Franciscans

Friars Minor, Gray Friars, Grey Friars, OFM修士未成年人,灰色的修士,灰色修士,外交使團辦公室

General Information 一般信息

The Franciscans are members of a religious order that follows the rule of Saint Francis of Assisi.方濟會成員的宗教秩序,遵循法治的聖方濟各。 The first Franciscans, called the Order of Friars Minor, followed an ideal of total poverty; they possessed nothing in common or individually. Forbidden to accept money, they lived from day to day by working and begging.第一方濟,所謂秩序天主教方濟會,之後一個理想的總貧困;它們有什麼共同的或個別。紫禁城接受金錢,他們生活每一天的工作和乞討。 When they began studying and living at universities, however, they had to modify their strict ideal of poverty.當他們開始學習和生活在大學,但是,他們不得不修改其嚴格的理想貧困。 By the time Saint Francis died (1226), the order had spread from Italy to England, the Holy Land, and all of Europe.的時候,聖弗朗西斯死亡( 1226年) ,該命令已經蔓延從意大利到英格蘭,聖地,所有的歐洲。 The friars were known as the people's preachers. They wore a gray tunic with a white cord at the waist; hence, their English name Grey Friars.在修士被稱為人民的傳教士。他們穿著灰色上衣與白色的線在腰部,因此,其英文名稱灰色天主教方濟會。

From the beginning, there were disagreements about the direction the order would take.從一開始,有分歧的方向,以便將採取。 The Franciscan minister general, Saint Bonaventure, sought a balance between the Conventuals, who wanted to adapt their poverty to the needs of the time, and the Spirituals, who wanted a strict poverty.方濟各部長一般,聖文德,尋求之間的平衡Conventuals ,誰想要適應他們的貧困需要的時間和Spirituals ,誰需要一個嚴格的貧困。 The quarrel intensified during the 14th century when some of the Spiritual Franciscans, known as the Fraticelli, were condemned (1317 - 18) by Pope John XXII.爭吵期間,加強14世紀時,一些精神文明濟,稱為Fraticelli ,被譴責( 1317年至1318年)由教皇約翰二十二。 Disagreements about the ideal of poverty brought a permanent division in the 15th century between the Friars Minor Conventual and the Order of Friars Minor.分歧的理想貧困帶來了永久分裂在15世紀之間的天主教方濟會Conventual和秩序的天主教方濟會。 In the 16th century, the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin established a stricter independent branch of Franciscans.早在十六世紀, 令天主教方濟會小嘉布遣會設立了一個嚴格的獨立的分支機構的方濟。

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Preaching, teaching, foreign missions, and parish work remain the work of the Franciscans today.傳道,教學,外國使團,並保持工作區的工作,今天濟。 The Poor Clares, Franciscan nuns, are the second order. 窮人Clares ,方濟各會修女,是第二秩序。 The Third Order comprises lay men and women who combine prayer and penance with everyday activity. Many sisters, brothers, and priests follow the Franciscan ideal in communities affiliated with the Third Order. 三階包括奠定男人和女人誰結合起來祈禱和懺悔的日常活動。許多姐妹,兄弟,和神父的後續方濟理想的社區附屬三階。 There are Franciscan communities in the Roman Catholic church and the Anglican (or Episcopalian) churches.有方濟各社區在羅馬天主教會和聖公會(或聖公會)教堂。

The English philosopher and scientist Roger Bacon was a Franciscan, as were the philosopher - theologians Duns Scotus and William of Occam.英國哲學家和科學家培根羅傑是一個方濟一樣,哲學家-神學鄧司各脫和奧卡姆的威廉。 Other famous Franciscans include Saint Anthony of Padua; two Renaissance popes, Sixtus IV and Sixtus V; and Junipero Serra, the founder of the California missions.其他著名的方濟包括聖安東尼的帕多瓦;兩個文藝復興時期的教皇,西斯四和西斯五;和Junipero塞拉的創始人,美國加州任務。

Cyprian Davis塞浦路斯戴維斯

Bibliography 目錄
MD Lambert, Franciscan Poverty: The Doctrine of the Absolute Poverty of Christ and the Apostles in the Franciscan Order, 1210 - 1323 (1961); JR Moorman, A History of the Franciscan Order From Its Origins to the Year 1517 (1968); W Short, The Franciscans (1989).醫學蘭伯特,濟貧困:中庸絕對貧困的基督和使徒的濟秩序, 1210年至1323年( 1961年) ;乘坐JR摩爾曼,史濟命令,它的起源到1517 ( 1968年) ; W總之,方濟( 1989年) 。


Franciscans

Friars Minor天主教方濟會

General Information 一般信息

Franciscans or Order of Friars Minor, is a religious order founded, probably in 1208, by Saint Francis of Assisi and approved by Pope Innocent III in 1209.方濟會或訂購天主教方濟會,是一個宗教秩序成立,很可能在1208年,由聖方濟各並批准了諾森三世在1209年。 After devoting himself to a life of preaching, service, and poverty, Francis gathered around him a band of 12 disciples.在投入自己生活的說教,服務和貧困,弗朗西斯在他周圍聚集帶12個弟子。 He led them from Assisi to Rome to ask for the blessing of the pope, who expressed doubt about the practicability of the way of life that the group proposed to adopt.他帶領他們到羅馬阿西西要求的祝福教宗,誰表示懷疑的實用性的生活方式,該集團提議通過。 Pope Innocent gave them his blessing, however, on condition that they become clerics and elect a superior.諾森他給他們祝福,但條件是他們必須成為神職人員和選出一個優越。 Francis was elected superior and the group returned to Assisi, where they obtained from the Benedictine abbey on Mount Subasio the use of the little chapel of Santa Maria degli Angeli, around which they constructed huts of branches.弗朗西斯被選為上級和小組返回阿西西,他們在那裡獲得本篤修道院山Subasio使用的小教堂的聖母瑪利亞天使教堂,他們周圍建造茅屋的分支機構。 Then, in imitation of Christ, they began a life of itinerant preaching and voluntary poverty.然後,在模仿基督,他們開始生活的巡迴宣講和自願的貧困。

At this time the brotherhood lacked formal organization and a novitiate, but as the disciples increased and their teaching spread, it became obvious that the example of Francis would not suffice to enforce discipline among the friars.此時的兄弟情誼缺乏正式的組織和見習,但作為弟子增加,其教學蔓延,很明顯的例子,弗朗西斯將不足以執紀之間的修士。 In 1223 Pope Honorius III issued a bull that constituted the Friars Minor a formal order and instituted a one-year novitiate.在1223年何諾三發表了牛市構成的天主教方濟會的正式秩序,並制定了為期一年的見習。

Following the death of Francis in 1226, the convent and basilica at Assisi were built.去世後弗朗西斯在1226年,修道院和教堂在阿西西建成。 Their magnificence disturbed some, who believed it inconsistent with Francis's ideals of poverty.其壯麗的一些不安,誰認為它不符合弗朗西斯的理想貧困。 After much dissension, Pope Gregory IX decreed that moneys could be held by elected trustees of the order and that the building of convents was not contrary to the intentions of the founder.經過大量糾紛,教皇格里高利九頒布法令,款項可以舉行由受託人選出的命令,並建立修道院是不違背的意圖創始人。

As time passed, the order grew, the only body of equal power being the Dominicans.隨著時間的推移,該命令增長,唯一的機構平等權力是多米尼加。 The Franciscans, however, became fractionalized, and in 1517 Pope Leo X divided the order into two bodies, the Conventuals, who were allowed corporate property, as were other monastic orders, and the Observants, who sought to follow the precepts of Francis as closely as possible.方濟然而,成為fractionalized ,並在1517年教宗里奧十世的順序分為兩個機構, Conventuals ,誰被允許企業財產,其他寺院的訂單,以及Observants ,誰試圖按照戒律密切弗朗西斯盡可能。 The Observants have ever since been the larger branch, and early in the 16th century a third body, the Capuchins, was organized out of it and made independent.該Observants以往一直較大的分支,早在16世紀的第三機構, Capuchins ,是有組織的,並取得獨立。 At the end of the 19th century Leo XIII grouped these three bodies together as the First Order of Friars Minor, designating the nuns known as Poor Clares as the Second Order, and the tertiaries, men and women living in secular society without celibacy, as the Third Order.在19世紀末利奧十三世分為這三個機構共同作為第一順序天主教方濟會,指定尼姑被稱為窮國Clares的二階和tertiaries ,男人和女人生活在世俗社會沒有獨身,因為三階。

In addition to their preaching and charitable work, the Franciscans have been noted for their devotion to learning.除了他們的說教和慈善工作,濟已注意到他們的獻身精神學習。 Before the Reformation in England they held many positions in the universities, prominent among the professors being John Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, and Roger Bacon.改革前,他們在英格蘭舉行的許多職位的大學,著名的教授正在約翰鄧司各脫,奧卡姆的威廉,和羅傑培根。 The order has produced four popes - Sixtus IV, Julius II, Sixtus V, and Clement XIV - and one antipope, Alexander V.該命令產生了四個教皇-西斯四,朱利葉斯二世,西斯五,第十四和克萊門特-和一個對立教皇亞歷山大五

