatisfactory.還有一些其他偽經的學者都聲稱找到痕跡諾斯底著作權,但這些痕跡大多是含糊不清,不能令人滿意。 In connection with these undoubtedly Gnostic apocrypha mention must be made of the Pseudo-Clementine Homilies.關於這些,無疑諾斯底偽經必須提到的偽克萊門汀講道詞。 It is true that these are more often classed under Judaistic than under strictly Gnostic literature, but their affinity to Gnostic speculations is at least a first sight so close and their connection with the Book of Elxai (cf. ELCESAITES) so generally recognized that they cannot be omitted in a list of Gnostic writings.誠然,這些都是更經常下Judaistic歸類比嚴格諾斯底文獻,但其親和力諾斯底猜測至少是第一次看到如此接近和他們與書Elxai (參見ELCESAITES ) ,所以普遍認識到,他們不能省略了一系列諾斯底著作。 If the theory maintained by Dom Chapman in "The Date of the Clementines" (Zeitschrift f. N. Test. Wiss., 1908) and in the article CLEMENTINES in the Catholic Encyclopedia be correct, and consequently Pseudo-Clemens be a crypto-Arian who wrote AD 330, the "Homilies" might still have at least some value in the study of Gnosticism.如果理論保持大教堂查普曼在“日期Clementines ” (注荷蘭盾雜誌測試。 Wiss 。 , 1908年)和第CLEMENTINES在天主教百科全書是正確的,因此,偽克萊門斯是一個密碼阿里安誰寫公元330中, “講道詞”仍可能至少有一定價值的研究諾斯替主義。 But Dom Chapman's theory, though ingenious, is too daring and as yet too unsupported, to justify the omission of the "Homilies" in this place.但是,查普曼大教堂的理論,但巧妙的,是過於大膽,也還沒有證據證明,證明遺漏的“講道詞”在這個地方。

A great, if not the greatest, part of Gnostic literature, which has been saved from the general wreck of Gnostic writings, is preserved to us in three Coptic codices, commonly called the Askew, the Bruce, and the Akhmim Codex.偉大的,如果不是最大的,諾斯底的一部分,文學,其中已保存從一般殘骸諾斯底著作,是我們保存在三個科普特codices ,通常稱為艾斯丘,布魯斯,以及Akhmim法典。 The Askew Codex, of the fifth of sixth century, contains the lengthy treatise "Pistis Sophia", ie Faith-Wisdom.該法典艾斯丘,第五屆第六世紀,包含了冗長的論文“ Pistis索菲亞” ,即信仰的智慧。 This is a work in four books, written between AD 250 and 300; the fourth book, however, is an adaptation of an earlier work.這是一個工作的四本書,寫公元250至300 ;的第四本書,但是,是適應了早先的工作。 The first two books describe the fall of the Æon Sophia and her salvation by the Æon Soter; the last two books describe the origin of sin and evil and the need of Gnostic repentance.前兩本書描述了秋季Aeon的索菲亞和她的救亡的永旺索特;的最後兩本書描述了原產地的罪孽和邪惡的和需要的諾斯底懺悔。 In fact the whole is a treatise on repentance, as the last two books only apply in practice the example of penance set by Sophia.事實上,整個是一個論文悔改,作為最後的兩本書只適用於在實踐中的例子所定懺悔索菲亞。 The work consists of a number of questions and answers between Christ and His male and female disciples in which five "Odes of Solomon", followed by mystical adaptations of the same, are inserted.這項工作包含了若干問題和答案之間的基督和他的男性和女性的弟子中,五名“所羅門頌歌” ,其次是神秘的調整一樣,都是字。 As the questioning is mostly done by Mary, the Pistis Sophia is probably identical with the "Questions of Mary" mentioned above.隨著訊問大多數是由瑪麗,索菲亞的Pistis可能是相同的“問題瑪麗”上述。 The codex also contains extracts from the "Book of the Saviour".食品法典委員會還包含摘錄“一書的救世主” 。 The dreary monotony of these writings can only be realized by those who have read them.沉悶單調的這些著作才能實現這些誰已經閱讀它們。 An English translation of the Latin translation of the Coptic, which itself is a translation of the Greek, was made by GRS Mead (London, 1896).的英譯本翻譯拉丁美洲的科普特人,這本身就是一個翻譯的希臘語,是由地球觀測衛星米德(倫敦, 1896年) 。 The Bruce papyrus is of about the same date as the Askew vellum codex and contains two treatises:布魯斯的莎草紙是大約在同一日期作為艾斯丘渦卷形抄本,並包含兩個論文:

the two books of Jeû, the first speculative and cosmogonic, the second practical, viz., the overcoming of the hostile world powers and the securing of salvation by the practice of certain rites: this latter book is styled "Of the Great Logos according to the mystery".這兩本書的遊戲,第一次投機和cosmogonic ,第二實用,即。 ,克服敵對世界的權力和確保救亡的做法某些儀式:這本書是後者稱為“偉大的標誌根據神秘“ 。

