Freemasonry

General Information 一般信息

Freemasonry refers to the principles, institutions, and practices of the fraternal order of the Free and Accepted Masons.濟指的原則,機構和做法的兄弟為了自由和接受泥瓦匠。 The largest worldwide society, freemasonry is an organization of men based on the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man, using builders' tools as symbols to teach basic moral truths generally accepted by persons of good will. It is religious in that a belief in God is the prime requirement for membership, but it is nonsectarian in that no religious test is used. The purpose of freemasonry is to enable men to meet in harmony, to promote friendship, and to be charitable.全球最大的社會共濟會是一個組織的男子基於上帝的父親和兄弟情誼的人,使用建設者'工具,象徵教基本的道德普遍接受的真理的人的良好意願。 這是宗教的信仰上帝是總理要求會員國,但它是無派系中,沒有宗教是用來測試。目的濟是讓男人來滿足和睦相處,增進友誼,並可以慈善。 Its basic ideals are that all persons are the children of one God, that all persons are related to each other, and that the best way to worship God is to be of service to people.其基本理念是,所有的人的子女一個上帝,所有人都彼此相關的,而且最好的方式崇拜上帝是要服務人民。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
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The basic unit of freemasonry is the lodge, which exists under a charter issued by a grand lodge exercising administrative powers. The lodges are linked together informally by a system of mutual recognition between lodges that meet the Masonic requirements. The lodge confers three degrees: Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Mason. Additional degrees are conferred by two groups of advanced freemasonry: the York Rite, which awards 12 degrees, and the Scottish Rite, which awards 30 higher degrees. In the United States and Canada members have formed a large number of groups to enable them to expand their social and charitable activities.基本單位的共濟會的投訴,其中存在的章程下發出的一個大提出行使行政權力。該分會聯繫在一起非正式制度之間的相互承認旅館,滿足共濟會的要求。 賦予的投訴3攝氏度:輸入學徒,工藝研究員,碩士和梅森。附加授予學位的兩個組的先進濟:在紐約禮儀,頒發12度,和蘇格蘭禮儀,頒發30個高等學位。在美國和加拿大的成員組成了一個大量的群體,使他們能夠擴大其社會和慈善活動。 The best known of these groups is the Shriners, who hold festive parades and support hospitals for crippled and burned children.其中最有名的這些群體是Shriners ,誰舉行節日遊行和支持醫院和燒傷致殘的兒童。 There are also the Order of the Eastern Star for Master Masons and their wives; the Order of De Molay for boys; and the Order of Job's Daughters and the Order of Rainbow for girls.也有令東星碩士梅森和他們的妻子; 令德Molay男孩;和秩序工作的女兒和秩序彩虹女孩。

The BELIEVE Religious Information Source web site is not connected with the organization described in this presentation. This happens to be ONE of the 1,000 religious subjects which are included in BELIEVE.該相信宗教信息來源網站沒有連接與該組織中所描述此演示。這種情況將是1000宗教科目列入相信。

Our small Protestant Christian Church, which created and maintains the BELIEVE site, has no contact with the organization described here, so we cannot help in providing contacts or addresses. In addition, since BELIEVE does not "sell" anything, we cannot help in finding books, icons or souvenirs.我們的小基督教新教,創造和維護相信網站,沒有接觸該組織介紹,所以我們不能幫助提供接觸或地址。此外,由於相信沒有“賣”什麼,我們不能幫助尋找書籍,圖標或紀念品。

Many legendary theories exist concerning the origin of freemasonry, but it is generally believed that it evolved from the medieval guilds of the stonemasons.許多傳奇的有關理論存在的起源濟,但人們普遍認為,它從中世紀行會的石匠。 Its present organizational form began on June 24, 1717, when a grand lodge was formed in London.其目前的組織形式始於1717年6月24日,當一個大提出成立於倫敦。 Since that time lodges have spread all over the world with local grand lodges formed whenever enough lodges exist in an area.自那時以來,山莊已蔓延世界各地與當地的大旅館時形成足夠的旅館中存在的一個領域。 Lodges first appeared in America in Philadelphia (1730) and Boston (1733).旅館最早出現在美國費城( 1730 )和波士頓( 1733年) 。

At various times and places freemasonry has met religious and political opposition.在不同的時間和地點濟會見了宗教和政治反對派。 Religious opponents, especially the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches, have traditionally claimed that freemasonry is a religion and is a secret organization. A papal ban on Roman Catholic membership in Masonic lodges was rescinded in 1983.宗教的對手,尤其是羅馬天主教和東正教教堂,一向聲稱,共濟會是一種宗教,是一個秘密組織。 教皇禁止羅馬天主教成員的共濟會分會是在1983年撤銷。

Freemasons hold that the organization is religious but not a religion, and that it is not a secret organization since it works openly in the community. 濟舉行,該組織是宗教,但不是宗教,這不是一個秘密組織,因為它公開的作品在社會上。 Freemasonry has always been suppressed in totalitarian states.濟一直壓制在極權主義國家。

There are approximately 4.8 million Freemasons in regular lodges scattered around the world.大約有480萬人濟山莊經常散佈在世界各地。 Of this number, more than 3 million are to be found in the United States, where there are numerous distinct Masonic groups. Many notable men in history have been Freemasons, including Benjamin Franklin, Mozart, Henry Ford, Rudyard Kipling, Douglas MacArthur, Will Rogers, and George Washington and a number of other presidents of the United States.在這一數字中, 300多萬人都在美國,那裡有許多獨特的共濟會團體。 許多顯著的男子在歷史上已經濟,包括本傑明富蘭克林,莫扎特,亨利福特,吉卜林,麥克阿瑟會羅傑斯和喬治華盛頓和其他一些美國總統。

Alphonse Cerza阿Cerza

Bibliography 目錄
H Coil, Masonic Encyclopedia (1962) and A Comprehensive View of Freemasonry (1954); WR Denslow, 10,000 Famous Freemasons (1957 - 60); AG Mackey, Encyclopedia of Freemasonry (1966); R Macoy, Dictionary of Freemasonry (1989); FL Pick, and GN Knight, The Pocket History of Freemasonry (1977); JJ Robinson, Born in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry (1990). H線圈,共濟會百科全書( 1962年)和一個全面的看法濟( 1954年) ;水利丹斯洛, 10000名濟( 57年至60年) ;公司麥基,百科全書共濟會( 1966年) ; R Macoy ,詞典共濟會( 1989年) ;佛羅里達州挑選,並指引奈特袖珍史濟( 1977年) ;傑傑羅賓遜,出生於血:失落的秘密共濟會( 1990年) 。


Masonry (Freemasonry)砌體(濟)

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The subject is treated under the following heads:這個問題處理以下元首:

I. Name and Definition;一,名稱和定義;

II.二。 Origin and Early History;起源和早期歷史;

III.三。 Fundamental Principles and Spirit;基本原則和精神;

IV.四。 Propagation and Evolution;傳播與演化;

V. Organization and Statistics;五,組織和統計;

VI.六。 Inner Work;內蒙古工作;

VII.七。 Outer Work;外層空間工作;

VIII.八。 Action of State and Church.行動的國家和教會。

I. NAME AND DEFINITION一,名稱和定義

Leaving aside various fanciful derivations we may trace the word mason to the French maçon (Latin matio or machio), "a builder of walls" or "a stone-cutter" (cf. German Steinmetz, from metzen, "to cut"; and Dutch vrijmetselaar). The compound term Freemason occurs first in 1375 -- according to a recently found writing, even prior to 1155 [1] -- and, contrary to Gould [2] means primarily a mason of superior skill, though later it also designated one who enjoyed the freedom, or the privilege, of a trade guild.撇開各種幻想的推導,我們可以追踪這個詞石匠法國梅肯(拉丁文matio或machio ) , “建設者的牆壁”或“石頭機” (見德國斯坦梅茨,來自metzen , “削減” ;和荷蘭vrijmetselaar ) 。化合物長期濟首先出現在1375年-根據最近發現的寫作,甚至1 155年之前, [ 1 ] -以及違反古爾德[2 ]的手段主要是一個石匠的卓越才幹,但稍後它也指定了一個誰享有的自由,或特權,貿易協會。 [3] In the former sense it is commonly derived from freestone-mason, a mason hewing or building in free (ornamental) stone in opposition to a rough (stone) mason. [ 3 ]在前者意義上講,它通常是來自弗里斯,石匠,一個石匠hewing或建設的自由(觀賞)石頭,反對一個粗略的(石)石匠。 [4] This derivation, though harmonizing with the meaning of the term, seemed unsatisfactory to some scholars. [ 4 ]這推導,但與協調一詞的含義,似乎不滿意一些學者。 Hence Speth proposed to interpret the word freemasons as referring to those masons claiming exemption from the control of local guilds of the towns, where they temporarily settled.因此,建議斯佩思解釋濟一詞是指那些泥瓦匠聲稱免於控制的地方協會的城鎮,在那裡他們暫時解決。 [5] In accordance with this suggestion the "New English Dictionary of the Philological Society" (Oxford, 1898) favours the interpretation of freemasons as skilled artisans, emancipated according to the medieval practice from the restrictions and control of local guilds in order that they might be able to travel and render services, wherever any great building (cathedral, etc.) was in process of construction. [ 5 ]根據這一建議, “新英語詞典的語言學學會” (牛津, 1898 )贊成的解釋濟熟練工匠,解放按照慣例從中世紀的限制和控制的地方協會,以便他們也許能旅行和提供服務,無論任何重大建設(教堂等) ,是在建設過程中。 These freemasons formed a universal craft for themselves, with a system of secret signs and passwords by which a craftsman, who had been admitted on giving evidence of competent skill, could be recognized.這些共濟會成立了一個普遍的工藝為自己,與系統的秘密標誌和密碼,其中工匠,誰已經承認提供證據的主管技巧,可以得到承認。 On the decline of Gothic architecture this craft coalesced with the mason guilds.在下降的哥特式建築這種工藝合併的石匠公會。 [6] [ 6 ]

Quite recently W. Begemann [7] combats the opinion of Speth [8] as purely hypothetical, stating that the name freemason originally designated particularly skilled freestone-masons, needed at the time of the most magnificent evolution of Gothic architecture, and nothing else.最近美國Begemann [ 7 ]戰鬥的意見斯佩思[ 8 ]作為純粹的假設,指出洪門的名字最初指定的特別熟練的弗里斯,泥水匠,需要的時候,最壯麗的發展哥特式建築,而不是其他。 In English law the word freemason is first mentioned in 1495, while frank-mason occurs already in an Act of 1444-1445.在英國法律一詞首先是洪門中提到的1495年,而坦率,石匠已經出現在1444年至1445年法案。 [9] Later, freemason and mason were used as convertible terms. The modern signification of Freemasonry in which, since about 1750, the word has been universally and exclusively understood, dates only from the constitution of the Grand Lodge of England, 1717. [ 9 ]後來,洪門和石匠被用作兌換條件。現代意義的共濟會,其中約1750年以來,這個詞已得到普遍和完全理解,日期只能從憲法的大旅館的英格蘭, 1717 。 In this acceptation Freemasonry, according to the official English, Scottish, American, etc., craft rituals, is most generally defined: "A peculiar [some say "particular" or "beautiful"] system of morality veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols."在此驗收濟,據官方英文,蘇格蘭,美國等,工藝禮儀,是最一般定義: “一個特殊的[有人說”特別“或”美麗“ ]系統的道德隱晦的寓意和象徵說明“ 。 Mackey [10] declares the best definition of Freemasonry to be: "A science which is engaged in the search after the divine truth."麥基[ 10 ]宣布最好的定義濟是: “科學是從事搜索後的神聖真理。 ” The German encyclopedia of Freemasonry, "Handbuch" [11] defines Freemasonry as "the activity of closely united men who, employing symbolical forms borrowed principally from the mason's trade and from architecture, work for the welfare of mankind, striving morally to ennoble themselves and others and thereby to bring about a universal league of mankind [Menschheitsbund], which they aspire to exhibit even now on a small scale".德國百科全書濟, “手冊” [ 11 ]作為界定濟“的活動緊密地團結男子誰,僱用借來的象徵形式主要是從泥瓦匠的貿易和架構,為人類的福利,爭取道義上對自己和ennoble他人,從而實現普遍的人類聯盟[ Menschheitsbund ] ,他們渴望表現出即使是現在小規模“ 。 The three editions which this "Handbuch" (Universal Manual of Freemasonry) has had since 1822 are most valuable, the work having been declared by English-speaking Masonic critics by far the best Masonic Encyclopedia ever published.這三個版本本“手冊” (世界手冊濟)有一八二二頃以來最有價值的工作已經宣布的講英語的共濟會批評迄今為止最好的共濟會越來越大百科全書出版。 [12] [ 12 ]

II.二。 ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY起源和早期歷史

Before entering upon this and the following divisions of our subject it is necessary to premise that the very nature of Freemasonry as a secret society makes it difficult to be sure even of its reputed documents and authorities, and therefore we have consulted only those which are acknowledged and recommended by responsible members of the craft, as stated in the bibliography appended to this article.在進入這個和下面的分裂我們的問題,有必要前提是本身的性質濟作為一個秘密的社會使人們難以確定它甚至被譽為文件和部門,因此,我們已徵詢只有那些承認並建議由負責任的成員的工藝,如書目附在本文章。 "It is the opprobrium of Freemasonry", says Mackey [13] “這是恥辱的共濟會”說,麥基[ 13 ]

that its history has never yet been written in a spirit of critical truth; that credulity .它的歷史上從來還沒有書面的精神,關鍵真理;的輕信。 . . has been the foundation on which all masonic historical investigations have been built, .一直基礎上,所有的共濟會的歷史調查,已建成, 。 . . that the missing links of a chain of evidence have been frequently supplied by gratuitous invention and that statements of vast importance have been carelessly sustained by the testimony of documents whose authenticity has not been proved.這一缺失環節的證據鏈已經常無償提供的發明和報表的巨大重要性已持續漫不經心的證詞的文件的真實性還沒有得到證實。

"The historical portion of old records", he adds [14] as written by Anderson, Preston, Smith, Calcott and other writers of that generation, was little more than a collection of fables, so absurd as to excite the smile of every reader. “歷史的一部分舊記錄” ,他補充說[ 14 ]書面安德森,普雷斯頓,史密斯, Calcott和其他作家的那一代,只不過是收集的寓言,這樣荒謬的,以激發每一個微笑閱讀器。

The germs of nearly all these fantastic theories are contained in Anderson's "The Constitutions of Free Masons" (1723, 1738) which makes Freemasonry coextensive with geometry and the arts based on it; insinuates that God, the Great Architect, founded Freemasonry, and that it had for patrons, Adam, the Patriarchs, the kings and philosophers of old.病菌的幾乎所有這些美妙的理論載於安德森的“憲法自由共濟會” ( 1723 , 1738 )這使得濟共存與幾何和藝術基礎上;暗示,上帝,偉大的建築師,共濟會成立,並它的顧客,亞當的始祖,國王和哲學家舊。 Even Jesus Christ is included in the list as Grand Master of the Christian Church.即使是耶穌基督是列入名單作為大師的基督教教會。 Masonry is credited with the building of Noah's Ark, the Tower of Babel, the Pyramids, and Solomon's Temple. Subsequent authors find the origin of Masonry in the Egyptian, Dionysiac, Eleusinian, Mithraic, and Druidic mysteries; in sects and schools such as the Pythagoreans, Essenes, Culdees, Zoroastrians, and Gnostics; in the Evangelical societies that preceded the Reformation; in the orders of knighthood (Johannites, Templars); among the alchemists, Rosicrucians, and Cabbalists; in Chinese and Arabic secret societies.砌體記入與建設的諾亞方舟的通天塔,金字塔,和所羅門聖殿。後來找到作者的起源砌體在埃及,酒神, Eleusinian , Mithraic ,並Druidic奧秘;在教派和學校如Pythagoreans ,愛色尼, Culdees ,拜火教徒,並Gnostics ;在福音的社會改革之前,在命令騎士( Johannites ,聖殿) ;之間的煉金, Rosicrucians ,並Cabbalists ;在中國和阿拉伯語秘密社團。 It is claimed also that Pythagoras founded the Druidic institution and hence that Masonry probably existed in England 500 years before the Christian Era.有人聲稱畢達哥拉斯還成立了Druidic機構,因此這可能存在砌體在英國500年前的基督教時代。 Some authors, considering geological finds as Masonic emblems, trace Masonry to the Miocene (?) Period [15] while others pretend that Masonic science "existed before the creation of this globe, diffused amidst the numerous systems with which the grand empyreum of universal space is furnished".有些作者,考慮地質認定為共濟會標誌,追踪砌體的中新世( ? )期[ 15 ]而另一些假裝共濟會科學“以前存在的創造這個世界,由於分散的眾多系統的宏偉empyreum普遍空間是家具“ 。 [16] [ 16 ]

It is not then difficult to understand that the attempt to prove the antiquity of Freemasonry with evidence supplied by such monuments of the past as the Pyramids and the Obelisk (removed to New York in 1879) should have resulted in an extensive literature concerning these objects.它不是那麼困難的理解,試圖證明古代的共濟會與所提供的證據等古蹟過去的金字塔和方尖碑(刪除紐約於1879年)應導致了廣泛的文獻中關於這些對象。 [17] Though many intelligent Masons regard these claims as baseless, the majority of the craft [18] still accept the statement contained in the "Charge" after initiation: "Ancient no doubt it is, having subsisted from time immemorial. In every age monarchs [American rituals: "the greatest and best men of all ages"] have been promoters of the art, have not thought it derogatory to their dignity to exchange the sceptre for the trowel, have participated in our mysteries and joined in our assemblies". [ 17 ]儘管許多方面智能梅森這些索賠是毫無根據的,大多數工藝[ 18 ]仍然接受的聲明中所載的“充電”之後開始: “毫無疑問,古代是,在subsisted從遠古時代。在每一個年齡君主[美國禮儀: “最大的和最好的男人”不分年齡人人共享]已推廣先進的,並沒有認為這有損他們的尊嚴交換珽的抹子,參加了我們的奧秘,並加入我們的集會“ 。 [19] It is true that in earlier times gentlemen who were neither operative masons nor architects, the so-called geomatic Masons [20] joined with the operative, or dogmatic, Masons in their lodges, observed ceremonies of admission, and had their signs of recognition. [ 19 ]的確,在早期嘉賓既不是誰執行泥水匠,也不建築師,所謂的geomatic泥瓦匠[ 20 ]同執行,或者教條,梅森在其旅館,觀察入院儀式,而他們的跡象承認。 But this Masonry is by no means the "speculative" Masonry of modern times, ie, a systematic method of teaching morality by means of such principles of symbols according to the principles of modern Freemasonry after 1723.但是,這砌體絕不是“投機”砌體近代,即有系統的教學方法,道德的手段,這些原則根據符號的原則,後現代濟1723 。

As the best German authorities admit [21], speculative Masonry began with the foundation of the Grand Lodge of England, 24 June, 1717, and its essential organization was completed in 1722 by the adoption of the new "Book of Constitutions" and of the three degrees: apprentice, fellow, master.作為最好的德國當局承認[ 21 ] ,投機開始砌築基礎的大旅館的英格蘭, 1717年六月二十四日,其基本組織完成了1722年通過了新的“圖書憲法”和3度:學徒,研究員,碩士。 All the ablest and most conscientious investigations by competent Masonic historians show, that in 1717 the old lodges had almost ceased to exist.所有的能幹和最認真的調查,由主管共濟會的歷史學家顯示,在1717年的舊旅館幾乎已不復存在。 The new lodges began as convivial societies, and their characteristic Masonic spirit developed but slowly.新的旅館開始歡樂的社會,以及它們所特有的共濟會的精神制訂,但進展緩慢。 This spirit, finally, as exhibited in the new constitutions was in contradiction to that which animated the earlier Masons.這種精神,最後,作為展示的新憲法是矛盾的那些動畫較早泥瓦匠。 These facts prove that modern Masonry is not, as Gould [22] Hughan [23] and Mackey [24] contend, a revival of the older system, but rather that it is a new order of no greater antiquity than the first quarter of the eighteenth century.這些事實證明,現代砌體並非如古爾德[ 22 ] Hughan [ 23 ]和麥基[ 24 ]相反,恢復舊制度,而是說這是一個新的秩序沒有更多的文物比第一季度十八世紀。

III.三。 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES AND SPIRIT基本原則和精神

There have been many controversies among Masons as to the essential points of Masonry.有很多的爭論中,以泥瓦匠的基本點,砌體。 English-speaking Masons style them "landmarks", a term taken from Deuteronomy 19:14, and signifying "the boundaries of Masonic freedom", or the unalterable limits within which all Masons have to confine themselves.講英語的泥瓦匠風格他們“里程碑”一詞取自申命記19:14 ,並標誌著“的界限,共濟會自由” ,或不可改變的限制範圍內的所有梅森必須限於本身。 Mackey [25] specifies no less than twenty-five landmarks.麥基[ 25 ]規定不得少於05年的里程碑。 The same number is adopted by Whitehead [26] "as the pith of the researches of the ablest masonic writers".相同的號碼是通過白石[ 26 ] “為精髓的研究共濟會的能幹作家” 。

The principle of them are [27]的原則是[ 27 ]

the method of recognition by secret signs, words, grips, steps, etc.; the three degrees including the Royal Arch; the Hiram legend of the third degree; the proper "tiling" of the lodge against "raining" and "snowing", ie, against male and female "cowans", or eavesdroppers, ie, profane intruders; the right of every regular Mason to visit every regular lodge in the world; a belief in the existence of God and in future life; the Volume of the Sacred Law; equality of Masons in the lodge; secrecy; symbolical method of teaching; inviolability of landmarks.該方法的承認秘密的跡象,也就是說,認真,步驟等;的3攝氏度,包括英國皇家建築的西貢傳奇第三度;適當的“磚瓦”的提出對“下雨”和“雪” ,也就是說,對男性和女性“科恩斯” ,或者竊聽,即世俗的入侵者;人人有權經常訪問梅森經常向每一個在世界上;相信上帝存在,並在今後的生活;卷聖法;平等的梅森在提出;保密;象徵教學方法;不可侵犯的里程碑。

In truth there is no authority in Freemasonry to constitute such "unchangeable" landmarks or fundamental laws.在真相沒有權威濟構成這種“不變”的標誌或基本法律。 Strictly judicially, even the "Old Charges", which, according to Anderson's "Constitutions", contain the unchangeable laws have a legal obligatory character only as far as they are inserted in the "Book of Constitution" of each Grand Lodge.嚴格司法,即使是“老費” ,而根據安德森的“憲法” ,載有不可改變的規律具有法律強制性的特點不僅是因為它們插入“圖書的憲法”每一個大旅館。 [28] But practically there exist certain characteristics which are universally considered as essential. [ 28 ]但實際上存在著的某些特徵是普遍認為是必不可少的。 Such are the fundamental principles described in the first and sixth articles of the "Old Charges" concerning religion, in the texts of the first two English editions (1723 and 1738) of Anderson's "Constitutions".這些都是基本原則中所描述的第一和第六條“老費”關於宗教,案文中的頭兩個英文版本( 1723和1738 )的安德森的“憲法” 。 These texts, though differing slightly, are identical as to their essential tenor.這些文本,但略有不同的,是相同的,以他們的基本要旨。 That of 1723, as the original text, restored by the Grand Lodge of England in the editions of the "Constitutions", 1756-1813, and inserted later in the "Books of Constitutions" of nearly all the other Grand Lodges, is the most authoritative; but the text of 1738, which was adopted and used for a long time by many Grand Lodges, is also of great importance in itself and as a further illustration of the text of 1723.即1723年,作為原始文字,恢復了大旅館在英國版本的“憲法” , 1756年至1813年,並在插入後的“圖書的憲法”幾乎所有的其他大旅館,是最權威;但1738年文本,這是通過並使用了很長一段時間,許多大旅館,也是非常重要的本身,作為進一步說明文的1723 。

In the latter, the first article of the "Old Charges" containing the fundamental law and the essence of modern Freemasonry runs (the text is given exactly as printed in the original, 1723):在後者,第一條“老費”包含的基本法律和精髓的現代濟運行(文本是印完全一樣的原始, 1723年) :

I. Concerning God and Religion.一,關於上帝和宗教。 A Mason is obliged by his Tenure, to obey the moral law: and if he rightly understands the Art, he will never be a stupid Atheist [Gothic letters] nor an irreligious Libertine [Gothic letters].阿梅森不得不由他的任期內,遵守道德律:如果他正確地理解藝術,他將永遠不會是一個愚蠢的無神論者[哥特字母] ,也不是一個非宗教浪蕩子[哥特字母] 。 But though in ancient times Masons were charged in every country to be of the religion of that country or nation, whatever it was, yet 'tis now thought more expedient only to oblige them to that religion in which all men agree, leaving their particular Opinions to themselves: that is, to be good men and true or Men of Honour and Honesty, by whatever Denominations or Persuasions they may be distinguished; whereby Masonry becomes the Centre of Union and the Means of conciliating true Friendship among Persons that must have remained at a perpetual Distance.但是,儘管自古以來被指控共濟會在每一個國家的宗教的國家或民族,無論它,但'聲現在認為更多的權宜之計只能迫使他們宗教中,所有男人同意,離開他們的特別意見對自己,即:要善於和真正的男人或男人的榮譽和誠實,不論教派或信仰,他們可以區分;其中砌體成為該中心的聯盟和手段調和之間真正的友誼的人,必須保持在永久距離。

Under Article VI, 2 (Masons' behaviour after the Lodge is closed and the Brethren not gone) is added:第六條規定,第2條(共濟會的行為後,旅館是封閉,弟兄們沒有)是說:

In order to preserve peace and harmony no private piques or quarrels must be brought within the door of the Lodge, far less any quarrels about Religion or Nations or State Policy, we being only, as Masons, of the Catholick Religion, above mentioned, we are also of all Nations, Tongues, Kindreds and Languages and are resolved against all Politicks [printed in the original in Gothic letters] as what never yet conduced to the welfare of the Lodge nor ever will. This charge has been always strictly enjoin'd and observ'd; but especially ever since the Reformation in Britain or the dissent and secession of these Nations from the communion of Rome.為了維護和平與和諧沒有私人或爭吵激起了必須把大門內的旅館,遠遠低於任何爭吵的宗教或國家或國家政策,我們只是作為泥瓦匠,在Catholick宗教,上面提到的那樣,我們還對所有聯合國,舌頭, Kindreds和語言,並決心打擊一切Politicks [印刷在原來的哥特式信件]什麼從未conduced福利的旅館,也沒有任何意願。這項收費一直嚴格enjoin'd和observ'd ; ,特別是自改革在英國或不同意見,這些分裂聯合國從羅馬的共融。

In the text of 1738 the same articles run (variation from the edition of 1723 are given in italics):在文字的1738相同的條款執行(變異從版一七二三頃給予楷體字) :

I. Concerning God and Religion.一,關於上帝和宗教。 A Mason is obliged by his Tenure to observe the moral law as true Noahida (sons of Noah, the first name of Freemasons) and if he rightly understands the craft, he will never be a stupid atheist or an irreligious libertine nor act against conscience.阿梅森不得不由他的任期內遵守道德法律作為真正的Noahida (兒子諾亞,第一名稱濟) ,如果他正確地理解工藝,他將永遠不會是一個愚蠢的無神論者或一個非宗教玩樂,也不違背良心。 In ancient times the Christian masons were charged to comply with the Christian usages of each country where they travelled or worked; but Masonry being found in all nations, even of diverse religions, they are now generally charged to adhere to that religion, in which all men agree, (leaving each Brother his own particular opinion), that is, to be good men and true, men of honour and honesty, by whatever names, religions or persuasions they may be distinguished; for they all agree in the three great articles of Noah, enough to preserve the cement of the lodge.在古代基督教泥水匠被指控遵守基督教的慣例每個國家他們前往或工作,但砌體被發現在所有國家,甚至不同的宗教,他們現在一般收費要堅持,宗教,所有男子同意, (每一個兄弟離開自己的特別意見) ,也就是要善於和真正的男人,男人的榮譽和誠實,用任何名稱,宗教或信仰,他們可能是傑出的,因為他們都同意在這三個偉大的文章的諾亞,足以維護水泥的投訴。 Thus Masonry is the centre of their union and the happy means of conciliating true friendship among persons who otherwise must have remained at a perpetual distance.因此,砌體結構的中心是他們的工會和幸福的手段調和之間真正的友誼的人誰否則必須保持在一個永久的距離。

VI.六。 1. 1 。 Behaviour in the Lodge before closing: .行為在旅館前收盤: 。 . . No private piques nor quarrels about nations, families, religions or politics must by any means or under any colour or pretence whatsoever be brought within the doors of the lodge; for as Masons we are of the most ancient catholic religion, above mentioned and of all nations upon the square, level and plumb; and like our predecessors in all ages we are resolved against political disputes, as contrary to the peace and welfare of the Lodge.沒有私人激起了爭吵,也沒有對國家,家庭,宗教或政治必須以任何方式或根據任何膚色或什麼藉口把大門內的投訴;作為泥瓦匠,我們最古老的天主教宗教,以及上述所有國家應平方米,水平和垂直;和我們的前輩一樣在不分年齡人人共享的,我們對解決政治爭端,違背和平與福利的旅館。

In order to appreciate rightly these texts characterizing modern "speculative" Freemasonry it is necessary to compare them with the corresponding injunction of the "Gothic" (Christian) Constitutions regulating the old lodges of "operative" Masonry till and after 1747.為了正確地理解這些文本特徵的現代“投機”共濟會,有必要加以比較與相應的禁令的“哥特式” (基督教)憲法規範的舊旅館的“執行”砌體後直到1747年。 These injunctions are uniformly summed up in the simple words: "The first charge is this that you be true to God and Holy Church and use no error or heresy".這些是統一的禁制令總結了簡單的話: “第一項罪名是,你是真正的上帝和聖教會和使用任何錯誤或異端” 。 [29] The radical contrast between the two types is obvious. [ 29 ]激進之間的對比兩種類型是顯而易見的。 While a Mason according to the old Constitution was above all obliged to be true to God and Church, avoiding heresies, his "religious" duties, according to the new type, are essentially reduced to the observation of the "moral law" practically summed up in the rules of "honour and honesty" as to which "all men agree".雖然梅森根據憲法歲以上,都必須是真實的上帝和教會,避免邪說,他的“宗教”的職責,根據新的類型,基本上是減少到的意見, “道德法”實際上總結了在規則的“榮譽和誠實的” ,哪些“所有的人同意” 。 This "universal religion of Humanity" which gradually removes the accidental divisions of mankind due to particular opinions "or religious", national, and social "prejudices", is to be the bond of union among men in the Masonic society, conceived as the model of human association in general.這種“普遍的宗教人文”逐漸消除了意外司由於人類特別是意見“或宗教” ,國家和社會“偏見” ,是將債券的工會之間的男女在社會共濟會,作為示範人權協會一般。

"Humanity" is the term used to designate the essential principle of Masonry. [30] It occurs in a Masonic address of 1747. “人性”一詞是指定的基本原則砌體。 [ 30 ]它發生在共濟會地址1747 。 [31] Other watchwords are "tolerance", "unsectarian", "cosmopolitan". [ 31 ]其他的口號是“寬容” , “ unsectarian ” , “大都會” 。 The Christian character of the society under the operative régime of former centuries, says Hughan [32] "was exchanged for the unsectarian regulations which were to include under its wing the votaries of all sects, without respect to their differences of colour or clime, provided the simple conditions were observed of morality, mature age and an approved ballot".基督教性質的社會下的執行制度的幾個世紀前說, Hughan [ 32 ] “交換的unsectarian條例其中包括機翼下的votaries的所有教派,不尊重他們的不同的膚色或clime ,提供簡單的條件下,觀察道德,成熟的年齡和經批准的選票“ 。 [33] In Continental Masonry the same notions are expressed by the words "neutrality", "laïcité", "Confessionslosigkeit", etc. In the text of 1738 particular stress is laid on "freedom of conscience" and the universal, non-Christian character of Masonry is emphasized. [ 33 ]在大陸砌體相同的概念所表達的話“中立” , “ laïcité ” , “ Confessionslosigkeit ”等等,在1738年文特別強調規定的“良心”和普遍的,非基督教砌體結構特徵是強調。 The Mason is called a "true Noahida", ie an adherent of the pre-Christian and pre-Mosaic system of undivided mankind.梅森被稱為“真正的Noahida ” ,即一個貼壁前的基督教和前花葉系統的不可分割的人類。 The "3 articles of Noah" are most probably "the duties towards God, the neighbour and himself" inculcated from older times in the "Charge to a newly made Brother". “ 3條諾亞”是最有可能“的職責對上帝,鄰居和他本人”灌輸從舊時代的“電荷來了一個新兄弟” 。 They might also refer to "brotherly love, relief and truth", generally with "religion" styled the "great cement" of the fraternity and called by Mackey [34] "the motto of our order and the characteristic of our profession".他們可能還提及“友愛,救濟和真理” ,一般與“宗教” ,稱為“大水泥”的友愛和所謂的麥基[ 34 ] “的座右銘,我們的秩序和特點,我們的行業” 。