On his first voyage to the New World, Christopher Columbus was accompanied by a group of Franciscans.在他的第一次航行到新大陸,哥倫布的同時,一組方濟。 The first convents in America were established by Franciscans, at Santo Domingo and La Vega in what is now the Dominican Republic.第一個修道院在美國設立了方濟會,在聖多明各和德拉維加在現在的多米尼加共和國。 The rapid conversion of the Native Americans and the consequent enthusiasm of the missionary-minded in Spain led to the further spread of the order in the West Indies; before 1505, Ferdinand V, king of Castile, found it necessary to issue a decree that new convents should be placed at least five leagues apart.快速轉換的土著美國人,因而熱情的傳教士想法在西班牙導致進一步蔓延秩序西印度群島;在1505年,費迪南德五,卡斯蒂利亞國王,發現有必要把問題一項法令,新修道院應至少有五名聯賽四分五裂。 While the Spanish Franciscans gradually spread through the southern part of the New World as far as the Pacific Ocean, the French friars, who had arrived in Canada in 1615, at the behest of the French explorer Samuel de Champlain, set up missions throughout the north.雖然西班牙方濟會逐漸傳播到南部的新世界而言,太平洋,法國修士,誰已抵達加拿大在1615年,在遺志,法國探險家塞繆爾德尚普蘭,建立特派團整個北部。 Today the Franciscans conduct a university and five colleges in the US, and a seminary, in Allegheny, New York. They also engage in regular parish work, as well as mission work among the Native Americans.今天進行的方濟各大學和5個學院中美國和神學院,在阿勒格尼,紐約。他們還經常從事教區工作,以及工作任務之間的土著美國人。

The supreme government of the order is vested in an elective general, resident at the General Motherhouse, in Rome.最高政府的命令是由選修一般來說,居民一般Motherhouse ,在羅馬舉行。 Subordinate are the provincials, who preside over all the brethren in a province, and the custodes, or guardians (never called abbots, as are their counterparts in other orders), at the head of a single community or convent.部屬是provincials ,誰主持所有的兄弟省,和custodes ,或監護人(從來沒有所謂的abbots ,因為是他們在其他命令) ,在頭一個單一的社區或修道院。 These officers are elected for a period of two years.這些人員由選舉產生,任期兩年。

In the eary 20th century a number of Franciscan communities for both men and women were established by various Anglican churches.在20世紀早期的一些方濟各社區為男性和女性設立了各種聖公會教堂。 The most prominent of these is the Society of Saint Francis in Cerne Abbas, Dorset, England, which maintains several houses in the British Isles and in New Guinea.最突出的是學會在聖弗朗西斯Cerne阿巴斯,多塞特,英格蘭,保持幾所房屋中的不列顛群島和巴布亞新幾內亞。 In 1967 a similar group in the United States was united with these English friars. 1967年,一個類似的小組在美國是聯合國與這些英文修士。


Saint Francis of Assisi聖方濟各

General Information 一般信息

Saint Francis of Assisi (1182-1226), was an Italian mystic and preacher, who founded the Franciscans.聖方濟各( 1182年至1226年) ,是意大利的神秘和佈道者,誰創立了方濟。 Born in Assisi, Italy and originally named Giovanni Francesco Bernardone, he appears to have received little formal education, even though his father was a wealthy merchant. As a young man, Francis led a worldly, carefree life.出生在意大利阿西西和原名喬萬尼弗朗切斯科Bernardone ,他似乎很少得到正規教育的,即使他的父親是一個富商。作為一個年輕的男子,弗朗西斯率領一個世俗的,無憂無慮的生活。 Following a battle between Assisi and Perugia, he was held captive in Perugia for over a year.之後的戰鬥阿西西和佩魯賈,他被關押在佩魯賈了一年多。 While imprisoned, he suffered a severe illness during which he resolved to alter his way of life.雖然被囚禁,他遭受了嚴重的疾病在此期間,他決心改變他的生活方式。 Back in Assisi in 1205, he performed charities among the lepers and began working on the restoration of dilapidated churches. Francis's change of character and his expenditures for charity angered his father, who legally disinherited him. Francis then discarded his rich garments for a bishop's cloak and devoted the next three years to the care of outcasts and lepers in the woods of Mount Subasio.早在阿西西在1205年,他完成的慈善事業之間的麻風病人,並開始著手恢復破舊不堪的教堂。 弗朗西斯的變化特徵和他的支出為慈善激怒了他的父親,誰合法剝奪他。弗朗西斯然後拋棄他豐富的服裝為主教的外衣並投入了今後三年的照顧棄兒和麻風病人在樹林山Subasio 。

For his devotions on Mount Subasio, Francis restored the ruined chapel of Santa Maria degli Angeli. In 1208, one day during Mass, he heard a call telling him to go out into the world and, according to the text of Matthew 10:5-14, to possess nothing, but to do good everywhere. Upon returning to Assisi that same year, Francis began preaching.他devotions山Subasio ,弗朗西斯恢復被破壞的教堂聖瑪利亞天使教堂。 在1208 ,有一天在地下,他聽到電話告訴他走出去融入世界,並根據文本馬修10點05分- 14日,擁有什麼,而是要做好無處不在。回國後到阿西西同一年,弗朗西斯開始說教。 He gathered round him the 12 disciples who became the original brothers of his order, later called the First Order; they elected Francis superior.他收集到他周圍的12個徒弟誰成為原來的兄弟他的命令,後來一階;他們選出的弗朗西斯優越。 In 1212 he received a young, well-born nun of Assisi, Clare, into Franciscan fellowship; through her was established the Order of the Poor Ladies (the Poor Clares), later the Second Order of Franciscans.在1212年他獲得了年輕人,以及出生的尼姑的阿西西,克萊爾,到濟金;通過她的成立令可憐的女子(窮人Clares ) ,後來二階方濟。 It was probably later in 1212 that Francis set out for the Holy Land, but a shipwreck forced him to return.這可能是後來在1212年的弗朗西斯訂出的聖地,但沉船迫使他返回。 Other difficulties prevented him from accomplishing much missionary work when he went to Spain to preach to the Moors.其他方面的困難使他無法完成的傳教工作時,他到西班牙鼓吹的摩爾。 In 1219 he was in Egypt, where he succeeded in preaching to, but not in converting, the sultan.在1219年,他在埃及,他成功地說教,而不是在轉換,蘇丹。 Francis then went on to the Holy Land, staying there until 1220. He wished to be martyred and rejoiced upon hearing that five Franciscan friars had been killed in Morocco while carrying out their duties. On his return home he found dissension in the ranks of the friars and resigned as superior, spending the next few years in planning what became the Third Order of Franciscans, the tertiaries.弗朗西斯接著聖地,那裡停留,直到1220 。 他希望犧牲,高興地聽到,五個濟修士被打死,而在摩洛哥履行其職責。他回家,他發現糾紛中的行列修士和辭去優越,開支在未來幾年的規劃是成為三階的方濟會的tertiaries 。

In September 1224, after 40 days of fasting, Francis was praying upon Monte Alverno when he felt pain mingled with joy, and the marks of the crucifixion of Christ, the stigmata, appeared on his body. Accounts of the appearance of these marks differ, but it seems probable that they were knobby protuberances of the flesh, resembling the heads of nails. 在1224年9月,經過40天的絕食,弗朗西斯祈禱蒙Alverno時,他感到疼痛夾雜著歡樂和標誌的十字架的基督,傷,出現在他的身體。帳目出現這些商標不同,但似乎有可能,他們knobby突起的肉,類似的負責人指甲。 Francis was carried back to Assisi, where his remaining years were marked by physical pain and almost total blindness. He was canonized in 1228.弗朗西斯進行回阿西西,他的剩餘年份的特點和身體疼痛幾乎完全失明。冊封他是在1228年。 In 1980, Pope John Paul II proclaimed him the patron saint of ecologists.在1980年,教皇約翰保羅二世宣布他的守護神生態學家。 In art, the emblems of St. Francis are the wolf, the lamb, the fish, birds, and the stigmata.在藝術,標誌的聖弗朗西斯是狼,羔羊,魚,鳥,和傷。 His feast day is October 4.他的盛宴一天是10月4日。

Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh牧師西奧多米Hesburgh


Franciscan Order濟秩序

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Franciscan Order is one of four thirteenth century orders of mendicant (begging) friars (Franciscan, Dominican, Carmelite, Augustinian) established to meet the urgent challenge of spiritual decline, urban growth, and the rapid spread of heresy (especially in southern France and northern Italy).濟秩序的是一個13世紀四個訂單乞丐(乞丐)修士(濟,多米尼加,加爾默羅,奧古斯丁)設立,以滿足緊迫的挑戰精神下降,城市發展,並迅速蔓延的異端(尤其是在法國南部和意大利北部地區) 。 It was founded by Francis of Assisi and formally approved by Innocent III in 1210.它是由方濟各,並正式批准了無辜的第三1210 。 Unlike earlier monasticism, the friars lived active lives within the world as preachers and ministers to the needy.不像以前修道的修士生活活躍的生活在世界的傳教士和部長們有需要的人士。