A treatise with unknown title, as the first and last pages are lost.阿論文與未知的標題,作為第一個和最後一個網頁都將丟失。 This work is of a purely speculative character and of great antiquity, written between AD 150 and 200 in Sethian or Archontian circles, and containing a reference to the prophets Marsanes, Nikotheus, and Phosilampes.這項工作是一個純粹的投機性和偉大的古代,書面公元150之間和200 Sethian或Archontian界,並載有提及先知Marsanes , Nikotheus ,並Phosilampes 。

No complete English translations of these treatises exist; some passages, however, are translated in the aforesaid GRS Mead's "Fragments of a Faith Forgotten".沒有完整的英文譯本這些論文存在;一些段落,然而,翻譯在上述地球觀測衛星米德的“片段的信仰被遺忘” 。 Both the Bruce and Askew Codices have been translated into German by C.無論是布魯斯和艾斯丘Codices已被翻譯成德文的C. Schmidt (1892) in "Texte u. Unters" and (1901) in the Berlin "Greek Fathers". A Latin translation exists of the "Pistis Sophia" by Schwartze and Petermann (Berlin, 1851) and a French one of the Bruce Codex by Amélineau (Paris, 1890). The Akhmim Codex of the fifth century, found in 1896, and now in the Egyptian Museum at Berlin, contains施密特( 1892年)在“文本美國Unters ”和( 1901 )在柏林“希臘教父” 。拉丁美洲翻譯存在的“ Pistis索菲亞”的Schwartze和彼得曼(柏林, 1851年)和法國的一個布魯斯法典由Amélineau (巴黎, 1890年) 。 Akhmim法典的第五世紀,發現於1896年,目前在埃及博物館在柏林,包含

a "Gospel of Mary", called in the subscriptions "An Apocryphon of John": this Gospel must be of the highest antiquity, as St. Irenæus, about AD 170, made use of it in his description of the Barbelo-Gnostics;一個“瑪利亞福音” ,所謂的訂閱“一項Apocryphon約翰” :這福音必須是最高的古代,因為聖依,大約公元170 ,使用了在他的描述Barbelo - Gnostics ;

a "Sophia Jesu Christi", containing revelations of Christ after His Resurrection;一個“上智基督耶穌” ,其中載有揭露後,他的基督復活;

a "Praxis Petri", containing a fantastic relation of the miracle worked on Peter's daughter.一個“實踐的Petri ” ,其中包含了一個美妙的關係的奇蹟彼得工作的女兒。

The study of Gnosticism is seriously retarded by the entirely unaccountable delay in the publication of these treatises; for these thirteen years past we possess only the brief account of this codex published in the "Sitzungsber. dk preus. Acad."研究諾斯替主義是嚴重智障的完全不負責任的推遲出版這些論文;為這些13年過去,我們只擁有簡單到這一抄本刊登在“ Sitzungsber 。 dk preus 。中山。 ” (Berlin, 1896), pp. (柏林, 1896年) ,頁。 839-847. 839-847 。

This account of Gnostic literature would be incomplete without reference to a treatise commonly published amongst the works of Clement of Alexandria and called "Excerpta ex Theodoto".此帳戶的諾斯底文獻將是不完整的交論文中常見的出版作品的克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞和所謂的“文摘前Theodoto ” 。 It consists of a number of Gnostic extracts made by Clement for his own use with the idea of future refutation; and, with Clement's notes and remarks on the same, form a very confusing anthology.它包含了一些諾斯底物所作的克萊門特,供其本人自用的想法未來的駁斥; ,並克萊門特的說明和意見相同,形成一個非常困惑的選集。 See O. Bibelius, "Studien zur Gesch. der Valent."見著Bibelius , “ Studien楚Gesch 。河畔價。 ” in "Zeitschr. f. N. Nest. Wiss." (Giessen, 1908).在“ Zeitschr 。荷蘭盾北巢。 Wiss 。 ” (吉森, 1908年) 。