Of the ancient Masons, it is no longer said that they were obliged to "be of the religion" but only "to comply with the Christian usages of each Country".古老的共濟會,它不再是說,他們有義務“是宗教” ,但只有“遵守慣例基督教每一個國家” 。 The designation of the said "unsectarian" religion as the "ancient catholick" betrays the attempt to oppose this religion of "Humanity" to the Roman Catholic as the only true, genuine, and originally Catholic.指定的說: “ unsectarian ”宗教的“古代catholick ”背叛試圖反對這一宗教的“人性”的羅馬天主教作為唯一的真正的,真正的,最初天主教。 The unsectarian character of Masonry is also implied in the era chosen on the title page: "In the year of Masonry 5723" and in the "History". unsectarian性質的砌體也隱含的時代選擇在標題頁的: “在一年的砌體5723 ”和“歷史” 。 As to the "History" Anderson himself remarks in the preface (1738):至於“歷史”安德森是在自己的序言( 1738年) :

Only an expert Brother, by the true light, can readily find many useful hints in almost every page of this book which Cowans and others not initiated (also among Masons) cannot discern.只有一個專家兄弟,由真光,可以很容易找到許多有用的線索幾乎在每一頁的這本書的科恩斯和其他沒有啟動(還包括泥瓦匠)不能辨別。

Hence, concludes Krause [35], Anderson's "History" is allegorically written in "cipher language".因此,結論克勞斯[ 35 ] ,安德森的“歷史”是allegorically寫在“密碼語言” 。 Apart, then, from "mere childish allusions to the minor secrets", the general tendency of this "History" is to exhibit the "unsectarianism" of Masonry.除此之外,然後,由“單純幼稚的典故該未成年人的秘密” ,總的趨勢這一“歷史”是展覽的“ unsectarianism ”砌體。

Two points deserve special mention: the utterances on the "Augustan" and the "Gothic" style of architecture and the identification of Masonry with geometry. The "Augustan" which is praised above all other styles alludes to "Humanism", while the "Gothic" which is charged with ignorance and narrow-mindedness, refers to Christian and particularly Roman Catholic orthodoxy.有兩點特別值得一提:在言論上的“奧古斯都”和“哥特式”風格的建築,並確定砌體與幾何。的“奧古斯都” ,這是稱讚高於所有其他樣式的意思“以人為本” ,而“哥特式“這是負責的無知和狹隘思想,是指基督教,特別是羅馬天主教的正統。 The identification of Masonry with geometry brings out the naturalistic character of the former.確定砌體與幾何帶來的自然性質前者。 Like the Royal Society, of which a large and most influential proportion of the first Freemasons were members [36], Masonry professes the empiric or "positivist" geometrical method of reason and deduction in the investigation of truth.如同英國皇家學會,其中大型和最有影響力的比例首次濟成員[ 36 ] ,砌體聲稱的經驗或“實證”幾何方法的理由和扣除的調查真相。 [37] In general it appears that the founders of Masonry intended to follow the same methods for their social purposes which were chosen by the Royal Society for its scientific researches. [ 37 ]在一般看來創始人砌體打算採取同樣的方法促進其社會目的是選擇的英國皇家學會的科學研究。 [38] "Geometry as a method is particularly recommended to the attention of Masons." [ 38 ] “幾何作為一種特別建議的注意泥瓦匠。 ” "In this light, Geometry may very properly be considered as a natural logic; for as truth is ever consistent, invariable and uniform, all truths may be investigated in the same manner. Moral and religious definitions, axioms and propositions have as regular and certain dependence upon each other as any in physics or mathematics." “在這種情況下,幾何很可能適當視為一個自然的邏輯;的真相是以往一貫的,不變的和統一的,所有的真理可能是調查以同樣的方式。道德和宗教的定義,公理和主張,作為經常和某些依靠對方的任何物理或數學。 “ "Let me recommend you to pursue such knowledge and cultivate such dispositions as will secure you the Brotherly respect of this society and the honour of your further advancement in it". “我建議你追求這種知識,培養作為這類處分將確保你的兄弟對這個社會和榮幸的進一步提高它。 ” [39] It is merely through inconsistency that some Grand Lodges of North America insist on belief in the Divine inspiration of the Bible as a necessary qualification and that not a few Masons in America and Germany declare Masonry an essentially "Christian institution". [ 39 ]它只是通過不一致,一些大旅館北美堅持的信念,神聖的靈感聖經作為必要的資格,並沒有幾個泥瓦匠在美國和德國宣布砌體結構基本上是“基督教機構” 。 According to the German Grand Lodges, Christ is only "the wise and virtuous pure man" par excellence, the principal model and teacher of "Humanity".據德國大獎賽旅館,基督僅僅是“明智和良性純粹的人”出類拔萃的主要模式和教師的“人性” 。 [40] In the Swedish system, practised by the German Country Grand Lodge, Christ is said to have taught besides the exoteric Christian doctrine, destined for the people and the duller mass of his disciples, an esoteric doctrine for his chosen disciples, such as St. John, in which He denied that He was God. [ 40 ]在瑞典的制度,實行由德國國家大旅館,基督據說除了教開放基督教教義,注定為人民大眾的duller他的弟子,一個深奧的理論,他的弟子選擇,如聖約翰中,他否認他是上帝。 [41] Freemasonry, it is held, is the descendant of the Christian secret society, in which this esoteric doctrine was propagated. [ 41 ]共濟會,這是舉行的,是後人的基督教秘密社團,在這深奧的理論宣傳。

It is evident, however, that even in this restricted sense of "unsectarian" Christianity, Freemasonry is not a Christian institution, as it acknowledges many pre-Christian models and teachers of "Humanity".這是顯而易見的,然而,即使在這種限制意義上的“ unsectarian ”基督教,共濟會不是一個基督教機構,因為它承認許多前基督教模式和教師的“人性” 。 All instructed Masons agree in the objective import of this Masonic principle of "Humanity", according to which belief in dogmas is a matter of secondary importance, or even prejudicial to the law of universal love and tolerance.所有指示泥瓦匠同意在客觀進口這種原則的共濟會“人性” ,根據該信仰的教條是一件次要的,甚至有損於法律的普遍的愛和寬容。 Freemasonry, therefore, is opposed not only to Catholicism and Christianity, but also to the whole system of supernatural truth.濟,因此,反對不僅對天主教,基督教,而且對整個系統的超自然的真理。

The only serious discrepancies among Masons regarding the interpretation of the texts of 1723 and 1738 refer to the words: "And if he rightly understands the Art, he will never be a stupid Atheist or an irreligious Libertine".唯一的嚴重偏差梅森之間關於解釋的案文1723年和1738年提及的話: “如果他正確地理解藝術,他將永遠不會是一個愚蠢的無神論者或一個非宗教浪蕩子” 。 The controversy as to the meaning of these words has been particularly sharp since 13 September, 1877, when the Grand Orient of France erased the paragraph, introduced in 1854 into its Constitutions, by which the existence of God and the immortality of soul were declared the basis of Freemasonry [42] and gave to the first article of its new Constitutions the following tenor: "Freemasonry, an essentially philanthropic, philosophic (naturalist, adogmatic) and progressive institution, has for its object the search after truth, the study of universal morality, of the sciences and arts and the practice of beneficence. It has for its principles absolute liberty of conscience and human solidarity. It excludes none on account of his belief. Its device is Liberty, Equality, Fraternity."作為爭議的含義,這些話一直特別尖銳,因為1877年九月十三日,當大東方的法國抹去了段,介紹了於1854年納入其憲法,其中存在的上帝和永生的靈魂被宣布根據濟[ 42 ] ,並在第一條的新憲法下面的男高音: “共濟會,基本上是慈善,哲學(自然, adogmatic )和漸進的機構,已為對象的搜索真理,研究普遍道德,在科學和藝術的實踐行善。它的絕對自由原則的良知和人類的團結。它排除了沒有考慮到他的信念。及其設備是自由,平等,博愛。 “ On 10 September, 1878, the Grand Orient, moreover, decreed to expunge from the Rituals and the lodge proceedings all allusions to religious dogmas as the symbols of the Grand Architect, the Bible, etc. These measures called out solemn protests from nearly all the Anglo-American and German organs and led to a rupture between the Anglo-American Grand Lodges and the Grand Orient of France. As many freethinking Masons both in America and in Europe sympathize in this struggle with the French, a world-wide breach resulted.在1878年9月10號,大東方,而且下令將刪除從禮儀和提出訴訟的所有典故,以宗教教義為標誌的大建築師,聖經,等等這些措施稱為了莊嚴的抗議,幾乎所有的英美和德國的機關,並導致破裂之間的英美大旅館和大東方的法國。正如許多自由思想泥瓦匠都在美國和歐洲的同情在這場鬥爭中與法國,在全世界範圍內造成破壞。 Quite recently many Grand Lodges of the United States refused to recognize the Grand Lodge of Switzerland as a regular body, for the reason that it entertains friendly relations with the atheistical Grand Orient of France.最近許多大旅館美國拒絕承認的大旅館,瑞士作為一個經常性的機構,理由是它娛樂的友好關係與無神論的大東方的法國。 [43] This rupture might seem to show, that in the above paragraph of the "Old Charges" the belief in a personal God is declared the most essential prerequisite and duty of a Mason and that Anglo-American Masonry, at least, is an uncompromising champion of this belief against the impiety of Latin Masonry. [ 43 ]這破裂似乎表明,在段的“老費”的信念在個人申報上帝是最重要的先決條件和義務的梅森和英美砌體,至少是一個不妥協的冠軍這一信念對拉丁美洲impiety砌體。

But in truth all Masonry is full of ambiguity.但事實上所有砌體充滿了含糊。 The texts of 1723 and 1738 of the fundamental law concerning Atheism are purposely ambiguous.的案文1723年和1738年的基本法律關於無神論是故意含糊不清。 Atheism is not positively condemned, but just sufficiently disavowed to meet the exigencies of the time, when an open admission of it would have been fatal to Masonry.無神論是不積極的譴責,只是不夠否認,以滿足緊急需要的時候,一個開放的接納本來致命的砌體。 It is not said that Atheists cannot be admitted, or that no Mason can be an Atheist, but merely that if he rightly understands the Art, he will never be a stupid Atheist, etc., ie, he will not hold or profess Atheism in a stupid way, by statements, for instance that shock religious feeling and bring Masonry into bad repute.這並不是說,無神論者不能被接納,或者說沒有梅森可以是一個無神論者,只是說,如果他正確地理解藝術,他將永遠不會是一個愚蠢的無神論者,等等,也就是說,他不會擱置或信奉無神論的一個愚蠢的方式,通過報表,例如認為休克宗教感情,使砌體到壞的聲譽。 And even such a stupid Atheist incurs no stronger censure than the simple ascertaining of the fact that he does not rightly understand the art, a merely theoretical judgment without any practical sanction.即使是這樣一個愚蠢的無神論者應負沒有強大的譴責比簡單查明的事實,他沒有正確理解藝術,僅僅是理論上的判斷沒有任何實際的制裁。 Such a disavowal tends rather to encourage modern positivist or scientific Atheism.這樣一種否定,而往往以鼓勵現代實證或科學無神論。

Scarcely more serious is the rejection of Atheism by the British, American and some German Grand Lodges in their struggle with the Grand Orient of France.幾乎更為嚴重的是拒絕接受無神論的英國,美國和德國的一些大旅館的鬥爭中與大東方的法國。 The English Grand Lodge, it is true, in its quarterly communication of 6 March, 1878 [44] adopted four resolutions, in which belief in the Great Architect of the Universe is declared to be the most important ancient landmark of the order, and an explicit profession of that belief is required of visiting brethren belonging to the Grand Orient of France, as a condition for entrance into the English lodges.英文大酒店,這是真的,在其季度通訊1878年3月6號[ 44 ]通過了四項決議,在這種信念的大建築師的宇宙被宣布為最重要的里程碑意義的古代的命令,並明確的職業信仰,需要來訪的兄弟屬於大東方的法國,作為一個條件,進入英語分會。 Similar measures were taken by the Irish, Scottish, and North American Grand Lodges.類似的措施採取了愛爾蘭,蘇格蘭,和北美的大旅館。 But this belief in a Great Architect is so vague and symbolical, that almost every kind of Atheism and even of "stupid" Atheism may be covered by it.但是,在這種信念的偉大建築師是如此含糊和象徵,幾乎每一種無神論,甚至“愚蠢的”無神論可覆蓋它。 Moreover, British and American Grand Lodges declare that they are fully satisfied with such a vague, in fact merely verbal declaration, without further inquiry into the nature of this belief, and that they do not dream of claiming for Freemasonry that it is a "church", a "council", a "synod".此外,英國和美國的大旅館宣布,他們完全滿意,這樣一個模糊的,實際上只是口頭聲明,而不作進一步的調查性質的這一信念,並確保他們不會夢想的人的共濟會,這是一個“教會“ ,一個”會“ ,一個”主教“ 。 Consequently even those are acknowledged as Masons who with Spencer and other Naturalist philosophers of the age call God the hidden all-powerful principle working in nature, or, like the followers of "Handbuch" [45] maintain as the two pillars of religion "the sentiment of man's littleness in the immensity of space and time", and "the assurance that whatever is real has its origin from the good and whatever happens must be for the best".因此即使是那些被公認為梅森誰與斯賓塞和其他自然哲學家的年齡要求上帝隱藏的所有強大的原理工作的性質,或像追隨者的“手冊” [ 45 ]保持作為兩大支柱的宗教“的情緒人的渺小在巨大的空間和時間“和”保證,不管是真正有其原產地為好,無論發生什麼情況必須是最好的。 “

An American Grand Orator Zabriskie (Arizona) on 13 November, 1889, proclaimed, that "individual members may believe in many gods, if their conscience and judgment so dictate".美國的大演說家Zabriskie (亞利桑那州) 11月13日, 1889年,宣布說, “個別成員可能認為在許多神,如果他們的良知和判斷,以便決定” 。 [46] Limousin [47] approved by German Masons [48] says: "The majority of men conceive God in the sense of exoteric religions as an all-powerful man; others conceive God as the highest idea a man can form in the sense of esoteric religions." [ 46 ]贊[ 47 ]批准由德國梅森[ 48 ]說: “大多數男性想像上帝意義上的開放作為一個宗教的所有強大的人;別人想像上帝作為最高的想法一個人可以形成的意義對深奧的宗教。 “ The latter are called Atheists according to the exoteric notion of God repudiated by science, but they are not Atheists according to the esoteric and true notion of God.後者是所謂的無神論者根據開放概念的上帝否定科學,但它們並非無神論者根據深奧的概念和真正的上帝。 On the contrary, add others [49] they are less Atheists than churchmen, from whom they differ only by holding a higher idea of God or the Divine.相反,添加其他[ 49 ]他們不太無神論者比教會,從他們不同的只是舉行了更高的想法,上帝或神。 In this sense Thevenot, Grand Secretary of the Grand Orient of France, in an official letter to the Grand Lodge of Scotland (30 January, 1878), states: "French Masonry does not believe that there exist Atheists in the absolute sense of the word" [50] and Pike himself [51] avows:在這個意義上Thevenot ,大秘書大東方的法國,在正式的信大酒店的蘇格蘭( 1878年1月30日) ,指出: “法國砌體並不認為存在無神論者在絕對意義上的字“ [ 50 ]和派克本人[ 51 ] avows :

A man who has a higher conception of God than those about him and who denies that their conception is God, is very likely to be called an Atheist by men who are really far less believers in God than he, etc.一名男子誰具有較高的概念比上帝對他的,誰否認其概念是上帝,很可能會被稱為一個無神論者的男子誰是真正遠遠低於上帝的信徒比他等

Thus the whole controversy turns out to be merely nominal and formal.因此,整個爭議的卻是有名無實和正規。 Moreover, it is to be noticed that the clause declaring belief in the great Architect a condition of admission, was introduced into the text of the Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of England, only in 1815 and that the same text says: "A Mason therefore is particularly bound never to act against the dictates of his conscience", whereby the Grand Lodge of England seems to acknowledge that liberty of conscience is the sovereign principle of Freemasonry prevailing over all others when in conflict with them.此外,應注意該條款宣布的信念,偉大的建築師的一個條件,接納,引入的文本憲法的大旅館的英格蘭,只有在1815年和相同的文字說: “因此,阿梅森特別約束從來沒有採取行動打擊的支配自己的良心“ ,即大旅館英格蘭似乎認識到,自由的良知是主權原則的共濟會壓倒其他所有在衝突時,與他們。 The same supremacy of the liberty of conscience is implied also in the unsectarian character, which Anglo-American Masons recognize as the innermost essence of masonry.同樣的至高無上的自由的良心也暗示在unsectarian性質,其中英美梅森承認的內心本質的磚石。 "Two principles", said the German Emperor Frederick III, in a solemn address to Masons at Strasburg on 12 September, 1886, "characterize above all our purposes, viz., liberty of conscience and tolerance"; and the "Handbuch" [52] justly observes that liberty of conscience and tolerance were thereby proclaimed the foundation of Masonry by the highest Masonic authority in Germany. “兩個原則” ,說德國皇帝弗雷德里克三,在莊嚴的地址梅森在斯特拉斯堡9月12日, 1886年“上述特點我們所有的目的,即。 ,自由的良知和寬容”和“手冊” [ 52 ]公正地指出,自由的良知和寬容從而宣布了基礎砌體的最高權力共濟會在德國。

Thus the Grand Orient of France is right from the Masonic point of view as to the substance of the question; but it has deviated from tradition by discarding symbols and symbolical formulæ, which, if rightly understood, in no way imply dogmatic assertions and which cannot be rejected without injuring the work of Masonry, since this has need of ambiguous religious formulæ adaptable to every sort of belief and every phase of moral development.因此,大東方的法國是正確的共濟會的角度來看,以問題的實質,但它已經背離了傳統的丟棄象徵符號和公式,如果正確地理解,絕不意味著教條式的說法並不能被拒絕不受傷的工作砌體,因為這需要模糊不清宗教公式適應各種信仰和每一個階段的道德發展。 From this point of view the symbol of the Grand Architect of the Universe and of the Bible are indeed of the utmost importance for Masonry.從這一觀點出發的象徵,大建築師的宇宙和聖經確實是極為重要的砌體。 Hence, several Grand Lodges which at first were supposed to imitate the radicalism of the French, eventually retained these symbols.因此,一些大旅館其中首先是要模仿激進的法國,最終保留這些符號。 A representative of the Grand Lodge of France writes in this sense to Findel: "We entirely agree with you in considering all dogmas, either positive or negative, as radically contradictory to Masonry, the teaching of which must only be propagated by symbols. And the symbols may and must be explained by each one according to his own understanding; thereby they serve to maintain concord. Hence our Grand Lodge facultatively retains the Symbol of the Grand Architect of the Universe, because every one can conceive it in conformity with his personal convictions. [Lodges are allowed to retain the symbols, but there is no obligation at all of doing so, and many do not.] To excommunicate each other on account of metaphysical questions, appears to us the most unworthy thing Masons can do".一位代表的大旅館,法國寫在這個意義上,以芬德爾: “我們完全同意你在考慮到所有的教條,不論是積極或消極的,因為從根本上違背砌體,教學,其中必須只能在傳播符號。而且符號可能和必須被解釋為每個人根據自己的理解;從而有助於它們保持和諧。因此,我們大旅館兼保留了符號的大建築師的宇宙,因為每個人能想像它符合他個人的信念。 [旅館被允許保留的符號,但沒有義務在所有這樣做的,許多沒有。 ]要破門對方帳戶的形而上學的問題,在我們看來是最不值得的事情可以做泥瓦匠“ 。 [53] The official organ of Italian Masonry even emphasizes: "The formula of the Grand Architect, which is reproached to Masonry as ambiguous and absurd, is the most large-minded and righteous affirmation of the immense principle of existence and may represent as well the (revolutionary) God of Mazzini as the Satan of Giosue Carducci (in his celebrated hymn to Satan); God, as the fountain of love, not of hatred; Satan, as the genius of the good, not of the bad". [ 53 ]官方機構的意大利砌體甚至強調: “該公式的大建築師,這是對砌體責備的含糊和荒謬的,是最大型的胸襟,正義肯定了巨大的原則的存在和可能代表以及的(革命)神馬志尼的撒旦的Giosue Carducci (在他的讚美詩,以慶祝撒旦) ;上帝,因為噴泉的愛,而不是仇恨;撒旦,作為天才的好,不壞。 “ [54] In both interpretations it is in reality the principle of Revolution that is adored by Italian Masonry. [ 54 ]在這兩種解釋,這是在現實的原則,革命是由意大利崇拜砌體。

IV.四。 PROPAGATION AND EVOLUTION OF MASONRY傳播和演變,砌體

The members of the Grand Lodge formed in 1717 by the union of four old lodges, were till 1721 few in number and inferior in quality.的成員大酒店成立於1717年由工會四個舊旅館,直到1721年被為數不多和低劣的質量。 The entrance of several members of the Royal Society and of the nobility changed the situation.入口處的幾個成員和英國皇家學會的貴族改變了局勢。 Since 1721 it has spread over Europe.自從1721年它已遍及歐洲。 [55] This rapid propagation was chiefly due to the spirit of the age which, tiring of religious quarrels, restive under ecclesiastical authority and discontented with existing social conditions, turned for enlightenment and relief to the ancient mysteries and sought, by uniting men of kindred tendencies, to reconstruct society on a purely human basis. [ 55 ]這種快速繁殖主要是由於時代精神的,累人的宗教爭吵,躁動不安下的教會權威和不滿現有的社會條件下,轉啟示和救濟的古老神秘和要求,團結官兵親屬傾向,以重建社會對一個純粹的人的基礎。 In this situation Freemasonry with its vagueness and elasticity, seemed to many an excellent remedy.在這種情況下,濟其模糊和彈性,似乎很多出色的補救措施。 To meet the needs of different countries and classes of society, the original system (1717-23) underwent more or less profound modifications.為了滿足不同國家和不同類別的社會,原來的系統( 1717年至1723年)經歷或多或少深刻的修改。 In 1717, contrary to Gould [56], only one simple ceremony of admission or one degree seems to have been in use [57]; in 1723 two appear as recognized by the Grand Lodge of England: "Entered Apprentice" and "Fellow Craft or Master".在1717年相反,古爾德[ 56 ] ,只有一個簡單的儀式,接納或不同程度似乎已在使用中[ 57 ] ;在1723年兩次出現公認的大旅館英格蘭: “輸入學徒”和“研究員工藝品或碩士。 “ The three degree system, first practised about 1725, became universal and official only after 1730.這三個學位制度,首先對1725年實行,成為普遍的和官方1730年之後才。 [58] The symbols and ritualistic forms, as they were practised from 1717 till the introduction of further degrees after 1738, together with the "Old Charges" of 1723 or 1738, are considered as the original pure Freemasonry. [ 58 ]符號和儀式的形式,因為它們是從1717年實行到進一步引進1738度後,連同“老費”的1723年或1738年,被認為是原來的純濟。 A fourth, the "Royal Arch degree [59] in use at least since 1740, is first mentioned in 1743, and though extraneous to the system of pure and ancient Masonry [60] is most characteristic of the later Anglo-Saxon Masonry. In 1751 a rival Grand Lodge of England "according to the Old Institutions" was established, and through the activity of its Grand Secretary, Lawrence Dermott, soon surpassed the Grand Lodge of 1717. The members of this Grand Lodge are known by the designation of "Ancient Masons". They are also called "York Masons" with reference, not to the ephemeral Grand Lodge of all England in York, mentioned in 1726 and revived in 1761, but to the pretended first Grand Lodge of England assembled in 926 at York. [61] They finally obtained control, the United Grand Lodge of England adopting in 1813 their ritualistic forms.第四,在“皇家拱度[ 59 ]在使用中至少有1740以來,是第一次提到在1743年,雖然無關系統的純淨和古老的磚混[ 60 ]是最典型的後來盎格魯撒克遜砌體。在1751年大的競爭對手英格蘭旅館“按照舊體制”成立,並通過活動的大秘書,勞倫斯Dermott ,很快超過了大旅館的1717年。成員的大旅館是眾所周知的指定“古代泥瓦匠“ 。他們也被稱為”紐約泥瓦匠“參考,而不是短暫的大旅館的所有英格蘭在紐約, 1726年中提到,並在1761年恢復,但對假裝第一大旅館英格蘭聚集在926在紐約。 [ 61 ]他們終於得到控制,美國大旅館,英國在1813年通過其老一套的形式。

In its religious spirit Anglo-Saxon Masonry after 1730 undoubtedly retrograded towards biblical Christian orthodoxy.在其宗教精神的盎格魯撒克遜砌體無疑後, 1730年退為正統基督教聖經。 [62] This movement is attested by the Christianization of the rituals and by the popularity of the works of Hutchinson, Preston, and Oliver with Anglo-American Masons. [ 62 ]這一運動的是證明了基督教的儀式和廣受歡迎的作品,哈欽森,普雷斯頓,和奧利弗與英美泥瓦匠。 It is principally due to the conservatism of English-speaking society in religious matters, to the influence of ecclesiastical members and to the institution of "lodge chaplains" mentioned in English records since 1733.這主要是由於保守的講英語的社會,宗教事務,影響的教會成員和該機構的“牧師提出”中提到的英文記錄自1733年。 [63] The reform brought by the articles of union between the two Grand Lodges of England (1 December, 1813) consisted above all in the restoration of the unsectarian character, in accordance with which all allusions to a particular (Christian) religion must be omitted in lodge proceedings. [ 63 ]改革所帶來的條款,工會兩國之間的大旅館,英國( 1813年12月1日)由上述所有在恢復unsectarian性質,根據該條規定,所有典故某一(基督教)宗教必須在省略提出訴訟。 It was further decreed "there shall be the most perfect unity of obligation of discipline, or working . . . according to the genuine landmarks, laws and traditions . . . throughout the masonic world, from the day and date of the said union (1 December, 1813) until time shall be no more".有人還頒布“須有最完美統一的義務,紀律,或工作。 。 。根據真正的里程碑,法律和傳統。 。 。整個世界的共濟會,從當天日期和說,工會( 1 12月, 1813年) ,直到時間不得多。 “ [64] In taking this action the United Grand Lodge overrated its authority. [ 64 ]在採取這項行動的美國大旅館誇大其權威。 Its decree was complied with, to a certain extent, in the United States where Masonry, first introduced about 1730, followed in general the stages of Masonic evolution in the mother country.其法令,遵守,在一定程度上,在美國,砌體,首次推出的1730 ,其次在一般階段的共濟會演變中的母國。

The title of Mother-Grand Lodge of the United States was the object of a long and ardent controversy between the Grand Lodges of Pennsylvania and Massachusetts.標題母親大旅館美國的目標是一個長期和殷切之間爭議的大旅館的賓夕法尼亞州和馬薩諸塞州。 The prevailing opinion at present is, that from time immemorial, ie, prior to Grand Lodge warrants [65] there existed in Philadelphia a regular lodge with records dating from 1731.普遍認為,目前是,從遠古時代,即前大旅館令[ 65 ]存在在費城經常投訴記錄可追溯到1731年。 [66] In 1734 Benjamin Franklin published an edition of the English "Book of Constitutions". [ 66 ]在1734年本傑明富蘭克林版出版的英文“圖書的憲法” 。 The principal agents of the modern Grand Lodge of England in the United States were Coxe and Price.主要代理的現代大酒店,英國在美國考克斯和價格。 Several lodges were chartered by the Grand Lodge of Scotland.一些旅館被包租的大旅館的蘇格蘭。 After 1758, especially during the War of Independence, 1773-83, most of the lodges passed over to the "Ancients". 1758年後,尤其是在獨立戰爭期間, 1773年至1783年,大多數的旅館交給的“古人” 。 The union of the two systems in England (1813) was followed by a similar union in America.工會兩個系統在英格蘭( 1813 )之後,類似的聯盟在美國。 The actual form of the American rite since then practised is chiefly due to Webb (1771-1819), and to Cross (1783-1861). In France and Germany, at the beginning Masonry was practised according to the English ritual [67] but so-called "Scottish" Masonry soon arose.實際的形式,美國禮從那時起實行主要是由於韋伯( 1771年至1819年) ,以及跨( 1783年至1861年) 。在法國和德國,開始實行砌體根據英文儀式[ 67 ] ,但所謂的“蘇格蘭”砌體很快出現。 Only nobles being then reputed admissible in good society as fully qualified members, the Masonic gentlemen's society was interpreted as society of Gentilshommes, ie, of noblemen or at least of men ennobled or knighted by their very admission into the order, which according to the old English ritual still in use, is "more honourable than the Golden Fleece, or the Star or Garter or any other Order under the Sun".只有貴族然後被接納為著名良好的社會完全合格的成員,共濟會紳士的社會被解釋為社會Gentilshommes ,即貴族或至少男子ennobled或封爵,由於其本身接納的命令,而根據舊英文儀式仍然在使用,是“比更體面的金羊毛,或明星或嘉德或任何其他命令在陽光下” 。 The pretended association of Masonry with the orders of the warlike knights and of the religious was far more acceptable than the idea of development out of stone-cutters' guilds.該假裝協會砌體的命令,好戰的騎士和宗教遠遠比更容易接受的想法,發展出石頭剪子'行。 Hence an oration delivered by the Scottish Chevalier Ramsay before the Grand Lodge of France in 1737 and inserted by Tierce into his first French edition of the "Book of Constitutions" (1743) as an "oration of the Grand Master", was epoch-making.因此致詞交付一個由蘇格蘭騎士拉姆齊在大旅館法國1737和插入Tierce他的第一個法文版的“圖書的憲法” ( 1743年) ,作為“演說的大法師” ,是劃時代的。 [68] In this oration Masonry was dated from "the close association of the order with the Knights of St. John in Jerusalem" during the Crusades; and the "old lodges of Scotland" were said to have preserved this genuine Masonry, lost by the English. [ 68 ]在這致辭砌體日期是從“密切相關的命令與騎士聖約翰在耶路撒冷的”十字軍東征期間;和“舊旅館的蘇格蘭”據說這真正維護砌體,失去了英文。 Soon after 1750, however, as occult sciences were ascribed to the Templars, their system was readily adaptable to all kinds of Rosicrucian purposes and to such practices as alchemy, magic, cabbala, spiritism, and necromancy. 1750年後不久,然而,科學是隱匿歸咎於聖殿,他們的系統是易於適應各種Rosicrucian宗旨和這種做法,作為煉丹術,魔術, cabbala ,招魂術和招魂。 The suppression of the order with the story of the Grand Master James Molay and its pretended revival in Masonry, reproduced in the Hiram legend, representing the fall and the resurrection of the just or the suppression and the restoration of the natural rights of man, fitted in admirably with both Christian and revolutionary high grade systems.制止秩序的故事大師詹姆斯Molay及其假裝復甦砌體,轉載於西貢的傳說,代表了秋季和復活的公正或制止和恢復自然權利的人,裝有在敬佩與基督教和革命性的高品位系統。 The principal Templar systems of the eighteenth century were the system of the "Strict Observance", organized by the swindler Rosa and propagated by the enthusiast von Hundt; and the Swedish system, made up of French and Scottish degrees in Sweden.主要的聖殿系統的18世紀是系統的“嚴格遵守”組織的騙子羅薩和繁殖的愛好者馮洪特;和瑞典的制度,由法國和蘇格蘭度在瑞典。