Francis' deep suspicion of formal organization and learning and his extreme view of proverty (even physical contact with money was to be avoided) became the center of bitter conflicts within the Order.弗朗西斯的根深蒂固的懷疑正式的組織和學習他的極端觀點proverty (即使身體接觸錢是要避免) ,成為中心的激烈衝突的命令。 Early on, tension arose between the Zealots, who advocated strict observance of the founder's rule, and those factions (the Laxists, the Community) who favored various accommodations to reality.早期之間出現緊張局勢的狂熱,誰主張嚴格遵守創始人的規則,這些派別(在Laxists ,社區)誰主張各種住宿現實。 Under papal auspices the Order was fully organized by 1240 as one international body with only clerics eligible for office (another departure from the spirit of Francis, who favored laity), and provision was made for property to be held in trusteeship to get around the prohibition against ownership. During the years 1257-74 tensions abated under the conciliatory minister general Bonaventure, who established a moderate balance between structure and vitality.羅馬教皇主持下的命令是完全舉辦的1240年作為一個國際機構,只有神職人員資格辦公室(另一個背離的精神,弗朗西斯,誰喜歡俗人) ,並規定了財產被關押在託管繞過禁止對所有權。年期間減少1257至1274年的緊張局勢的調解下一般文德部長,誰建立了一個溫和的平衡結構和活力。 As an outstanding scholar, he also represented the increasing influx of Franciscans into the world of learning within the urban-based universities.作為一個傑出的學者,他也派代表出席了越來越多湧入的方濟各融入世界學習的城市為基礎的大學。

Following the death of Bonaventure a bitter debate ensued over the nature of apostolic proverty.去世後博納旺的痛苦辯論的性質使徒proverty 。 The extreme view of the Spirituals (formerly the Zealots) was rejected by Pope John XXII, who in 1322 officially approved corporate ownership of property, arguing that Christ and the apostles as leaders of the church had owned property. Spirituals who fled became known as Fraticelli.這種極端的意見, Spirituals (以前的狂熱)被否決教皇約翰二十二,誰在1322年正式批准的企業財產的所有權,認為基督和使徒的領導人教會了國有財產。 Spirituals誰逃離被稱為Fraticelli 。 Even outstanding figures such as the minister general Michael of Cesena and William of Ockham went into exile and denounced the pope.即使是傑出人物,如一般部長邁克爾的切塞納和奧卡姆的威廉流亡到,並譴責教宗。

Difficult conditions of plague, warfare, and papal schism during the century and a half before the Reformation led to a general decline within the Order, but another movement for restoration of the strict rule emerged, the Observants.困難的條件下鼠疫,戰爭,分裂和教皇在一個半世紀前的改革導致了普遍下降的命令,但另一個運動恢復嚴格的規則出現的Observants 。 They were opposed by the more moderate Conventuals, who preferred urban residence to remote hermitages. Failure to unite these factions led Pope Leo X in 1517 to officially separate the Order into two independent branches, the Friars Minor of the Regular Observants (strict) and the Friars Minor Conventuals (moderate).他們反對的比較溫和的Conventuals ,誰首選城市居住偏遠祕境。不團結導致這些派別教皇利奧X在1517年正式獨立勳章分為兩個獨立的部門,在天主教方濟會經常Observants (嚴格)和天主教方濟會Conventuals (中度) 。 Given their reforming instincts, the Observants soon divided into several factions, Discalced (shoeless), Rocollects, Reformed, and Capuchins (pointed cowl).鑑於其改革的本能,在Observants很快分成幾個派別, Discalced ( shoeless ) , Rocollects ,改革, Capuchins (指出整流罩) 。 The latter played a significant role in the Counter-Reformation and by 1619 had gained complete autonomy.後者中發揮了重要作用的反宗教改革和1619年獲得了完全的自主權。 Again, internal division and the external challenge of the Enlightenment and revolutionary Europe weakened the Order until mounting pressure led Pope Leo XIII in 1897 to unite all Observant branches (except the Capuchins, who retained their independence).再次,內部分裂和外部的挑戰和革命的啟示歐洲削弱了秩序,直到越來越大的壓力導致教皇利奧十三世於1897年,以團結一切觀察力分行(除Capuchins ,誰保留其獨立性) 。

Alongside the Order of Friars Minor, with the three independent branches of Observants, Conventuals, and Capuchins, there emerged two other Franciscan Orders, the Second Order of nuns (Poor Clares), founded by Francis and his follower Clare in 1212, and the Third Order (Tertiaries) of mainly lay persons.除了令天主教方濟會,與三個獨立分行Observants , Conventuals ,並Capuchins ,出現了其他兩個濟訂單,二階修女(標準普爾Clares )成立弗朗西斯和他的追隨者克萊爾在1212年,第三次令( Tertiaries )主要在於人。

The Franciscans, along with their rivals the Dominicans, represented a new spiritual force within the thirteenth century church.方濟會,連同他們的對手多米尼加,代表了一種新的精神力量在13世紀教堂。 As advocates of the simpler apostolic life of poverty and preaching, they struck a responsive chord among the growing number of townspeople who had become alienated from the monastic and hierarchical establishment. Nonetheless, instead of becoming rebellious heretics, the friars were obedient servants of the established church.作為倡導者簡單使徒生活的貧困和說教,他們一個共鳴之間的越來越多的居民誰已成為遠離寺院和分級建立。儘管如此,而不是成為叛逆的異端的修士是聽話的公務員設立教堂。 Like the town, the university became a major focus of their activity as they sought to prepare intellectually for their worldwide mission, confronting infidel, heretic, and indifferent alike with the truth of Christianity. Virtually every outstanding scholar of that age was a friar, including Bonaventure, John Duns Scotus, and William of Ockham among the Franciscans.鎮一樣,成為大學的一個主要重點活動為他們準備尋求智力的全球使命,面臨的異教徒,異教徒,並且都漠不關心的真相基督教。幾乎每一個傑出的學者,年齡是一個修士,包括博納旺,約翰鄧司各脫,並奧卡姆的威廉之間的方濟會。 Contrary to the spirit of Francis, however, the Order became aggressively associated with the repressive Inquisition and the anti-Jewish activities of the Western church during its effort to consolidate Christian society.相反,精神的弗朗西斯,然而,令成為積極與鎮壓宗教裁判所和反猶太人活動的西方教會在努力鞏固基督教社會。

RK Bishop公園主教
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
R. Brooke, The Coming of the Friars; J. Cohen, The Friars and the Jews; L. Little, Religious Poverty and the Profit Economy in Medieval Europe; J. Moorman, A History of the Franciscan Order from Its Origin to the Year 1517.河祺,即將到來的天主教方濟會;學者科恩的天主教方濟會和猶太人;屬小,宗教貧困和經濟利潤歐洲中世紀;學者摩爾曼,史濟命令從它的起源到1517 。


Francis of Assisi方濟各

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(1182-1226) ( 1182年至1226年)

Francis of Assisi was the universally admired founder of the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans).方濟各是普遍敬佩的創始人秩序的天主教方濟會(濟) 。 Born Francesco Bernardone, son of a wealthy cloth merchant from Assisi, he was a popular, high-spirited youth, much inspired by chivalric ideals of the troubador and the knight.弗朗切斯科Bernardone出生的兒子,一個富裕的商人從布阿西西,他是一個受歡迎,昂揚的青年,很多靈感來自騎士理想的troubador和騎士。 In his early twenties he experienced a gradual but profound religious conversion, expressed in a number of dramatic gestures such as the exchanging of clothes with a beggar and kissing the diseased hand of a leper.在他二十歲出頭,他經歷了一個漸進的,但深刻的宗教轉換,表達了一些戲劇性的姿態,如交換衣服的乞丐和接吻病的手一個台階。 After he had sold family merchandise in order to rebuild a local church, his enraged father, disgusted by the son's unworldly instincts, brought him to judgment before the bishop's court.後,他出售了家族的商品,以重建當地的教堂,他憤怒的父親,厭惡兒子的unworldly本能,使他作出判斷前,主教的法院。 Here Francis freely renounced his inheritance and, in a memorable act, stripped off his clothes as well to signify total abandonment to God.弗朗西斯在這裡自由地放棄他的繼承權,並在一個難忘的行為,剝奪了他的衣服也意味著徹底放棄對上帝。

Francis spent the next several years living as a hermit in the vicinity of Assisi, ministering to the needy, repairing churches, and attracting a small band of followers to his simple rule.弗朗西斯度過了未來幾年的生活作為一個隱士附近的阿西西, ministering向有需要的,修復教堂,並吸引了小樂隊的追隨者對他簡單的規則。 Pope Innocent III's approval of the fledgling order in 1210 was a major triumph; rather than being rejected as yet another threatening, heretical movement, the "little brothers" were embraced as a powerful current of reform within the established church.諾森三世的批准以便在羽翼未豐1210是一個重大的勝利,而不是被拒絕的又一威脅,邪教運動, “小兄弟”被接受成為一個強大的電流,內部的改革設立教堂。