Oriental non-Christian Gnosticism has left us the sacred books of the Mandaeans, viz.,東方非基督教諾斯替主義離開了我們神聖的書籍,曼德安,即。 ,

the "Genzâ rabâ" or "Great Treasure", a large collection of miscellaneous treatises of different date, some as late, probably, as the ninth, some as early, perhaps, as the third century.在“ Genzâ拉巴”或“大寶藏” ,大量收集雜論文的不同日期,有些晚了,也許,作為第九屆,有些早,也許,作為第三個世紀。 The Genzâ was translated into Latin, by Norberg (Copenhagen, 1817), and the most important treatises into German, by W.該Genzâ被翻譯成拉丁文,由諾伯格(哥本哈根, 1817 ) ,以及最重要的論文譯成德文,由總統 Brandt (Leipzig, 1892).勃蘭特(萊比錫, 1892年) 。

Kolasta, hymns and instructions on baptism and the journey of the soul, published in Mandaean by J. Euting (Stuttgart, 1867). Kolasta ,讚美詩和指示的洗禮和旅途的靈魂,在曼達出版的J. Euting (斯圖加特, 1867年) 。

Drâshê d'Jahya, a biography of John the Baptist "ab utero useque ad tumulum" -- as Abraham Echellensis puts it -- not published. Drâshê德Jahya ,傳記施洗約翰的“從頭宮內useque廣告tumulum ” -作為亞伯拉罕E chellensis所說的那樣-沒有公佈。

Alexandrian non-Christian Gnosticism is perceptible in Trismegistic literature, published in English translation by GRS Mead (London and Benares, 1902, three volumes).亞歷山大非基督教諾斯替主義是明顯的Trismegistic文學,出版了英文譯本的地球觀測衛星米德(倫敦和貝拿勒斯, 1902年,三冊) 。 Specifically Jewish Gnosticism left no literature, but Gnostic speculations have an echo in several Jewish works, such as the Book of Enoch, the Zohar, the Talmudic treatise Chagiga XV.具體來說猶太諾斯替主義沒有留下任何文獻,但諾斯底猜測有迴聲在幾個猶太人的作品,如以諾書的佐哈爾,在塔木德論文Chagiga十五。 See Gförer, "Philo", Vol.見Gförer , “哲學” ,第二卷。 I, and Karppe, "Etudes sur. ore. nat. d. Zohar" (Paris, 1901).我和Karppe , “練習曲河畔。礦石。自然。 d.佐哈爾” (巴黎, 1901年) 。

REFUTATION OF GNOSTICISM駁斥諾斯替主義

From the first Gnosticism met with the most determined opposition from the Catholic Church.從第一諾斯替主義會見了最堅決的反對天主教會。

The last words of the aged St. Paul in his First Epistle to Timothy are usually taken as referring to Gnosticism, which is described as "Profane novelties of words and oppositions of knowledge falsely so called [antitheseis tes pseudonomou gnoseos -- the antitheses of so-called Gnosis] which some professing have erred concerning the faith".最後一句話老年聖保祿在他的第一書提摩太通常採取的是指諾斯替主義,這是形容為“世俗新奇的話和反對虛假的知識所謂[ antitheseis檢驗pseudonomou gnoseos -在如此a ntitheses所謂的直覺] ,其中有一些自稱是錯誤的信仰“ 。 Most probably St. Paul's use of the terms pleroma, the æon of this world, the archon of the power of the air, in Ephesians and Colossians, was suggested by the abuse of these terms by the Gnostics.最有可能聖保祿利用職權pleroma ,永旺在這個世界上,執政官的權力的空氣,在以弗所書和歌羅西書,有人建議對濫用這些條款的Gnostics 。 Other allusions to Gnosticism in the New Testament are possible, but cannot be proven, such as Titus 3:9; 1 Timothy 4:3; 1 John 4:1-3.其他暗示諾斯替主義在新約是可能的,但不能證明,如泰特斯3點09分;提摩太前書4:3 ;約翰一書4:1-3 。