In both systems obedience to unknown superiors was promised.在這兩個系統服從上級未知的承諾。 The supreme head of these Templar systems, which were rivals to each other, was falsely supposed to be the Jacobite Pretender, Charles Edward, who himself declared in 1777 that he had never been a Mason.最高元首這些武士制度,這是競爭對手彼此是錯誤應該是詹姆斯黨偽裝,查爾斯愛德華,誰親自宣布在1777年,他從來就不是一個梅森。 [69] Almost all the lodges of Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland, and Russia were, in the second half of the eighteenth century, involved in the struggle between these two systems. [ 69 ]幾乎所有的旅館,德國,奧地利,匈牙利,波蘭和俄羅斯是,在下半年的18世紀,參與之間的鬥爭這兩個系統。 In the lodges of France and other countries [70] the admission of women to lodge meetings occasioned a scandalous immorality.在旅館的法國和其他國家[ 70 ]允許婦女提出的會議引起了令人驚訝的不道德行為。 [71] The revolutionary spirit manifested itself early in French Masonry. [ 71 ]革命精神體現在法國早期砌體。 Already in 1746 in the book "La Franc-Maçonnerie, écrasée", an experienced ex-Mason, who, when a Mason, had visited many lodges in France and England, and consulted high Masons in official position, described as the true Masonic programme a programme which, according to Boos, the historian of Freemasonry (p. 192), in an astonishing degree coincides with the programme of the great French Revolution of 1789.早在1746年在“香格里拉法郎, Maçonnerie , écrasée ” ,一位經驗豐富的前梅森,誰時,梅森,訪問了許多旅館在法國和英國,並徵求高泥瓦匠的官方立場,描述為真正的共濟會方案一個方案,根據布斯,歷史學家的共濟會(第192頁) ,在一個驚人的程度相吻合的方案偉大的法國大革命的1789年。 In 1776 this revolutionary spirit was brought into Germany by Weisshaupt through a conspiratory system, which soon spread throughout the country.在1776年這一革命精神被帶到德國的Weisshaupt通過conspiratory系統,該系統很快蔓延到全國各地。 [72] Charles Augustus of Saxe-Weimar, Duke Ernest of Gotha, Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick, Goethe, Herder, Pestalozzi, etc., are mentioned as members of this order of the Illuminati. [ 72 ]查爾斯奧古斯都的薩克斯,魏瑪,杜克大學的歐內斯特哥達公爵費迪南德的不倫瑞克,歌德,赫德爾,裴斯泰洛齊等,上述成員的這項命令的光明。 Very few of the members, however, were initiated into the higher degrees.只有極少數的成員,但已開始進入更高的學位。 The French Illuminati included Condorcet, the Duke of Orléans, Mirabeau, and Sieyès.法國光明包括孔,公爵的新奧爾良,林蔭大道和西哀士。 [73] [ 73 ]

After the Congress of Wilhelmsbade (1782) reforms were made both in Germany and in France.經過國會Wilhelmsbade ( 1782年)改革既提出了在德國和法國。 The principal German reformers, L. Schröder (Hamburg) and IA Fessler, tried to restore the original simplicity and purity.德國的主要改革者,屬施羅德(漢堡)與IA費斯勒,試圖還原原始的簡單性和純潔性。 The system of Schröder is actually practised by the Grand Lodge of Hamburg, and a modified system (Schröder-Fessler) by the Grand Lodge Royal York (Berlin) and most lodges of the Grand Lodge of Bayreuth and Dresden.該系統實際上是施羅德所實行的大旅館的漢堡,並修改系統(施羅德,費斯勒)的皇家大旅館紐約(柏林)和大多數旅館的大旅館的拜羅伊特和德累斯頓。 The Grand Lodges of Frankfort-on-the-Main and Darmstadt practice an eclectic system on the basis of the English ritual.大旅館的法蘭克福上的,主要做法和達姆施塔特的折中系統的基礎上,英文的例行公事。 [74] Except the Grand Lodge Royal York, which has Scottish "Inner Orients" and an "Innermost Orient", the others repudiate high degrees. The largest Grand Lodge of Germany, the National (Berlin), practises a rectified Scottish (Strict Observance) system of seven degrees and the "Landes Grossloge" and Swedish system of nine degrees. [ 74 ]除皇家大旅館紐約,它的蘇格蘭“內蒙古方向”和“內心的東方” ,否定其他高學位。最大的大旅館,德國的國家(柏林) ,實行糾正蘇格蘭(嚴格遵守)系統的7度和“蘭德斯Grossloge ”和瑞典的制度,九度。 The same system is practised by the Grand Lodge of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark.在同一系統實行的是大旅館,瑞典,挪威和丹麥。 These two systems still declare Masonry a Christian institution and with the Grand Lodge Royal York refuse to initiate Jews.這兩個系統仍宣布砌體一個基督教機構,並與皇家大旅館紐約拒絕啟動猶太人。 Findel states that the principal reason is to prevent Masonry from being dominated by a people whose strong racial attachments are incompatible with the unsectarian character of the institution.芬德爾指出,主要理由是為了防止砌體被主宰的人的強烈種族歧視的附件不符合unsectarian性質的機構。 [75] [ 75 ]

The principal system in the United States (Charleston, South Carolina) is the so-called Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, organized in 1801 on the basis of the French Scottish Rite of perfection, which was established by the Council of the Emperors of the East and West (Paris, 1758).系統的主要在美國(查爾斯頓,南卡羅來納州)是所謂的古代和接受蘇格蘭麗,在1801年舉辦的基礎上,蘇格蘭,法國麗的完美,這是建立理事會的皇帝東和西(巴黎, 1758 ) 。 This system, which was propagated throughout the world, may be considered as the revolutionary type of the French Templar Masonry, fighting for the natural rights of man against religious and political despotisms, symbolized by the papal tiara and a royal crown.這一制度,這是傳播世界各地,可視為革命性的類型砌體法國武士,戰鬥的自然權利人對宗教和政治despotisms ,象徵著由羅馬教皇頭飾和皇冠。 It strives to exert a preponderant influence on the other Masonic bodies, wherever it is established.它努力發揮優勢影響其他機構的共濟會,無論它是建立。

This influence is insured to it in the Grand Orient systems of Latin countries; it is felt even in Britain and Canada, where the supreme chiefs of craft Masonry are also, as a rule, prominent members of the Supreme Councils of the Scottish Rite.這種影響是投保給它的大東方系統的拉美國家;有人認為即使在英國和加拿大,那裡的最高首領的工藝砌體也作為一項規則,突出成員的最高理事會的蘇格蘭儀式。 There are at the present time (1908) twenty-six universally recognized Supreme Councils of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite: US of America: Southern Jurisdiction (Washington), established in 1801; Northern Jurisdiction (Boston), 1813; Argentine Republic (Buenos Aires), 1858; Belgium (Brussels), 1817; Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), 1829; Chile (Santiago), 1870; Colon, for West India Islands (Havana), 1879; Columbia (Cartagena); Dominican Republic (S. Domingo); England (London), 1845; Egypt (Cairo), 1878; France (Paris), 1804; Greece (Athens), 1872; Guatemala (for Central American), 1870; Ireland (Dublin), 1826; Italy (Florence), 1858; Mexico (1868); Paraguay (Asuncion); Peru (Lima), 1830; Portugal (Lisbon), 1869; Scotland (Edinburgh), 1846; Spain (Madrid), 1811; Switzerland (Lausanne), 1873; Uruguay (Montevideo); Venezuela (Caracas).目前,本次( 1908年) 2006年世界公認最高理事會古代和接受蘇格蘭麗:美國合眾國:南方管轄權(美國) ,成立於1801年;北管轄權(波士頓) , 1813 ;阿根廷共和國(布宜諾斯艾利斯布宜諾斯艾利斯) , 1858 ;比利時(布魯塞爾) , 1817 ;巴西(里約熱內盧) , 1829年,智利(聖地亞哥) , 1870年;科隆,西印度群島(哈瓦那) , 1879年哥倫比亞(卡塔赫納) ;多米尼加共和國(南多明戈) ;英國(倫敦) , 1845年,埃及(開羅) , 1878年,法國(巴黎) , 1804年,希臘(雅典) , 1872年,危地馬拉(中美洲) , 1870年,愛爾蘭(都柏林) , 1826年,意大利(佛羅倫薩) , 1858年,墨西哥( 1868年) ,巴拉圭(巴拉圭) ,秘魯(利馬) , 1830 ;葡萄牙(里斯本) , 1869年,蘇格蘭(愛丁堡) , 1846年,西班牙(馬德里) , 1811年,瑞士(洛桑) , 1873年,烏拉圭(蒙得維的亞) ,委內瑞拉(加拉加斯) 。 Supreme Councils not universally recognized exist in Hungary, Luxemburg, Naples, Palermo, Rome, Turkey.最高理事會沒有普遍公認的存在,匈牙利,盧森堡,那不勒斯,巴勒莫,羅馬,土耳其。 The founders of the rite, to give it a great splendour, invented the fable that Frederick II, King of Prussia, was its true founder, and this fable upon the authority of Pike and Mackey is still maintained as probable in the last edition of Mackey's "Encyclopedia" (1908).的創始人儀式,給它一個偉大的輝煌,發明了寓言的弗雷德里克二世,普魯士國王,是其真正的創始人,這個寓言的權威派克和麥基仍然可能維持在去年出版的麥基的“大百科全書” ( 1908年) 。 [76] [ 76 ]

V. ORGANIZATION AND STATISTICS五,組織和統計

The characteristic feature of the organization of speculative Masonry is the Grand Lodge system founded in 1717.該特點的組織砌體是投機性的大旅館系統始建於1717年。 Every regular Grand Lodge or Supreme Council in the Scottish, or Grand Orient in the mixed system, constitutes a supreme independent body with legislative, judicial, and executive powers.每一個大旅館定期或最高理事會在蘇格蘭,或大東方的混合體系,構成了最高的獨立機構,立法,司法和行政權力。 It is composed of the lodges or inferior bodies of its jurisdiction or of their representatives regularly assembled and the grand officers whom they elect.它是由旅館或劣等機構在其管轄或他們的代表定期組裝和大主席團他們選出。 A duly constituted lodge exercises the same powers, but in a more restricted sphere.正式演習構成提出相同的權力,但在更多的限制範圍。 The indispensable officers of a lodge are the Worshipful Master [77] the Senior and Junior Warden, and the Tiler.不可或缺的一個成員提出的Worshipful碩士[ 77 ]高級和初級看守,並瓦工。 The master and the wardens are usually aided by two deacons and two stewards for the ceremonial and convivial work and by a treasurer and a secretary.船長和督導員通常是由兩個輔助執事和兩個賽的禮儀和歡樂的工作,由出納和一名秘書。 Many lodges have a Chaplain for religious ceremonies and addresses.許多旅館有一個牧師的宗教儀式和地址。 The same officers in large numbers and with sounding titles (Most Worshipful Grand Master, Sovereign Grand Commander, etc.) exist in the Grand Lodges.同樣的人員大量與探空標題(大多數Worshipful大師,主權大指揮官等)中存在的大旅館。 As the expenses of the members are heavy, only wealthy persons can afford to join the fraternity.至於費用的成員是沉重的,只有有錢的人可以加入友愛。 The number of candidates is further restricted by prescriptions regarding their moral, intellectual, social, and physical qualifications, and by a regulation which requires unanimity of votes in secret balloting for their admission.候選人人數是進一步限制了他們的處方就在品德,智力,社會和物理的資格,並規定要求一致投票中以無記名投票的接納。 Thus, contrary to its pretended universality, Freemasonry appears to be a most exclusive society, the more so as it is a secret society, closed off from the profane world of common mortals. "Freemasonry", says the "Keystone" of Philadelphia [78] "has no right to be popular. It is a secret society. It is for the few, not the many, for the select, not for the masses."因此,違背其假裝普遍性,共濟會似乎是一種最高級的社會,更因為它是一個秘密的社會,關閉從世俗世界的共同凡人。 “共濟” ,說“關鍵”的76 [ 78 ] “沒有權利可能會很受歡迎。這是一個秘密的社會。這是少數,而不是很多,對於選擇,而不是為大眾所接受。 ”

Practically, it is true, the prescriptions concerning the intellectual and moral endowments are not rigourously obeyed:實際上,這是真的,處方有關的知識和道德禀賦不服從rigourously :

"Numbers are being admitted . . . whose sole object is to make their membership a means for advancing their pecuniary interest". “數字是被接納。 。 。 ,其唯一目的是使他們的成員的手段推動其金錢利益” 。 [79] "There are a goodly number again, who value Freemasonry solely for the convivial meetings attached to it." "Again I have heard men say openly, that they had joined to gain introduction to a certain class of individuals as a trading matter and that they were forced to do so because every one did so. Then there is the great class who join it out of curiosity or perhaps, because somebody in a position above them is a mason." "Near akin to this is that class of individuals who wish for congenial society". [ 79 ] “有優美的人數再次,誰濟價值只為歡樂的會議上重視它。 ” “我再次聽到男子公開說,他們已加入獲得介紹一定階級的個人作為一個貿易問題而且,他們被迫這樣做是因為每個人都這樣做了。然後是偉大的階級誰加入出於好奇或也許,因為有人在它們上面地位是一個石匠“ 。 ”近類似於這是因為類個人誰的願望社會相投“ 。 [80] "In Masonry they find the means of ready access to society, which is denied to them by social conventionalities. They have wealth but neither by birth nor education are they eligible for polite and fine intercourse." "The shop is never absent from their words and deeds." "The Masonic body includes a large number of publicans." [ 80 ] “在砌體他們發現的方法準備進入社會,這是剝奪了他們的社會conventionalities 。他們的財富,但既沒有出生,也不是他們的教育資格和罰款禮貌交往” 。 “店是從來沒有缺席從他們的言行“ 。 ”共濟會組織的包括了大量的publicans 。 “ [81] [ 81 ]

Of the Masonic rule -- brotherly love, relief, and truth -- certainly the two former, especially as understood in the sense of mutual assistance in all the emergencies of life, is for most of the candidates the principal reason for joining.共濟會的規則-友愛,救濟,和真理-當然這兩個前,特別是理解意義上的相互援助的所有的緊急情況下的生活,是大多數的候選人的主要理由加入。 This mutual assistance, especially symbolized by the five points of fellowship and the "grand hailing sign of distress" in the third degree, is one of the most fundamental characteristics of Freemasonry.這種相互援助,特別是象徵的五點獎學金和“大歡呼的跡象危難”中的第三度,是一個最根本的特點,共濟。 By his oath the Master Mason is pledged to maintain and uphold the five points of fellowship in act as well as in words, ie, to assist a Master Mason on every occasion according to his ability, and particularly when he makes the sign of distress.他宣誓碩士梅森是保證維護和堅持五點金的行為以及在口頭上,即協助碩士梅森每次都根據他的能力,尤其是當他使遇險的跡象。 In Duncan, "American Ritual" (229), the Royal Arch-Mason even swears:在鄧肯, “美國禮” ( 229 ) ,皇家拱梅森甚至發誓:

I will assist a companion Royal Arch-Mason, when I see him engaged in any difficulty and will espouse his cause so as to extricate him from the same whether he be right or wrong.我將協助同伴皇家拱梅森,當我看到他從事任何困難,將支持他的事業,以便擺脫他從同一他是否是正確的或錯誤的。

It is a fact attested by experienced men of all countries that, wherever Masonry is influential, non-Masons have to suffer in their interests from the systematical preferment which Masons give each other in appointment to offices and employment.這是一個事實證明了經驗豐富的男人的所有國家,無論是有影響力的砌體,非共濟會遭受他們的利益從系統的升遷而梅森給對方任命為辦事處和就業機會。 Even Bismarck [82] complained of the effects of such mutual Masonic assistance, which is detrimental alike to civic equality and to public interests.即使俾斯麥[ 82 ]抱怨的影響,這種相互共濟會的援助,這是不利於公民一樣平等和公眾的利益。 In Masonic books and magazines unlawful and treacherous acts, performed in rendering this mutual assistance, are recommended and praised as a glory of Freemasonry."The inexorable laws of war themselves", says the official orator of the Grand Orient de France, Lefèbvre d'Aumale [83] "had to bend before Freemasonry, which is perhaps the most striking proof of its power. A sign sufficed to stop the slaughter; the combatants threw away their arms, embraced each other fraternally and at once became friends and Brethren as their oaths prescribed", and the "Handbuch" [84] declares: "this sign has had beneficial effect, particularly in times of war, where it often disarms the bitterest enemies, so that they listen to the voice of humanity and give each other mutual assistance instead of killing each other".在共濟會的書籍和雜誌的非法和背信棄義的行為,履行提供這種相互協助,建議,並讚揚作為一個光榮的共濟。 “法律的無情戰爭本身”說,官方的演說家的大東方法國,勒費弗爾之歐馬勒[ 83 ] “不得不在濟彎,這也許是最突出的證明了它的力量。一個標誌足以停止屠宰;戰鬥丟他們的武器,互相擁抱,並友好一次成了朋友和他們的弟兄誓明“和”手冊“ [ 84 ]宣布: ”這個標誌已產生有利的影響,尤其是在戰爭時期,它往往解除敵人的痛苦,使他們聽的聲音,讓人類相互援助,而不是互相殘殺“ 。 [85] Even the widely spread suspicion, that justice is sometimes thwarted and Masonic criminals saved from due punishment, cannot be deemed groundless. [ 85 ]即使是廣為傳播的懷疑,正義有時是挫敗和共濟會的罪犯免於處罰適當,不能被視為站不住腳的。 The said practice of mutual assistance is so reprehensible that Masonic authors themselves [86] condemn it severely.上述做法,互助是如此可憎的共濟會的作者本身[ 86 ]嚴厲譴責。 "If", says Bro. “如果” ,說兄弟。 Marbach (23), "Freemasonry really could be an association and even a secret one of men of the most different ranks of society, assisting and advancing each other, it would be an iniquitous association, and the police would have no more urgent duty than to exterminate it." Another characteristic of Masonic law is that "treason" and "rebellion" against civil authority are declared only political crimes, which affect the good standing of a Brother no more than heresy, and furnish no ground for a Masonic trial.馬爾巴赫( 23 ) , “共濟會真的可以成為協會,甚至還有一個秘密的一個男人最不同職級的社會,協助和推動對方,那將是不公正的協會,警察就沒有更緊迫的責任比要消滅它。 “另一個特點是共濟會的法律是”叛國“和”叛亂“對民事當局宣布為唯一的政治罪行,影響了良好的信譽的兄弟不超過異端邪說,並沒有理由提供了共濟會的審判。 [87] The importance which Masonry attaches to this point is manifest from the fact that it is set forth in the Article II of the "Old Charges", which defines the duties of a Freemason with respect to the State and civil powers. Compared with the corresponding injunction of the "Gothic" constitutions of operative masonry, it is no less ambiguous than Article I concerning God and religion. [ 87 ]重視砌體重視這一點是明顯的事實,這是中規定的第二條“老費” ,其中規定的職責濟對國家和公民的權力。相比相應的禁令的“哥特式”的憲法部分砌體,這是不模糊的比第一條關於上帝和宗教。 The old Gothic Constitutions candidly enjoined: "Also you shall be true liegemen to the King without treason or falsehood and that you shall know no treason but you mend it, if you may, or else warn the King or his council thereof".哥特式的舊憲法責成坦率: “您也應如此liegemen國王沒有叛國罪或謬誤和,你應知道任何叛國,但您修復它,如果你可以,或者警告國王或其理事會有。 ” [88] The second article of modern speculative Freemasonry (1723) runs: [ 88 ]第二條現代投機濟( 1723 )運行:

Of the civil magistrates, supreme and subordinate.民事法官,最高法院和下級。 A Mason is a peaceable subject to the Civil Powers, wherever he resides or works, and is never to be concerned in Plots and Conspiracies against the peace and welfare of the Nation, nor to behave himself undutifully to inferior Magistrates; for as Masonry hath always been injured by War, Bloodshed and Confusion so ancient Kings and Princes have been much disposed to encourage the craftsmen, because of their Peaceableness and Loyalty, whereby they practically answer'd the Cavils of their adversaries and promoted the Honour of Fraternity, who ever flourished in Times of Peace.阿梅森是一個愛好和平的主題,以公務員的權力,無論他居住或工作,是從來沒有關心的情節和陰謀反對和平和福利的國家,也不是要表現自己,以劣undutifully裁判;作為砌體上帝總是受傷的戰爭,流血和混亂,使古老的國王和王儲已經很多處置,鼓勵技工,因為他們Peaceableness和忠誠度,它們幾乎answer'd的Cavils他們的對手,促進了榮譽博愛,蓬勃發展;誰在和平時期。 So that if a Brother should be a Rebel against the State, he is not to be countenanc'd in his Rebellion, however he may be pitied as an unhappy man; and, if convicted of no other Crime, though the loyal Brotherhood must and ought to disown his Rebellion, and give no Umbrage or Ground of political Jealousy to the Government for the time being; they cannot expel him from the Lodge and his Relation to it remains indefeasible.所以,如果一個兄弟應該是一個反抗的國家,他是不能countenanc'd在他的動員戡亂,但他可能是可憐的一個不幸的人; ,如果定罪,沒有其他犯罪,但必須忠於兄弟和應該斷絕他的起義,並沒有任何不快或地面的政治嫉妒政府暫時他們不能開除的旅館和他的關係仍然不可。

Hence rebellion by modern speculative Masonry is only disapproved when plots are directed against the peace and welfare of the nation.因此,叛亂現代投機砌體只有拒當陰謀是針對和平和福利的國家。 The brotherhood ought to disown the rebellion, but only in order to preserve the fraternity from annoyance by the civil authorities.在兄弟情誼應該斷絕叛亂,但只是為了維護兄弟從煩惱的民事當局。 A brother, then, guilty of rebellion cannot be expelled from the lodge; on the contrary, his fellow Masons are particularly obliged to have pity on his misfortune when he (in prison or before the courts) has to suffer from the consequences of his rebellion, and give him brotherly assistance as far as they can.兄弟,那麼,犯了叛亂不能被開除投訴,相反,他的同胞共濟會特別有義務憐憫他的不幸時,他(在監獄或在法庭上)已經遭受的後果,他的叛亂,並給他兄弟的援助而言,他們可以。 Freemasonry itself as a body is very peaceable and loyal, but it does not disapprove; on the contrary, it commends those brethren who through love of freedom and the national welfare successfully plot against monarchs and other despotic rulers, while as an association of public utility it claims privilege and protection through kings, princes, and other high dignitaries for the success of its peaceful work.濟本身作為一個機構是非常愛好和平的和忠誠的,但是它並不反對,相反,它讚揚那些兄弟通過愛誰的自由和福利的國家成功地策劃針對君主和其他專制統治者,而協會作為一個公共事業它聲稱特權和保護國王,王子,和其他高級政要成功的和平工作。 "Loyalty to freedom", says "Freemason's Chronicle" [89] "overrides all other considerations". “忠誠,以自由” ,說: “洪門的紀事” [ 89 ] “凌駕於所有其他的考慮” 。 The wisdom of this regulation, remarks Mackey [90] "will be apparent when we consider, that if treason or rebellion were masonic crimes, almost every mason in the United Colonies, in 1776, would have been subject to expulsion and every Lodge to a forfeiture of its warrant by the Grand Lodges of England and Scotland, under whose jurisdiction they were at the time".智慧的這個條例,是麥基[ 90 ] “將是明顯的當我們考慮,如果叛國罪或共濟會被叛亂罪,幾乎每一個石匠在美國的殖民地,在1776年,將受到驅逐和每一個旅館沒收其令由大旅館的英格蘭和蘇格蘭,在其管轄下,他們當時“ 。

A misleading adage is "once a Mason always a Mason".一個誤導的格言是“一次梅森總是一個梅森” 。 This is often taken to mean that "the Masonic tie is indissoluble, that there is no absolution from its consequences" [91] or "Obligations" [92] that not even death can sever the connection of a Mason with Freemasonry.這通常是指說: “共濟會配合是不可分割的,不存在赦免其後果” [ 91 ]或“義務” [ 92 ] ,並非甚至死亡可以切斷連接的梅森與濟。 [93] But certainly a Mason has the "right of demission" [94] and this right, whatever be the opinion of Masonic jurisprudence, according to the inalienable natural rights of man, extends to a complete withdrawal not only from the lodge but also from the brotherhood. [ 93 ] ,但肯定是一個梅森有“離職的權利” [ 94 ]這種權利,無論是輿論的共濟會法理學,根據不可剝奪的自然權利的人,延伸到一個完整的撤出不僅從提出而且還從兄弟情誼。 In the scale of Masonic penalties, "expulsion" is the most severe.在規模的共濟會的懲罰, “驅逐”是最嚴重的。 [95] Besides those who have been expelled or who have resigned there are many "unaffiliated" Masons who have ceased to be "active" members of a lodge, but, according to Masonic law, which, of course, can oblige no more than is authorized by the general rules of morality, they remain subject to the lodge within the jurisdiction of which they reside. [ 95 ]除了那些誰被開除或辭職,誰也有許多“無黨派”泥瓦匠誰已不再是“積極”成員的投訴,但根據共濟會的法律,這當然可以迫使不超過被授權的一般規則的道德,他們仍然受到投訴的管轄範圍之內居住。

As to unity, Masonic authorities unanimously affirm that Freemasonry throughout the world is one, and that all Freemasons form in reality but one lodge; that distinct lodges exist only for the sake of convenience, and that consequently every regular Mason is entitled to be received in every regular lodge of the world as a brother, and, if in distress, to be relieved.至於團結,共濟會當局的一致肯定,共濟會在世界各地是,所有濟的形式,但在現實中一提出,這存在著不同的旅館只為方便起見,因此每一個經常梅森有權收到的每定期向世界作為一個弟弟,如果遇險,將緩解。 The good understanding among Masons of different countries is furthered by personal intercourse and by correspondence, especially between the grand secretary offices and international congresses [96] which led to the establishment, in 1903, of a permanent international office at Neuchâtel, Switzerland.良好的共濟會之間的相互了解不同國家,又交往和個人通過書信,尤其是大秘書辦公室和國際大會[ 96 ]而導致的設立,在1903年,一個常設的國際辦公室在瑞士納沙泰爾, 。 [97] There is no general Grand Lodge or direction of Freemasonry, though various attempts have been made in nearly every larger state or country to establish one. [ 97 ]有沒有一般的大旅館或方向的共濟會,但各種嘗試取得了較大的幾乎每一個州或國家設立一個。 Incessant dissensions between Masonic systems and bodies are characteristic of Freemasonry in all countries and times.之間糾紛不斷的共濟會制度和機構的特點,濟在所有國家和時間。 But the federative unity of Freemasonry suffices to prove a true solidarity among Masons and Masonic bodies throughout the world; hence the charge of complicity in the machinations which some of them carry on.但是,聯邦統一的濟足以證明一個真正的團結,梅森和共濟會機構在世界各地,因此負責共謀的陰謀詭計而其中一些人進行。 This solidarity is openly avowed by Masonic authorities.這種團結是公開宣稱的共濟會當局。 Pike, for instance, writes [98]派克,例如,寫入[ 98 ]

When the journal in London which speaks of the Freemasonry of the Grand Lodge of England, deprecatingly protested that the English Freemasonry was innocent of the charges preferred by the Papal Bull (Encycl. 1884) against Freemasonry, when it declared that English Freemasonry had no opinions political or religious, and that it did not in the least degree sympathize with the loose opinions and extravagant utterances of part of the Continental Freemasonry, it was very justly and very conclusively checkmated by the Romish Organs with the reply, 'It is idle for you to protest.當雜誌在倫敦談到濟的大旅館,英國,不以為然抗議,英文濟是無辜的指控由教皇車隊( Encycl. 1884年)對濟時宣布,英國共濟會沒有意見政治或宗教,它沒有在最同情的程度鬆散的意見和奢侈的話語的部分大陸架共濟,這是非常正確和非常地checkmated的Romish機關的答复,這是您閒置抗議。 You are Freemasons and you recognize them as Freemasons.您的濟和你承認它們為濟。 You give them countenance, encouragement and support and you are jointly responsible with them and cannot shirk that responsibility'.你給他們的面容,鼓勵和支持,您共同負責與他們不能推卸的責任。

As accurate statistics are not always to be had and the methods of enumeration differ in different countries, total numbers can only be approximated.至於準確的統計數據並非總是將已和方法不同枚舉在不同的國家,總人數只能是近似。 Thus in most of the Lodges of the United States only the Masters (third degree) are counted, while in other countries the apprentices and fellows are added.因此,在大多數的旅館在美國名人賽只(三度)的計算,而在其他國家的學徒工和研究員說。 There are besides many unaffiliated Masons (having ceased to be members of a lodge) who are not included.除了有許多獨立的梅森(已不再是成員的投訴)誰不包括在內。 Their number may be estimated at two-thirds of that of the active Masons.他們的人數可能是估計的三分之二,在積極泥瓦匠。 In England a Mason may act as member of many lodges.在英格蘭梅森可作為成員的許多旅館。 Confirming our statement as to the active members of the strictly Masonic bodies, which in calendars and year books are registered as such, we may, upon recent and reliable sources [99] estimate the actual state of Freemasonry as follows: Grand Orients, Grand Lodges, Supreme Councils, and other Scottish G. Bodies, 183; lodges 26,500; Masons, about 2,000,000; the number of the Grand Chapters of Royal Arch is: in the United States 2968 subordinate chapters, under one General Grand Chapter; England, 46 Grand Chapters with 1015 subordinate chapters; English colonies and foreign Masonic centres, 18 Grand Chapters with 150 subordinate chapters. The census of craft masonry is as follows:

Great Britain and Colonies (excluding Canada): 4,670 lodges; 262,651 members

Canada: 727 lodges; 60,728 members

United States (White): 12,916 lodges; 1,203,159 members

United States (Colored): 1,300 lodges; 28,000 members

Latin countries: 2,500 lodges; 120,000 members

Other European countries: 771 lodges; 90,700 members

Africa: 53 lodges; 2,150 members

Total: 22,937 lodges; 1,767,388 members

VI.六。 INNER WORK OF FREEMASONRY:內工作的共濟會:

MASONIC SYMBOLISM AND OATHS共濟會的象徵意義和咒罵

"From first to last", says Pike [100] "Masonry is work". “從去年第一次”說,派克[ 100 ] “砌體的工作” 。 The Masonic "work", properly so called, is the inner secret ritualistic work by which Masons are made and educated for the outer work, consisting in action for the welfare of mankind according to Masonic principles.在共濟會“工作” ,所謂正確,是內心的秘密儀式的工作,其中梅森是教育的外部工作,包括在行動,人類的福利根據共濟會的原則。 Masons are made by the three ceremonies of initiation (first degree), passing (second degree), and raising (third degree).梅森是由三個儀式開始(第一學位) ,傳遞(第二學位) ,提高(三度) 。 The symbols displayed in these ceremonies and explained according to the Masonic principles and to the verbal hints given in the rituals and lectures of the third degrees, are the manual of Masonic instruction.符號顯示在這些儀式,並解釋根據共濟會的原則,並口頭提示給出了儀式和講座的第三度,是手動的共濟會指示。 The education thus begun is completed by the whole lodge life, in which every Mason is advised to take an active part, attending the lodge meetings regularly, profiting, according to his ability, by the means which Masonry affords him, to perfect himself in conformity with Masonic ideals, and contributing to the discussions of Masonic themes and to a good lodge government, which is represented as a model of the government of society at large.因此,教育開始之前完成整個投訴的生活,每一個梅森應採取積極參加,出席會議的投訴,定期牟利,根據他的能力,由砌體的手段,使他完善自己符合與共濟會的理想,並促進討論的共濟會的主題,並提出了良好的政府,這是代表作為一種模式政府的整個社會。 The lodge is to be a type of the world [101] and Masons are intended to take part in the regeneration of the human race.該投訴將是一個類型的世界[ 101 ]和共濟會的目的是參加再生的人類。 [102] "The symbolism of Freemasonry", says Pike in a letter to Gould, 2 December, 1888 [103] "is the very soul of Masonry." [ 102 ] “的象徵意義的共濟會”說,派克在信中古爾德, 1888年12月二號[ 103 ] “是的靈魂砌體。 ” And Boyd, the Grand Orator of Missouri, confirms: "It is from the beginning to the end symbol, symbol, symbol".和博伊德,大演說家的密蘇里州,證實: “這是從開始到結束的標誌,象徵,象徵” 。 [104] [ 104 ]