Following a preaching mission in the Islamic East (including a remarkable audience with the sultan in Egypt), Francis returned home in 1219 to face a crisis.經過鼓吹的任務在伊斯蘭地區(包括顯著觀眾與蘇丹在埃及) ,弗朗西斯回家在1219年將面臨危機。 The movement now numbered some five thousand adherents, and pressure was mounting to establish a more formal organization.該運動現在約有5000信徒和壓力越來越多,建立一個更加正式的組織。 Distressed by this drift away from earlier spontaneity and simplicity, Francis increasingly withdrew to live out his mission by personal example.感到不安的這一漂離早先的自發性和簡潔,弗朗西斯越來越多地撤回了他的生活使命個人的例子。 Intense meditation on the suffering of Christ led to the famous experience of the stigmata, signs in his own flesh of the wounds of his Master.激烈的冥想的苦難耶穌基督導致著名的經驗傷,標誌在自己的肉體的創傷,他的主人。 And although he was more a preacher than a writer, in 1223 he completed a second rule (adapted as the official Rule of the Order) and about 1224 his most famous piece, "Canticle of the Sun," a paean of praise for God and his creation.雖然他更是一個佈道者比一個作家,在1223年,他完成了第二條規則(改編為正式規則的命令)和1224年他最著名的作品, “頌歌的太陽”的讚歌讚揚上帝他的創作。 Ill and nearly blind, he was finally brought back to Assisi from his remote hermitage and died on October 3, 1226.虐待和近盲,他終於被運回他的阿西西遠程草庵和死於1226年十月3日。 He was canonized by his friend Gregory IX in 1228, and his body was soon moved to the newly constructed basilica bearing his name.他被冊封了他的朋友格里高利在1228年九,他的屍體很快被轉移到新建成的教堂同時他的名字。

The key to Francis's life was his uncompromising attempt to imitate Christ of the Gospels through absolute poverty, humility, and simplicity.關鍵弗朗西斯的生活是他的不妥協的企圖模仿基督的福音通過絕對貧困,謙遜,和簡單。 He loved nature as God's good handiwork and had a deep respect for women (such as his beloved mother and Clare, his follower). At the same time, his willing obedience to the papacy and the priesthood allowed them to embrace this otherwise radical reformer and saint.他熱愛大自然上帝的好手藝和深切尊重婦女(如他心愛的母親和克萊爾,他的追隨者) 。與此同時,他願意服從教皇和神父讓他們接受這一另有激進的改革者,聖。

RK Bishop公園主教
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
M. Bishop, St. Francis of Assisi; L. Cunningham, St. Francis of Assisi; O. Englebert, Saint Francis of Assisi; A. Fortini, Francis of Assisi; JH Smith, Francis of Assisi.先生主教,聖方濟各;屬漢,聖方濟各;我國昂格勒貝,聖方濟各的A. Fortini ,方濟各;紅史密斯,方濟各。


St. Francis of Assisi聖方濟各

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Founder of the Franciscan Order, born at Assisi in Umbria, in 1181 or 1182 -- the exact year is uncertain; died there, 3 October, 1226. His father, Pietro Bernardone, was a wealthy Assisian cloth merchant.方正的濟秩序,出生在阿西西在翁布里亞,在1181年或1182年-確切的一年是不確定的;死亡, 1 226年十月三日。他的父親彼得B ernardone,是一個富裕的商人A ssisian布。 Of his mother, Pica, little is known, but she is said to have belonged to a noble family of Provence.他的母親,喜鵲,幾乎眾所周知,但她說,屬於一個貴族家庭的普羅旺斯。 Francis was one of several children.弗朗西斯是幾個孩子。 The legend that he was born in a stable dates from the fifteenth century only, and appears to have originated in the desire of certain writers to make his life resemble that of Christ.據傳說,他出生在一個穩定的日期從15世紀只,並似乎起源於慾望的某些作家,使他的生活相似的基督。 At baptism the saint received the name of Giovanni, which his father afterwards altered to Francesco, through fondness it would seem for France, whither business had led him at the time of his son's birth.在洗禮的聖收到的名稱喬瓦尼,這以後他的父親弗朗切斯科改變,通過喜愛似乎法國,何處業務使他的時候他兒子的出生。 In any case, since the child was renamed in infancy, the change can hardly have had anything to do with his aptitude for learning French, as some have thought.在任何情況下,自改名為兒童在嬰兒期,這種變化就很難有任何與他的性向學習法語,如一些人所想。

Francis received some elementary instruction from the priests of St. George's at Assisi, though he learned more perhaps in the school of the Troubadours, who were just then making for refinement in Italy.弗朗西斯獲得了一些基本的指示祭司的聖喬治在阿西西,但他學到更多的也許是在學校的Troubadours ,誰只是當時決策的完善,意大利。 However this may be, he was not very studious, and his literary education remained incomplete.然而,這可能是,他不是很用功,他的文學教育是不完整的。 Although associated with his father in trade, he showed little liking for a merchant's career, and his parents seemed to have indulged his every whim.雖然與他的父親在貿易,他不大喜歡商人的職業生涯,以及他的父母似乎有縱容他的每一次心血來潮。 Thomas of Celano, his first biographer, speaks in very severe terms of Francis's youth. Certain it is that the saint's early life gave no presage of the golden years that were to come.托馬斯的作品,他的第一個傳記,講的非常嚴重的弗朗西斯的青年。某些那就是聖早期的生活沒有預兆的金色來了來。 No one loved pleasure more than Francis; he had a ready wit, sang merrily, delighted in fine clothes and showy display.沒有人喜歡高興弗朗西斯以上;他有一個準備機智,唱愉快,高興的漂亮衣服和華麗的展示。 Handsome, gay, gallant, and courteous, he soon became the prime favourite among the young nobles of Assisi, the foremost in every feat of arms, the leader of the civil revels, the very king of frolic.英俊的同性戀,勇敢,有禮,他很快成為總理喜愛的青年貴族阿西西,最主要的在每一個壯舉的武器,領導人的民間狂歡,非常國王嬉戲。 But even at this time Francis showed an instinctive sympathy with the poor, and though he spent money lavishly, it still flowed in such channels as to attest a princely magnanimity of spirit. When about twenty, Francis went out with the townsmen to fight the Perugians in one of the petty skirmishes so frequent at that time between the rival cities. The Assisians were defeated on this occasion, and Francis, being among those taken prisoners, was held captive for more than a year in Perugia.但是,即使在這個時候弗朗西斯表現出本能的同情窮人,但他花錢大方,但它仍然流入等渠道來證明一王侯寬宏大量的精神。大約20時,弗朗西斯出去的鄉親打擊Perugians在一個輕微的小規模戰鬥如此頻繁,當時的競爭對手之間的城市。的Assisians被打敗在此之際,和弗朗西斯,正在採取的這些囚犯,被關押了一年多在佩魯賈。 A low fever which he there contracted appears to have turned his thoughts to the things of eternity; at least the emptiness of the life he had been leading came to him during that long illness.低發熱,他有合同似乎已經變成他的思想的東西的永恆;至少在空虛的生活,他已經領先了他在這一長期患病。 With returning health, however, Francis's eagerness after glory reawakened and his fancy wandered in search of victories; at length he resolved to embrace a military career, and circumstances seemed to favour his aspirations.在返回的健康,但是,弗朗西斯的願望後,重新喚起光榮和他的花式徘徊在搜索的勝利;在長度,他決心接受軍事生涯中,和情節似乎贊成他的願望。 A knight of Assisi was about to join "the gentle count", Walter of Brienne, who was then in arms in the Neapolitan States against the emperor, and Francis arranged to accompany him.騎士阿西西即將加入“溫柔伯爵” ,沃爾特的Brienne ,誰當時在武器在那不勒斯國家天皇,和弗朗西斯安排陪他。 His biographers tell us that the night before Francis set forth he had a strange dream, in which he saw a vast hall hung with armour all marked with the Cross.他的傳記作家告訴我們,弗朗西斯的前一天晚上,他提出了一個奇怪的夢,他在信中看到了巨大的大廳掛著盔甲所有標有交叉。 "These", said a voice, "are for you and your soldiers." “這些” ,一個聲音說, “是你和你的士兵。 ” "I know I shall be a great prince", exclaimed Francis exultingly, as he started for Apulia. “我知道我應是一個偉大的王子”弗朗西斯exultingly喊道,他開始阿普利亞。 But a second illness arrested his course at Spoleto. There, we are told, Francis had another dream in which the same voice bade him turn back to Assisi.但是,第二個疾病逮捕他的課程斯波萊托。這裡,我們被告知,弗朗西斯了另一個夢想,即同一聲音叫他回頭向阿西西。 He did so at once.他這樣做一次。 This was in 1205.這是1205 。