The first anti-Gnostic writer was St. Justin Martyr (dc 165).第一次反諾斯底作家是聖賈斯汀烈士(直流165 ) 。 His "Syntagma" (Syntagma kata pason ton gegenemenon aireseon), long thought lost, is substantially contained in the "Libellus adv. omn. haeres.", usually attached to Tertullian's "De Praescriptione"; such at least is the thesis of J. Kunze (1894) which is largely accepted.他的“錫塔瑪” (錫塔瑪字pason噸gegenemenon aireseon ) ,只要思想丟失,大大載於“ Libellus副詞。 omn 。 haeres 。 ”通常重視德爾圖良的“德Praescriptione ” ;等,至少是該論文的學者病( 1894年) ,其中主要是接受的。 Of St. Justin's anti-Gnostic treatise on the Resurrection (Peri anastaseos) considerable fragments are extant in Methodius' "Dialogue on the Resurrection" and in St. John Damascene's "Sacra Parellela". St.聖賈斯汀的反諾斯底論文的復活(圍anastaseos )有相當大的碎片在迪烏斯現存的“對話復活” ,並在聖約翰大馬士革的“薩克拉Parellela 。 ”街 Justin's "Comendium against Marcion", quoted by St. Irenæus (IV, vi, 2; V, xxvi, 2), is possibly identical with his Syntagma". Immediately after St. Justin, Miltiades, a Christian philosopher of Asia Minor, is mentioned by Tertullian and Hippolytus (Adv. Valent., v, and Eusebius, HE, V., xxviii, 4) as having combated the Gnostics and especially the Valentinians. His writings are lost. Theophilus of Antioch (dc 185) wrote against the heresy of Hermogenes, and also an excellent treatise against Marcion (kata Markionos Logos). The book against Marcion is probably extant in the "Dialogus de rectâ in Deum fide" of Pseudo-Origen. For Agrippa Castor see BASILIDES.賈斯汀的“反馬吉安Comendium ” ,引用聖愛任紐(四,六, 2 ;五, 26 , 2 ) ,可能是與他相同的錫塔瑪“ 。緊接著街上,米裡基阿德,一個基督教哲學家小亞細亞,是提到良和西波呂( Adv.價。 ,五,和優西比烏,他說,五,二十八, 4 )具有打擊的Gnostics ,尤其是華倫提努派。他的作品都將丟失。提阿安提(直流185 )寫的異端的何摩金斯,也是對優秀的論文馬吉安(字Markionos標誌) 。這本書對馬吉安可能是現存的“直Dialogus德在Deum善意”偽奧利。對於阿格里帕蓖麻看到巴西里德。

Hegesippus, a Palestinian, traveled by way of Corinth to Rome, where he arrived under Anicetus (155-166), to ascertain the sound and orthodox faith from Apostolic tradition. Hegesippus ,一名巴勒斯坦人,前往的方式科林斯到羅馬,在那裡他抵達下Anicetus ( 155-166 ) ,以確定健全和正統的信仰從使徒的傳統。 He met many bishops on his way, who all taught the same faith and in Rome he made a list of the popes from Peter to Anicetus.他會見了許多主教對他的方式,誰所有教同樣的信念,並在羅馬,他提出的名單,教皇從彼得Anicetus 。 In consequence he wrote five books of Memoirs (Upomnemata) "in a most simple style, giving the true tradition of Apostolic doctrine", becoming "a champion of the truth against the godless heresies" (Eusebius, HE, IV, vii sqq., xxi sqq.).因此他寫五本書的回憶錄( Upomnemata ) “在一個最簡單的方式,讓真正的傳統的使徒學說” ,成為“冠軍的真相對godless邪說” (優西比烏,何,四,七sqq 。 , 21 sqq 。 ) 。 Of this work only a few fragments remain, and these are historical rather than theological.這項工作只有少數幾個片段仍然存在,這些都是歷史的,而不是神學。

Rhodon, a disciple of Tatian, Philip, Bishop of Gortyna in Crete, and a certain Modestus wrote against Marcion, but their writings are lost. Rhodon ,弟子的塔蒂安,菲利普,主教Gortyna在克里特島,並在一定寫道白蝦對馬吉安,但他們的著作都將丟失。 Irenaeus (Adv. Haer., I, xv, 6) and Epiphanius (xxxiv, 11) quote a short poem against the Oriental Valentinians and the conjuror Marcus by "an aged" but unknown author; and Zachaeus, Bishop of Caesarea, is said to have written against the Valentinians and especially Ptolemy.愛任紐( Adv. Haer 。 ,我十五, 6 )和埃皮法尼烏斯(三十四, 11 )引用詩短期對東方華倫提努派和conjuror馬庫斯的“高齡” ,但未知的作者;和Zachaeus ,該撒利亞主教,是說有書面反對華倫提努派,特別是托勒密。