The principal advantages of this symbolism, which is not peculiar to Freemasonry but refers to the mysteries and doctrines of all ages and of all factors of civilization, are the following: (1) As it is adaptable to all possible opinions, doctrines, and tastes, it attracts the candidate and fascinates the initiated.主要優點這一象徵意義,這不是特有的共濟會,但指的是神秘和理論所有年齡和所有的文明因素,如下: ( 1 )它是適用於所有可能的觀點,理論,和口味,它吸引的候選人,並開始著迷了。 (2) It preserves the unsectarian unity of Freemasonry in spite of profound differences in religion, race, national feeling, and individual tendencies. ( 2 )保持unsectarian團結共濟,儘管深刻的分歧在宗教,種族,民族感情,和個人的傾向。 (3) It sums up the theoretical and practical wisdom of all ages and nations in a universally intelligible language. ( 3 )總結理論和實踐的智慧和建立不分年齡人人共享的國家普遍理解的語言。 (4) It trains the Mason to consider existing institutions, religious, political, and social, as passing phases of human evolution and to discover by his own study the reforms to be realized in behalf of Masonic progress, and the means to realize them. ( 4 )列車梅森考慮現有的機構,宗教,政治,社會,作為傳遞階段的人類進化,並發現了自己的研究改革,以實現在代表共濟會的進展,和手段,以實現它們。 (5) It teaches him to see in prevailing doctrines and dogmas merely subjective conceptions or changing symbols of a deeper universal truth in the sense of Masonic ideals. ( 5 )它教導他看到的普遍理論和教條只是主觀觀念或改變的象徵更深的普遍真理意義上的共濟會的理想。 (6) It allows Freemasonry to conceal its real purposes from the profane and even from those among the initiated, who are unable to appreciate those aims, as Masonry intends. ( 6 )它使濟掩蓋其真正目的的褻瀆,甚至從這些之間展開,誰是無法欣賞這些目標,作為砌體打算。 "Masonry", says Pike, "jealously conceals its secrets and intentionally leads conceited interpreters astray". “砌體結構” ,派克說, “小心隱藏的秘密和故意導致自負口譯誤入歧途” 。 [105] "Part of the Symbols are displayed . . . to the Initiated, but he is intentionally misled by false interpretations". [ 105 ] “部分顯示的符號。 。 。的開始,但他是故意誤導的虛假解釋” 。 [106] "The initiated are few though many hear the Thyrsus". [ 106 ] “的啟動雖然很少聽到許多Thyrsus ” 。 [107] "The meaning of the Symbols is not unfolded at once. We give you hints only in general. You must study out the recondite and mysterious meaning for yourself". [ 107 ] “的含義是象徵展開一次。我們給您提示只有在一般。您必須研究的深奧和神秘的含義為自己” 。 [108] "It is for each individual Mason to discover the secret of Masonry by reflection on its symbols and a wise consideration of what is said and done in the work". [ 108 ] “這是每個人梅森發現的秘密砌體的思考其象徵和一個明智的考慮是什麼說的和做的工作” 。 [109] "The universal cry throughout the Masonic world", says Mackey [110] "is for light; our lodges are henceforth to be schools, our labour is to be study, our wages are to be learning; the types and symbols, the myths and allegories of the institution are only beginning to be investigated with reference to the ultimate meaning and Freemasons now thoroughly understand that often quoted definition, that Masonry is a science of morality veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols." [ 109 ] “哭泣的普遍整個世界的共濟會”說,麥基[ 110 ] “是輕;遞交是我們今後要學校,我們的勞動是學習,我們的工資要學習;的種類和符號,神話和寓言的機構正開始進行調查,並提及終極意義和濟現在徹底明白,常常引用的定義,即砌體是一個科學的道德隱晦的寓言和說明為準。 “

Masonic symbols can be and are interpreted in different senses.共濟會的符號,並可以解釋在不同的感覺。 By orthodox Anglican ecclesiastics the whole symbolism of the Old and New Testament connected with the symbolism of the Temple of Solomon was treated as Masonic symbolism and Masonry as the "handmaid of religion" [111] which, "in almost every part of every degree refers distinctly and plainly to a crucified Saviour".正統聖公會教區整個象徵老和新約與象徵所羅門聖殿被視為共濟會的象徵意義和砌體的“侍女的宗教” [ 111 ]其中, “在幾乎每一個部分每度是指明顯和清楚的釘在十字架上的救世主“ 。 [112] Many Masonic authors in the Latin countries [113] and some of the principal Anglo-American authors [114] declare that Masonic symbolism in its original and proper meaning refers above all to the solar and phallic worship of the ancient mysteries, especially the Egyptian. [ 112 ]作者許多共濟會在拉美國家[ 113 ]和一些主要的英美作家[ 114 ]宣布,共濟會的象徵意義的原始和適當的含義是指上述所有的太陽能和陽具崇拜的古代之謎,特別是埃及。 [115] "It is in the antique symbols and their occult meaning", says Pike [116] "that the true secrets of Freemasonry consist. These must reveal its nature and true purposes." [ 115 ] “這是在古董符號和其隱匿意思是”說,派克[ 116 ] “ ,真正的共濟會秘密組成。這些都必須揭示其真正的性質和宗旨。 ” In conformity with this rule of interpretation, the letter G in the symbol of Glory (Blazing Star) or the Greek Gamma (square), summing up all Masonry is very commonly explained as meaning "generation"; the initial letter of the tetragrammaton (Yahweh) and the whole name is explained as male or male-female principle.符合本規則的解釋,信中G在象徵榮耀(熾天星)或希臘伽瑪(平方米) ,總結了所有砌體是很常見的解釋,意思是“一代” ;最初的信中tetragrammaton (耶和華)和整個名稱解釋為男性或男性為女性的原則。 [117] In the same sense according to the ancient interpretation are explained the two pillars Boaz and Jachin; the Rosecroix (a cross with a rose in the centre); the point within the circle; the "vesica piscis", the well-known sign for the Saviour; the triple Tau; Sun and Moon; Hiram and Christ (Osiris); the coffin; the Middle Chamber and even the Sancta Sanctorum, as adyta or most holy parts of each temple, usually contained hideous objects of phallic worship. [118] [ 117 ]在同一意義上根據古代解釋解釋的兩大支柱波阿斯和Jachin ;的Rosecroix (一跨一個上升的中心) ;點的圓圈內的“陽南魚” ,眾所周知簽署的救世主;三頭;太陽和月亮;西貢和基督(奧西里斯) ;棺材;中東廳,甚至聖Sanctorum ,作為adyta或最神聖的地方的每一個寺廟,通常載駭人聽聞的物體的陽具崇拜。 [ 118 ]

As Masons even in their official lectures and rituals, generally claim an Egyptian origin for Masonic symbolism and a close "affinity" of "masonic usages and customs with those of the Ancient Egyptians" [119] such interpretations are to be deemed officially authorized.正如梅森甚至在其正式演講和禮儀,一般要求埃及血統的共濟會的象徵意義和密切的“親和力”的“共濟會的慣例和習俗與古代埃及人” [ 119 ]這種解釋是被視為正式授權。 Pike says, moreover, that "almost every one of the ancient Masonic symbols" has "four distinct meanings, one as it were within the other, the moral, political, philosophical and spiritual meaning". [120] From the political point of view Pike with many other Anglo-American Scotch Masons interprets all Masonic symbolism in the sense of a systematic struggle against every kind of political and religious "despotism".派克說,此外, “幾乎每一個古老的共濟會符號”的“四個不同的含義,一個是因為它在另一方面,道德,政治,哲學和精神意義。 ” [ 120 ]從政治學的觀點看派克與其他許多英美蘇格蘭梅森解釋所有的共濟會的象徵意義上的一個系統鬥爭的各種政治和宗教“專制” 。 Hiram, Christ, Molay are regarded only as representatives of "Humanity" the "Apostles of Liberty, Equality, Fraternity".西貢,基督, Molay被視為唯一的代表“人性”的“使徒的自由,平等,博愛” 。 [121] The Cross (a double or quadruple square) is "no specific Christian symbol", "to all of us it is an emblem of Nature and of Eternal life; whether of them only let each say for himself". [122] The Cross X (Christ) was the Sign of the Creative Wisdom or Logos, the Son of God. [ 121 ]交叉(雙或四方形)是“沒有特定的基督教象徵” , “我們所有人這是一個標誌性和永恆的生命;是否只有他們說,讓每一個為自己。 ” [ 122 ]跨第十章(基督)是申請創新智慧或標識,上帝的兒子。 Mithraism signed its soldiers on the forehead with a cross, etc. [123] INRI, the inscription on the Cross is, Masonically read: "Igne Natura Renovatur Integra". Mithraism簽署了士兵的額頭有交叉,等等[ 123 ] INRI的記載,在十字架上是Masonically改為: “ Igne自然Renovatur集成” 。 The regeneration of nature by the influence of the sun symbolizes the spiritual regeneration of mankind by the sacred fire (truth and love) of Masonry, as a purely naturalistic institution.再生的性質所影響的太陽象徵著精神再生的人類神聖的火(真理和愛情)磚混,作為一個純粹的自然主義的機構。 [124] "The first assassin of Hiram is Royalty as the common type of tyranny", striking "with its rule of iron at the throat of Hiram and making freedom of speech treason." [ 124 ] “第一殺手是西貢版稅作為常見的暴政” ,突出“與法治的鐵在西貢喉嚨和言論自由的叛國罪。 ” The second assassin is the Pontificate (Papacy) "aiming the square of steel at the heart of the victim".第二個兇手是教宗(教皇) “旨在方鋼的核心受害者” 。 [125] Christ dying on Calvary is for Masonry "the greatest among the apostles of Humanity, braving Roman despotism and the fanaticism and bigotry of the priesthood". [ 125 ]死去的基督各各砌體是“最偉大的使徒之間的人性,冒著羅馬專制主義和宗教狂熱和偏執的神父” 。 [126] Under the symbol of the Cross, "the legions of freedom shall march to victory". [ 126 ]下的象徵,交叉, “該軍團的自由應遊行勝利” 。 [127] [ 127 ]

The Kadosh (thirtieth degree), trampling on the papal tiara and the royal crown, is destined to wreak a just vengeance on these "high criminals" for the murder of Molay [128] and "as the apostle of truth and the rights of man" [129] to deliver mankind "from the bondage of Despotism and the thraldom of spiritual Tyranny".該卡多什(三十度) ,踐踏了教皇的皇冠和皇冠,是注定要造成一個公正報復這些“高罪犯”謀殺Molay [ 128 ]和“作為使徒的真相和權利的人“ [ 129 ]人類提供”從桎梏的專制和thraldom的精神暴政“ 。 [130] "In most rituals of this degree everything breathes vengeance" against religious and political "Despotism". [ 130 ] “在大多數儀式這種程度的一切呼吸復仇”對宗教和政治“專制” 。 [131] Thus Masonic symbols are said to be "radiant of ideas, which should penetrate the soul of every Mason and be clearly reflected in his character and conduct, till he become a pillar of strength to the fraternity". [ 131 ]因此,共濟會符號被稱為“光明的想法,應該滲透到每一個靈魂的梅森,並清楚地反映在他的性格和行為,直到他成為一個支柱力量的兄弟情誼” 。 [132] "There is no iota of Masonic Ritual", adds the "Voice" of Chicago, "which is void of significance". [ 132 ] “沒有絲毫的共濟會禮” ,增加了“聲音”芝加哥“ ,這是無效的意義” 。 [133] These interpretations, it is true, are not officially adopted in Anglo-American craft rituals; but they appear in fully authorized, though not the only ones authorized even by its system and by the first two articles of the "Old Charge" (1723), which contains the fundamental law of Freemasonry. [ 133 ]這些解釋,這是真的,不是正式通過英美船儀式,但他們出現在充分授權,但不是唯一的授權甚至是其系統和前兩個條款的“老費” ( 1723年) ,其中包含的基本法律共濟。 As to the unsectarian character of Masonry and its symbolism, Pike justly remarks: "Masonry propagates no creed, except its own most simple and sublime one taught by Nature and Reason. There has never been a false Religion on the world. The permanent one universal revelation is written in visible Nature and explained by the Reason and is completed by the wise analogies of faith. There is but one true religion, one dogma, one legitimate belief".至於unsectarian性質的砌體和象徵,公正派克說: “砌體沒有信仰的傳播,除了其自身最簡單和崇高的一所教的性質和原因。從來沒有一個虛假的宗教世界。常任理事國之一的普遍啟示是有形的書面自然和解釋了原因,並完成了明智的類比的信念。只有一個真正的宗教,一個教條,一個合法的信仰。 “ [134] Consequently, also, the Bible as a Masonic symbol, is to be interpreted as a symbol of the Book of Nature or of the Code of human reason and conscience, while Christian and other dogmas have for Freemasonry but the import of changing symbols veiling the one permanent truth, of which Masonic "Science" and "Arts" are a "progressive revelation", and application. [ 134 ]因此,也聖經作為一個共濟會的象徵,是被解釋為象徵的自然之書或守則人類理性和良知,而基督教和其他的教條對共濟會,但進口的改變符號面紗的一個常任理事國真相,其中共濟會“科學”和“藝術”是一個“漸進的啟示” ,和應用。 [135] [ 135 ]

It should be noted, that the great majority of Masons are far from being "initiated" and "are groveling in Egyptian darkness".應當指出,絕大多數的梅森還遠遠沒有得到“開始”和“是groveling在埃及黑暗” 。 [136] "The Masonry of the higher degrees", says Pike [137] "teaches the great truths of intellectual science; but as to these, even as to the rudiments and first principles, Blue Masonry is absolutely dumb. Its dramas seem intended to teach the resurrection of the body". [ 136 ] “砌體的高學歷”說,派克[ 137 ] “教的偉大真理的科學知識;但這些,即使在雛形和第一的原則,藍砌體是絕對愚蠢的。及其電視劇似乎打算教復活的身體“ 。 "The pretended possession of mysterious secrets, has enabled Blue Masonry to number its initiates by tens of thousands. Never were any pretences to the possession of mysterious knowledge so baseless and so absurd as those of the Blue and Royal Arch Chapter Degrees". “的假裝擁有神秘的秘密,使藍砌體的人數及其發起的數以萬計。從來沒有任何藉口擁有神秘的知識,以便根據的,所以這些荒謬的藍和皇家章拱度” 。 [138] "The aping Christianity of Blue Masonry made it simply an emasculated and impotent society with large and sounding pretences and slender performances. And yet its multitudes adhere to it, because initiation is a necessity for the Human Soul; and because it instinctively longs for a union of the many under the control of a single will, in things spiritual as well as in things temporal, for a Hierarchy and a Monarch". [ 138 ] “基督教的模仿藍砌體了它只是一個閹割和社會的無能與大和探空藉口和細長表演。然而其眾多堅持,因為開始是必要的人類靈魂; ,因為它本能的渴望對工會的許多控制下的一個單一的意志,精神的東西以及東西時,一個層次和君主。 “ [139] "It is for the Adept to understand the meaning of the Symbols [140] and Oliver declares: "Brethren, high in rank and office, are often unacquainted with the elementary principles of the science". [141] Masons "may be fifty years Masters of the Chair and yet not learn the secret of the Brotherhood. [ 139 ] “這是為善於理解意義上的符號[ 140 ]和奧利弗宣布: ”弟兄們,在高級別和辦公室,往往是不了解的基本原則的科學。 “ [ 141 ]共濟會”可能在五十年大師賽的主席和尚未了解的秘密兄弟會。 This secret is, in its own nature, invulnerable; for the Mason, to whom it has become known, can only have guessed it and certainly not have received it from any one; he has discovered it, because he has been in the lodge, marked, learned and inwardly digested.這是秘密,在自己的性質,無懈可擊;的梅森,他們已成為眾所周知,只能猜到了,肯定不會收到它從任何一個,他發現了,因為他一直在投訴,標記,經驗和內心消化。 When he arrives at the discovery, he unquestionably keeps it to himself, not communicating it even to his most intimate Brother, because, should this person not have capability to discover it of himself, he would likewise be wanting in the capability to use it, if he received it verbally.當他抵達時發現,他毫無疑問地保持它自己,而不是溝通,甚至對他最親密的兄弟,因為此人應該沒有能力發現它時,他將同樣要在能力使用它,如果他收到辱罵。 For this reason it will forever remain a secret". [142] In view of the fact that the secrets of Masonry are unknown to the bulk of Masons, the oaths of secrecy taken on the Bible are all the more startling and unjustifiable. The oath, for instance, of the first degree is as follows: "I, in the presence of the Great Architect of the Universe, .為此,將永遠是一個秘密。 “ [ 142 ]鑑於這一事實的秘密砌體不明的散裝的泥瓦匠,在宣誓保密,對聖經更是驚人的和毫無道理的。誓詞舉例來說,第一度如下: “我,在場的大建築師宇宙。 . . do hereby and hereon solemnly and sincerely swear, that I will always hide, conceal and never reveal any part or parts, any point or points of the secrets or mysteries of or belonging to Free and Accepted Masons in Masonry which may heretofore have been known by, shall now or may at any future time be communicated to me" etc. "These several points I solemnly swear to observe under no less penalty, than to have my throat cut across, my tongue torn out by the root and my body buried in the sands of the sea", "or the more efficient punishment of being branded as a wilfully perjured individual, void of all moral worth". "So help me God", etc. Similar oaths, but with severer penalties attached, are taken in the advanced degrees. The principle contents of the promises are according to Pike:不特此和關於此莊嚴宣誓,並真誠,我將永遠隱瞞,掩飾,從不透露任何一部分或幾部分,任何點或點的秘密或神秘的或屬於自由和梅森在接受砌體可能在此之前已經知道了,現在或可在未來任何時間傳達給我“等等”這些幾個點我莊嚴宣誓下觀察不罰款,超過了我的喉嚨跨越,我的舌頭挖出的根和我的身體埋在沙灘大海“ , ”或更有效地懲罰被貼上作為個人故意偽證,無效的所有道德價值“ 。 ”所以上帝幫助我“等類似的誓言,但嚴厲的懲罰重視,正在採取先進的程度。原則內容的承諾是根據派克:

Eighteenth degree: "I obligate and pledge myself always to sustain, that it belongs to Masonry to teach the great unsectarian truths, that do not exclusively belong to any religion and acknowledge that I have no right whatever to exact from others the acceptation of any particular interpretation of masonic symbols, that I may attribute to them by the virtue of my personal belief. I obligate and solemnly pledge myself to respect and sustain by all means and under any circumstances Liberty of Speech, Liberty of Thought and Liberty of Conscience in religious and political matters".第十八程度: “我有義務,並保證自己永遠保持,它屬於圬工教unsectarian的偉大真理,不完全屬於任何宗教和承認,我沒有權利以任何其他具體的驗收任何特定解釋的共濟會的符號,我可以歸因於他們的憑藉我個人的信念。我有義務並鄭重承諾,尊重自己和維持用一切手段和在任何情況下,自由言論,自由的思想和良心自由的宗教和政治事項“ 。 [143] Thirtieth Degree: A. -- "I solemnly and freely vow obedience to all the laws and regulations of the Order, whose belief will be my belief, I promise obedience to all my regular superiors. . . . I pledge myself to be devoted, soul and body, to the protection of innocence, the vindication of right, the crushing of oppression and the punishment of every infraction against the law of Humanity and of Man's rights . . . never, either by interest or by fear, or even to save my existence, to submit to nor suffer any material despotism, that may enslave or oppress humanity by the usurpation or abuse of power. I vow never to submit to or tolerate any intellectual Despotism, that may pretend to chain or fetter free thought, etc." [ 143 ]第三度如下: A. -“我莊嚴宣誓,並自由服從所有的法律和規章的命令,他相信將是我的信仰,我保證服從我的所有定期上級。 。 。 。我保證自己討論,靈魂和身體的保護無罪推定,辯護的權利,沉重的壓迫和懲治一切違法違反法律的人性和人的權利。 。 。從來沒有,要么利益或恐懼,或甚至挽救我的存在,向沒有遭受任何材料專制,這可能奴役或壓迫人類的侵占或濫用權力。我發誓絕不向或容忍任何智力專制,這可能假裝鏈或束縛自由思想等等“

B. "I solemnly vow to consecrate my life to the ends of the Order of Knights of Kadosh, and to co-operate most efficaciously by all means prescribed by the constituted authorities of the order to attain them. I solemnly vow and consecrate, to these ends, my words, my power, my strength, my influence, my intelligence and my life. I vow to consider myself henceforward and forever as the Apostle of Truth and of the rights of man."灣“我鄭重的誓言:我的生命神聖的兩端騎士勳章的卡多什,並開展合作最有效地利用一切手段所構成當局為了實現這些目標。我莊嚴和神聖誓言,以這些目標,我的話,我的權力,我的強項,我的影響,我國的情報和我的生活。我發誓認為自己從今以後,永遠的使徒的真相與人的權利。 “

C. "I vow myself to the utmost to bring due punishment upon the oppressors, the usurpers and the wicked; I pledge myself never to harm a Knight Kadosh, either by word or deed . . .; I vow that if I find him as a foe in the battlefield, I will save his life, when he makes me the Sign of Distress, and that I will free him from prison and confinement upon land or water, even to the risk of my own life or my own liberty. I pledge myself to vindicate right and truth even by might and violence, if necessary and duly ordered by my regular superiors."角: “我發誓自己的最大努力,使因懲罰壓迫者的篡權和邪惡;我發誓自己從未傷害騎士卡多什,無論是由詞或契據。 。 。我發誓,如果我覺得他作為敵人在戰場上,我會挽救他的生命,當他讓我登錄的困境,我將釋放他來自監獄和囚禁後的土地或水,甚至是危險的我自己的生活,或我自己的自由。我保證維護自己的權利和真相甚至可能和暴力,如有必要和適當的命令我經常上司。 “

D. "I pledge myself to obey without hesitation any order whatever it may be of my regular Superiors in the Order". D. “我保證自己毫不遲疑地聽從任何命令,不管它可能是我經常在上級的命令” 。 [144] [ 144 ]

VII.七。 OUTER WORK OF FREEMASONRY:在外工作的共濟會:

ITS ACHIEVEMENTS, PURPOSES AND METHODS其成就,目的和方法

The outer work of Freemasonry, though uniform in its fundamental character and its general lines, varies considerably in different countries and different Masonic symbols.外工作的共濟會,但統一在它的基本性質和它的總方針,有很大的差別在不同國家和不同的共濟會的符號。 "Charitable"or "philanthropic" purposes are chiefly pursued by English, German, and American Masonry, while practically at least, they are neglected by Masons in the Latin countries, who are absorbed by political activity. “慈善”或“慈善”的目的主要是推行英語,德語,和美國砌體,而實際上,至少,他們忽視了梅森在拉美國家中,誰是吸收了政治活動。 But even in England, where relatively the largest sums are spent for charitable purposes, Masonic philanthropy does not seem to be inspired by very high ideals of generosity and disinterestedness, at least with respect to the great mass of the brethren; the principal contributions are made by a few very wealthy brethren and the rest by such as are well-to-do.但是,即使是在英格蘭,在那裡相對最大的款項用於慈善事業,慈善事業共濟會似乎並沒有得到啟發非常高的理想的慷慨和無私,至少就偉大的大規模的兄弟;的主要捐助由少數非常富裕的兄弟,其餘的如是小康。

Moreover, in all countries it is almost exclusively Masons and their families that profit by Masonic charity.此外,在所有國家,幾乎完全是梅森和他們的家人利潤由共濟會慈善機構。 Masonic beneficence towards the "profane" world is little more than figurative, consisting in the propagation and application of Masonic principles by which Masons pretend to promote the welfare of mankind; and if Masons, particularly in Catholic countries, occasionally devote themselves to charitable works as ordinarily understood, their aim is to gain sympathy and thereby further their real purposes.共濟會慈善向“世俗”世界是多一點的比喻,包括在傳播和應用的共濟會的原則,其中泥瓦匠假裝以促進人類的福利,如果泥瓦匠,特別是在天主教國家,偶爾投身於慈善工程通常的理解,他們的目的是為了獲取同情,從而推動其真正的目的。 In North America, especially in the United States a characteristic feature of the outer work is the tendency toward display in the construction of sumptuous Masonic "temples", in Masonic processions, at the laying of cornerstones and the dedication of public buildings and even of Christian churches.在北美,尤其是在美國的一個特點外工作的傾向顯示在建造豪華的共濟會“廟” ,在共濟會遊行,在鋪設的基石和獻身精神的公共建築,甚至基督教教堂。 This tendency has frequently been rebuked by Masonic writers.這種傾向常常被責罵的共濟會作家。 "The Masonry of this continent has gone mad after high degreeism and grand titleism. We tell the brethren, that if they do not pay more attention to the pure, simple, beautiful symbolism of the Lodge and less to the tinsel, furbelow, fire and feathers of Scotch Ritism and Templarism, the Craft will yet be shaken to its very foundations!" “砌體這塊大陸上了瘋牛病後,高degreeism和大titleism 。告訴我們兄弟,如果他們不給予更多的關注純粹的,簡單,美麗的象徵意義的旅館和較少的金屬絲,俗麗的裝飾,消防及羽毛的蘇格蘭Ritism和Templarism ,工藝將尚未被動搖它的根基! “ "Let the tocsin be sounded". [145] "Many masons have passed through the ceremony without any inspiration; but, in public parades of the Lodges (also in England) they may generally be found in the front rank and at the masonic banquets they can neither be equalled nor excelled". “讓鐘被敲響。 ” [ 145 ] “許多泥瓦匠已通過儀式沒有任何靈感,但是在公眾遊行的旅館(也是英格蘭) ,他們一般可發現的前列,並在宴會共濟會既不能等同,也沒有出類拔萃“ 。 [146] [ 146 ]

Even with regard to the most recent Turkish Revolution, it seems certain that the Young Turkish party, which made and directed the Revolution, was guided by Masons, and that Masonry, especially the Grand Orients of Italy and France, had a preponderant rôle in this Revolution.即使考慮到最近的土耳其革命,似乎確信,青年土耳其黨,這使得和指導革命,遵循的是泥瓦匠,而且砌體,特別是大方向的意大利和法國,有優勢在這方面革命。 [153] In conducting this work Freemasonry propagates principles which, logically developed, as shown above, are essentially revolutionary and serve as a basis for all kinds of revolutionary movements. [ 153 ]在開展這項工作的共濟會宣傳的原則,合理開發,如上所示,基本上是革命性的,並以此為基礎的各種革命運動。 Directing Masons to find out for themselves practical reforms in conformity with Masonic ideals and to work for their realization, it fosters in its members and through them in society at large the spirit of innovation.導演梅森找出自己實際的改革符合共濟會的理想,並努力為他們實現,它在促進其成員並通過他們在整個社會的創新精神。 As an apparently harmless and even beneficent association, which in reality is, through its secrecy and ambiguous symbolism, subject to the most different influences, it furnishes in critical times a shelter for conspiracy, and, even when its lodges themselves are not transformed into conspiracy clubs, Masons are trained and encouraged to found new associations for such purposes or to make use of existing associations.作為一個顯然是無害的,甚至慈善協會,而現實情況是,通過其保密和含糊不清的象徵意義,但最不同的影響,它提供了在關鍵時刻為住房的陰謀,並且,即使在其遞交本身並不轉化為陰謀俱樂部,泥瓦匠的培訓和鼓勵找到了新的協會等目的,或利用現有的協會。

Thus, Freemasonry in the eighteenth century, as a powerful ally of infidelity, prepared the French Revolution.因此,共濟會在18世紀,成為一個強大的盟友,不忠,編寫了法國大革命。 The alliance of Freemasonry with philosophy was publicly sealed by the solemn initiation of Voltaire, the chief of these philosophers, 7 February, 1778, and his reception of the Masonic garb from the famous materialist Bro.該聯盟的共濟與哲學是公開密封的莊嚴開始伏爾泰,首席這些哲學家, 1778年二月7日,他接待的共濟會披著著名的唯物主義者兄弟。 Helvetius.維修。 [154] Prior to the Revolution various conspiratory societies arose in connection with Freemasonry from which they borrowed its forms and methods; Illuminati, clubs of Jacobins, etc. A relatively large number of the leading revolutionists were members of Masonic lodges, trained by lodge life for their political career. [ 154 ]前革命conspiratory社會各方面產生的共濟會從這些借來的形式和方法;光明,俱樂部的雅各賓派等相對一大批革命家的領導成員的共濟會分會,提出培訓的生活他們的政治生涯。 Even the programme of the Revolution expressed in the "rights of man" was, as shown above, drawn from Masonic principles, and its device: "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" is the very device of Freemasonry.即使該方案的革命中所表示的“權利人”是,如上所示,從共濟會的原則,其裝置: “自由,平等,博愛”是非常裝置的共濟會。 Similarly, Freemasonry, together with the Carbonari, cooperated in the Italian revolutionary movement of the nineteenth century. Nearly all the prominent leaders and among them Mazzini and Garibaldi, are extolled by Masonry as its most distinguished members.同樣,濟,連同燒炭黨人合作,在意大利革命運動的十九世紀。幾乎所有的著名領導人,其中馬志尼和加里波第,是讚美的砌體作為其最傑出的成員。 In Germany and Austria, Freemasonry during the eighteenth century was a powerful ally of the so-called party, of "Enlightenment" (Aufklaerung), and of Josephinism; in the nineteenth century of the pseudo-Liberal and of the anti-clerical party.在德國和奧地利,濟在18世紀是一個強有力的盟友,所謂黨的“啟示” (啟蒙) ,以及Josephinism ;在十九世紀的偽自由和反辦事員黨。

In order to appreciate rightly the activity of Freemasonry in Germany, Sweden, Denmark and England, and in France under the Napoleonic regime, the special relations between Freemasonry and the reigning dynasties must not be overlooked. In Germany two-thirds of the Masons are members of the old Prussian Grand Lodges under the protectorship of a member of the Royal Dynasty, which implies a severe control of all lodge activity in conformity with the aims of the Government. Hence German Freemasons are scarcely capable of independent action.為了正確地理解活動的共濟會在德國,瑞典,丹麥和英國,在法國的拿破崙政權的特殊關係和共濟在位朝代也不容忽視。在德國三分之二的共濟會成員舊的普魯士大旅館protectorship下一個成員王朝,這意味著嚴重的控制提出的所有活動符合目標的政府。因此,德國濟是很少能夠獨立行動。 But they certainly furthered the movement by which Prussia gradually became the leading state of Germany, considered by them as the "representative and the protector of modern evolution" against "Ultramontanism", "bigotry", and "Papal usurpations". They also instigated the "Kulturkampf".但是,他們肯定推動了流動,其中普魯士逐漸成為主導國家的德國,他們認為所“代表和保護者的現代演變”與“ Ultramontanism ” , “偏見”和“教皇usurpations ” 。他們還煽動“ Kulturkampf ” 。 The celebrated jurisconsult and Mason, Grandmaster Bluntschli, was one of the foremost agitators in this conflict; he also stirred up the Swiss "Kulturkampf".著名法學家和梅森,大宗師理,是一個重要的煽動者在這場衝突中,他也引起了瑞士“ Kulturkampf ” 。 At his instigation the assembly of the "Federation of the German Grand Lodges", in order to increase lodge activity in the sense of the "Kulturkampf", declared, 24 May, 1874: "It is a professional duty for the lodges to see to it, that the brethren become fully conscious of the relations of Freemasonry to the sphere of ethical life and cultural purposes. Freemasons are obliged to put into effect the principles of Freemasonry in practical life and to defend the ethical foundations of human society, whensoever these are assailed. The Federation of the German Grand Lodges will provide, that every year questions of actuality be proposed to all lodges for discussion and uniform action".在他的煽動組裝的“聯邦的德國大獎賽分會” ,以增加活動的提出意義上的“ Kulturkampf ” ,宣布1874年5月24日: “這是一個專業責任的旅館看到,以它的兄弟成為充分意識到的關係,以濟領域的倫理生活和文化的目的。濟不得不付諸實施的原則,共濟會在現實生活和捍衛道德基礎的人類社會,這些都是whensoever抨擊。聯合會的德國大獎賽將提供分會,每年問題的現狀提出的所有旅館進行討論和統一的行動“ 。 [155] German Freemasons put forth untiring efforts to exert a decisive influence on the whole life of the nation in keeping with Masonic principles, thus maintaining a perpetual silent "Kulturkampf". [ 155 ]德國濟提出的不懈努力施加決定性的影響整個國家生活的符合共濟會的原則,從而保持永久沉默“ Kulturkampf ” 。 The principal means which they employ are popular libraries, conferences, the affiliation of kindred associations and institutions, the creation, where necessary, of new institutions, through which the Masonic spirit permeates the nation.的主要手段,他們採用很受歡迎的圖書館,會議,所屬的同類協會和機構,創造必要時,新的機構,通過這些共濟會的精神貫穿全國。 [156] A similar activity is displayed by the Austrian Freemasons. [ 156 ]類似的活動所表現出奧地利濟。