Although Francis still joined at times in the noisy revels of his former comrades, his changed demeanour plainly showed that his heart was no longer with them; a yearning for the life of the spirit had already possessed it.雖然弗朗西斯仍然加入有時在嘈雜的狂歡他的前戰友,他的行為舉止明顯變化表明,他的心臟已不再與他們渴望生命的精神已經擁有它。 His companions twitted Francis on his absent-mindedness and asked if he were minded to be married.他的同伴弗朗西斯twitted他心不在焉,並問他是否有想法要結婚了。 "Yes", he replied, "I am about to take a wife of surpassing fairness." “是” ,他回答說, “我將要採取的妻子的超越公平。 ” She was no other than Lady Poverty whom Dante and Giotto have wedded to his name, and whom even now he had begun to love.她是比任何其他人夫人貧困但丁和喬托已拘泥於他的名字,和他們即使是現在,他已經開始的愛。 After a short period of uncertainty he began to seek in prayer and solitude the answer to his call; he had already given up his gay attire and wasteful ways.經過短期內的不確定性,他開始尋求在祈禱和孤獨的答案他的呼籲,他已經放棄了同性戀的服裝和浪費的方式。 One day, while crossing the Umbrian plain on horseback, Francis unexpectedly drew near a poor leper.有一天,在穿越平原的翁布里亞馬背上,弗朗西斯意外地走近一個貧窮台階。 The sudden appearance of this repulsive object filled him with disgust and he instinctively retreated, but presently controlling his natural aversion he dismounted, embraced the unfortunate man, and gave him all the money he had. About the same time Francis made a pilgrimage to Rome.突然出現的這一醜惡對象填補他的厭惡,他本能地後退,但他目前控制的自然厭惡,他翻身下馬,接受了不幸的人,給了他所有的錢他。大約在同一時間弗朗西斯朝聖羅馬。 Pained at the miserly offerings he saw at the tomb of St. Peter, he emptied his purse thereon.心疼產品的吝嗇他看到的陵墓聖彼得,他掏空了錢包就此。 Then, as if to put his fastidious nature to the test, he exchanged clothes with a tattered mendicant and stood for the rest of the day fasting among the horde of beggars at the door of the basilica.然後,如果把他的挑剔性的考驗,他的衣服交換了衣衫襤褸的乞丐,站在其餘的每天空腹部落之間的乞丐在門口的大殿。

Not long after his return to Assisi, whilst Francis was praying before an ancient crucifix in the forsaken wayside chapel of St. Damian's below the town, he heard a voice saying: "Go, Francis, and repair my house, which as you see is falling into ruin."不久他返回阿西西,而弗朗西斯是祈禱前一個古老的十字架在教堂拋棄路旁的聖達米安低於鎮,他聽到一個聲音說: “去吧,弗朗西斯和維修我的房子,這正如你看到的是落入毀滅。 “ Taking this behest literally, as referring to the ruinous church wherein he knelt, Francis went to his father's shop, impulsively bundled together a load of coloured drapery, and mounting his horse hastened to Foligno, then a mart of some importance, and there sold both horse and stuff to procure the money needful for the restoration of St. Damian's.考慮到這一遺志字面上看,它是指教堂的毀滅性,他跪在其中,弗朗西斯到他父親的商店,衝動地捆綁在一起的負荷彩色布料,並安裝他的馬趕緊福利尼奧,然後買了一些重要的,而且都賣出馬和東西採購必需的資金,為恢復聖達米安的。 When, however, the poor priest who officiated there refused to receive the gold thus gotten, Francis flung it from him disdainfully.當然而,窮人的神父誰主持有拒絕接受這樣的黃金得到弗朗西斯邊遠從他的輕蔑。 The elder Bernardone, a most niggardly man, was incensed beyond measure at his son's conduct, and Francis, to avert his father's wrath, hid himself in a cave near St. Damian's for a whole month.老Bernardone ,最吝嗇的人,是無法衡量憤怒在他兒子的行為,和弗朗西斯,以避免他父親的憤怒,躲在附近的一個洞穴聖達米安的整整一個月。 When he emerged from this place of concealment and returned to the town, emaciated with hunger and squalid with dirt, Francis was followed by a hooting rabble, pelted with mud and stones, and otherwise mocked as a madman.當他走出這個地方的隱瞞和返回鎮,瘦弱與飢餓和骯髒的泥土,弗朗西斯之後,倒彩烏合之眾,投擲泥土和石塊,否則嘲笑為一個瘋子。 Finally, he was dragged home by his father, beaten, bound, and locked in a dark closet.最後,他拖回家的父親,毆打,捆綁,鎖在黑暗的壁櫥裡。

Freed by his mother during Bernardone's absence, Francis returned at once to St. Damian's, where he found a shelter with the officiating priest, but he was soon cited before the city consuls by his father.釋放他的母親在Bernardone的缺席,弗朗西斯再次返回聖達米安的,他在那裡發現了住房的主祭司,但他很快被提到城市面前的領事由他的父親。 The latter, not content with having recovered the scattered gold from St. Damian's, sought also to force his son to forego his inheritance.後者,而不是內容,而恢復了從分散的黃金聖達米安的,要求也迫使他的兒子放棄他的繼承權。 This Francis was only too eager to do; he declared, however, that since he had entered the service of God he was no longer under civil jurisdiction.這是弗朗西斯太急於這樣做,他宣布,但是,因為他已經進入了服務的上帝,他不再根據民事管轄權。 Having therefore been taken before the bishop, Francis stripped himself of the very clothes he wore, and gave them to his father, saying: "Hitherto I have called you my father on earth; henceforth I desire to say only 'Our Father who art in Heaven.'" Then and there, as Dante sings, were solemnized Francis's nuptials with his beloved spouse, the Lady Poverty, under which name, in the mystical language afterwards so familiar to him, he comprehended the total surrender of all worldly goods, honours, and privileges. And now Francis wandered forth into the hills behind Assisi, improvising hymns of praise as he went.因此,在已經採取的主教之前,弗朗西斯剝奪本人非常他穿的衣服,並給他們以他的父親,他說: “迄今為止,我呼籲你我的父親在地球上;今後我希望只說'我們的父親誰藝術天堂' 。 “接著有,如但丁唱,被solemnized弗朗西斯的婚禮與他心愛的配偶,貧窮的夫人,根據這一名稱,在隨後神秘的語言,以便熟悉他,他理解的總交出所有世俗的物品,榮譽,和特權。現在弗朗西斯來回遊蕩到後面的山丘阿西西,即興讚美詩讚美他的去向。 "I am the herald of the great King", he declared in answer to some robbers, who thereupon despoiled him of all he had and threw him scornfully in a snow drift. “我的先驅偉大的國王” ,他宣布在回答一些強盜,誰隨即掠奪他的一切,他和他輕蔑地扔在雪地漂移。 Naked and half frozen, Francis crawled to a neighbouring monastery and there worked for a time as a scullion.裸體和半凍結,弗朗西斯檢索到鄰國的修道院裡有工作了一段時間作為一個scullion 。 At Gubbio, whither he went next, Francis obtained from a friend the cloak, girdle, and staff of a pilgrim as an alms.在古比奧,他去何處旁邊,弗朗西斯從一個朋友的披風,腰帶,和工作人員的朝聖作為施捨。 Returning to Assisi, he traversed the city begging stones for the restoration of St. Damian's.返回阿西西,他走過的城市乞討石塊,以恢復聖達米安的。 These he carried to the old chapel, set in place himself, and so at length rebuilt it.這些,他進行的老教堂,制定自己,所以在長度重建它。 In the same way Francis afterwards restored two other deserted chapels, St. Peter's, some distance from the city, and St. Mary of the Angels, in the plain below it, at a spot called the Porziuncola.以同樣的方式恢復後弗朗西斯其他兩個廢棄教堂,聖彼得,一些遠離城市,和聖瑪利亞的天使,在平原下方,在現場稱為Porziuncola 。 Meantime he redoubled his zeal in works of charity, more especially in nursing the lepers.與此同時,他加倍的熱情在他的作品慈善,特別是在護理麻風病人。