Beyond all comparison most important is the great anti-Gnostic work of St. Irenæus, Elegchos kai anatrope tes psudonymou gnoseos, usually called "Adversus Haereses".除了比較所有最重要的是偉大的反諾斯底工作街依, Elegchos偕anatrope檢驗psudonymou gnoseos ,通常稱為“ Adversus Haereses ” 。 It consists of five books, evidently not written at one time; the first three books about AD 180; the last two about a dozen years later.它由5本書,顯然不是寫在同一時間;第一三本書約公元180 ;過去兩年約12年後。 The greater part of the first book has come down to us in the original Greek, the rest in a very ancient and anxiously close Latin translation, and some fragments in Syriac.大部份的第一本書已下降到我們在最初的希臘,其餘的在一個非常古老而焦急地接近拉美翻譯,以及一些碎片敘利亞。

St. Irenæus knew the Gnostics from personal intercourse and from their own writings and gives minute descriptions of their systems, especially of the Valentinians and Barbelo-Gnostics.聖依知道Gnostics從個人交往,並從自己的著作,並分鐘說明他們的系統,尤其是華倫提努派和Barbelo - Gnostics 。 A good test of how St. Irenæus employed his Gnostic sources can be made by comparing the newly found "Evangelium Mariae" with Adv.一個很好的考驗是如何聖依諾斯底僱用他的消息來源,可通過比較新發現的“福音Mariae ”的腺病毒。 Haer., I, xxiv. Haer 。 ,我二十四。 Numerous attempts to discredit Irenaeus as a witness have proved failures (see SAINT IRENAEUS).許多企圖詆毀依作為證人已經證明失敗(見聖依) 。 Besides his great work, Irenaeus wrote an open letter to the Roman priest Florinus, who thought of joining the Valentinians; and when the unfortunate priest had apostatized, and had become a Gnostic, Irenaeus wrote on his account a treatise "On the Ogdoad", and also a letter to Pope Victor, begging him to use his authority against him.除了他的偉大的工作,依寫了一封公開信羅馬牧師Florinus ,誰想到加入華倫提努派;和不幸時,神父曾apostatized ,並已成為一個諾斯底,依在他到了論文“論Ogdoad ”並寫信給教皇維克多,乞求他用他的權威對他。 Only a few passages of these writings are extant.只有少數幾個通道的這些文章是現存的。

Eusebius (HE, IV, xxiii, 4) mentions a letter of Dionysius of Corinth (c. 170) to the Nicomedians, in which he attacks the heresy of Marcion.優西比烏(何,四,二十三, 4 )的信中提到的狄奧尼修斯的科林斯(角170號)的Nicomedians ,他在攻擊的馬吉安異端邪說。 The letter is not extant.信中沒有現存的。 Clement of Alexandria (dc 215) only indirectly combated Gnosticism by defending the true Christian Gnosis, especially in "Paedagogos", Bk.克萊門特亞歷山大(直流215 )只是間接打擊諾斯替主義捍衛真正的基督教直覺,尤其是在“ Paedagogos ” ,淺灘。 I, "Stromateis", Bk.一, “ Stromateis ” ,淺灘。 II, III, V, and in the so-called eighth book or "Excerpta ex Theodoto".二,三,五,和所謂的第八本書或“前Theodoto文摘” 。 Origen devoted no work exclusively to the refutation of Gnosticism but his four books "On First Principles" (Peri archon), written about the year 230, and preserved to us only in some Greek fragments and a free Latin translation by Rufinus, is practically a refutation of Gnostic dualism, Docetism, and Emanationism.奧利致力於完全沒有工作的駁斥諾斯替主義但他的四本書“論第一原理” (圍執政官) ,寫230年,並保留向我們只有在一些希臘碎片和拉丁美洲的自由翻譯Rufinus ,實際上是一駁斥諾斯底二元,幻影說,和Emanationism 。