The chief organization which in France secured the success of Freemasonry was the famous "League of instruction" founded in 1867 by Bro.主要組織在法國的擔保成功的共濟會是著名的“聯盟的指示”成立於1867年的兄弟。 F. Macé, later a member of the Senate.樓權杖,後來成員的參議院。 This league affiliated and implied with its spirit many other associations.這個聯盟下屬,並暗示其精神與許多其他協會。 French Masonry and above all the Grand Orient of France has displayed the most systematic activity as the dominating political element in the French "Kulturkampf" since 1877.法國砌體及以上的所有大東方的法國展現了最系統的活動為主導的政治因素在法國“ Kulturkampf ”自1877年。 [157] From the official documents of French Masonry contained principally in the official "Bulletin" and "Compte-rendu" of the Grand Orient it has been proved that all the anti-clerical measures passed in the French Parliament were decreed beforehand in the Masonic lodges and executed under the direction of the Grand Orient, whose avowed aim is to control everything and everybody in France. [ 157 ]從正式文件所載法國砌體主要是在官方的“公告”和“ Compte -毛細血管”的大東方已經證明,所有的反措施,通過辦事員在法國議會頒布了事先的共濟會旅館和執行的指導下,大東方,其宣稱的目的是控制一切,每個人都在法國。 [158] "I said in the assembly of 1898", states the deputy Massé, the official orator of the Assembly of 1903, "that it is the supreme duty of Freemasonry to interfere each day more and more in political and profane struggles". [ 158 ] “我說,在1898年組裝的” ,國家副集體,正式演說大會的1903年, “這是最高的責任濟干涉每天越來越多的政治和世俗的鬥爭” 。 "Success (in the anti-clerical combat) is in a large measure due to Freemasonry; for it is its spirit, its programme, its methods, that have triumphed." “成功(在反辦事員打擊)是在很大程度上歸功於濟;因為這是它的精神,其方案,其工作方法,都取得了勝利。 ” "If the Bloc has been established, this is owing to Freemasonry and to the discipline learned in the lodges. The measures we have now to urge are the separation of Church and State and a law concerning instruction. Let us put our trust in the word of our Bro. Combes". “如果集團已經成立,這是由於共濟會和紀律的教訓在旅館。的措施,我們現在已經敦促是分離的教會與國家的法律和有關指示。讓我們把我們的信任,這個詞我們的兄弟。孔“ 。 "For a long time Freemasonry has been simply the republic in disguise", ie, the secret parliament and government of Freemasonry in reality rule France; the profane State, Parliament, and Government merely execute its decrees. “長期以來濟一直只是在掩飾共和國” ,即秘密議會和政府的共濟會在現實中的規則,法國的世俗國家,議會和政府只是執行命令。 "We are the conscience of the country"; "we are each year the funeral bell announcing the death of a cabinet that has not done its duty but has betrayed the Republic; or we are its support, encouraging it by saying in a solemn hour: I present you the word of the country . . . its satisfecit which is wanted by you, or its reproach that to-morrow will be sealed by your fall". “我們是良知的國家” , “我們每年的葬禮鐘聲宣布死亡的內閣還沒有完成其職責,但背叛了共和國;或我們的支持,鼓勵它說,在莊嚴小時:我本你這個詞的國家。 。 。它satisfecit這是你所想,或責備的明天將會封閉你的秋天“ 。 "We need vigilance and above all mutual confidence, if we are to accomplish our work, as yet unfinished. This work, you know . . . the anti-clerical combat, is going on. The Republic must rid itself of the religious congregations, sweeping them off by a vigorous stroke. The system of half measures is everywhere dangerous; the adversary must be crushed with a single blow". “我們需要警惕和上述所有相互信任,如果我們要完成我們的工作,尚未完成。這項工作,你知道。 。 。反辦事員打擊,已在進行中。共和國必須擺脫宗教團體,徹底趕走了有力的中風。制度措施的一半無處不在的危險;敵人必須粉碎一個單一的打擊“ 。 [159] "It is beyond doubt", declared the President of the Assembly of 1902, Bro. [ 159 ] “這是毫無疑問的” ,宣布大會主席1902年,兄弟。 Blatin, with respect to the French elections of 1902, "that we would have been defeated by our well-organized opponents, if Freemasonry had not spread over the whole country". Blatin ,關於法國1902年的選舉, “我們將已被打敗我們的組織嚴密的對手,如果沒有共濟會遍布整個國家。 ” [160] Along with this political activity Freemasonry employed against its adversaries, whether real or supposed, a system of spying and false accusation, the exposure of which brought about the downfall of the masonic cabinet of Combes. [ 160 ]隨著這種政治活動的共濟會用來對付它的對手,不管是真實的或假定的,系統的間諜活動和虛假的指控,但其中暴露帶來的衰落的共濟會的內閣孔。 In truth all the "anti-clerical" Masonic reforms carried out in France since 1877, such as the secularization of education, measures against private Christian schools and charitable establishments, the suppression of the religious orders and the spoliation of the Church, professedly culminate in an anti-Christian and irreligious reorganization of human society, not only in France but throughout the world.其實所有的“反文書”共濟會進行了改革,在法國1877年以來,如世俗的教育,措施,打擊私人基督教學校和慈善機構,鎮壓宗教命令和偽造的教會,表面高潮一個反基督教和非宗教重組的人類社會,不僅在法國,但在世界各地。 Thus French Freemasonry, as the standard-bearer of all Freemasonry, pretends to inaugurate the golden era of the Masonic universal republic, comprising in Masonic brotherhood all men and all nations.因此,法國共濟會,作為旗手的所有共濟會,假裝開創的黃金時期共濟會的普遍共和國組成的共濟會兄弟所有男人和所有國家。 "The triumph of the Galilean", said the president of the Grand Orient, Senator Delpech, on 20 September, 1902, "has lasted twenty centuries. But now he dies in his turn. The mysterious voice, announcing (to Julian the Apostate) the death of Pan, today announces the death of the impostor God who promised an era of justice and peace to those who believe in him. The illusion has lasted a long time. The mendacious God is now disappearing in his turn; he passes away to join in the dust of ages the divinities of India, Egypt, Greece, and Rome, who saw so many creatures prostrate before their altars. Bro. Masons, we rejoice to state that we are not without our share in this overthrow of the false prophets. The Romish Church, founded on the Galilean myth, began to decay rapidly from the very day on which the Masonic Association was established". “的勝利伽利略”說,布什總統的大東方,參議員德爾佩奇9月20日, 1902年, “已持續了二十一世紀。但現在他死在輪到他。神秘的聲音,宣布(對朱利安的叛教)死亡的泛今天宣布死亡的騙子答應上帝誰的時代,正義與和平的那些誰相信他。錯覺已經持續了很長時間。上帝的虛假消失,現在他又在他去世來加入的塵埃年齡的神,印度,埃及,希臘,羅馬,誰看到這麼多的動物拜倒在他們的祭壇。兄弟。泥瓦匠,我們欣喜地指出,我們不能沒有我們的份額在這推翻假先知。 Romish教會的基礎上加利利神話,開始迅速衰減的那一天在該協會共濟會成立“ 。 [161] [ 161 ]

The assertion of the French Masons: "We are the conscience of the country", was not true.斷言法國梅森: “我們的良知的國家” ,是不正確的。 By the official statistics it was ascertained, that in all elections till 1906 the majority of the votes were against the Masonic Bloc, and even the result in 1906 does not prove that the Bloc, or Masonry, in its anti-clerical measures and purposes represents the will of the nation, since the contrary is evident from many other facts.據官方統計數字這是確定的,在所有的選舉到1906年的大多數票反對共濟會魁,甚至在1906年的結果並不能證明魁,或砌體,在它的反措施文書的宗旨和代表意志的國家,相反,因為很明顯,許多其他的事實。 Much less does it represent the "conscience" of the nation.更不用說它代表了“良心”的國家。 The fact is, that the Bloc in 1906 secured a majority only because the greater part of this majority voted against their "conscience".事實是,該集團於1906年獲得了多數只是因為大部份這一多數投票反對他們的“良心” 。 No doubt the claims of Freemasonry in France are highly exaggerated, and such success as they have had is due chiefly to the lowering of the moral tone in private and public life, facilitated by the disunion existing among Catholics and by the serious political blunders which they committed.毫無疑問,要求濟在法國是高度誇張,而這種成功的他們不得不主要是由於降低的道德基調私人和公共生活中,促進了現有之間的分裂和天主教徒的嚴重政治錯誤,他們承諾。 Quite similar is the outer work of the Grand Orient of Italy which likewise pretends to be the standard-bearer of Freemasonry in the secular struggle of Masonic light and freedom against the powers of "spiritual darkness and bondage", alluding of course to the papacy, and dreams of the establishment of a new and universal republican empire with a Masonic Rome, supplanting the papal and Cæsarean as metropolis.十分相似的外工作的大東方的意大利也假裝旗手的共濟會在世俗鬥爭的共濟會根據對自由和權力的“精神黑暗和奴役” ,當然指的教皇,和夢想建立一個新的和普遍的共和帝國的共濟會羅馬,取代了教皇和剖腹產的大都市。 The Grand Orient of Italy has often declared that it is enthusiastically followed in this struggle by the Freemasonry of the entire world and especially by the Masonic centres at Paris, Berlin, London, Madrid, Calcutta, Washington.大東方的意大利往往宣稱,它是遵循積極在這場鬥爭中的共濟會的整個世界,尤其是由共濟會中心,巴黎,柏林,倫敦,馬德里,加爾各答,華盛頓。 [162] It has not been contradicted by a single Grand Lodge in any country, nor did the German and other Grand Lodges break off their relations with it on account of it shameful political and anti-religious activity. [ 162 ]這不是矛盾的一個單一的大旅館在任何國家,也沒有德國和其他大山莊斷絕關係,但考慮到它可恥的政治和反宗教的活動。 But though the aims of Italian Masons are perhaps more radical and their methods more cunning than those of the French, their political influence, owing to the difference of the surrounding social conditions, is less powerful.不過,儘管意大利的目標是泥瓦匠,也許是更激進的和更狡猾的方法比法國,其政治影響力,由於差異周圍的社會條件,是不那麼強大。 The same is to be said of the Belgian and the Hungarian Grand Lodges, which also consider the Grand Orient of France as their political model.同樣是說比利時和匈牙利大獎賽旅館,其中也考慮到大東方法國作為自己的政治模式。

Since 1889, the date of the international Masonic congress, assembled at Paris, 16 and 17 July, 1889, by the Grand Orient of France, systematic and incessant efforts have been made to bring about a closer union of universal Freemasonry in order to realize efficaciously and rapidly the Masonic ideals. 1889年以來的日期,國際共濟會大會,聚集在巴黎, 16日和1889年七月十七日,由大東方的法國,系統性和鍥而不捨的努力已使工會更普遍的共濟會,以實現有效並迅速的共濟會的理想。 The special allies of the Grand Orient in this undertaking are: the Supreme Council and the Symbolical Grand Lodge of France and the Masonic Grand Lodges of Switzerland, Belgium, Italy, Spain, Hungary, Portugal, Greece; the Grand Lodges of Massachusetts and of Brazil were also represented at the congress.特別盟國的大東方在這項工作中有:最高理事會和大旅館象徵法國和共濟會大旅館,瑞士,比利時,意大利,西班牙,匈牙利,葡萄牙,希臘;大旅館的馬薩諸塞州和巴西也派代表出席了大會。 The programme pursued by the Grand Orient of France, in its main lines, runs thus: "Masonry, which prepared the Revolution of 1789, has the duty to continue its work".該方案所追求大東方的法國,在其主要線路,因此運行: “砌體,其中編寫了革命的1789年,有責任繼續工作” 。 [163] This task is to be accomplished by the thoroughly and rigidly consistent application of the principles of the Revolution to all the departments of the religious, moral, judicial, legal, political, and social order. [ 163 ]這項任務是要完成的徹底和嚴格一致原則的應用革命的所有部門的宗教,道德,司法,法律,政治和社會秩序。 The necessary political reforms being realized in most of their essential points, henceforth the consistent application of the revolutionary principles to the social conditions of mankind is the main task of Masonry.必要的政治改革,實現了大部分的基本點,從今以後,一致適用的革命原則的社會條件是人類的主要任務砌體。 The universal social republic, in which, after the overthrow of every kind of spiritual and political tyranny", of "theocratical" and dynastical powers and class privileges, reigns the greatest possible individual liberty and social and economical equality conformably to French Masonic ideals, the real ultimate aims of this social work.在普遍的社會共和國,其中被推翻後的每一種精神和政治暴政“的” theocratical “和dynastical權力和特權階級,統治盡可能最大的個人自由和社會和經濟平等conformably法國共濟會理想,真正的最終目的是這個社會的工作。

The following are deemed the principal means: (1) To destroy radically by open persecution of the Church or by a hypocritical fraudulent system of separation between State and Church, all social influence of the Church and of religion, insidiously called "clericalism", and, as far as possible, to destroy the Church and all true, ie, superhuman religion, which is more than a vague cult of fatherland and of humanity; (2) To laicize, or secularize, by a likewise hypocritical fraudulent system of "unsectarianism", all public and private life and, above all, popular instruction and education.以下是被認為主要是指: ( 1 )為了從根本上破壞了公開迫害的教會,或由一個虛偽欺詐系統之間的隔離國家和教會,所有的社會影響力的教會和宗教,不知不覺地稱為“教權主義” ,並,盡可能地摧毀教會和所有真正的,即超人的宗教,這是一個多含糊邪教的祖國和人類; ( 2 ) laicize ,或還俗,由一個同樣的虛偽欺詐系統“ unsectarianism “ ,所有公共和私人生活,尤其是流行的教學和教育。 "Unsectarianism" as understood by the Grand Orient party is anti-Catholic and even anti-Christian, atheistic, positivistic, or agnostic sectarianism in the garb of unsectarianism. Freedom of thought and conscience of the children has to be developed systematically in the child at school and protected, as far as possible, against all disturbing influences, not only of the Church and priests, but also of the children's own parents, if necessary, even by means of moral and physical compulsion. “ Unsectarianism ”的理解是,大東方黨是反天主教,甚至反基督教,無神論,實證主義,宗派主義或不可知的外衣unsectarianism 。自由的思想和良心的兒童已制定系統中的兒童學校和保護,並盡可能對所有令人不安的影響,不僅是教會和神職人員,而且孩子的親生父母,如果有必要,甚至用精神和物質強迫。 The Grand Orient party considers it indispensable and an infallibly sure way to the final establishment of the universal social republic and of the pretended world peace, as they fancy them, and of the glorious era of human solidarity and of unsurpassable human happiness in the reign of liberty and justice.東方大黨認為不可或缺的一個infallibly確保道路最終建立了普遍的社會共和國和假裝世界的和平,因為他們喜歡他們,和光榮的時代,人類團結和無法超越人類幸福的統治自由和正義。 [164] [ 164 ]

The efforts to bring about a closer union with Anglo-American and German Freemasonry were made principally by the Symbolical Grand Lodge of France and the "International Masonic Agency" at Neuchâtel (directed by the Swiss Past Grand Master Quartier-La Tente), attached to the little Grand Lodge "Alpina" of Switzerland.在努力實現更緊密的聯盟與英美和德國共濟會發了言,主要由大旅館象徵法國和“國際工程共濟會”在納沙泰爾(導演由瑞士過去大師Quartier香格里拉騰德) ,重視小大旅館“高山”的瑞士。 These two Grand Lodges, as disguised agents of the Grand Orient of France, act as mediators between this and the Masonic bodies of English-speaking and German countries.這兩個大旅館,因為變相的代理人,大東方的法國,充當調停人之間和機構的共濟會講英語和德語國家。 With English and American Grand Lodges their efforts till now have had but little success.隨著英國和美國大旅館的努力至今已但收效甚微。 [165] Only the Grand Lodge of Iowa seems to have recognized the Grand Lodge of France. [ 165 ]只有大酒店的愛荷華州似乎已經認識到大旅館的法國。 [166] The English Grand Lodge not only declined the offers, but, on 23 September, 1907, through its registrar even declared: "We feel, that we in England are better apart from such people. Indeed, Freemasonry is in such bad odour on the Continent of Europe by reason of its being exploited by Socialists and Anarchists, that we may have to break off relations with more of the Grand Bodies who have forsaken our Landmarks". [ 166 ]英語大旅館不僅拒絕提供,但9月23日, 1907年,通過其常務甚至宣稱: “我們覺得,我們在英格蘭更好地除了這樣的人。的確,共濟會是在這種惡劣的氣味在歐洲大陸,因為它被剝削的社會黨和無政府主義者,我們可能已經斷絕關係,更多的大機構誰也拋棄我們的里程碑“ 。 [167] The American Grand Lodges (Massachusetts, Missouri, etc.), in general, seem to be resolved to follow the example of the English Grand Lodges. [ 167 ]美國大旅館(馬薩諸塞州,密蘇里州,等等) ,一般來說,似乎是決心仿效英文大旅館。

The German Grand Lodges, on the contrary, at least most of them, yielded to the pressure exercised on them by a great many German brothers.德國的大旅館,相反,至少其中大部分,屈服於壓力,行使他們的很多德國兄弟。 Captivated by the Grand Orient party on 3 June, 1906, the Federation of the eight German Grand Lodges, by 6 votes to 2, decreed to establish official friendly relations with the Grand Lodge, and on 27 May, 1909, by 5 votes to 3, to restore the same relations with the Grand Orient of France.迷住了大東方黨6月3日, 1906年,聯邦八個德國大獎賽分會, 6票對2票,頒布建立正式友好關係的大旅館,以及5月27日, 1909年, 5票對3票為恢復同與大東方的法國。 This latter decree excited the greatest manifestations of joy, triumph and jubilation in the Grand Orient party, which considered it as an event of great historic import.這後一項法令,最大的興奮表現的喜悅,歡慶勝利,並在東方大黨,它認為這是一件偉大的歷史意義。 But in the meantime a public press discussion was brought about by some incisive articles of the "Germania" [168] with the result, that the three old Prussian Grand Lodges, comprising 37,198 brothers controlled by the protectorate, abandoned their ambiguous attitude and energetically condemned the decree of 27 May, 1909, and the attitude of the 5 other so-called "humanitarian" German Grand Lodges, which comprise but 16,448 brothers.但與此同時一個公共媒體的討論所帶來的一些精闢的文章的“日耳曼” [ 168 ]因此,這三個老普魯士大旅館,其中包括37198兄弟控制的保護,放棄他們的態度曖昧,大力譴責該法令的1909年五月27號,和的態度,另外還有5個所謂的“人道主義”的德國大獎賽旅館,其中包括但16448兄弟。 It was hoped, that the British and American Grand Lodges, enticed by the example of the German Grand Lodges, would, in the face of the common secular enemy in the Vatican, join the Grand Orient party before the great universal Masonic congress, to be held in Rome in 1911.人們希望,即英國和美國的大旅館,引誘的例子遞交德國大獎賽,將在面對世俗的共同敵人在梵蒂岡,加入大東方黨面前的偉大普遍大會共濟會,擬在羅馬舉行的1911年。 But instead of this closer union of universal Freemasonry dreamt of by the Grand Orient party, the only result was a split between the German Grand Lodges by which their federation itself was momentarily shaken to its foundation.但是,這不是更密切的聯盟的普遍濟夢想的大東方黨,唯一的結果是一個分裂的德國大獎賽遞交了他們的聯邦本身是暫時動搖其基礎。

But in spite of the failure of the official transactions, there are a great many German and not a few American Masons, who evidently favour at least the chief anti-clerical aims of the Grand Orient party.然而,儘管失敗的正式交易中,有許多德國,而不是少數幾個美國的梅森,顯然有利於誰,至少首席反辦事員目標的東方大黨。 Startling evidence thereof was the recent violent world-wide agitation, which, on occasion of the execution of the anarchist, Bro.驚人的證據是最近的暴力世界各地激動,因為有時的執行無政府主義,兄弟。 Ferrer, 31, an active member of the Grand Orient of France [169] was set at work by the Grand Orient of France [170] and of Italy [171] in order to provoke the organization of an international Kulturkampf after the French pattern.費雷爾, 31歲的一個積極成員,大東方的法國[ 169 ]被定為工作的大東方的法國[ 170 ]和意大利[ 171 ]為了挑起組織一次國際Kulturkampf後,法國的模式。 In nearly all the countries of Europe the separation between State and Church and the laicization or neutralization of the popular instruction and education, were and are still demanded by all parties of the Left with redoubled impetuosity.在幾乎所有歐洲國家之間的分離國家和教會和laicization或失效流行的教學和教育,過去和現在都還要求所有各方加倍左急躁情緒。

The fact that there are also American Masons, who evidently advocate the Kulturkampf in America and stir up the international Kulturkampf, is attested by the example of Bros. JD Buck, 33 and A. Pike, 33.事實上,也有美國的梅森,誰主張顯然Kulturkampf在美國和挑起國際Kulturkampf ,是證明了的例子兄弟第納爾巴克, 33和A派克, 33 。 Buck published a book, "The Genius of Freemasonry", in which he advocates most energetically a Kulturkampf for the United States.賽珍珠出版了一本書, “天才的共濟會” ,其中他最積極倡導者1 Kulturkampf美國。 This book, which in 1907, was in its 3rd edition, is recommended ardently to all American Masons by Masonic journals.這本書,它於1907年,是在其第3版,熱切地建議所有美國梅森的共濟會期刊。 A. Pike, as the Grand Commander of the Mother Supreme Council of the World (Charleston, South Carolina) lost no opportunity in his letters to excite the anti-clerical spirit of his colleagues.字母a.派克,作為大指揮官的母親最高理事會的世界(查爾斯頓,南卡羅來納州)不失時機在他的信,激動的反辦事的精神他的同事們。 In a long letter of 28 December, 1886, for instance, he conjures the Italian Grand Commander, Timoteo Riboli, 33, the intimate friend of Garibaldi, to do all in his power, in order to unite Italian Masonry against the Vatican.在很長的信1886年12月28號,例如,他想起了意大利大獎賽指揮官, Timoteo Riboli , 33歲,是親密的朋友的加里波第,盡在他的權力,以團結砌體對意大利,梵蒂岡。 He writes:他寫道:

The Papacy .教宗。 . . has been for a thousand years the torturer and curse of Humanity, the most shameless imposture, in its pretence to spiritual power of all ages.已為一千多年的折磨和人性的詛咒,最無恥的騙局,在其偽裝,以強大的精神力量建立不分年齡人人共享的。 With its robes wet and reeking with the blood of half a million of human beings, with the grateful odour of roasted human flesh always in its nostrils, it is exulting over the prospect of renewed dominion.憑藉其長袍濕reeking鮮血的50萬人,與感激的氣味烤人肉總是在其鼻孔,這是exulting的前景重新自治領。 It has sent all over the world its anathemas against Constitutional government and the right of men to freedom of thought and conscience.它已被世界各地的anathemas憲法對政府的權利和男子思想和良心的自由。

Again,再次,

"In presence of this spiritual 'Cobra di capello', this deadly, treacherous, murderous enemy, the most formidable power in the world, the unity of Italian Masonry is of absolute and supreme necessity; and to this paramount and omnipotent necessity all minor considerations ought to yield; dissensions and disunion, in presence of this enemy of the human race are criminal". "There must be no unyielding, uncompromising insistence upon particular opinions, theories, prejudices, professions: but, on the contrary, mutual concessions and harmonious co-operation". "The Freemasonry of the world will rejoice to see accomplished and consummated the Unity of the Italian Freemasonry". “在存在的這一精神'眼鏡蛇娣卡佩羅' ,這種致命的,陰險,兇殘的敵人,最可怕的力量在世界上的統一,意大利砌體是絕對的和最高的必要性;並為此至高無上,無所不能的必要性所有未成年人的考慮應該產量;糾紛和分裂,在存在這個敵人人類的犯罪“ 。 ”絕不能不屈不撓,毫不妥協地堅持各國特別意見,理論,偏見,專業:但是,與此相反,相互讓步與和諧合作“ 。 ”共濟會中的世界將欣喜地看到成就和完善統一的意大利共濟會“ 。 [172] [ 172 ]

Important Masonic journals, for instance, "The American Tyler-Keystone" (Ann Arbor), openly patronize the efforts of the French Grand Orient Party.重要期刊共濟會,例如, “美國泰勒基石” (安阿伯) ,公開光顧的努力,法國東方大黨。 "The absolute oneness of the Craft", says the Past Grand Master Clifford P. MacCalla (Pennsylvania), "is a glorious thought." “絕對一體的工藝品”說,過去的大師克利福德體育MacCalla (賓夕法尼亞州) , “是一個光榮的思想。 ” "Neither boundaries of States nor vast oceans separate the Masonic Fraternity. Everywhere it is one." “沒有國家的界限,也不重洋單獨的共濟會聯誼。無處不在它是其中之一。 ” "There is no universal church, no universal body of politic; but there is an universal Fraternity, that Freemasonry; and every Brother who is a worthy member, may feel proud of it". “沒有普遍的教堂,沒有普遍的政治機構,但有一個普遍的博愛,即濟;和每一個兄弟誰是有價值的成員,可能會感到自豪。 ” [173] Owing to the solidarity existing between all Masonic bodies and individual Masons, they are all jointly responsible for the evil doings of their fellow-members. [ 173 ]由於現有的團結共濟會之間的所有機構和個人的泥瓦匠,他們都共同負責的罪惡行徑的同胞成員。

Representative Masons, however, extol the pretended salutary influence of their order on human culture and progress.代表梅森然而,讚美假裝有益的影響,他們為了人類的文化和進步。 "Masonry", says Frater, Grand Orator, Washington, "is the shrine of grand thoughts, of beautiful sentiments, the seminary for the improvement of the moral and the mental standard of its members. As a storehouse of morality it rains benign influence on the mind and heart". “砌體結構” ,鮑威爾說,大演說,華盛頓, “靖國神社是大的想法,美麗的感情,神學院,以改善精神和心理的標準成員。作為庫房的道德下雨良性影響頭腦和心臟“ 。 [174] "Modern Freemasonry", according to other Masons, "is a social and moral reformer". [ 174 ] “現代共濟會” ,根據其他泥瓦匠“ ,是一個社會和道德的改革者” 。 [175] "No one", says the "Keystone" of Chicago, "has estimated or can estimate the far reaching character of the influence of Masonry in the world. It by no means is limited the bodies of the Craft. Every initiate is a light bearer, a center of light". [ 175 ] “任何人” ,說“關鍵”芝加哥“ ,估計還是可以估算的影響深遠特點的影響,砌體中的世界。它絕非是有限的機構的工藝品。開始是每一個輕型承載,一個中心的光。 “ [176] "In Germany as in the United States and Great Britain those who have been leaders of men in intellectual, moral and social life, have been Freemasons. Eminent examples in the past are the Brothers Fichte, Herder, Wieland, Lessing, Goethe. Greatest of them all was IW von Goethe. Well may we be proud of such a man" [177] etc. German Masons [178] claim for Freemasonry a considerable part in the splendid development of German literature in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. [ 176 ] “在德國在美國和英國這些誰已經領導人的男子在知識,道德和社會生活中,已濟。知名人士的例子在過去是兄弟費希特,赫德,維蘭德,萊辛,歌德。最大的是所有這些信息戰馮歌德。那麼可能我們值得驕傲的這樣一個人“ [ 177 ]等德國梅森[ 178 ]索賠的共濟會相當大一部分在燦爛的發展,德語文學中的十八和十九世紀。 These claims, however, when critically examined, prove to be either groundless or exaggerated.這些說法,但是,如果嚴格審查,證明是不是無根據的或誇大的。 English Freemasonry, being then at a low intellectual and moral level and retrograding towards orthodoxy, was not qualified to be the originator or a leading factor in the freethinking "Culture of Enlightenment."英濟,然後被以很低的智力和道德水平和退為正統,是沒有資格以發端人或一個主要因素中的自由思想“文化的啟示。 ” German Masonry, then dominated by the Swedish system and the Strict Observance and intellectually and morally degenerated, as Masonic historians themselves avow, was in no better plight.德國砌體,然後佔主導地位的是瑞典的制度和嚴格遵守和智力上和道義上墮落,作為共濟會的歷史學家自己招認,是在沒有更好的困境。 In truth the leading literary men of the epoch, Lessing, Goethe, Herder, etc. were cruelly disabused and disappointed by what they saw and experienced in their lodge life.在真理的領導文人的時代,萊辛,歌德,赫德爾等慘遭disabused和失望,他們所看到的東西和經驗豐富的在其提出的生活。 [179] Lessing spoke with contempt of the lodge life; Goethe characterized the Masonic associations and doings as "fools and rogues"; Herder wrote, 9 January, 1786, to the celebrated philologist Bro. [ 179 ]萊辛以蔑視的投訴生活;歌德特點的共濟會協會和所作所為是“傻瓜和無賴” ;赫德寫道, 1786年1月9日,在慶祝philologist兄弟。 Heyne; "I bear a deadly hatred to all secret societies and, as a result of my experience, both within their innermost circles and outside, I wish them all to the devil. For persistent domineering intrigues and the spirit of cabal creep beneath the cover". Heyne , “我承擔了致命的仇恨的所有秘密社團和,由於我的經驗,都在其內心深處的圈子內外,我祝他們一切的魔鬼。持續盛氣凌人的陰謀和精神的陰謀蠕變的封面下方“ 。 [180] [ 180 ]

Freemasonry, far from contributing to the literary greatness of these or other leading men, profited by the external splendour which their membership reflected on it.濟,遠離有助於文學偉大的這些或其他領先的男子,得益於外部輝煌而其成員反映它。 But the advantage was by no means deserved, for even at the height of their literary fame, not they, but common swindlers, like Johnson, Cagliostro, etc., were the centres round which the Masonic world gravitated.但優勢是絕不值得,因為即使是在高度的文學聲譽,而不是他們,而是共同的騙子,像約翰遜,卡廖斯特羅等,是中心輪的共濟會世界gravitated 。 All the superior men belonging to Freemasonry: Fichte, Fessler, Krause, Schröder, Mossdorf, Schiffman, Findel, etc., so far as they strove to purge lodge life from humbug, were treated ignominiously by the bulk of the average Masons and even by lodge authorities.所有的男人上級屬於濟:費希特,費斯勒,克勞斯,施羅德Mossdorf ,希夫曼,芬德爾等,只要努力整肅提出生命騙子,是可恥的治療大部分的平均泥瓦匠,甚至向當局。 Men of similar turn of mind are stigmatized by English and American Masonic devotees as "materialists" and "iconoclasts".類似的男女之交,想到的是恥辱的英語和美國共濟會的信徒為“唯物論”和“ iconoclasts ” 。 [181] But true it is that the lodges work silently and effectually for the propagation and application of "unsectarian" Masonic principles in human society and life. The Masonic magazines abound in passages to this effect. [ 181 ]但是真正的,那就是工作的旅館悄悄地和有效地傳播和應用“ unsectarian ”共濟會原則,人類社會和生活。雜誌的共濟會在段落比比皆是這個效果。 Thus Bro.因此,兄弟。 Richardson of Tennessee avers: "Freemasonry does its work silently, but it is the work of a deep river, that silently pushes on towards the ocean, etc."田納西州理查森斷言: “共濟會不會默默工作,但它的工作了深刻的河流,這對推動靜靜地走向海洋,等等” [182] "The abandonment of old themes and the formation of new ones", explained Grand High Priest, JW Taylor (Georgia), [ 182 ] “放棄舊的主題,並形成新的”解釋說,大大祭司,金威泰勒(格魯吉亞) ,