On a certain morning in 1208, probably 24 February, Francis was hearing Mass in the chapel of St. Mary of the Angels, near which he had then built himself a hut; the Gospel of the day told how the disciples of Christ were to possess neither gold nor silver, nor scrip for their journey, nor two coats, nor shoes, nor a staff, and that they were to exhort sinners to repentance and announce the Kingdom of God.某早在1208年,大概2月24日,弗朗西斯聽到群眾在教堂的聖瑪利亞的天使,靠近了他然後自己建一間小屋;的福音一天告訴如何基督信徒被擁有既沒有黃金,也沒有銀牌,也便條的旅程,也兩個大衣,也不鞋,也不是一個工作人員,他們敦促罪人到悔改,並宣布王國的上帝。 Francis took these words as if spoken directly to himself, and so soon as Mass was over threw away the poor fragment left him of the world's goods, his shoes, cloak, pilgrim staff, and empty wallet.弗朗西斯了這些話,猶如直接講自己,所以一旦被群眾丟了窮人的片段留給他的世界貨物,他的鞋子,披風,朝聖者的工作人員,和空的錢包。 At last he had found his vocation.最後,他發現了他的使命。 Having obtained a coarse woolen tunic of "beast colour", the dress then worn by the poorest Umbrian peasants, and tied it round him with a knotted rope, Francis went forth at once exhorting the people of the country-side to penance, brotherly love, and peace.在獲得了粗羊毛外衣的“野獸顏色” ,然後裙子穿的翁布里亞最貧窮的農民,平輪他與結繩,弗朗西斯去了一次敦促該國人民的一面看,悔罪,友愛與和平。 The Assisians had already ceased to scoff at Francis; they now paused in wonderment; his example even drew others to him. Bernard of Quintavalle, a magnate of the town, was the first to join Francis, and he was soon followed by Peter of Cattaneo, a well-known canon of the cathedral.該Assisians已經停止嘲笑弗朗西斯;現在他們已暫停在好奇;他的榜樣甚至提請別人給他。伯納德的昆塔瓦萊,一個大鎮,是第一個加入弗朗西斯,他很快其次是彼得的Cattaneo ,眾所周知佳能大教堂。 In true spirit of religious enthusiasm, Francis repaired to the church of St. Nicholas and sought to learn God's will in their regard by thrice opening at random the book of the Gospels on the altar.在真正的宗教精神的熱情,弗朗西斯修復教堂的聖尼古拉斯,並設法了解天意在這方面的三次開放隨機這本書的福音的祭壇上。 Each time it opened at passages where Christ told His disciples to leave all things and follow Him. "This shall be our rule of life", exclaimed Francis, and led his companions to the public square, where they forthwith gave away all their belongings to the poor.每次開通道在基督告訴他的弟子離開所有的東西,跟他走。 “這應是我們的法治生活” ,大聲弗朗西斯,並導致他的同伴的公共廣場,在那裡他們立即送給所有財物,以窮人。 After this they procured rough habits like that of Francis, and built themselves small huts near his at the Porziuncola.在此,他們採購粗的習慣一樣,弗朗西斯,並建立自己的小茅屋附近他在Porziuncola 。 A few days later Giles, afterwards the great ecstatic and sayer of "good words", became the third follower of Francis.幾天後,錢,後來偉大的狂喜和塞耶的“好話” ,成為第三追隨者弗朗西斯。 The little band divided and went about, two and two, making such an impression by their words and behaviour that before long several other disciples grouped themselves round Francis eager to share his poverty, among them being Sabatinus, vir bonus et justus, Moricus, who had belonged to the Crucigeri, John of Capella, who afterwards fell away, Philip "the Long", and four others of whom we know only the names.小帶劃分和去的,兩個和兩個,使這種印象的言論和行為,不久其他幾個弟子輪分組弗朗西斯自己渴望分享他的貧困,其中包括Sabatinus ,病毒等賈斯特斯獎金, Moricus ,誰已經屬於Crucigeri ,約翰的合唱,誰離開之後下跌,菲利普“長” ,另外4人只知道我們的名字。 When the number of his companions had increased to eleven, Francis found it expedient to draw up a written rule for them.當一些他的同伴已增加到11個,弗朗西斯認為適宜的起草一份書面的規則他們。 This first rule, as it is called, of the Friars Minor has not come down to us in its original form, but it appears to have been very short and simple, a mere adaptation of the Gospel precepts already selected by Francis for the guidance of his first companions, and which he desired to practice in all their perfection.這第一條規則,因為它是所謂的天主教方濟會還沒有下降到我們原來的形式,但它似乎已經很短,簡單,僅僅適應福音的戒律已經選擇了弗朗西斯為指導他的同伴,而他希望所有的實踐中完善自己。 When this rule was ready the Penitents of Assisi, as Francis and his followers styled themselves, set out for Rome to seek the approval of the Holy See, although as yet no such approbation was obligatory.當這個規則是準備好Penitents阿西西,因為弗朗西斯和他的追隨者們稱為自己,訂出的羅馬尋求批准的羅馬教廷,雖然還沒有這種認可是強制性的。 There are differing accounts of Francis's reception by Innocent III.有不同賬戶的弗朗西斯接待無辜三。 It seems, however, that Guido, Bishop of Assisi, who was then in Rome, commended Francis to Cardinal John of St. Paul, and that at the instance of the latter, the pope recalled the saint whose first overtures he had, as it appears, somewhat rudely rejected.看來,然而,吉,主教阿西西,誰當時在羅馬,讚揚弗朗西斯紅衣主教約翰聖保羅,並在實例後者,教宗回顧了聖的第一個姿態他,因為它顯然,在某種程度上粗暴拒絕。 Moreover, in site of the sinister predictions of others in the Sacred College, who regarded the mode of life proposed by Francis as unsafe and impracticable, Innocent, moved it is said by a dream in which he beheld the Poor Man of Assisi upholding the tottering Lateran, gave a verbal sanction to the rule submitted by Francis and granted the saint and his companions leave to preach repentance everywhere.此外,在現場的險惡預測的其他神聖的學院,誰把生命的方式提出的弗朗西斯不安全的和不切實際的,無辜的,移動說,這是一個夢想,他看到貧困的人阿西西堅持蹣跚拉特蘭,給予口頭認可的規則提出的弗朗西斯和授予聖和他的同伴離開宣講悔改無處不在。 Before leaving Rome they all received the ecclesiastical tonsure, Francis himself being ordained deacon later on. After their return to Assisi, the Friars Minor -- for thus Francis had named his brethren, either after the minores, or lower classes, as some think, or as others believe, with reference to the Gospel (Matthew 25:40-45), and as a perpetual reminder of their humility -- found shelter in a deserted hut at Rivo Torto in the plain below the city, but were forced to abandon this poor abode by a rough peasant who drove in his ass upon them.離開羅馬之前他們都收到了教會剃度,弗朗西斯本人被任命後執事。後他們返回阿西西,在天主教方濟會-為使弗朗西斯已任命他的兄弟,無論是在m inores,或下層階級,因為有些人認為,或作為另一些則認為,關於福音(馬太25:40-45 ) ,並作為永久的提醒他們謙卑-找到了棲身在一個遺棄的小屋在R ivoT orto平原低於城市,但被迫放棄這個可憐的居留權的一個粗略的農民誰開車在他的屁股給他們。 About 1211 they obtained a permanent foothold near Assisi, through the generosity of the Benedictines of Monte Subasio, who gave them the little chapel of St. Mary of the Angels or the Porziuncola.關於1211年他們獲得了永久的立足點阿西西附近,通過慷慨篤蒙Subasio ,誰給了他們的小教堂的聖瑪利亞天使或Porziuncola 。 Adjoining this humble sanctuary, already dear to Francis, the first Franciscan convent was formed by the erection of a few small huts or cells of wattle, straw, and mud, and enclosed by a hedge.毗鄰這一謙卑避難所,已經親愛的弗朗西斯,第一方濟修道院是由豎立的一些小茅屋或細胞的枝條,稻草,和泥,並封閉了對沖。 From this settlement, which became the cradle of the Franciscan Order (Caput et Mater Ordinis) and the central spot in the life of St. Francis, the Friars Minor went forth two by two exhorting the people of the surrounding country.從這個解決辦法,成為搖籃濟令(卡布特Ordinis材料等)和中央點生活中的聖弗朗西斯的天主教方濟會提出了兩個由兩個勸告人民的周邊國家。 Like children "careless of the day", they wandered from place to place singing in their joy, and calling themselves the Lord's minstrels.喜歡孩子“不小心的一天” ,他們遊蕩地點唱歌,在他們的喜悅,並呼籲自己的上帝褐色。 The wide world was their cloister; sleeping in haylofts, grottos, or church porches, they toiled with the labourers in the fields, and when none gave them work they would beg.世界上的廣泛是他們的迴廊;睡在haylofts ,石窟,或教堂的門廊,他們辛勤的勞動領域中,當沒有給他們的工作,他們將乞討。 In a short while Francis and his companions gained an immense influence, and men of different grades of life and ways of thought flocked to the order.在很短的,而弗朗西斯和他的同伴取得了巨大的影響力,和男子的不同等級的生活和思想方式湧入秩序。 Among the new recruits made about this time by Francis were the famous Three Companions, who afterwards wrote his life, namely: Angelus Tancredi, a noble cavalier; Leo, the saint's secretary and confessor; and Rufinus, a cousin of St. Clare; besides Juniper, "the renowned jester of the Lord".在新聘人員提出的這個時候弗朗西斯是著名的三個同伴,以後誰寫他的生命,即:鐘坦克雷迪,一個崇高的武士;利奧的聖的秘書和懺悔;和Rufinus的表弟聖克萊爾;除了檜“ ,著名滑稽演員的上帝” 。

During the Lent of 1212, a new joy, great as it was unexpected, came to Francis. Clare, a young heiress of Assisi, moved by the saint's preaching at the church of St. George, sought him out, and begged to be allowed to embrace the new manner of life he had founded.在大齋期的1212 ,一個新的喜悅,偉大的,因為它是意外,來到弗朗西斯。克萊爾,一個年輕的繼承人阿西西,感動了聖人的說教上的聖喬治教堂,尋求他,並懇求允許採用新的方式生活,他已經成立。 By his advice, Clare, who was then but eighteen, secretly left her father's house on the night following Palm Sunday, and with two companions went to the Porziuncola, where the friars met her in procession, carrying lighted torches.他的意見,克萊爾誰,但當時18個,秘密離開了她父親的家晚上下面的Palm月24日,與兩位同伴去Porziuncola ,那裡的修士見到她在遊行隊伍,攜帶點燃的火把。 Then Francis, having cut off her hair, clothed her in the Minorite habit and thus received her to a life of poverty, penance, and seclusion.然後,弗朗西斯,切斷了她的頭髮,衣服在她的Minorite習慣,從而收到了她生活的貧困,悔罪,並隔離。 Clare stayed provisionally with some Benedictine nuns near Assisi, until Francis could provide a suitable retreat for her, and for St. Agnes, her sister, and the other pious maidens who had joined her.克萊爾暫時留一些附近的本篤會修女阿西西,直到弗朗西斯可以提供一個適合她的務虛會,並為聖阿格尼絲,她的妹妹,以及其他虔誠的姑娘誰也加入了她。 He eventually established them at St. Damian's, in a dwelling adjoining the chapel he had rebuilt with his own hands, which was now given to the saint by the Benedictines as domicile for his spiritual daughters, and which thus became the first monastery of the Second Franciscan Order of Poor Ladies, now known as Poor Clares.他最終確立他們在聖達米安的,在一個住宅毗鄰的教堂,他重建自己的手中,這是現在考慮的聖本篤的住所為他的精神女兒,從而成為第一個寺院的第二次濟秩序欠佳女士們,現在被稱為窮國Clares 。