About the year 300 an unknown Syrian author, sometimes erroneously identified with Origen, and often called by the literary pseudonym Adamantius, or "The Man of Steel", wrote a long dialogue of which the title is lost, but which is usually designated by the words, "De rectâ in Deum fide".大約300年敘利亞的一個未知的作者,有時甚至錯誤地確定奧利,並通常被稱為文學的假名Adamantius ,或“鋼人” ,寫一個長期的對話,而失去了冠軍,但通常是指定的換言之, “德中直Deum善意” 。 This dialogue, usually divided into five books, contains discussions with representatives of two sects of Marcionism, of Valentinianism, and of Bardesanism.這種對話,通常分為五本書,包含代表討論的兩個教派馬吉安的Valentinianism和Bardesanism 。 The writer plagiarizes extensively from Theophilus of Antioch and Methodius of Olympus, especially the latter's anti-Gnostic dialogue "On Free Will" (Peri tou autexousiou). The greatest anti-Gnostic controversialist of the early Christian Church is Tertullian (b. 169), who practically devoted his life to combating this dreadful sum of all heresies.作者plagiarizes提阿廣泛的安提阿和迪烏斯的奧林巴斯,尤其是後者的反諾斯底對話“論自由意志” (圍頭autexousiou ) 。最大的反諾斯底controversialist的早期基督教教會良(灣169號)誰幾乎畢生致力於打擊這種可怕的總和邪說。 We need but mention the titles of his anti-Gnostic works: "De Praescriptione haereticorum"; "Adversus Marcionem"; a book "Adversus Valentinianos"; "Scorpiace"; "De Carne Christi"; "De Resurrectione Carnis"; and finally "Adversus Praxeam".我們需要,但提到他的頭銜反諾斯底工程: “德Praescriptione haereticorum ” ; “ Adversus Marcionem ” ;一本書“ Adversus Valentinianos ” ; “ Scorpiace ” , “德卡爾內基督” , “德Resurrectione Carnis ” ;並最終“ Adversus Praxeam “ 。

A storehouse of information rather than a refutation is the great work of Hippolytus, written some time after AD 234, once called "Philosophoumena" and ascribed to Origen, but since the discovery of Books IV-X, in 1842, known by the name if its true author and its true title, "Refutation of All Heresies" (katapason aireseon elegchos).倉庫的信息,而不是反駁是偉大的工作西波呂,書面一段時間後,公元234 ,一旦所謂的“ Philosophoumena ” ,並為其奧利,但自從發現了圖書四,十,在1842年,已知的名稱,如果其真正的作者和其真正的冠軍, “駁所有異端” ( katapason aireseon elegchos ) 。

The publication of the Athos Codex by E. Miller (Oxford, 1851) revolutionized the study of Gnosticism and rendered works published previous to that date antiquated and almost worthless.該出版物的阿索斯法典的米勒(牛津, 1851年)革命性的研究,並作出諾斯替主義出版的作品以前在該日期過時,幾乎變得一文不值。 To students of Gnosticism this work is as indispensable as that of St. Irenæus.為了學生的諾斯替主義這項工作是不可或缺的聖依。 There is an English translation by J. MacMahon in "The Ante-Nicene Library" (Edinburgh, 1868).有一個英文譯本由J.麥克馬洪在“前廳尼西亞圖書館” (愛丁堡, 1868年) 。 Hippolytus tried to prove that all Gnosticism was derived from heathen philosophy; his speculations may be disregarded, but, as he was in possession of a great number of Gnostic writings from which he quotes, his information is priceless.西波呂試圖證明,所有諾斯替主義來自異教徒的哲學,他猜測可能會被忽視,但是,因為他擁有大量的諾斯底著作從他報價,他的信息是無價的。 As he wrote nearly fifty years after St. Irenæus, whose disciple he had been, he describes a later development of Gnosis than the Bishop of Lyons.正如他寫道近50年後聖依,他的弟子了,他介紹了後來發展的預後比里昂主教。 Besides his greater work, Hippolytus wrote, many years previously (before 217), a small compendium against all heresies, giving a list of the same, thirty-two in number, from Dositheus to Noetus; also a treatise against Marcion.除了他更大的工作,西波呂寫道,許多年以前(前217 ) ,小簡對所有歪理邪說,給清單的同時, 32多位來自Dositheus以Noetus ;還對馬吉安論文。

As, from the beginning of the fourth century, Gnosticism was in rapid decline, there was less need of champions of orthodoxy, hence there is a long interval between Adamantius's dialogue and St. Epiphanius's "Panarion", begun in the year 374.由於從一開始的第四世紀,諾斯替主義是在迅速下降,但不太需要冠軍的正統,因此是一個長期的間隔Adamantius的對話和聖埃皮法尼烏斯的“ Panarion ” ,開始在今年374 。 St. Epiphanius, who is his youth was brought into closest contact with Gnostic sects in Egypt, and especially the Phibionists, and perhaps even, as some hold, belonged to this sect himself, is still a first-class authority.聖埃皮法尼烏斯,誰是他的青年被帶到親密接觸諾斯底教派在埃及,特別是Phibionists ,甚至,一些持有,屬於本節自己,仍然是一個一流的權威。 With marvelous industry he gathered information on all sides, but his injudicious and too credulous acceptance of many details can hardly be excused.隨著了不起的行業,他收集資料,所有各方,但他的不明智,太輕信接受許多細節幾乎不能原諒的。