"do not always arise from the immediately perceptible cause which the world assigns, but are the culmination of principles which have been working in the minds of men for many years, until at last the proper time and propitious surroundings kindle the latent truth into life, and, as the light of reason flows from mind to mind and the unity of purpose from heart to heart, enthusing all with a mighty common cause and moving nations as one man to the accomplishment of great ends. On this principle does the Institution of Freemasonry diffuse its influence to the world of mankind. It works quietly and secretly, but penetrates through all the interstices of society in its many relations, and the recipients of its many favors are awed by its grand achievements, but cannot tell whence it came". “不要總是源於立即感覺到事業指定的世界,但高潮的原則一直致力於在人的頭腦中多年,直到去年在適當的時間和有利的環境點燃的真相到潛隱的生活,並根據原因源於下決心的頭腦和統一的目的從心連心,同enthusing所有強大的共同的事業和國家的移動一個人的成就偉大的目的。在此原則並不制度的共濟會瀰漫其影響力,世界上的人類。它悄悄地和秘密,但穿透所有的空隙社會中的許多關係,並接受它的許多主張是敬畏其宏偉的成就,但不能告訴何處它。 “ [183] [ 183 ]

The "Voice" (Chicago) writes: "Never before in the history of ages has Freemasonry occupied so important a position, as at the present time. Never was its influence so marked, its membership so extensive, its teaching so revered." "There are more Masons outside the great Brotherhood than within it."的“聲音” (芝加哥)寫道: “以前從未在歷史上的年齡已經濟佔領如此重要的位置,因為在目前時間。從來就沒有這樣的影響力顯著,其成員如此廣泛,其教學尊敬的” 。 “有更多的梅森以外的偉大兄弟比內。 “ Through its "pure morality" with which pure Freemasonry is synonomous, it "influences society, and, unperceived, sows the seed that brings forth fruit in wholesome laws and righteous enactments. It upholds the right, relieves the distressed, defends the weak and raises the fallen (of course, all understood in the masonic sense above explained). So, silently but surely and continually, it builds into the great fabric of human society".通過其“純粹道德”與純粹的共濟會的代名詞,但“影響社會, unperceived ,播下的種子,使水果中提出健全的法律和正義的法規。堅持權利,免除了困境,維護弱者和提高的下降(當然,所有理解的共濟會感覺上述解釋) 。所以靜靜地,但肯定和不斷,它建立的偉大結構的人類社會“ 。 [184] [ 184 ]

The real force of Freemasonry in its outer work is indeed, that there are more Masons and oftentimes better qualified for the performance of Masonic work, outside the brotherhood than within it.真正的力量濟在其外部工作確實是,有更多的梅森和經常更有資格性能的共濟會的工作,外面的兄弟情誼比內。 Freemasonry itself in Europe and in America founds societies and institutions of similar form and scope for all classes of society and infuses into them its spirit.濟本身在歐洲和美國創建的社會和機構的類似形式和範圍為所有類別的社會和注入到他們的精神。 Thus according to Gould [185] Freemasonry since about 1750 "has exercised a remarkable influence over all other oath-bound societies".因此,根據古爾德[ 185 ]濟約1750年以來“已發揮了顯著影響的其他一切宣誓約束的社會” 。 The same is stated by Bro.同樣是所指出的兄弟。 L. Blanc, Deschamps, etc.研究勃朗峰,德尚,等等 for Germany and other countries.德國和其他國家。 In the United States, according to the "Cyclopedia of Fraternities", there exist more than 600 secret societies, working more or less under the veil of forms patterned on Masonic symbolism and for the larger part notably influenced by Freemasonry, so that every third male adult in the United States is a member of one or more of such secret societies. "Freemasonry", says the "Cyclopedia", pv, "of course, is shown to be the mother-Fraternity in fact as well as in name."在美國,根據“ Cyclopedia的兄弟” ,存在著600多個秘密社團,工作或多或少的面紗下的形式圖案的共濟會的象徵意義和較大的部分主要是受濟,使每三男成人在美國是一個成員的一個或多個秘密社團。 “共濟” ,說“ Cyclopedia ” ,逐“ ,當然,這是表明,母親博愛的事實和名稱。 ” "Few who are well informed on the subject, will deny that the masonic Fraternity is directly or indirectly the parent organization of all modern secret societies, good, bad and indifferent". [186] “誰是很少了解的問題,會否認,博愛的共濟會直接或間接的上級組織的各種現代秘密社團,好,壞,無動於衷。 ” [ 186 ]

Many Anglo-American Freemasons are wont to protest strongly against all charges accusing Freemasonry of interfering with political or religious affairs or of hostility to the Church or disloyalty to the public authorities.許多英美濟是慣於強烈抗議所有指控指責濟干涉政治或宗教事務或敵對教會或不忠向公共當局。 They even praise Freemasonry as "one of the strongest bulwarks of religions" [187] "the handmaid of religion" [188] and the "handmaid of the church".他們甚至稱讚濟“一個最強大的堡壘的宗教” [ 187 ] “的侍女的宗教” [ 188 ]和“侍女的教堂” 。 [189] "There is nothing in the nature of the Society", says the "Royal Craftsman", New York, "that necessitates the renunciation of a single sentence of any creed, the discontinuance of any religious customs or the obliteration of a dogma of belief. No one is asked to deny the Bible, to change his Church relations or to be less attentive to the teaching of his spiritual instructors and counsellors". [190] "Masonry indeed contains the pith of Christianity". [ 189 ] “沒有什麼性質的協會”說, “皇家工匠” ,紐約“ ,即必須放棄一個單一的一句任何信仰,停止任何宗教習俗或擦掉教條信仰。沒有人問否認聖經,改變自己的教會關係或不太注意的教學他的精神導師和輔導員。 “ [ 190 ] ”砌體確實包含了基督教的精髓“ 。 [191] "It is a great mistake to suppose it an enemy of the Church." [ 191 ] “這是一個巨大的錯誤的假設它的敵人會。 ” "It does not offer itself as a substitute of that divinely ordained institution." “這不提供自己作為一個替代的神聖祝聖的機構。 ” "It offers itself as an adjunct, as an ally, as a helper in the great work of the regeneration of the race, of the uplifting of man". “它提供本身作為輔助,作為盟友,作為一個輔助的偉大工作的再生的比賽,在令人振奮的人” 。 [192] Hence, "we deny the right of the Romish Church to exclude from its communion those of its flock who have assumed the responsibility of the Order of Freemasonry". [ 192 ]因此, “我們否認的權利Romish教會排除其共融其羊群誰承擔的責任,令濟” 。 [193] [ 193 ]

Though such protestations seem to be sincere and to reveal even a praiseworthy desire in their authors not to conflict with religion and the Church, they are contradicted by notorious facts.雖然這種抗議看來是真誠的,並揭示甚至是值得稱道的願望在其作者不是衝突與宗教和教會,它們是矛盾的臭名昭著的事實。 Certainly Freemasonry and "Christian" or "Catholic" religion are not opposed to each other, when Masons, some erroneously and others hypocritically understand "Christian" or "Catholic" in the above described Masonic sense, or when Masonry itself is mistakenly conceived as an orthodox Christian institution.當然,濟和“基督教”或“天主教”宗教並不反對對方,當泥瓦匠,一些錯誤和其他假惺惺地理解“基督教”或“天主教”在上述意義上共濟會,或當砌體本身就是錯誤的設想正統的基督教機構。 But between "Masonry" and "Christian" or "Catholic" religion, conceived as they really are: between "unsectarian" Freemasonry and "dogmatic, orthodox" Christianity or Catholicism, there is a radical opposition.但在“磚混”和“基督教”或“天主教”的宗教,作為他們真的是:在“ unsectarian ”共濟會和“教條式的,正統的”基督教或天主教,有一個激進反對派。 It is vain to say: though Masonry is officially "unsectarian", it does not prevent individual Masons from being "sectarian" in their non-Masonic relations; for in its official "unsectarianism" Freemasonry necessarily combats all that Christianity contains beyond the "universal religion in which all men agree", consequently all that is characteristic of the Christian and Catholic religion.這是徒勞地說:雖然砌體正式“ unsectarian ” ,但並不妨礙個人梅森從“教派”的非共濟會的關係;在其官方“ unsectarianism ”共濟會一定打擊一切包含基督教以外的“普遍宗教中,所有男性同意“ ,因此所有的特點是基督教和天主教。 These characteristic features Freemasonry combats not only as superfluous and merely subjective, but also as spurious additions disfiguring the objective universal truth, which it professes.這些特徵濟戰鬥不僅是多餘的,僅僅是主觀的,而且也是虛假的補充毀損的目標普遍真理,它聲稱。 To ignore Christ and Christianity, is practically to reject them as unessential framework.無視耶穌和基督教,實際上是拒絕他們的非本質的框架。

But Freemasonry goes farther and attacks Catholicism openly.但濟遠不用攻擊天主教和公開。 The "Voice" (Chicago), for instance, in an article which begins: "There is nothing in the Catholic religion which is adverse to Masonry", continues,的“聲音” (芝加哥) ,例如,在一篇文章開始: “沒有什麼在天主教這是不利的,以砌體” ,繼續下去,

for the truth is, that masonry embodies that religion in which all men agree. This is as true as that all veritable religion, wherever found, is in substance the same.事實是,砌體體現,宗教中,所有男人同意。這是真正的,所有真正的宗教,只要發現,在實質上是相同的。 Neither is it in the power of any man or body of men to make it otherwise.無論是在權力的任何人或機構的男子,使其除外。 Doctrines and forms of observance conformable to piety, imposed by spiritual overseers, may be as various as the courses of wind; and like the latter may war with each other upon the face of the whole earth, but they are not religion.理論和各種形式的紀念活動符合孝道,實行精神監督員,可作為各種課程的風;喜歡後者可能戰爭與對方的臉整個地球,但他們不是宗教。 Bigotry and zeal, the assumptions of the priestcraft, with all its countless inventions to magnify and impress the world .偏執和熱情,假設的祭司權術,其所有的無數發明,放大和世界留下深刻的印象。 . . are ever the mainsprings of strife, hatred and revenge, which defame and banish religion and its inseparable virtues, and work unspeakable mischief, wherever mankind are found upon the earth.以往的主要衝突,仇恨和報復,這些詆毀和消除宗教和不可分割的美德,和工作無法形容的惡作劇,只要發現人類的地球。 Popery and priestcraft are so allied, that they may be called the same; the truth being, that the former is nothing more nor less than a special case of the latter, being a particular form of a vicious principle, which itself is but the offspring of the conceit of self-sufficiency and the lust of dominion. Popery和祭司權術是如此結盟,他們可能被要求相同;的真相目前,前者只不過是或少於一個特別就後者而言,是一個特定形式的一種惡性的原則,這本身就是但後代自高自大的自給自足和慾望的自治領。 Nothing which can be named, is more repugnant to the spirit of masonry, nothing to be more carefully guarded against, and this has been always well understood by all skillful masters, and it must in truth be said, that such is the wisdom of the lessons, ie of masonic instruction in Lodges, etc. [194]沒有什麼可命名,更令人厭惡的精神,泥瓦工,沒有什麼可更仔細地防範,這一直很好地理解所有熟練的主人,它必須在真理說,這樣的智慧經驗教訓,即指示的共濟會在旅館等[ 194 ]

In similar discussions, containing in almost every word a hidden or open attack on Christianity, the truly Masonic magazines and books of all countries abound. Past Grand Deacon JC Parkinson, an illustrious English Mason, frankly avows: "The two systems of Romanism and Freemasonry are not only incompatible, but they are radically opposed to each other" [195] and American Masons say: "We won't make a man a Freemason, until we know that he isn't a Catholic."在類似的討論中,含有幾乎在每一個字一個隱藏的或公開攻擊基督教,真正的共濟會雜誌和書籍的所有國家比比皆是。過去的大執事巴埃納帕金森,一位傑出的英文梅森,坦率地avows : “這兩個系統的羅馬和共濟不僅是不相容的,但它們從根本上反對對方“ [ 195 ]和美國的梅森說: ”我們不會讓男性濟,直到我們知道,他不是一個天主教徒。 “ [196] [ 196 ]

With respect to loyalty towards "lawful government" American Masons pretend that "everywhere Freemasons, individually and collectively, are loyal and active supporters of republican or constitutional governments".至於忠誠的“合法政府”假裝美國梅森說, “到處濟,個人和集體,是忠誠和積極支持者共和黨或憲法政府” 。 [197] "Our principles are all republican". [ 197 ] “我們的原則是所有共和” 。 [198] "Fidelity and Loyalty, and peace and order, and subordination to lawful authorities are household gods of Freemasonry" [199] and English Freemasons declare, that, "the loyalty of English Masons is proverbial". [200] These protestations of English and American Freemasons in general may be deemed sincere, as far as their own countries and actual governments are concerned. [ 198 ] “富達和忠誠度,和平與秩序,服從合法當局家庭的共濟會神” [ 199 ]和英文濟宣布,說: “忠誠的英語梅森是諺語。 ” [ 200 ]這些抗議英語和美國濟一般可被視為真誠的,就自己的國家和政府的實際問題。 Not even the revolutionary Grand Orient of France thinks of overthrowing the actual political order in France, which is in entire conformity with its wishes.即使是革命性的大東方的法國認為,推翻實際的政治秩序在法國,這是整個符合其願望。 The question is, whether Freemasons respect a lawful Government in their own and other countries, when it is not inspired by Masonic principles. In this respect both English and American Freemasons, by their principles and conduct, provoke the condemnatory verdict of enlightened and impartial public opinion.現在的問題是,無論是濟尊重合法政府在自己和其他國家,當它不是由共濟會的原則。在這方面,英語和美國濟,其各項原則和行為,挑起譴責判決開明和公正公開意見。 We have already above hinted at the whimsical Article II of the "Old Charges", calculated to encourage rebellion against Governments which are not according to the wishes of Freemasonry.我們已經在上述暗示的異想天開的第二條“老費”計算,以鼓勵反抗政府沒有根據的願望濟。 The "Freemason's Chronicle" but faithfully expresses the sentiments of Anglo-American Freemasonry, when it writes:在“洪門的紀事” ,但忠實地表達感情,英美濟時,寫道:

If we were to assert that under no circumstances had a Mason been found willing to take arms against a bad government, we should only be declaring that, in trying moments, when duty, in the masonic sense, to state means antagonism to the Government, they had failed in the highest and most sacred duty of a citizen.如果我們斷言,在任何情況下,有被發現梅森願意採取武器反對壞的政府,我們只應該宣布,在艱難的時刻,當責任,共濟會在某種意義上說,國家的手段對抗政府,他們已經失敗了最高和最神聖的義務的公民。 Rebellion in some cases is a sacred duty, and none, but a bigot or a fool, will say, that our countrymen were in the wrong, when they took arms against King James II.亂在某些情況下,是一個神聖的義務,沒有,但心地狹窄或一個傻瓜,會說,我們的同胞是錯誤的,當他們在武器反對國王詹姆斯二世。 Loyalty to freedom in a case of this kind overrides all other considerations, and when to rebel means to be free or to perish, it would be idle to urge that a man must remember obligations which were never intended to rob him of his status of a human being and a citizen. [201]忠於自由的情況下這種凌駕於所有其他考慮,當叛亂分子的手段,是免費的,或消亡,這將是閒置的,敦促男人必須記住義務,從來沒有打算搶劫了他地位人與一個公民。 [ 201 ]

Such language would equally suit every anarchistic movement.這種語言將同樣適合每一個無政府主義運動。 The utterances quoted were made in defence of plotting Spanish Masons.引述的言論進行了辯護律師的陰謀西班牙泥瓦匠。 Only a page further the same English Masonic magazine writes: "Assuredly Italian Masonry, which has rendered such invaluable service in the regeneration of that magnificent country", "is worthy of the highest praise".只有一頁進一步相同的英文共濟會雜誌寫道: “意大利肯定砌體,這已使這種寶貴的服務中再生的宏偉國” , “是值得高度讚揚” 。 [202] "A Freemason, moved by lofty principles", says the "Voice" (Chicago), "may rightly strike a blow at tyranny and may consort with others to bring about needed relief, in ways that are not ordinarily justifiable. History affords numerous instances of acts which have been justified by subsequent events, and none of us, whether Masons or not, are inclined to condemn the plots hatched between Paul Revere, Dr. J. Warren and others, in the old Green Dragon Tavern, the headquarters of Colonial Freemasonry in New England, because these plots were inspired by lofty purpose and the result not only justified them, but crowned these heroes with glory". [ 202 ] “一個洪門,感動,崇高的原則” ,說的“聲音” (芝加哥) , “可能正確地打擊在暴政和可與其他相和諧,使需要救濟的辦法,不屬於通常合理的。歷史使許多情況下的行為已證明後來發生的事件,沒有我們,無論是泥瓦匠與否,都傾向於譴責陰謀之間的保羅裡維爾,博士華倫和其他人,在舊綠龍酒館的總部殖民地濟在新英格蘭地區,因為這些地塊有啟發的崇高目的和結果不僅有道理,但這些英雄加冕與榮耀“ 。 [203] "No Freemason" said Right Rev. HC Potter on the centenary of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch, New York, "may honourably bend the knee to any foreign potentate (not even to King Edward VII of England) civil or ecclesiastical (the Pope) or yield allegiance to any alien sovereignty, temporal or spiritual". [ 203 ] “不濟說: ”牧師權慧聰哈利波特的百年大章的皇家建築,紐約, “可能體面膝關節彎曲任何外國君主(甚至沒有國王愛德華七世的英格蘭)的民事或教會(教皇)或產量效忠於任何外來的主權,時間或精神“ 。 [204] From this utterance it is evident that according to Potter no Catholic can be a Mason. [ 204 ]從這個話語很顯然,按照不哈利波特天主教可以是一個梅森。 In conformity with these principles American and English Freemasons supported the leaders of the revolutionary movement on the European continent. Kossuth, who "had been leader in the rebellion against Austrian tyranny", was enthusiastically received by American Masons, solemnly initiated into Freemasonry at Cincinnati, 21 April, 1852, and presented with a generous gift as a proof "that on the altar of St. John's Lodge the fire of love burnt so brightly, as to flash its light even into the deep recesses and mountain fastnesses of Hungary".在符合這些原則美國和英國的支持濟領導人的革命運動在歐洲大陸。科蘇特,誰“一直領先的反抗奧地利暴政” ,被熱情地接受了美國共濟會,鄭重發起濟在辛辛那提, 1852年4月21日,並提出了慷慨的禮物作為證據“證明祭壇上的聖約翰旅館火災被燒毀的愛如此燦爛,作為閃存輕型甚至到深凹槽和山區牢度匈牙利” 。 [205] Garibaldi, "the greatest freemason of Italy" [206] and Mazzini were also encouraged by Anglo-American Freemasons in their revolutionary enterprises. [ 205 ]加里波第說, “最大的共濟的意大利” [ 206 ]和馬志尼也鼓勵英美濟在其革命性的企業。 [207] "The consistent Mason", says the "Voice" (Chicago), "will never be found engaged in conspiracies or plots for the purpose of overturning and subverting a government, based upon the masonic principles of liberty and equal rights". [ 207 ] “的一貫梅森” ,說的“聲音” (芝加哥) , “將永遠不會被發現從事陰謀或陰謀,目的是推翻和顛覆政府,根據共濟會原則的自由和平等的權利” 。 [208] "But" declares Pike, "with tongue and pen, with all our open and secret influences, with the purse, and if need be, with the sword, we will advance the cause of human progress and labour to enfranchise human thought, to give freedom to the human conscience (above all from papal 'usurpations') and equal rights to the people everywhere. Wherever a nation struggles to gain or regain its freedom, wherever the human mind asserts its independence and the people demand their inalienable rights, there shall go our warmest sympathies". [ 208 ] “但是, ”派克宣布, “與舌頭和筆,與我們所有的公開和秘密的影響,與錢包,如果需要的話,用劍,我們將推動人類進步事業和勞工享有權利人的思想,使自由人的良知(以上均來自教皇' usurpations ' )和平等權利的人無處不在。只要一個國家的鬥爭獲得或恢復其自由,只要人的心靈聲稱其獨立和人民的需求其不可剝奪的權利,應去我們最熱烈的同情“ 。 [209] [ 209 ]

VIII.八。 ACTION OF STATE AND CHURCH AUTHORITIES行動的國家和教會當局

Curiously enough, the first sovereign to join and protect Freemasonry was the Catholic German Emperor Francis I, the founder of the actually reigning line of Austria, while the first measures against Freemasonry were taken by Protestant Governments: Holland, 1735; Sweden and Geneva, 1738; Zurich, 1740; Berne, 1745. In Spain, Portugal and Italy, measures against Masonry were taken after 1738.奇怪的是,第一次加入主權和保護共濟會是德國天主教弗蘭西斯一世皇帝的創始人,實際在位線的奧地利,而第一個措施,打擊濟是由新教政府:荷蘭, 1735年,瑞典和日內瓦, 1738蘇黎世, 1740 ;伯爾尼, 1745 。在西班牙,葡萄牙和意大利,對砌體措施採取後, 1738年。 In Bavaria Freemasonry was prohibited 1784 and 1785; in Austria, 1795; in Baden 1813; in Russia, 1822.在巴伐利亞濟被禁止1784年和1785年,在奧地利, 1795年;在Baden 1813 ;在俄羅斯, 1822年。 Since 1847 it has been tolerated in Baden, since 1850 in Bavaria, since 1868 in Hungary and Spain. 1847年以來一直在巴登不能容忍的,因為1850年在德國巴伐利亞州,自1868年在匈牙利和西班牙。 In Austria Freemasonry is still prohibited because as the Superior Court of Administration, 23 January, 1905, rightly declared, a Masonic association, even though established in accordance with law, "would be a member of a large (international) organization (in reality ruled by the 'Old Charges', etc. according to general Masonic principles and aims), the true regulations of which would be kept secret from the civil authorities, so that the activity of the members could not be controlled".在奧地利共濟會仍然是禁止的,因為高等法院行政, 05年一月二十三日,正確地宣布,一個共濟會協會,即使是按照法律, “將是一個成員的大(國際)組織(在現實中排除由'老收費'等一般根據共濟會的宗旨和目標) ,真正的條例將是保密的民事當局,使活動的成員無法控制“ 。 [210] It is indeed to be presumed that Austro-Hungarian Masons, whatever statutes they might present to the Austrian Government in order to secure their authorization would in fact continue to regard the French Grand Orient as their true pattern, and the Brothers Kossuth, Garibaldi, and Mazzini as the heroes, whom they would strive to imitate. [ 210 ]這的確是被推定的奧匈泥瓦匠,無論章程他們可能向奧地利政府,以確保其授權事實上將繼續把法國大獎賽東方作為其真正的模式,和兄弟科蘇特,加里波第和馬志尼的英雄,他們將努力模仿。 The Prussian edict of 1798 interdicted Freemasonry in general, excepting the three old Prussian Grand Lodges which the protectorate subjected to severe control by the Government.普魯士的法令, 1798年截獲濟一般來說,除3歲的普魯士大旅館的保護受到嚴重控制的政府。 This edict, though juridically abrogated by the edict of 6 April, 1848, practically, according to a decision of the Supreme Court of 22 April, 1893, by an erroneous interpretation of the organs of administration, remained in force till 1893.這法令,但在法律上廢除該法令的1848年4月6日,實際上,根據一項決定,最高法院1893年4月22號,由一個錯誤解釋機關的行政管理,仍然生效直至1893年。 Similarly, in England an Act of Parliament was passed on 12 July, 1798 for the "more effectual suppression of societies established for seditions and treasonable purposes and for preventing treasonable and seditious practices".同樣,在英國議會法案通過的1798年7月12日為“更有效地制止社會建立seditions和叛國的宗旨和為防止叛國及煽動叛亂的做法” 。 By this Act Masonic associations and meetings in general were interdicted, and only the lodges existing on 12 July, 1798, and ruled according to the old regulations of the Masonry of the kingdom were tolerated, on condition that two representatives of the lodge should make oath before the magistrates, that the lodge existed and was ruled as the Act enjoined.該法共濟會和會議協會一般的攔截,只有分會現有的7月12日, 1798年,並裁定按照舊條例的砌體王國是不能容忍的,條件是兩名代表提出要宣誓法官之前,即提出存在,並裁定該法案責成。 [211] During the period 1827-34, measures were taken against Freemasonry in some of the United States of America. [ 211 ]在1827年至1834年期間,已採取措施對共濟會在一些美利堅合眾國。 As to European countries it may be stated, that all those Governments, which had not originated in the revolutionary movement, strove to protect themselves against Masonic secret societies.至於歐洲國家可以說,所有這些國家的政府,這不是起源於革命運動,竭力保護自己免受共濟會秘密社團。

The action of the Church is summed up in the papal pronouncements against Freemasonry since 1738, the most important of which are:所採取的行動教會是總結了在羅馬教皇宣布對1738年以來共濟會,其中最重要的是:

Clement XII, Constitution "In Eminenti", 28 April, 1738; Benedict XIV, "Providas", 18 May, 1751; Pius VII, "Ecclesiam", 13 September, 1821; Leo XII, "Quo graviora", 13 March, 1825; Pius VIII, Encyclical "Traditi", 21 May, 1829; Gregory XVI, "Mirari", 15 August, 1832; Pius IX, Encyclical "Qui pluribus", 9 November, 1846; Pius IX, Allocution "Quibus quantisque malis", 20 April, 1849; Pius IX, Encyclical "Quanta cura", 8 December, 1864; Pius IX, Allocution "Multiplices inter", 25 September, 1865; Pius IX, Constitution "Apostolicæ Sedis", 12 October, 1869; Pius IX, Encyclical "Etsi multa", 21 November, 1873; Leo XIII, Encyclical "Humanum genus", 20 April, 1884; Leo XIII, "Præclara", 20 June, 1894; Leo XIII, "Annum ingressi", 18 March, 1902 (against Italian Freemasonry); Leo XIII, Encyclical "Etsí nos", 15 February, 1882; Leo XIII, "Ab Apostolici", 15 October, 1890.克萊門特十二,憲法“在Eminenti ” , 1738年4月28日;篤十四, “ Providas ” , 1751年5月18日;皮烏斯七, “ Ecclesiam ” , 1821年9月13號;利奧十二, “現狀graviora ” , 1825年3月13號;皮烏斯八,通諭“美食” , 1829年5月21日;格里高利十六世, “ Mirari ” , 1832年8月15日;碧岳九,通諭“歸仁合眾” , 1846年十一月九日;碧岳九, Allocution “ Quibus quantisque馬里” 1849年4月20日;碧岳九,通諭“廣庫拉” , 1864年十二月八日;碧岳九, Allocution “ Multiplices間” , 1865年9月25日;碧岳九,憲法“ Apostolicæ位置未定” , 1869年十月十二日;碧岳九,通諭“歐洲電信標準協會multa ” , 1873年11月21號;利奧十三世,通諭“ Humanum屬” , 1884年4月二十○號;利奧十三世, “ Præclara ” , 1894年6月20日;利奧十三世“ ,每年ingressi ” , 1902年3月18號(對意大利的共濟會) ;利奧十三世,通諭“歐洲電信標準協會數” , 1882年2月15號;利奧十三世, “抗體Apostolici ” , 1890年10月15號。

These pontifical utterances from first to last are in complete accord, the latter reiterating the earlier with such developments as were called for by the growth of Freemasonry and other secret societies. Clement XII accurately indicates the principal reasons why Masonic associations from the Catholic, Christian, moral, political, and social points of view, should be condemned.這些話語從宗座首先是在去年完成協議,後者重申了早先這種事態發展的要求的增長,共濟和其他秘密社團。克萊門特十二準確地表明了主要的原因社團共濟會的天主教,基督教,道德,政治和社會的觀點,應該受到譴責。 These reasons are:這些理由是:

The peculiar, "unsectarian" (in truth, anti-Catholic and anti-Christian) naturalistic character of Freemasonry, by which theoretically and practically it undermines the Catholic and Christian faith, first in its members and through them in the rest of society, creating religious indifferentism and contempt for orthodoxy and ecclesiastical authority.特殊的“ unsectarian ” (真理,反天主教和反基督教)自然性質的共濟會,其中在理論上和實際上它破壞了天主教和基督教信仰,首先是在其成員並通過他們在其餘的社會,創造宗教indifferentism和蔑視正統和教會的權威。

The inscrutable secrecy and fallacious ever-changing disguise of the Masonic association and of its "work", by which "men of this sort break as thieves into the house and like foxes endeavour to root up the vineyard", "perverting the hearts of the simple", ruining their spiritual and temporal welfare. The oaths of secrecy and of fidelity to Masonry and Masonic work, which cannot be justified in their scope, their object, or their form, and cannot, therefore, induce any obligation.在不可思議的秘密和荒謬的不斷變化的偽裝的共濟會協會和它的“工作” ,即“男人的這種突破的小偷進入屋內與謹狐狸努力剷除葡萄園” , “貪贓枉法的心簡單的“ ,破壞他們的精神和時間的福利。宣誓保密和忠誠,以磚混和共濟會工作,這是沒有道理的範圍,對象,或其形式,並不能因此,誘使任何義務。 The oaths are condemnable, because the scope and object of Masonry are "wicked" and condemnable, and the candidate in most cases is ignorant of the import or extent of the obligation which he takes upon himself.宣誓受到譴責,因為範圍和對象的砌體是“邪惡”和譴責,並候選人在多數情況下是無知的進口或程度的義務,這對他本人。 Moreover the ritualistic and doctrinal "secrets" which are the principal object of the obligation, according to the highest Masonic authorities, are either trifles or no longer exist.此外,儀式和理論“機密”是主要對象的義務,根據最高當局的共濟會,要么扯皮或不再存在。 [212] In either case the oath is a condemnable abuse. [ 212 ]在這兩種情況下宣誓是一種應受譴責的濫用。 Even the Masonic modes of recognition, which are represented as the principal and only essential "secret" of Masonry, are published in many printed books.即使是共濟會模式的承認,這是代表作為主要和唯一重要的“秘密” ,砌體,刊登在許多印刷書籍。 Hence the real "secrets" of Masonry, if such there be, could only be political or anti-religious conspiracies like the plots of the Grand Lodges in Latin countries.因此,真正的“秘密”砌體,如存在,只能是政治或反宗教的陰謀像塊大旅館在拉丁美洲國家。 But such secrets, condemned, at least theoretically, by Anglo-American Masons themselves, would render the oath or obligation only the more immoral and therefore null and void.但是,這種秘密,譴責,至少在理論上,通過英美梅森自己,將會使宣誓或義務,只有更不道德的,因而是完全無效。 Thus in every respect the Masonic oaths are not only sacrilegious but also an abuse contrary to public order which requires that solemn oaths and obligations as the principal means to maintain veracity and faithfulness in the State and in human society, should not be vilified or caricatured.因此,在各個方面的共濟會宣誓,不僅褻瀆而且還濫用違反公共秩序這就要求莊嚴的宣誓和義務的主要手段,以保持準確性和忠誠於國家和人類社會中,不應該詆毀或caricatured 。 In Masonry the oath is further degraded by its form which includes the most atrocious penalties, for the "violation of obligations" which do not even exist; a "violation" which, in truth may be and in many cases is an imperative duty.在宣誓砌體結構進一步退化的形式,其中包括最殘酷的刑罰,對“違反義務” ,這甚至不存在“侵犯” ,在真相可能會在許多情況下是必要的義務。