In the autumn of the same year (1212) Francis's burning desire for the conversion of the Saracens led him to embark for Syria, but having been shipwrecked on the coast of Slavonia, he had to return to Ancona.秋天的同一年( 1212 )弗朗西斯的迫切願望轉化的撒拉遜人,他開始對敘利亞,但被海難海岸斯拉沃尼亞,他不得不返回安科納。 The following spring he devoted himself to evangelizing Central Italy.下面的春天,他獻身於意大利中部宣傳。 About this time (1213) Francis received from Count Orlando of Chiusi the mountain of La Verna, an isolated peak among the Tuscan Apennines, rising some 4000 feet above the valley of the Casentino, as a retreat, "especially favourable for contemplation", to which he might retire from time to time for prayer and rest.大約在這個時候( 1213 )弗朗西斯收到計數奧蘭多的丘西山區的香格里拉薇娜,一個孤立的峰之間的托斯卡納亞平寧山脈,上升大約4000英尺以上的山谷卡森提諾,作為一個務虛會“ ,尤其是有利的沉思” ,以他可能會退休時的祈禱和休息。 For Francis never altogether separated the contemplative from the active life, as the several hermitages associated with his memory, and the quaint regulations he wrote for those living in them bear witness.對於弗朗西斯從來沒有完全分開的沉思從積極的生活,因為一些相關的祕境他的記憶,以及精巧他寫道條例對那些生活在他們的見證。 At one time, indeed, a strong desire to give himself wholly to a life of contemplation seems to have possessed the saint. During the next year (1214) Francis set out for Morocco, in another attempt to reach the infidels and, if needs be, to shed his blood for the Gospel, but while yet in Spain was overtaken by so severe an illness that he was compelled to turn back to Italy once more.有一段時間,確實是一個強烈願望,完全放棄自己對生活的沉思似乎已經擁有聖。在明年( 1214 )弗朗西斯訂出的摩洛哥,在另一個試圖達成的異教徒,而且如果需要的,說明他的血液的福音,但同時在西班牙還沒有被超越了如此嚴重的疾病,他被迫回頭意大利一次。

Authentic details are unfortunately lacking of Francis's journey to Spain and sojourn there.真實的細節缺乏不幸的是,弗朗西斯的旅程西班牙和那裡逗留。 It probably took place in the winter of 1214-1215.這可能發生在1214年至1215年冬天。 After his return to Umbria he received several noble and learned men into his order, including his future biographer Thomas of Celano.之後他返回翁布里亞,他收到了若干崇高和教訓男子到他的命令,包括他未來的傳記作者托馬斯的作品。 The next eighteen months comprise, perhaps, the most obscure period of the saint's life.在未來18個月組成,或許,最模糊時期的聖的生活。 That he took part in the Lateran Council of 1215 may well be, but it is not certain; we know from Eccleston, however, that Francis was present at the death of Innocent III, which took place at Perugia, in July 1216.他參加了拉特蘭理事會1215年很可能是,但並不一定;我們知道從Eccleston然而,弗朗西斯出席了殺害無辜三,發生在佩魯賈,在1216年7月。 Shortly afterwards, ie very early in the pontificate of Honorius III, is placed the concession of the famous Porziuncola Indulgence.此後不久,即很早就在教皇的挪留三,放在特許著名的Porziuncola豪華。 It is related that once, while Francis was praying at the Porziuncola, Christ appeared to him and offered him whatever favour he might desire.這是相關的,一旦,而弗朗西斯是在祈禱Porziuncola ,基督似乎他和給他提供任何支持,他可能願望。 The salvation of souls was ever the burden of Francis's prayers, and wishing moreover, to make his beloved Porziuncola a sanctuary where many might be saved, he begged a plenary Indulgence for all who, having confessed their sins, should visit the little chapel.拯救靈魂是永遠的負擔,法蘭西的祈禱,並祝愿此外,為使自己心愛的Porziuncola的庇護,許多可能被保存,他懇求一次全體會議豪華誰所有,供認了他們的罪孽,應該訪問的小教堂。 Our Lord acceded to this request on condition that the pope should ratify the Indulgence.我們的主同意了這一請求的情況下,教宗應批准放任。 Francis thereupon set out for Perugia, with Brother Masseo, to find Honorius III.弗朗西斯隨即訂出的佩魯賈,與兄弟Masseo ,找到挪留三。 The latter, notwithstanding some opposition from the Curia at such an unheard-of favour, granted the Indulgence, restricting it, however, to one day yearly.後者,儘管有一些反對教廷在這樣一個前所未聞的贊成票,給予寬容,限制然而,有一天一次。 He subsequently fixed 2 August in perpetuity, as the day for gaining this Porziuncola Indulgence, commonly known in Italy as il perdono d'Assisi. Such is the traditional account.隨後,他固定在8月2日永久,因為每天獲得這一Porziuncola豪華,一般稱為意大利作為一perdono德阿西西。這種是傳統的帳戶。 The fact that there is no record of this Indulgence in either the papal or diocesan archives and no allusion to it in the earliest biographies of Francis or other contemporary documents has led some writers to reject the whole story.事實上,沒有記錄本沉迷於無論是羅馬教皇或教區檔案和沒有提及它的最早的人物傳記弗朗西斯或其他當代文件導致一些作家拒絕的故事。 This argumentum ex silentio has, however, been met by M. Paul Sabatier, who in his critical edition of the "Tractatus de Indulgentia" of Fra Bartholi has adduced all the really credible evidence in its favour.這論據前silentio然而,得到由M.保羅薩巴蒂爾,誰在他的關鍵版“ Tractatus德Indulgentia ”法蘭克福機場已提出Bartholi所有真正可信的證據證明了贊成票。 But even those who regard the granting of this Indulgence as traditionally believed to be an established fact of history, admit that its early history is uncertain.但是,即使是那些關於誰給予這個豪華的傳統認為是一個既定的歷史事實,承認它的早期歷史是不確定的。 (See PORTIUNCULA.) (見博俊古拉。 )

The first general chapter of the Friars Minor was held in May, 1217, at Porziuncola, the order being divided into provinces, and an apportionment made of the Christian world into so many Franciscan missions.第一章一般的天主教方濟會5月舉行, 1217年,在Porziuncola ,該命令被分為省,並分配了基督教世界變成如此眾多的濟任務。 Tuscany, Lombardy, Provence, Spain, and Germany were assigned to five of Francis's principal followers; for himself the saint reserved France, and he actually set out for that kingdom, but on arriving at Florence, was dissuaded from going further by Cardinal Ugolino, who had been made protector of the order in 1216.托斯卡納,倫巴第大區,普羅旺斯,西班牙和德國被分配到五個弗朗西斯的主要追隨者;為自己保留了法國聖,他實際上規定了該國,但在抵達佛羅倫薩,是從去勸阻進一步樞機烏戈利諾,誰取得了保護者的順序1216 。 He therefore sent in his stead Brother Pacificus, who in the world had been renowned as a poet, together with Brother Agnellus, who later on established the Friars Minor in England.因此,他派出他的兄弟太平洋而起,誰在世界上已作為一個著名的詩人,連同兄弟Agnellus ,誰後來成立了天主教方濟會在英格蘭。 Although success came indeed to Francis and his friars, with it came also opposition, and it was with a view to allaying any prejudices the Curia might have imbibed against their methods that Francis, at the instance of Cardinal Ugolino, went to Rome and preached before the pope and cardinals in the Lateran.雖然成功確實是弗朗西斯和他的修士,與它也反對,這是為了消除任何偏見的教廷可能對他們吸脹的方法,弗朗西斯,例如在紅衣主教烏戈利諾,前往羅馬和鼓吹之前教皇和紅衣主教的拉特蘭。 This visit to the Eternal City, which took place 1217-18, was apparently the occasion of Francis's memorable meeting with St. Dominic.這次訪問的永恆之城,其中1217年至1218年發生的,顯然是為紀念弗朗西斯的難忘的會見聖多米尼克。 The year 1218 Francis devoted to missionary tours in Italy, which were a continual triumph for him. 1218年弗朗西斯專門傳教士在意大利旅遊,這是一個不斷戰勝他。 He usually preached out of doors, in the market-places, from church steps, from the walls of castle court-yards.他通常宣揚了門,在市場的地方,從教堂的步驟,從牆壁堡法院碼。 Allured by the magic spell of his presence, admiring crowds, unused for the rest to anything like popular preaching in the vernacular, followed Francis from place to place hanging on his lips; church bells rang at his approach; processions of clergy and people advanced to meet him with music and singing; they brought the sick to him to bless and heal, and kissed the very ground on which he trod, and even sought to cut away pieces of his tunic.吸引了神奇的拼寫他的存在,羨慕的人群,未使用的,其餘為流行的東西在說教白話,其次弗朗西斯地點掛在他的嘴唇;教堂鐘聲在他的辦法;遊行的僧侶和人民,以先進迎接他的音樂和唱歌;他們把病人給他祝福和醫治,並吻了非常地面,他走過,甚至設法截件他的外衣。 The extraordinary enthusiasm with which the saint was everywhere welcomed was equalled only by the immediate and visible result of his preaching.特別熱情的聖歡迎到處是被追平只能由直接和明顯的結果,他的說教。 His exhortations of the people, for sermons they can hardly be called, short, homely, affectionate, and pathetic, touched even the hardest and most frivolous, and Francis became in sooth a very conqueror of souls.他告誡人民,他們的說教就很難要求,簡而言之,家常,親切,而且可悲,甚至觸及最難,最瑣碎的,和弗朗西斯在撫慰成為一個非常征服者的靈魂。 Thus it happened, on one occasion, while the saint was preaching at Camara, a small village near Assisi, that the whole congregation were so moved by his "words of spirit and life" that they presented themselves to him in a body and begged to be admitted into his order.因此,發生一次,而聖是在卡馬拉說教,附近的一個小村莊阿西西,整個教會是如此感動,他的“字的精神和生活” ,他們提出了自己對他的身體和哀求,以被接納為他的命令。 It was to accede, so far as might be, to like requests that Francis devised his Third Order, as it is now called, of the Brothers and Sisters of Penance, which he intended as a sort of middle state between the world and the cloister for those who could not leave their home or desert their wonted avocations in order to enter either the First Order of Friars Minor or the Second Order of Poor Ladies.有人加入,就可能是喜歡要求,制定了弗朗西斯三階,因為它是現在所謂的兄弟姐妹們的懺悔,他打算作為一種中間狀態之間的世界和修道院對於那些誰不能離開自己的家中或沙漠的慣例興趣和愛好,以輸入的第一道命令天主教方濟會或二階貧困各位。 That Francis prescribed particular duties for these tertiaries is beyond question.這弗朗西斯明職責,特別是這些tertiaries是毫無疑問的。 They were not to carry arms, or take oaths, or engage in lawsuits, etc. It is also said that he drew up a formal rule for them, but it is clear that the rule, confirmed by Nicholas IV in 1289, does not, at least in the form in which it has come down to us, represent the original rule of the Brothers and Sisters of Penance.他們沒有攜帶武器,或咒罵,或進行訴訟,等等這也是說,他起草了一份正式的規則,但很顯然,規則,確認了尼古拉斯在1289年四,不,至少在形式,它歸結為我們代表的原始規則的兄弟姐妹們的懺悔。 In any event, it is customary to assign 1221 as the year of the foundation of this third order, but the date is not certain.在任何情況下,這是習慣轉讓1221年為基礎的第三秩序,但日期沒有確定。