Philastrius of Brescia, a few years later (383), gave to the Latin Church what St. Philastrius布雷西亞,幾年後( 383 ) ,給拉美教會什麼街 Epiphanius had given to the Greek.埃皮法尼烏斯了希臘。 He counted and described no fewer than one hundred and twenty-eight heresies, but took the word in a somewhat wide and vague sense.他清點和描述不少於128邪說,但在這個詞有點廣泛和模糊的意義。 Though dependent on the "Syntagma" of Hippolytus, his account is entirely independent of that of Epiphanius.雖然依賴於“錫塔瑪”的西波呂,他的帳戶是完全獨立的埃皮法尼烏斯。

Another Latin writer, who probably lived in the middle of the fifth century in Southern Gaul, and who is probably identical with Arnobius the Younger, left a work, commonly called "Praedestinatus", consisting of three books, in the first of which he describes ninety heresies from Simon Magus to the Praedestinationists.另一位拉丁美洲作家,誰可能住在中間的第五世紀在南部高盧,誰可能是相同的Arnobius年輕,留下了一個工作,通常稱為“ Praedestinatus ” ,包括三本書,首先,他介紹90邪說從西蒙空氣的Praedestinationists 。 This work unfortunately contains many doubtful and fabulous statements.不幸的是這項工作包含了許多疑問和精彩發言。 Some time after the Council of Chalcedon (451) Theodoret wrote a "Compendium of Heretical Fables" which is of considerable value for the history of Gnosticism, because it gives in a very concise and objective way the history of the heresies since the time of Simon Magus.一段時間後,安理會卡爾西( 451 ) Theodoret寫了“簡邪教寓言” ,這是很大的價值的歷史諾斯替主義,因為它非常簡潔,客觀地看待歷史的歪理邪說,因為時間的西蒙賢者。 St. Augustine's book "De Haeresibus" (written about 428) is too dependent on Philastrius and Epiphanius to be of much value.聖奧古斯丁的書“德Haeresibus ” (書面約428 )是過於依賴Philastrius和埃皮法尼烏斯具有很大的價值。 Amongst anti-Gnostic writers we must finally mention the neo-Platonist Plotinus (d. AD 270), who wrote a treatise "Against the Gnostics".其中反諾斯底作家,我們最終必須提到的新柏拉圖普羅提諾( D.特設270 ) ,誰寫了論文“對Gnostics ” 。 These were evidently scholars who frequented his collegia, but whose Oriental and fantastic pessimism was irreconcilable with Plotinus's views.這些都是明顯的學者誰經常光顧他的collegia ,但其東方和美妙是不可調和的悲觀與普羅提諾的意見。

CONCLUSION結論

The attempt to picture Gnosticism as a mighty movement of the human mind towards the noblest and highest truth, a movement in some way parallel to that of Christianity, has completely failed.企圖圖片諾斯替主義作為一個強大的運動,對人的頭腦最崇高的和最高的真理,一個運動在某種程度上平行的基督教,已完全失敗。 It has been abandoned by recent unprejudiced scholars such as W. Bousset and O. Gruppe, and it is to be regretted that it should have been renewed by an English writer, GRS Mead, in "Fragments of a Faith Forgotten", an unscholarly and misleading work, which in English-speaking countries may retard the sober and true appreciation of Gnosticism as it was in historical fact.它已被放棄,最近偏見的學者,如美國Bousset和O.集團,而且遺憾的是,它應該已經延長了一個英語作家,地球觀測衛星米德在“碎片的信仰被遺忘” ,一個unscholarly和誤導性的工作,這在講英語的國家可能延緩冷靜和真正的諾斯替主義讚賞,因為它是歷史事實。