The danger which such societies involve for the security and "tranquility of the State" and for "the spiritual health of souls", and consequently their incompatibility with civil and canonical law.的危險,這種社會參與的安全和“安寧的國家”和“精神健康的靈魂” ,因此他們不符合民事和法律規範。 For even admitting that some Masonic associations pursued for themselves no purposes contrary to religion and to public order, they would be nevertheless contrary to public order, because by their very existence as secret societies based on the Masonic principles, they encourage and promote the foundation of other really dangerous secret societies and render difficult, if not impossible, efficacious action of the civil and ecclesiastical authorities against them.即使承認,一些社團共濟會為自己追求的目的不違背宗教和公共秩序,他們將仍然違反公共秩序,因為它們的生存秘密社會為基礎的共濟會的原則,他們鼓勵和促進的基礎其他非常危險的秘密社會,使困難的,甚至是不可能的,有效的行動,民間和教會當局對他們。

Of the other papal edicts only some characteristic utterances need be mentioned. Benedict XIV appeals more urgently to Catholic princes and civil powers to obtain their assistance in the struggle against Freemasonry.其他教皇的法令只有一些特徵話語需要提及。篤十四呼籲更加迫切,以天主教王子和民事權力,獲得他們的援助的鬥爭中,共濟。 Pius VII condemns the secret society of the Carbonari which, if not an offshoot, is "certainly an imitation of the Masonic society" and, as such, already comprised in the condemnation issued against it.皮烏斯第七譴責秘密社會的燒炭黨人,如果沒有一個分支,是“肯定是仿製的社會共濟會” ,因此,已經包含在發出的譴責反對。 Leo XII deplores the fact, that the civil powers had not heeded the earlier papal decrees, and in consequence out of the old Masonic societies even more dangerous sects had sprung.利奧十二遺憾的是,該民事權力並沒有聽從前教皇的法令,並因此擺脫舊的社會共濟會更危險的教派曾湧現。 Among them the "Universitarian" is mentioned as most pernicious.其中的“ Universitarian ”是提到最有害的。 "It is to be deemed certain", says the pope, "that these secret societies are linked together by the bond of the same criminal purposes." “這是被視為某種”說,教皇說, “這些秘密社團聯繫在一起的債券相同的犯罪目的。 ” Gregory XVI similarly declares that the calamities of the age were due principally to the conspiracy of secret societies, and like Leo XII, deplores the religious indifferentism and the false ideas of tolerance propagated by secret societies.格里高利十六世宣布,同樣的災難年齡的原因主要是陰謀的秘密社團,像獅子座十二,遺憾的宗教indifferentism和虛假的寬容思想的傳播秘密社團。 Pius IX [213] characterizes Freemasonry as an insidious, fraudulent and perverse organization injurious both to religion and to society; and condemns anew "this Masonic and other similar societies, which differing only in appearance coalesce constantly and openly or secretly plot against the Church or lawful authority".碧岳九[ 213 ]濟的特點作為一個陰險,欺詐性的和有害的組織損害雙方在宗教和社會的譴責,並再次“這個共濟會和其他類似的社會,不同的只是它在外觀上不斷凝聚,公開或秘密策劃對教會或合法權力“ 。 Leo XIII (1884) says: "There are various sects, which although differing in name, rite, form, and origin, are nevertheless so united by community of purposes and by similarity of their main principles as to be really one with the Masonic sect, which is a kind of centre, whence they all proceed and whither they all return."利奧十三世( 1884年)說: “有各種教派,儘管名稱不同,禮儀,形式,以及原產地,然而,這樣的社會團結的目的和相似性的主要原則是一個真正的共濟會節,這是一種中心,何處,他們都向何處著手和他們都返回。 “ The ultimate purpose of Freemasonry is "the overthrow of the whole religious, political, and social order based on Christian institutions and the establishment of a new state of things according to their own ideas and based in its principles and laws on pure Naturalism."的最終目的濟是“推翻整個宗教,政治和社會秩序,其基礎是基督教機構,並建立一個新的國家的事情按照自己的想法,並根據其原則和法律上純粹的自然。 ”

In view of these several reasons Catholics since 1738 are, under penalty of excommunication, incurred ipso facto, and reserved to the pope, strictly forbidden to enter or promote in any way Masonic societies.鑑於這些原因有幾個天主教徒,因為一千七百三十八頃下,罰點球的,招致事實上,並保留向教宗,嚴禁進入或促進以任何方式共濟會的社會。 The law now in force [214] pronounces excommunication upon "those who enter Masonic or Carbonarian or other sects of the same kind, which, openly or secretly, plot against the Church or lawful authority and those who in any way favour these sects or do not denounce their leaders and principal members."該法已生效[ 214 ]宣布罰後“誰馬索尼克或輸入Carbonarian或其他教派的同類,其中,公開或秘密,情節對教會或合法權力和誰以任何方式有利於這些教派或做不譴責其領導人和主要成員。 “ Under this head mention must also be made of the "Practical Instruction of the Congregation of the Inquisition, 7 May, 1884 [215] and of the decrees of the Provincial Councils of Baltimore, 1840; New Orleans, 1856; Quebec, 1851, 1868; of the first Council of the English Colonies, 1854; and particularly of the Plenary Councils of Baltimore, 1866 and 1884. [216] These documents refer mainly to the application of the papal decrees according to the peculiar condition of the respective ecclesiastical provinces. The Third Council of Baltimore, n. 254 sq., states the method of ascertaining whether or not a society is to be regarded as comprised in the papal condemnation of Freemasonry. It reserves the final decision thereon to a commission consisting of all the archbishops of the ecclesiastical provinces represented in the council, and, if they cannot reach a unanimous conclusion, refers to the Holy See.根據該負責人還必須提及的“實踐教學的教會的宗教裁判所, 1884年5月7日[ 215 ]和法令的省議會的巴爾的摩, 1840年;新奧爾良, 1856年,魁北克省, 1851年, 1868年;的第一屆理事會的英文殖民地, 1854年; ,特別是安理會全體會議巴爾的摩, 1866年和1884年。 [ 216 ]這些文件主要是指應用教皇的法令,根據特殊的條件下各自的宗教省份。第三次理事會的巴爾的摩,北254平方米,各州的方法,確定是否或不是一個社會被視為是由在教皇譴責濟。它保留最後決定就此向組成的一個委員會的所有大主教的教會各省代表在安理會中,如果他們不能達成一致的結論,指的是羅馬教廷。

These papal edicts and censures against Freemasonry have often been the occasion of erroneous and unjust charges.這些教皇的法令,並譴責對濟常常被之際,錯誤和不公正的指控。 The excommunication was interpreted as an "imprecation" that cursed all Freemasons and doomed them to perdition.在罰被解釋為一種“詛咒”的詛咒所有濟和他們注定滅亡。 In truth an excommunication is simply an ecclesiastical penalty, by which members of the Church should be deterred from acts that are criminal according to ecclesiastical law.在真理的罰僅僅是一個宗教刑罰,其中的成員,教會應該阻止的行為都是犯罪行為根據教會法。 The pope and the bishops, therefore, as faithful pastors of Christ's flock, cannot but condemn Freemasonry.教皇和主教,因此,作為忠實的牧師基督羊群,不能不譴責濟。 They would betray, as Clement XII stated, their most sacred duties, if they did not oppose with all their power the insidious propagation and activity of such societies in Catholic countries or with respect to Catholics in mixed and Protestant countries. Freemasonry systematically promotes religious indifferentism and undermines true, ie, orthodox Christian and Catholic Faith and life.他們將背叛,作為第十二克萊門特說,他們最神聖的職責,如果他們不反對他們的所有權力陰險的繁殖和活動,例如天主教社會中的國家或方面的天主教徒和新教徒混合的國家。濟系統促進宗教indifferentism並破壞了真正的,即正統基督教和天主教的信仰和生活。 Freemasonry is essentially Naturalism and hence opposed to all supernaturalism.濟基本上是自然,因而反對一切超自然。 As to some particular charges of Leo XIII (1884) challenged by Freemasons, eg, the atheistical character of Freemasonry, it must be remarked, that the pope considers the activity of Masonic and similar societies as a whole, applying to it the term which designates the most of these societies and among the Masonic groups those, which push the so-called "anti-clerical", in reality irreligious and revolutionary, principles of Freemasonry logically to their ultimate consequences and thus, in truth, are, as it were, the advanced outposts and standard-bearers of the whole immense anti-Catholic and anti-papal army in the world-wide spiritual warfare of our age.至於一些具體的指控利奧十三世( 1884年)濟提出質疑,如無神論性質的共濟會,必須指出,即認為教宗活動的共濟會和類似的社會作為一個整體,運用它的任期指定大多數這些社會之間以及這些團體共濟會,這推動了所謂的“反文書” ,但在現實中非宗教和革命性的,原則的邏輯,以濟其最終的後果,因此,真理是,因為它是,先進的前哨基地和標準承擔整個巨大的反天主教和反教皇的軍隊在世界各地作戰的精神我們這個時代。 In this sense also the pope, in accordance with a fundamental biblical and evangelical view developed by St. Augustine in his "De civitate Dei", like the Masonic poet Carducci in his "Hymn to Satan", considers Satan as the supreme spiritual chief of this hostile army. Thus Leo XIII (1884) expressly states:在這個意義上也教皇,按照聖經的一個基本觀點和福音開發的聖奧古斯丁在他的“德civitate上帝”一樣,共濟會Carducci詩人在他的“讚美詩,以撒旦” ,認為撒旦作為最高負責人的精神這種敵對的軍隊。因此利奧十三世( 1884年)明確規定:

What we say, must be understood of the Masonic sect in the universal acceptation of the term, as it comprises all kindred and associated societies, but not of their single members.我們所說的話,必須理解的共濟會節的普遍驗收的任期,因為它包括所有親屬和相關的社會,而不是其單一的成員。 There may be persons amongst these, and not a few, who, although not free from the guilt of having entangled themselves in such associations, yet are neither themselves partners in their criminal acts nor aware of the ultimate object which these associations are endeavouring to attain.有可能是這些人中間,而不是少數人,誰,但沒有擺脫內疚了糾纏自己的這類協會,但既不是自己的合作夥伴在其犯罪行為,也不知道最終目標,這些協會正在努力實現。 Similarly some of the several bodies of the association may perhaps by no means approve of certain extreme conclusions, which they would consistently accept as necessarily following from the general principles common to all, were they not deterred by the vicious character of the conclusions.同樣的一些機構的若干協會也許並不贊成某些極端的結論,他們將始終接受一定以下的一般原則共同所有,他們沒有阻止的惡性特徵的結論。

"The Masonic federation is to be judged not so much by the acts and things it has accomplished, as by the whole of its principles and purposes." “共濟會聯合會的是判斷並未如此的行為和事已經完成,因為整個的宗旨和原則。 ”

Publication information Written by Hermann Gruber.出版信息撰稿:赫爾曼格魯伯。 Transcribed by Bobie Jo M. Bilz.轉錄的Bobie喬先生Bilz 。 Dedicated to R. Michael Steinmacher, III The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.致力於河邁克爾Steinmacher ,三的天主教百科全書,體積九。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat ,十月一日,一九一零年。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. +約翰M Farley, Archbishop of New York法利,大主教紐約

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[41] Findel, "Die Schule der Hierarchie, etc.", 1870, 15 sqq.; Schiffmann, "Die Entstehung der Rittergrade", 1882, 85, 92, 95 sq. [42] Bulletin du Grand Orient de France, 1877, 236-50. [43] "Intern. Bull.", Berne, 1908, No. 2. [44] Chr., 1878, I, 161. [45] 3rd ed., II, 231. [46] Chr., 1890, I, 243. [47] Acacia, 1907, I, 48. [48] Sign., 1907, 133 sq. [49] Sign., 1905, 54. [50] Chr., 1878, I, 134. [51] Morals and Dogma, 643 sqq. [52] 3rd ed., II, 200. [53] Sign., 1905, 27. [54] Rivista, 1909, 44. [55] Gould, "History", II, 284 sq. [56] Concise History, 309. [57] AQC, X, 127 sqq.; XI, 47 sqq.; XVI, 27 sqq. [58] Gould, "Conc. Hist., 272; 310- 17. [59] Ibid., 280. [60] Ibid., 318. [61] Handbuch, 3rd ed., I, 24 sqq.; II, 559 sqq. [62] Chr., 1906, II, 19 sq.; 1884, II, 306. [63] AQC, XI, 43. [64] Preston, "Illustrations", 296 seq. [65] Chr., 1887, II, 313. [66] Drummond., "Chr.", 1884, II, 227; 1887, I, 163; II, 178; Gould, "Concise History", 413. [67] Prichard, "Masonry Dissected", 1730. [68] Gould, "Concise History", 274 sq., 357 sq.; Boos, 174 sq. [69] Handbuch, 2nd ed., II, 100. [70] Abafi, I, 132. [71] Boos, 170, 183 sqq., 191. [72] See ILLUMINATI, and Boos, 303. [73] Robertson, "Chr.", 1907, II, 95; see also Engel, "Gesch. [ 1 ]濟的紀事, 1908年,我283 ,經常提到在這條染色體。 [ 2 ]簡明組織胺。 , 109 , 122 。 [ 3 ]古爾德, “組織胺。 ”我, 378 , 379 , 410 ;二, 153 sqq 。 [ 4 ] AQC ,八, 35 , 155平方米;噓聲, 104 sqq 。 [ 5 ] AQC ,第十, 10-30 ;九, 167 。 [ 6 ] AQC ,十一, 166-168 。 [ 7 ] Vorgeschichte ,我, 1909年, 42-58 。 [ 8 ] AQC ,第十, 20日至22日。 [ 9 ]古爾德, “簡明史” , 166平方米[ 10 ]象徵性的共濟會, 1869年, 303 。 [ 11 ] 1900年,我, 320平方米[ 12 ] “交易的旅館Coronatorum藝術四重奏” ,第十一章(倫敦, 1898年) , 64 。 [ 13 ]百科全書, 296 。 [ 14 ]染色體。 , 1890年,二, 145 。 [ 15 ]納利, “亞特蘭蒂斯的安特地魯溫的世界” 。 [ 16 ]奧利弗,我, 20平方米[ 17 ]染色體。 , 1880年,我, 148 ;二, 139 ; 1884年,二, 130 ;格魯伯, 5 , 122 - 128 。 [ 18 ]見,例如, “美國之音”的芝加哥,染色體。 , 1885年,我226 。 [ 19 ]英語儀式, 1908年,幾乎相同的與其他英語,愛爾蘭,蘇格蘭和美國儀式。 [ 20 ]見古爾德, “組織胺。 ”我, 408 , 473等[ 21 ] “手冊” ,第3版。 ,我321 ; Begemann , “ Vorgeschichte ,等等” , 1909年,我, 1 sqq 。 [ 22 ]歷史,二, 2 , 121 。 [ 23 ] AQC ,第十, 128 。 [ 24 ]百科全書, 296平方米[ 25 ] 3 , 17-39 。 [ 26 ]染色體。 , 1878年,我, 187 , 194 sqq 。 [ 27 ]麥基, “法理學” , 17-39 ;染色體。 , 1878年,我, 194 sqq 。 ; 1888年,我11 ) 。 [ 28 ]菲舍爾,我, 14平方米; Groddeck , 1 sqq 。 , 91 sqq 。 ; “手冊” ,第3版。 ,二, 154 。 [ 29 ]大旅館女士第1號,古爾德, “簡明史” , 236 ;索普女士, 1629年, AQC ,十一, 210 ;羅林森女士1729 -39 AQC ,十一, 22 ; Hughan , “老費” 。 [ 30 ] Groddeck ; “手冊” ,第3版。 ,我, 466 sqq 。 [ 31 ]奧利弗, “遺跡” ,我96 ; 332 。 [ 32 ]染色體。 , 1876年,我113 。 [ 33 ]又見染色體。 , 1878年,我180 ; 1884年,二, 38 ;等,古爾德, “濃。組織胺。 ” , 289平方米[ 34 ]詞彙, 42 。 [ 35 ] Kunsturkunden , 1810年,我525 。 [ 36 ] Begemann , “ Vorgeschichte , ”二, 1910年, 127平方米, 137平方米[ 37 ] Calcott , “坦誠的陽離子,等等” , 1769年;奧利弗“遺跡” ,二301 。 [ 38 ]古爾德, “歷史” ,二, 400人。 [ 39 ] Calcott ;奧利弗,同上。 ,二, 301-303 。 [ 40 ] “註冊。 ” , 1904年, 45平方米。 , 54歲;格魯伯( 5 ) , 49 sqq 。 ;同上( 4 ) , 23平方米[ 41 ]芬德爾, “模具之Hierarchie學派,等等” , 1870年, 15 sqq 。 ; Schiffmann , “模具Entstehung之Rittergrade ” , 1882年, 85 , 92 , 95平方米[ 42 ]公報大東方法國, 1877年, 236-50 。 [ 43 ] “實習。紅牛。 ” ,伯爾尼, 1908年,第2期。 [ 44 ]染色體。 , 1878年,我161 。 [ 45 ]第3版。 ,二, 231 。 [ 46 ]染色體。 , 1890年,我243 。 [ 47 ]相思, 1907年,我48 。 [ 48 ]登錄。 , 1907年, 133平方米。 [ 49 ]登錄。 , 1905年, 54 。 [ 50 ]染色體。 , 1878年,我134 。 [ 51 ]道德與教條, 643 sqq 。 [ 52 ]第3版。 ,二, 200人。 [ 53 ]登錄。 , 1905年, 27 。 [ 54 ]雜誌, 1909年, 44 。 [ 55 ]古爾德, “歷史” ,二, 284平方米[ 56 ]簡明歷史, 309 。 [ 57 ] AQC ,第十, 127 sqq 。 ;十一, 47 sqq 。 ;十六, 27 sqq 。 [ 58 ]古爾德, “濃。組織胺。 ,有272名; 310 -1 7。 [ 5 9]同上。 , 2 80。 [ 6 0]同上。 , 3 18。 [ 6 1]手冊,第三版。 ,我, 24 sqq 。 ;二, 559 sqq 。 [ 62 ]染色體。 , 1906年,二, 19平方米; 1884年,二, 306 。 [ 63 ] AQC ,十一, 43 。 [ 64 ]普雷斯頓, “插圖” , 296以下。 [ 65 ]染色體。 , 1887年,二, 313 。 [ 66 ]德拉蒙德。 “染色體。 ” , 1884年,二, 227 ; 1887年,我, 163 ;二, 178 ;古爾德, “簡明史” , 413 。 [ 67 ]普里查德, “砌體解剖” , 1730 。 [ 68 ]古爾德, “簡明史” , 274平方米, 357平方米;布斯, 174平方米[ 69 ]手冊,第二版。 ,二, 100 。 [ 70 ] Abafi ,我132 。 [ 71 ]布斯, 170 , 183 sqq 。 , 191 。 [ 72 ]見光明,和噓聲, 303 。 [ 73 ]羅伯遜, “染色體。 ” , 1907年,二, 95 ;又見恩格爾, “ Gesch 。 des Illuminatenordens", 1906. [74] Bauhütte, 1908, 337 sqq. [75] Sign., 1898, 100; 1901, 63 sqq.; 1902, 39; 1905, 6. [76] , 292 sq. [77] French Vénérable; German Meister von Stuhl. [78] Chr., 1885, I, 259. [79] Chr., 1881, I, 66. [80] Chr., 1884, II, 196. [81] Chr., 1885, I, 259), etc., etc. [82] Gedanken und Erinnerungen, 1898, I, 302 sq. [83] Solstice, 24 June, 1841, Procès-verb., 62. [84] 3rd ed., II, 109. [85] See also Freemason, Lond., 1901, 181; Clavel, 288 sqq.; Ragon, "Cours", 164; Herold, 191, no. 10; "Handbuch", 2nd ed., II, 451 sqq. [86] Eg, Krause, ibid., 2nd ed., I, 2, 429; Marbach, "Freimaurer-Gelübde", 22-35. [87] Mackey, "Jurisprudence", 509. [88] Thorp, Ms., 1629, AQC, XI, 210; Rawlinson, Ms. 1900, AQC, XI, 22; Hughan, "Old Charges". [89] Chr., 1875, I, 81. [90] Jurisprudence, 510, note 1. [91] Chr., 1885, I, 161. [92] Chr., 1889, II, 58. [93] Chr., 1883, II, 331. [94] Mackey, "Jurisprudence", 232 sq. [95] Mackey, op. cit., 514 sqq. [96] Paris, 1889; Antwerp, 1894; Hague, 1896; Paris, 1900; Geneva, 1902; Brussells, 1904; Rome, intended for Oct., 1911. [97] Chr., 1907, II, 119. [98] Off. Bull., 1885, VII, 29. [99] Mackey, "Encyclopedia", 1908, 1007 sq.: "Annual of Universal Masonry", Berne, 1909; "Mas.萬Illuminatenordens “ , 1906年。 [ 74 ] Bauhütte , 1908年, 337 sqq 。 [ 75 ]登錄。 , 1898 , 100 ; 1901年, 63 sqq 。 ; 1902年, 39歲; 1905年, 6 。 [ 76 ] , 292平方米[ 77 ]法國悠久;德國梅斯特馮Stuhl 。 [ 78 ]染色體。 , 1885年,我259 。 [ 79 ]染色體。 , 1881年,我66 。 [ 80 ]染色體。 , 1884年,二, 196 。 [ 81 ]染色體。 , 1885年,我259 ) ,等等,等等[ 82 ]思維與Erinnerungen , 1898年,我, 302平方米[ 83 ]冬至, 1841年6月24日,處理器動詞。 , 62 。 [ 84 ]第3版。 ,二, 109 。 [ 85 ]亦見濟, Lond 。 , 1901年, 181 ; Clavel , 288 sqq 。 ;龍, “ 19/06/07 ” , 164 ;赫羅爾德, 191 ,沒有。 10 ; “手冊” ,第2版。 ,二, 451 sqq 。 [ 86 ]例如,克勞斯,同上。 ,第二版。 ,我, 2 , 429 ;馬爾巴赫, “ Freimaurer - Gelübde ” , 22-35 。 [ 87 ]麥基, “法理學” , 509 。 [ 88 ]索普女士, 1629年, AQC ,十一, 210 ;羅林森女士, 1900年, AQC ,十一, 22 ; Hughan , “老費” 。 [ 89 ]染色體。 , 1875年,我81歲。 [ 90 ]法學, 510 ,注1 。 [ 91 ]染色體。 , 1885年,我161 。 [ 92 ]染色體。 , 1889年,二, 58 。 [ 93 ]染色體。 , 1883年,二, 331 。 [ 94 ]麥基, “法理學” , 232平方米。 [ 95 ]麥基,同前。前。 , 514 sqq 。 [ 96 ]巴黎, 1889年;安特衛普, 1894年,海牙, 1896年巴黎, 1900 ;日內瓦, 1902年; Brussells , 1904年;羅馬,打算在10月, 1911 。 [ 97 ]染色體。 , 1907年,二, 119 。 [ 98 ]關閉。紅牛。 , 1885年,第七章, 29 。 [ 99 ]麥基, “百科全書” , 1908年, 1007平方米: “每年的世界砌體” ,伯爾尼, 1909年, “馬斯。 Year-Book 1909", London; "Kalendar für Freimaurer", Leipzig, 1909. [100] I, 340. [101] Chr., 1890, I, 99. [102] Chr., 1900, II, 3. [103] AQC, XVI, 28. [104] Chr., 1902, I, 167. [105] (1), 105. [106] (1), 819. [107] (1), 355. [108] (3), 128. [109] (1), 218. [110] Inner Sanctuary I, 311. [111] Oliver, Hist. Landmarks, I, 128. [112] Oliver, ibid., I, 146, 65; II, 7 sq. [113] Clavel, Ragnon, etc. [114] Pike, Mackey, etc. [115] Pike (1), 771 sq. [116] (4), 397. [117] Pike (1), 698 sq., 751, 849; (4), IV, 342 sq.; Mackey, "Symbolism", 112 sqq., 186 sqq.; see also Preuss, "American Freemasonry", 175 sqq. [118] Mackey, "Dictionary", sv Phallus; Oliver, "Signs", 206-17; V. Longo, La Mass. Specul. [119] Ritual, I (first) degree. [120] Pike (3), 128. [121] Pike (4), 141. [122] Pike, ibid., 100 sq. [123] (1), 291 sq. [124] Pike (4), III, 81; (1), 291; Ragon, lc, 76-86. [125] (4), I, 288 sq. [126] Ibid., III, 142 sq. [127] Ibid., III, 146. [128] Ibid., IV, 474 sq. [129] Ibid., IV, 478. [130] Ibid., IV, 476. [131] Ibid., IV, 547. [132] "Masonic Advocate" of Indianapolis, Chr., 1900, I, 296. [133] Chr., 1897, II, 83. [134] (4), I, 271. [135] Ibid., I, 280; (1), 516 sq. [136] Chr., 1878, II, 28. [137] (4), I, 311. [138] Ibid., IV, 388 sq. [139] Ibid, IV, 389 sq. [140] (1), 849. [141] Oliver, "Theocratic Philosophy", 355. [142] Oliver, Hist. Landmarks, I, 11, 21; "Freemasons' Quarterly Rev.", I, 31; Casanova in Ragon, "Rit.今年圖書1909年“ ,倫敦”獻給Freimaurer大事“ ,萊比錫, 1909年。 [ 100 ]我, 340 。 [ 101 ]染色體。 , 1890年,我99 。 [ 102 ]染色體。 , 1900年,二, 3 。 [ 103 ] AQC ,十六, 28 。 [ 104 ]染色體。 , 1902年,我167 。 [ 105 ] ( 1 ) , 105 。 [ 106 ] ( 1 ) , 819 。 [ 107 ] ( 1 ) , 355 。 [ 108 ] ( 3 ) , 128 。 [ 109 ] ( 1 ) , 218 。 [ 110 ]內蒙古保護我, 311 。 [ 111 ]奧利弗,組織胺。里程碑,我128 。 [ 112 ]奧利弗,同上。 ,我, 146 , 65 ;二, 7平方米[ 113 ] Clavel , Ragnon等[ 114 ]派克,麥基等[ 115 ]派克( 1 ) , 771平方米[ 116 ] ( 4 ) , 397 。 [ 117 ]派克( 1 ) , 698平方米, 751 , 849 ; ( 4 ) ,四, 342平方米;麥基, “象徵” , 112 sqq 。 , 186 sqq 。 ;又見普羅伊斯, “美國共濟會” , 175 sqq 。 [ 118 ]麥基, “詞典” ,希沃特菲勒斯;奧利弗, “符號” , 206-17 ;五,隆哥,香格里拉馬薩諸塞州Specul 。 [ 119 ]儀式,我(第一)學位。 [ 120 ]派克( 3 ) , 128 。 [ 121 ]派克( 4 ) , 141 。 [ 122 ]派克,同上。 , 100平方米[ 123 ] ( 1 ) , 291平方米[ 124 ]派克( 4 ) ,三, 81 ; ( 1 ) , 291 ;龍術, 76-86 。 [ 125 ] ( 4 ) ,我, 288平方米[ 126 ]同上。 ,三, 142平方米[ 127 ]同上。 ,三, 146 。 [ 128 ]同上。 ,四, 474平方米[ 129 ]同上。 ,四, 478 。 [ 130 ]同上。 ,四, 476 。 [ 131 ]同上。 ,四, 547 。 [ 132 ] “共濟會主張”的印第安納波利斯,染色體。 , 1900年,我296 。 [ 133 ]染色體。 , 1897年,二, 83 。 [ 134 ] ( 4 ) ,我271 。 [ 135 ]同上。 ,我280 ; ( 1 ) , 516平方米[ 136 ]染色體。 , 1878年,二, 28 。 [ 137 ] ( 4 ) ,我311 。 [ 138 ]同上。 ,四, 388平方米[ 139 ]同上,四, 389平方米[ 140 ] ( 1 ) , 849 。 [ 141 ]奧利弗, “神哲學” , 355 。 [ 142 ]奧利弗,組織胺。里程碑,我, 11 , 21 ; “濟季度牧師” ,我31 ;卡薩諾瓦在龍, “洋蔥。 3rd Degree", 35. [143] Pike (4), III, 68. [144] Ibid., IV, 470, 479, 488, 520. [145] Chr., 1880, II, 179. [146] Ibid., 1892, I, 246. For similar criticism see Chr., 1880, II, 195; 1875, I, 394. [147] Gould, "Concise History" 419. [148] Chr., 1893, I, 147. [149] Chr., 1906, I, 202. [150] "New Age", May, 1910, 464. [151] "Acacia", II, 409. [152] See Congrés Intern. of Paris, 1889, in "Compte rendu du Grand Orient de France", 1889; Browers, "L'action, etc."; Brück, "Geh.三度“ , 35 。 [ 143 ]派克( 4 ) ,三, 68 。 [ 144 ]同上。 ,四, 470 , 479 , 488 , 520 。 [ 145 ]染色體。 , 1880年,二, 179 。 [ 146 ]同上。 , 1892年,我246 。出於類似的批評見染色體。 , 1880年,二, 195 ; 1875年,我394 。 [ 147 ]古爾德, “簡明史” 419 。 [ 148 ]染色體。 , 1893年,我147 。 [ 149 ]染色體。 , 1906年,我202 。 [ 150 ] “新時代” , 5月, 1910年, 464 。 [ 151 ] “相思” ,二409 。 [ 152 ]見會議中心實習。巴黎, 1889年,在“ Compte毛細血管杜大東方法國” , 1889年; Browers , “歐萊雅行動等” ;布魯克, “蓋。 Gesellsch. Gesellsch 。 in Spanien"; "Handbuch"; articles on the different countries, etc. [153] See "Rivista", 1909, 76 sqq.; 1908, 394; "Acacia," 1908, II, 36; "Bauhütte", 1909, 143; "La Franc-Maçonnerie démasquée , 1909, 93-96; "Compte rendu du Convent. Du Gr. Or. de France", 21-26 Sept., 1908, 34-38. [154] Handbuch, 3rd ed., II, 517. [155] Gruber (5), 6; Ewald, "Loge und Kulturkampf". [156] See Herold, No. 37 and 33 sqq. [157] See also Chr., 1889, I, 81 sq. [158] "Que personne ne bougera plus en France en dehors de nous", "Bull. Gr. Or.", 1890, 500 sq. [159] Compterendu Gr.在西班牙“ , ”手冊“ ;條款不同的國家,等等[ 153 ]見”雜誌“ , 1909年, 76 sqq 。 ; 1908年, 394 ; ”相思“ , 1908年,二,第36條; ” Bauhütte “ , 1909年, 143 ; “香格里拉法郎, Maçonnerie démasquée , 1909年, 93-96 ; ” Compte毛細血管都修道院。都石墨。還是。法蘭西“ , 9月二十一號日至26日, 1908年, 34-38 。 [ 154 ]手冊,第三版。 ,二, 517 。 [ 155 ]格魯伯( 5 ) , 6 ;埃瓦爾德, “ Loge與Kulturkampf 。 ” [ 156 ]見赫羅爾德,第37和第33 sqq 。 [ 157 ]又見染色體。 , 1889年,我81平方米。 [ 158 ] “闕人的神經bougera加上法國途中dehors的靜脈” , “鬥牛。石墨。還是。 ” 1890年, 500平方米[ 159 ] Compterendu石墨。 Or., 1903, Nourrisson, "Les Jacobins", 266-271. [160] Compte-rendu, 1902, 153. [161] Compte-rendu Gr.或。 , 1903年, Nourrisson , “法國雅各賓派” , 266-271 。 [ 160 ] Compte -毛細血管, 1902年, 153 。 [ 161 ] Compte -毛細血管石墨。 Or.或。 de France, 1902, 381. [162] "Riv.", 1892, 219; Gruber, "Mazzini", 215 sqq.法國, 1902年, 381 。 [ 162 ] “河。 ” , 1892 , 219 ;格魯伯, “馬志尼” , 215 sqq 。 and passim. [163] Circular of the Grand Orient of France, 2 April, 1889. [164] See "Chaîne d'Union," 1889, 134, 212 sqq., 248 sqq., 291 sqq.; the official comptes rendus of the International Masonic Congress of Paris, 16-17 July, 1889, and 31 August, 1 and 2 September, 1900, published by the Grand Orient of France, and the regular official "Comptes rendus des travaux" of this Grand Orient, 1896-1910, and the "Rivista massonica", 1880-1910. [165] See Internat.並各處。 [ 163 ]圓形的大東方的法國, 1889年4月2日。 [ 164 ]見“謝德聯盟” , 1889年, 134 , 212 sqq 。 , 248 sqq 。 , 291 sqq 。 ;正式comptes rendus國際大會的共濟會巴黎7月16-17日, 1889年,和8月31日, 1一九○○年9月2日出版的大東方,法國和經常官方“ Comptes rendus之準備”這個大東方, 1896年-1910 ,以及“雜誌massonica ” ,一八八〇年至1910年。 [ 165 ]見Internat 。 Bulletin, 1908, 119, 127, 133, 149, 156; 1909, 186. [166] Chr.公報, 1908年, 119 , 127 , 133 , 149 , 156 ; 1909年, 186 。 [ 166 ]染色體。 1905, II, 58, 108, 235. [167] From a letter of the Registrator J. Strahan, in London, to the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts; see "The New Age", New York, 1909, I, 177. [168] Berlin, 10 May, 1908; 9 June, 12 November, 1909; 5, 19 February, 1910. [169] Barcelona, 13 October, 1909. [170] Circular of 14 October, 1909; "Franc-Maç. dém.", 1906, 230 sqq.; 1907, 42, 176; 1909, 310, 337 sqq.; 1910, an "International Masonic Bulletin", Berne, 1909, 204 sq. [171] Rivista massonica, 1909, 337 sqq., 423. [172] Official Bulletin, September, 1887, 173 sqq. [173] Chr., 1906, II, 132. [174] Chr., 1897, II, 148. [175] Chr., 1888, II, 99. [176] Chr., 1889, II, 146. [177] "Keystone", quoted in Chr., 1887, II, 355. [178] See Boos, 304-63. [179] Gruber (6), 141-236. [180] Boos, 326. [181] Chr., 1885, I, 85, 1900, II, 71. [182] Chr., 1889, I, 308. [183] Chr., 1897, II, 303. [184] Chr. 1905年,二, 58 , 108 , 235 。 [ 167 ]從信中Registrator學者斯特拉恩,在倫敦的大旅館馬薩諸塞州;看到“新時代” ,紐約, 1909年,我177 。 [ 168 ]柏林, 1908年5月10日; 6月9日, 1909年11月十二日; 5日, 1910年二月19日。 [ 169 ]巴塞羅那, 09年一十〇月13日。 [ 170 ]通知1909年十月十四日, “麗珠- Mac中。串聯。 “ , 1906年, 230 sqq 。 ; 1907年, 42歲, 176 ; 1909年, 310 , 337 sqq 。 ; 1910年, ”國際共濟會公報“ ,伯爾尼, 1909年, 204平方米[ 171 ]雜誌massonica , 1909年, 337 sqq 。 , 423 。 [ 172 ]官方公報, 9月, 1887年, 173 sqq 。 [ 173 ]染色體。 , 1906年,二, 132 。 [ 174 ]染色體。 , 1897年,二, 148 。 [ 175 ]染色體。 , 1888年,二, 99 。 [ 176 ]染色體。 , 1889年,二, 146 。 [ 177 ] “基石” ,引用染色體。 , 1887年,二, 355 。 [ 178 ]見噓聲, 304-63 。 [ 179 ]格魯伯( 6 ) , 141-236 。 [ 180 ]噓聲, 326 。 [ 181 ]染色體。 , 1885年,我今年85歲, 1900年,二, 71 。 [ 182 ]染色體。 , 1889年,我308 。 [ 183 ]染色體。 , 1897年,二, 303 。 [ 184 ]染色體。 1889, II, 257 sq. [185] Concise History, 2. [186] Ibid., p. 1889年,二, 257平方米[ 185 ]簡明史, 2 。 [ 186 ]同上。頁 xv. [187] Chr., 1887, II, 340. [188] Chr., 1887, I, 119. [189] Chr., 1885, II, 355. [190] Chr., 1887, II, 49. [191] Chr., 1875, I , 113. [192] Chr., 1890, II, 101. [193] Chr., 1875, I, 113. [194] Chr., 1887, I, 35. [195] Chr.十五。 [ 187 ]染色體。 , 1887年,二, 340 。 [ 188 ]染色體。 , 1887年,我119 。 [ 189 ]染色體。 , 1885年,二, 355 。 [ 190 ]染色體。 , 1887年,二, 49 。 [ 191 ]染色體。 , 1875年,我113 。 [ 192 ]染色體。 , 1890年,二, 101 。 [ 193 ]染色體。 , 1875年,我113 。 [ 194 ]染色體。 , 1887年,我35 。 [ 195 ]染色體。 1884, II, 17. [196] Chr., 1890, II, 347: see also 1898, I, 83. [197] "Voice" quoted in Chr., 1890, I, 98. [198] "Voice" in Chr., 1893, I, 130. [199] "Voice" in Chr., 1890, I, 98. [200] Chr., 1899, I, 301. [201] Chr., 1875, I, 81. [202] Chr., 1875, I, 82. [203] Chr., 1889, I, 178. [204] Chr., 1889, II, 94. [205] "Keystone" of Philadelphia quoted by Chr., 1881, I, 414; the "Voice" of Chicago, ibid., 277. [206] "Intern. Bull.", Berne, 1907, 98. [207] Chr., 1882, I, 410; 1893, I, 185; 1899, II, 34. [208] Chr., 1892, I, 259. [209] Pike (4), IV, 547. [210] Bauhütte, 1905, 60. [211] Preston, "Illustrations of Masonry", 251 sqq. [212] Handbuch, 3rd ed., I, 219. [213] Allocution, 1865. [214] Const. 1884年,二, 17 。 [ 196 ]染色體。 , 1890年,二, 347 :又見1898年,我83歲。 [ 197 ] “美國之音”引述的染色體。 , 1890年,我98 。 [ 198 ] “美國之音”在染色體。 , 1893年,我130 。 [ 199 ] “美國之音”在染色體。 , 1890年,我98 。 [ 200 ]染色體。 , 1899年,我301 。 [ 201 ]染色體。 , 1875年,我81歲。 [ 202 ]染色體。 , 1875年,我82歲。 [ 203 ]染色體。 , 1889年,我178 。 [ 204 ]染色體。 , 1889年,二, 94 。 [ 205 ] “基石”的費城染色體引述。 , 1881年,一, 414 ;的“聲音”的芝加哥,同上。 , 277 。 [ 206 ] “實習。紅牛。 ” ,伯爾尼, 1907年, 98 。 [ 207 ]染色體。 , 1882年,我, 410 ; 1893年,我, 185 ; 1899年,二, 34 。 [ 208 ]染色體。 , 1892年,我259 。 [ 209 ]派克( 4 ) ,四, 547 。 [ 210 ] Bauhütte , 1905年, 60歲。 [ 211 ]普雷斯頓, “砌體插圖” , 251 sqq 。 [ 212 ]手冊,第三版。 ,我219 。 [ 213 ] Allocution , 1865年。 [ 214 ]康斯特。 "Apostolicæ Sedis", 1869, Cap. “ Apostolicæ位置未定” , 1869年,章。 ii, n.二,注 24. [215] "De Secta Massonum" (Acta Sanctæ Sedis, XVIII, 43-47. [216] See "Collect. Lacensis", III, 1875 and "Acta et decr. Concil. plen. Balt. III", 1884. 24 。 [ 215 ] “德Secta Massonum ” (學報聖位置未定,十八, 43-47 。 [ 216 ]見“收集。 Lacensis ” ,三, 1875年和“學報等decr 。 Concil 。 plen 。橡樹。三” , 1884 。