Gnosticism was not an advance, it was a retrogression.諾斯替主義不是一個進步,這是一個倒退。 It was born amidst the last throes of expiring cults and civilizations in Western Asia and Egypt. Though hellenized, these countries remained Oriental and Semitic to the core. This Oriental spirit -- Attis of Asia Minor, Istar of Babylonia, Isis of Egypt, with the astrological and cosmogonic lore of the Asiatic world -- first sore beset by Ahuramazda in the East, and then overwhelmed by the Divine greatness of Jesus Christ in the West, called a truce by the fusion of both Parseeism and Christianity with itself.這是由於出生的最後陣痛期邪教和文明在西亞和埃及。雖然hellenized ,這些國家仍然是東方和反猶的核心。這個東方精神-阿提斯小亞細亞,伊斯塔的東風,伊西斯的埃及,同命理和cosmogonic傳說的亞洲世界-第一次疼痛所困擾A huramazda在東,然後不知所措的神聖偉大的耶穌基督在西方,所謂休戰的融合都P arseeism和基督教的本身。 It tried to do for the East what Neo-Platonism tried to do for the West.它試圖這樣做東什麼新柏拉圖試圖這樣做對西方。 During at least two centuries it was a real danger to Christianity, though not so great as some modern writers would make us believe, as if the merest breath might have changed the fortunes of Gnostic, as against orthodox, Christianity.在至少兩百年這是一個真正的危險基督教,雖然不是很大,一些現代作家將使我們相信,如果merest呼吸可能會改變命運的諾斯底,對東正教,基督教。

Similar things are said of Mithraism and neo-Platonism as against the religion of Jesus Christ.類似的事情說Mithraism和新柏拉圖主義對宗教的耶穌基督。 But these sayings have more piquancy than objective truth. Christianity survived, and not Gnosticism, because the former was the fittest -- immeasurably, nay infinitely, so.但是,這些說法有更多的辣味比客觀真理。基督教生存,而不是諾斯底主義,因為前者是適者生存-不可估量的,不無限,所以。 Gnosticism died not by chance, but because it lacked vital power within itself; and no amount of theosophistic literature, flooding English and German markets, can give life to that which perished from intrinsic and essential defects.諾斯替主義死亡並非偶然,而是因為它缺乏內的重要力量本身和任何數量的theosophistic文學,洪水英語和德語的市場,可以給生活那些死去的和必不可少的內在缺陷。

It is striking that the two earliest champions of Christianity against Gnosticism -- Hegesippus and Irenaeus -- brought out so clearly the method of warfare which alone was possible, but which also alone sufficed to secure the victory in the conflict, a method which Tertullian some years later scientifically explained in his "De Praescriptione".令人震驚的是,這兩個最早的基督教冠軍對諾斯替主義-H egesippus和愛任紐-提出了明確的方法,因為只有戰爭是可能的,但也足以確保勝利的衝突,這種方法的一些良年後的科學解釋他的“德Praescriptione ” 。 Both Hegesippus and Irenaeus proved that Gnostic doctrines did not belong to that deposit of faith which was taught by the true succession of bishops in the primary sees of Christendom; both in triumphant conclusion drew up a list of the Bishops of Rome, from Peter to the Roman bishop of their day; as Gnosticism was not taught by that Church with which the Christians everywhere must agree, it stood self-condemned.這Hegesippus和依證明,諾斯底教義不屬於該礦床的信念是所教的真正繼承主教在小學看到的基督教;在勝利的最後起草了一份名單,羅馬的主教,從彼得的羅馬主教的一天;作為諾斯替主義沒有教所教會與基督徒都必須同意,為自我譴責。

A just verdict on the Gnostics is that of O. Gruppe (Ausführungen, p. 162); the circumstances of the period gave them a certain importance.一個公正的判決對Gnostics是我國集團( Ausführungen ,第162頁) ;的情況,期間給他們一定的重要性。 But a living force they never were, either in general history or in the history of Christendom. Gnosticism deserves attention as showing what mention dispositions Christianity found in existence, what obstacles it had to overcome to maintain its own life; but "means of mental progress it never was".但生活迫使他們從來沒有人,無論是在一般的歷史或歷史上的基督教。諾斯替主義值得關注的表現更不用說處分權是基督教中發現存在哪些障礙已經克服,以保持自己的生命,但“是指心理進展它從來就沒有“ 。

Publication information Written by JP Arendzen.出版信息書面由JP Arendzen 。 Transcribed by Christine J. Murray. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.轉錄的克里斯蒂娜學者穆雷。天主教百科全書,第六卷。 Published 1909. 1909年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat , 09年九月一日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. +約翰M Farley, Archbishop of New York法利,大主教紐約


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