OTHER NOTES.其他說明。 The following are the abbreviations of masonic terms used in this article: L., Ls., GL, GLs, GO, GOs, Supr.以下是縮寫的共濟會中使用的術語此文章:研究,最小二乘。冰川,名單現場圖文,往,觀測, Supr 。 Counc., GBs = Lodge, Lodges, Grand Lodge, Gr. Counc 。綜合徵=旅館,旅館,大旅館,石墨。 Orient, Supreme Council, Gr.東方,最高理事會,石墨。 Bodies, etc. Abbreviations of more frequently quoted books and magazines: K.=Keystone (Philadelphia).機構等的縮寫更加頻繁引用的書籍和雜誌:光=重點( 76 ) 。 V="Voice of Masonry", later on: "Masonic Voice and Review" (Chicago).比為之聲“砌體” ,後來說: “共濟會語音和回顧” (芝加哥) 。 Chr.="Freemason's Chronicle" (London); AQC="Ars Quatuor Coronatorum".染色體.= “洪門的紀事” (倫敦) ; AQC = “ Coronatorum藝術四重奏” 。 Transactions (London), the best scientific masonic magazine; Bauh.=Bauhütte; Sign.="Signale für die deutsche Maurerwelt" (Leipzig); Enc., Cycl., Handb.=Encyclopedia, "Allgemeines Handbuch der Freimaurerei" (Universal Manual of Freemasonry) Leipzig.交易(倫敦) ,最好的科學雜誌共濟會; Bauh .= Bauhütte ;登錄.= “ Signale獻給死於德國Maurerwelt ” (萊比錫) ;電子海圖。 ,週期。 , Handb .=百科全書“ ,普通Freimaurerei手冊” (世界手冊濟)萊比錫。 This latter German encyclopedia, in its three editions, quite different from each other, but all of them containing valuable and accurate information, is considered even by English and American masonic criticism (AQC, XI, 1898, 64) as far and away the best masonic encyclopedia ever published.後者德國的百科全書,在它的三個版本,不同於對方,但所有這些含有寶貴的和準確的信息,甚至被認為是由英國和美國共濟會的批評( AQC ,十一, 1898年, 64歲)和遠以外的最佳共濟會百科全書出版。

Key to numbers: In the article above, an Arabic number after the name of an author of several works indicates the work marked with the same number in the following bibliography.關鍵數字:在文章中所述,一個阿拉伯數字後的名稱的幾個作者的作品的工作表明標有相同數目在下列書目。 Other numbers are to be judged according to the general rules maintained throughout the ENCYCLOPEDIA. The Freemason's Chronicle (Chr.), of which two volumes have been published every year in London since 1875, reproducing on a large scale also the principle articles published by the best American Masonic journals, offers the best and most authorized general survey of Anglo-American Freemasonry.其他數字來判斷按照一般規則保持整個百科全書。濟的紀事( Chr. ) ,其中兩卷已經出版,每年在倫敦1875年以來,音響大規模的原則發表的文章的美國最好的共濟會刊物,提供了最好的和最一般授權調查英美濟。 R. FR.河阻燃。 GOULD styles it: "A first class Masonic newspaper" (Chr., 1893, I, 339).古爾德風格說: “第一類報紙共濟會” ( Chr. , 1893年,我339 ) 。 The principle Masonic author quoted by us is the late ALBERT PIKE, Grand Commander of the Mother- Supreme Council (Charleston, South Carolina -- Washington), acknowledged as the greatest authority in all Masonic matters.共濟會的原則作者引用我們是已故的偉業派克,大指揮官的母親最高理事會(查爾斯頓,南卡羅來納州-華盛頓州) ,公認的最大的權力在所有共濟會的問題。 According to NORTON "the world-renowned BRO. PIKE (Chr., 1888, II, 179) is generally admitted as the best authority on Masonic jurisprudence in America" (Chr., 1876, II, 243).據諾頓“世界著名的商業登記。派克( Chr. , 1888年,二, 179 )是普遍承認是最好的權威的共濟會在美國的判例” ( Chr. , 1876年,二,第243頁) 。 According to the Grand Orator ROBERT (Indian Territory) he "was the greatest Masonic scholar and writer of this (19th) century, whose name has been a household word wherever Masonry is known" (Chr., 1893, I, 25).據大演說家羅伯特(印度領土) ,他“是最偉大的共濟會的學者和作家本( 19 )世紀,他的名字已成為家喻戶曉的地方砌體被稱為” ( Chr. , 1893年,我25 ) 。 According to the New Age, New York, he was "regarded as the foremost figure in the Freemasonry of the world" (1909, II, 456), "the greatest Freemason of the Nineteenth Century", "the Prophet of Freemasonry" (1910, I, 52).據新時代,紐約,他是“被視為最重要的人物,共濟會的世界” ( 1909年,二, 456 )說, “最大的共濟的十九世紀” , “先知的共濟會” ( 1910年我, 52歲) 。 "His great work -- his Magnum Opus -- as he called it", says the New Age (1910, I, 54), "was The Scottish Rite Rituals, as they were revised and spiritualized by him." “他的偉大的工作-他的馬格南作品-他稱之為”說,新時代(1 9 10年,我5 4歲) , “是蘇格蘭祭儀式,因為他們進行了修訂和s p iritualized了他。 ” And his book Morals and Dogma, currently quoted by us, is highly recommended to all Masons searching for serious and sure information, by the celebrated Masonic scholars TEMPLE (Brussels) and SPETH, the late secretary of the learned Quatuor-Coronati Lodge at London (Chr., 1888, I, 389).他的著作和道德與教條,目前我們所引用,強烈建議所有尋找梅森嚴重和確定信息,由著名學者共濟會寺(布魯塞爾)和斯佩思,已故的秘書教訓四重奏, Coronati旅館在倫敦(染色體。 , 1888年,我, 389 ) 。 The circulars (letters) of PIKE, according to the Bulletin of the Supreme Council of Belgium (1888, 211) were "true codes of Masonic Widsom".的通知(字母)的派克,根據公告的最高理事會的比利時( 1888年, 211頁)是“真正的守則Widsom共濟會” 。 The well-known English BRO.眾所周知英文可租可買。 YARKER, 33, says: "The late A. Pike . . . was undoubtedly a masonic Pope, who kept in leading strings all the Supreme Councils of the world, including the Supreme Councils of England, Ireland, and Scotland, the first of which includes the Prince of Wales (now King Edward VII) Lord Lathom and other Peers, who were in alliance with him and in actual submission" (AE WAITE, Devil-Worship in France, 1896, 215). YARKER , 33歲,說: “已故的字母a.派克。 。 。無疑是共濟會的教宗,誰保持領先的琴弦所有的最高理事會的世界,其中包括最高理事會英格蘭,愛爾蘭和蘇格蘭,其中第一項其中包括威爾士親王(現在的愛德華七世國王)勳爵Lathom和其他同行,誰在結盟與他在實際提交“ (自動曝光偉,魔鬼崇拜在法國, 1896年, 215名) 。 "The German Handbuch (2nd ed., 1879, IV, 138) calls Pike: "The supreme General of the Order", and TG Findel, the German historian of Masonry: "the uncrowned king of the High Degrees" (Bauhütte, 1891, 126). “德國手冊(第二版。 , 1879年,四, 138號)要求派克: ”一般的最高勳章“ ,和TG芬德爾,德國歷史學家砌體: ”無冕王的高級學位“ ( Bauhütte , 1891年, 126 ) 。

Masonic Publications.共濟會刊物。 Encyclopedias: MACKEY, (1) Encyclopedia of Freemasonry (London, 1908), even this recent edition, according to American authorities, is thoroughly antiquated and scarcely an improvement on that of 1860; IDEM, (2) Lexicon of Freemasonry (London, 1884); OLIVER, Dict.百科全書:麥基, ( 1 )百科全書共濟會(倫敦, 1908年) ,即使這個最新版,根據美國當局徹底過時的,幾乎沒有一個改善的1860年;同上, ( 2 )詞彙的共濟會(倫敦, 1884年) ;奧利弗,快譯通。 of Symbolic Freemasonry (London, 1853); MACKENZIE, The Royal Masonic Cycl.象徵濟(倫敦, 1853年) ;麥肯茲,皇家馬索尼克週期。 (1875-7); WOODFORD, Kenning's Cycl. ( 1875-7 ) ;伍德福德, Kenning的週期。 (1878); LENNING, Encycl. ( 1878年) ; LENNING , Encycl 。 der Freimaurerei (1822- 1828); IDEM AND HENNE AM RHYN, Allgemeines Handbuch der Fr., 2nd ed.德國Freimaurerei ( 1822年至1828年) ;同上及亨納上午葉,普通神父手冊。 ,第二版。 (1863-79); FISCHER, Allg. ( 1863年至1879年) ;菲舍爾, Allg 。 Handb. Handb 。 d. Fr., 3rd ed. d.神父。 ,第3版。 (1900); these editions contain valuable information and answer scientific requirements far more than all the other Masonic cyclopedias (AQC, XI, 64); STEVENS, Cyclopedia of Fraternities (New York, 1907). Masonic Law and Jurisprudence: The Constitutions of the Freemasons, 1723, 1738; Neues Constitutionen Buch, etc. (1741); DE LA TIERCE, Histoire, Obligations, et. Statuts, etc. (Frankfort, 1742); OLIVER, Masonic Jurisprudence (1859, 1874); CHASE, Digest of Masonic Law (1866); MACKEY, Text Book of Mason. ( 1900年) ;這些版本包含有價值的信息和科學要求的答案遠遠超過其他所有cyclopedias共濟會( AQC ,十一, 64 ) ;史蒂文斯Cyclopedia的兄弟(紐約, 1907年) 。共濟會和法理學:憲法的濟, 1723 , 1738 ;全新Constitutionen布赫等( 1741 ) ;德拉薩TIERCE ,歷史,義務等。 Statuts等(法蘭克福, 1742 ) ;奧利弗,共濟會法理學( 1859年, 1874年) ;大通,文摘共濟會法( 1866年) ;麥基,文字圖書的梅森。 Jurisprudence (1889); VAN GRODDECK, etc., Versuch einer Darstellung des positiven innern Freimaurer.法理學( 1889年) ;增值GRODDECK等, Versuch領袖Darstellung萬positiven innern Freimaurer 。 Rechts (1877), the best general survey of Masonic laws of all countries.財團( 1877年) ,最佳全面調查的共濟會法律的所有國家。

Historical: ANDERSON, Hist.歷史:安德森,組織胺。 of Freemasonry in the first edition and translations of the Book of Constitutions (most unreliable, even after 1717); PRESTON, Illustrations of Masonry (1772), ed.濟中的第一版和翻譯書的憲法(最不可靠的,即使在1717年) ;普雷斯頓,插圖砌體( 1772 )版。 OLIVER (1856), though not reliable in some historical particulars, contains much valuable information of historical and ritualistic character; FORT, Early Hist.奧利弗( 1856年) ,但不可靠在歷史上的一些細節,包含許多寶貴的歷史資料和老一套的性質;堡,早組織胺。 and Antiquities of Freemasonry (Philadelphia, 1875); ROWBOTTOM, Origin of Freemasonry as manifested by the Great Pyramid (1880); HOLLAND, Freemasonry from the Great Pyramid historically illustrated (1885); CHAPMAN, The Great Pyramid, etc. (1886); WEISSE, The Obelisk and Freemasonry, according to the discoveries of Belzoni and Gorringe (New York, 1880); KATSCH, Die Entstehung und wahre Endzweck der Freimaurerei (1897); FINDEL, History of Freemasonry (1861-2; 1905), translated and revised by LYON, 1869; influential in spreading more accurate historical notions among Masons; GOULD, Hist.和古蹟的共濟會(費城, 1875年) ; ROWBOTTOM ,起源濟體現了大金字塔( 1880年) ;荷蘭,共濟會從大金字塔的歷史說明( 1885年) ;查普曼,大金字塔,等等( 1886年) ; WEISSE ,在方尖碑和共濟,根據發現的貝爾佐尼和Gorringe (紐約, 1880年) ; KATSCH ,模具Entstehung與wahre Endzweck之Freimaurerei ( 1897年) ;芬德爾,史濟( 1861-2 ; 1905年) ,翻譯和修訂了里昂, 1869年;有影響力的傳播更準確的歷史概念之間的泥瓦匠;古爾德,組織胺。 of Freemasonry (3 vols., 1883-1887), now reputed the best historical work on Freemasonry; CHETWODE CRAWLEY, Cœmentaria Hibernica (1895-1900); HUGHAN, Origin of the English Rite of Freemasonry (1884); The Old Charges of British Freemasons (London, 1872; 1895); KLOSS, Gesch.濟( 3卷。 , 1883年至1887年) ,現在被譽為歷史上最好的工作濟;切特伍德克勞雷, Cœmentaria Hibernica ( 1895年至00年) ; HUGHAN ,起源英文祭共濟會( 1884年) ;老收費英國濟(倫敦, 1872年, 1895年) ;克洛斯, Gesch 。 der Fr.德國神父。 in Engl., Irland und Schottland 1685-1784 (1847); BOOS, Gesch.在英格蘭。 ,愛爾蘭和Schottland 1785至84年( 1847年) ;噓聲, Gesch 。 der Freimaurerei (1896); HASCALL, Hist.德國Freimaurerei ( 1896年) ; HASCALL ,組織胺。 of Freemasonry (1891); Earl Hist.濟( 1891年) ;厄爾組織胺。 and Transactions of Masons of New York (1876); McCLENACHAN, Hist.和交易的梅森紐約( 1876年) ; McCLENACHAN ,組織胺。 of the Frat.的Frat 。 in New York (1888-94); ROSS ROBERTSON, Hist.在紐約( 1888年至1894年) ;羅斯羅伯遜組織胺。 of Freemasonry in Canada (1899); DRUMMOND, Hist.中濟在加拿大( 1899年) ;德拉蒙德,組織胺。 and Bibliogr.和Bibliogr 。 Memoranda and Hist.諒解備忘錄和組織胺。 of Symb.的股票。 and Royal Arch Masonry in the US; Supplement to GOULD, Hist.(1889); THORY, Annales, etc., du Grand Orient de France (1812); KLOSS, Gesch.和皇家漿砌石拱壩在美國;補編古爾德,組織胺。 ( 1889年) ;理論,年鑑等,都大東方法國( 1812年) ;克洛斯, Gesch 。 der Freimaurerei in Frankr.德國Freimaurerei在Frankr 。 (1852-3); JOUAST, Hist. ( 1852-3 ) ; JOUAST ,組織胺。 du Grand Orient Fr.杜大東方神父。 (1865); LEWIS, Gesch. ( 1865年) ;劉易斯, Gesch 。 d. Freimaurerei i. Freimaurerei島 Oesterreich (1861); ABAFI, Gesch.奧地利( 1861年) ; ABAFI , Gesch 。 d. Freimaurerei in Oesterreich-Ungarn (1890 sqq.), Principles, Spirit, Symbolism of Freemasonry. Freimaurerei在奧地利, Ungarn ( 1890 sqq 。 ) ,原則,精神,象徵性的共濟會。 Chief Sources:-- The Constitutions of the Freemasons, 1723 and 1738; HUTCHINSON, Spirit of Freemasonry (1775); TOWN, System of Spec.首席來源: -憲法的濟, 1 723年和1 738年;哈欽森,精神的共濟會( 1 775) ;鎮,系統的規格。 Masonry (1822, New York); OLIVER, Antiquities of Freemasonry (1823); The Star in the East (1827); Signs and Symbols (1830, 1857); PIKE, (1) Morals and Dogma of the AA Scot.砌體結構( 1822年,紐約) ;奧利弗,古物的共濟會( 1823 ) ;星在東方( 1827 ) ;標誌和符號( 1830年, 1857年) ;派克( 1 )道德的和教條機管局蘇格蘭人。 Rite of Freemasonry 5632 (1882); IDEM, (2) The Book of the Words 5638 (1878); IDEM, (3) The Porch and the Middle Chamber.成年禮的共濟會5632 ( 1882 ) ;同上, ( 2 )圖書詞5638 ( 1878年) ;同上, ( 3 )走廊和中東廳。 Book of the Lodge 5632 (1872); IDEM, (4) The Inner Sanctuary (1870-79); KRAUSE, Die drei ältesten Kunsturkunden der Frmrei (1810), still much esteemed, in spite of historical errors, as a critical appreciation of Freemasonry; FINDEL (best German authority), Geist und Form der Fr.圖書旅館5632 ( 1872年) ;同上, ( 4 )內蒙古區( 1870年至1879年) ;克勞斯,模具顯ältesten Kunsturkunden之Frmrei ( 1810年) ,仍有許多尊敬的,儘管歷史的錯誤,作為一個關鍵讚賞濟;芬德爾(最好的德國權威) ,精神與形式之神父。 (1874, 1898); IDEM, Die Grundsötze der Fr. ( 1874年, 1898年) ;同上,模具之Grundsötze神父。 im Volkerleben (1892); IDEM, Die moderne Weltanschauung und die Fr.免疫Volkerleben ( 1892年) ;同上,模具現代世界觀和神父死去。 (1885); IDEM, Der frmische Gedanke (1898); Bauhütte (1858-1891) and Signale (1895-1905). ( 1885年) ;同上,明鏡frmische Gedanke ( 1898年) ; Bauhütte ( 1858年至1891年)和Signale ( 1895至1905年) 。

Anti-masonic publications: From 1723-1743, English Freemasonry and ANDERSON, History, were derided in many publications (GOULD, 2, 294, 327); against French Freemasonry appeared: L'Ordre des Freemasons trahi 1738 (AQC, IX, 85) and Le Secret des Mopses révélé (1745); Sceau romptu (1745); on the occasion of the French Revolution: LEFRANC, Le voile levé (1792).反共濟會的出版物:從1723年至1743年,英國共濟會和安德森,歷史,被嘲笑在許多出版物(古爾德, 2 , 294 , 327 ) ;對法國共濟會出現:勳章萬濟trahi 1738 ( AQC ,九, 85 )和樂的秘密之Mopses révélé ( 1745 ) ; Sceau romptu ( 1745 ) ;以紀念法國大革命:勒弗朗,樂紗水平( 1792年) 。 In the United States the anti-Masonic movement began 1783: CREIGH, Masonry and Antimasonry (1854); STONE, Letters on Masonry and Antimasonry (1832); PENKIN, Downfall of Masonry (1838) Catalogue of anti-Masonic books (Boston, 1862); Sechs Stïmmen über geheime Gesellschaften und Frmrei (1824); ECKERT, Der Frmrorden in seiner wahren Bedeutung (1852); HENGSTENBERG, Die Frmrei und das evang.在美國的反共濟會運動開始1783年: CREIGH ,砌體和Antimasonry ( 1854年) ;四通,信砌體和Antimasonry ( 1832 ) ; PENKIN ,砌體毀滅( 1838 )目錄反共濟會書籍(波士頓, 1862年) ; Sechs Stïmmen尤伯杯秘密Gesellschaften與Frmrei ( 1824年) ;埃克特,明鏡Frmrorden在seiner手意義( 1852年) ;亨斯,模具Frmrei和存在evang 。 Pfarramt (1854-56); Civiltà Cattolica since 1866; NEGRONI, Storia passata e presente della setta anticristiana ed antisociale (1876); MENCACCI, Memorie documentate della rivoluzione italiana (1882); RINIERI, Cozetti Masonici (1900-01); ENIGMA, La setta verde (1906-7); GRUBER, Mazzini; Massoneria e Rivoluzione (1901), traces the revolutionary work of Italian Masonry from 1870 till 1900; GAUTRELET, La Franc-maçonnerie et la Révolution (1872); JANET, Les sociétés secrètes et la société 3rd ed., 1880-83), best general survey of the revolutionary work of secret societies in all countries; BROWERS, L'Action de la Franc-m. Pfarramt ( 1854年至1856年) ; Civiltà自1866年天主教; NEGRONI史passata é presente廣場setta anticristiana版antisociale ( 1876年) ; MENCACCI , Memorie documentate廣場rivoluzione意大利( 1882年) ; RINIERI , Cozetti Masonici ( 1900至1901年) ;謎,香格里拉setta貝爾德( 1906-7 ) ;格魯伯,馬志尼; Massoneria é Rivoluzione ( 1901 ) ,描繪了革命工作的意大利砌體從1870年到1900年; GAUTRELET ,香格里拉法郎, maçonnerie和革命( 1872年) ;珍妮特,法國sociétés分泌等學會第3版。 , 1880年至1883年) ,最佳全面調查的革命工作的秘密社團在所有國家; BROWERS ,歐萊雅行動德拉魯阿法郎米。 dans l'hist. moderne (1892); LEROUSE, La Franc-m.歷史中的近。現代( 1892 ) ; LEROUSE ,香格里拉法郎米。 sous la 3e République (1886); COPIN-ALBANCELLI, La Franc-m.蘇報3E型共和國( 1886年) ; COPIN - ALBANCELLI ,香格里拉法郎米。 (1892); GOYAU, La Franc-m. ( 1892年) ; GOYAU ,香格里拉法郎米。 en France (1899); NOURRISSON, Le club des Jacobins (1900); IDEM, Les Jacobins au pouvoir (1904); BIDEGAIN, Le Grand Orient de France (1905); NEUT, La F.-m.法國( 1899 ) ; NOURRISSON ,樂雅各賓俱樂部( 1900 ) ;同上,法國雅各賓派太子港權力( 1904年) ;比德加因樂大東方法國( 1905年) ; NEUT ,香格里拉F.-m. soumise au grand jour de la publicité (1866), contains valuable documents on French, Belgian, and German Masonry; MALLIE, La Maçonnerie Belge (1906), documents on the most recent political activity of Belgian Masonry; DE LA FUERTE, Historia de las Sociedades secretas antiquas y modernas en España, etc. (1870-71); BRÜCK, Die geheimen Gesellschaften in Spanien (1881); TIRADO Y ROYAS, La Masonería en España (1892- 3); DE RAFAEL, La Masonería pintada por si misma (1883); PACHTLER, Der stille Krieg gegen Thron und Altar (1876); BEUREN (M. RAICH), Die innere Unwahrheit der Frmrei (1884); GRUBER, (4) Die Frmrei und die öffent. soumise太子港大報德拉魯阿publicité ( 1866年) ,載有價值的文件,法國,比利時,德國砌體; MALLIE ,香格里拉Maçonnerie比利時( 1906年) ,文件最近的政治活動的比利時砌體;德拉薩堡,史梅德拉斯Sociedades secretas antiquas y modernas西班牙等( 1870至71年) ;布魯克,模具geheimen Gesellschaften在西班牙( 1881年) ;蒂拉多Y ROYAS ,香格里拉Masonería西班牙( 1892年-3 ) ;德國許仕,香格里拉M asonería拉平塔達房市m isma ( 1883年) ; PACHTLER ,明鏡寂靜戰爭葛根Thron與祭壇( 1876年) ; BEUREN (先生賴希) ,模具內在Unwahrheit之Frmrei ( 1884年) ;格魯伯, ( 4 )壓鑄模具Frmrei與öffent 。 Ordnung (1893); IDEM, (5) Einigungsbestrebungen, etc. (1898); IDEM, (6) Der "giftige Kern", etc. (1899); IDEM, (7) Frmrei und Umsturzbewegung(1901); Streifzüge durch das Reich der Frmrei (1897); EWALD, Loge und Kulturkampf (1899); OSSEG, Der Hammer d.秩序( 1893年) ;同上, ( 5 ) Einigungsbestrebungen等( 1898年) ;同上, ( 6 )明鏡“ giftige克恩”等( 1899 ) ;同上, ( 7 ) Frmrei與Umsturzbewegung ( 1901 ) ; Streifzüge而達之帝國之Frmrei ( 1897年) ;埃瓦爾德, Loge與Kulturkampf ( 1899 ) ; OSSEG ,德國豪邁d. Frmrei, etc. Frmrei等 (1875); WB, Beiträge zur Geschichte der F. In Oesterreich (1868); Die Frmrei in Oesterreich Ungarn (1897). ( 1875年) ;世界銀行, Beiträge楚史f.在奧地利( 1868年) ;模具Frmrei在奧地利Ungarn ( 1897年) 。 In Poland: MICHALOW, Die geh.在波蘭: MICHALOW ,模具蓋。 Werkstätte der Poln. Werkstätte之Poln 。 Erhebung (1830; 1877); ZALESKI, O Masonii w Polsce 1738-1820 (Cracow, 1908); for Anglo-Saxon and French Masonry see PREUSS, A Study in American Freemasonry (St. Louis, 1908), a careful discussion on the basis of the standard works of Mackey and Pike. Erhebung ( 1830 ; 1877年) ;扎列斯基,氧Masonii瓦特Polsce 1738年至1820年(克拉科夫, 1908年) ;為盎格魯撒克遜和法國砌體見普羅伊斯,研究在美國共濟會(聖路易斯, 1908年) ,認真討論根據標準的作品麥基和派克。


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