At the second general chapter (May, 1219) Francis, bent on realizing his project of evangelizing the infidels, assigned a separate mission to each of his foremost disciples, himself selecting the seat of war between the crusaders and the Saracens.在第二章一般( 5月, 1219年)弗朗西斯,執意要實現他的計劃的宣傳異教徒,分配一個單獨的任務,他每一個最主要的弟子,自己選擇座位之間的戰爭十字軍和撒拉遜人。 With eleven companions, including Brother Illuminato and Peter of Cattaneo, Francis set sail from Ancona on 21 June, for Saint-Jean d'Acre, and he was present at the siege and taking of Damietta.與11同伴,包括兄弟Illuminato和彼得的Cattaneo ,弗朗西斯開船從安科納6月21日,為聖讓德英畝,他出席了圍困和採取達米埃塔。 After preaching there to the assembled Christian forces, Francis fearlessly passed over to the infidel camp, where he was taken prisoner and led before the sultan.在那裡鼓吹的組裝基督教勢力,弗朗西斯無畏交給異教徒營地,他在那裡被俘虜,並導致蘇丹面前。 According to the testimony of Jacques de Vitry, who was with the crusaders at Damietta, the sultan received Francis with courtesy, but beyond obtaining a promise from this ruler of more indulgent treatment for the Christian captives, the saint's preaching seems to have effected little.根據證詞雅克德維特里,誰是與十字軍在達米埃塔,蘇丹收到弗朗西斯禮貌,但除了獲得這一承諾的統治者更加放縱治療俘虜的基督教的聖徒說教似乎已經影響不大。

Before returning to Europe, the saint is believed to have visited Palestine and there obtained for the friars the foothold they still retain as guardians of the holy places.然後返回歐洲,聖相信已訪問了巴勒斯坦和取得的修士,他們的立足點仍然保留作為監護人的聖地。 What is certain is that Francis was compelled to hasten back to Italy because of various troubles that had arisen there during his absence.可以肯定的是,弗朗西斯被迫加快回到意大利,因為各種各樣的麻煩已經出現在有他的缺席。 News had reached him in the East that Matthew of Narni and Gregory of Naples, the two vicars-general whom he had left in charge of the order, had summoned a chapter which, among other innovations, sought to impose new fasts upon the friars, more severe than the rule required.新聞達成了他在東馬的Narni和格里高利的那不勒斯,這兩個vicars ,一般人已離開,他負責的命令,傳喚了一章,其中除其他創新,努力實施新的齋戒的修士,更嚴重的不是規則要求。 Moreover, Cardinal Ugolino had conferred on the Poor Ladies a written rule which was practically that of the Benedictine nuns, and Brother Philip, whom Francis had charged with their interests, had accepted it.此外,樞機烏戈利諾賦予了貧困各位的書面規則,實際上,在本篤修女,和兄弟菲利普,其中弗朗西斯曾被控以他們的利益,接受了它。 To make matters worse, John of Capella, one of the saint's first companions, had assembled a large number of lepers, both men and women, with a view to forming them into a new religious order, and had set out for Rome to seek approval for the rule he had drawn up for these unfortunates.更糟的是,約翰的合唱,一個聖的第一個同伴,已經聚集了大量的麻風病人,男人和女人,以期形成他們進入了一個新的宗教秩序,規定了羅馬尋求批准規則,他制定了對這些不幸的。 Finally a rumour had been spread abroad that Francis was dead, so that when the saint returned to Italy with Brother Elias -- he appeared to have arrived at Venice in July, 1220 -- a general feeling of unrest prevailed among the friars.最後一個謠言已經傳播國外弗朗西斯已經死了,所以當聖返回意大利與兄弟埃利亞斯-他似乎已經抵達威尼斯7月, 1 220-普遍感到不安普遍存在的修士。

Apart from these difficulties, the order was then passing through a period of transition.除了這些困難,令當時經過一個過渡期。 It had become evident that the simple, familiar, and unceremonious ways which had marked the Franciscan movement at its beginning were gradually disappearing, and that the heroic poverty practiced by Francis and his companions at the outset became less easy as the friars with amazing rapidity increased in number.它已成為明顯的是,簡單,熟悉,和粗魯的方式這標誌著方濟各運動在其開始逐漸消失,而且貧窮的英勇實行弗朗西斯和他的同伴在開始變得不那麼容易的修士具有驚人的速度增加在號碼。 And this Francis could not help seeing on his return. Cardinal Ugolino had already undertaken the task "of reconciling inspirations so unstudied and so free with an order of things they had outgrown."這弗朗西斯不能不看到他的回報。樞機烏戈利諾已經開展的任務“調和的靈感,使自發和自由與秩序的事情他們已經超出。 ” This remarkable man, who afterwards ascended the papal throne as Gregory IX, was deeply attached to Francis, whom he venerated as a saint and also, some writers tell us, managed as an enthusiast.這個了不起的人,誰後登上王位的羅馬教皇格里高利九,深感重視弗朗西斯,他崇敬的聖也,有些作家告訴我們,管理作為一個發燒友。

That Cardinal Ugolino had no small share in bringing Francis's lofty ideals "within range and compass" seems beyond dispute, and it is not difficult to recognize his hand in the important changes made in the organization of the order in the so-called Chapter of Mats.這樞機烏戈利諾了不小的份額,使弗朗西斯的崇高理想“範圍內和羅盤”似乎毫無爭議,這是不難認識到他的手在重要的變化作出的組織為了在所謂的墊章。 At this famous assembly, held at Porziuncola at Whitsuntide, 1220 or 1221 (there is seemingly much room for doubt as to the exact date and number of the early chapters), about 5000 friars are said to have been present, besides some 500 applicants for admission to the order.在這個著名的集會,舉行Porziuncola在Whitsuntide , 1220或1221 (似乎是有很大的餘地疑問的確切日期和一些早期的章節) ,約5000修士據說目前,除了約500名申請接納秩序。 Huts of wattle and mud afforded shelter for this multitude.必勝客的枝條和泥土提供住房這一眾多。 Francis had purposely made no provision for them, but the charity of the neighbouring towns supplied them with food, while knights and nobles waited upon them gladly.弗朗西斯曾故意沒有規定,但慈善機構的鄰近城鎮提供他們提供食物,而騎士和貴族等待他們樂意。 It was on this occasion that Francis, harassed no doubt and disheartened at the tendency betrayed by a large number of the friars to relax the rigours of the rule, according to the promptings of human prudence, and feeling, perhaps unfitted for a place which now called largely for organizing abilities, relinquished his position as general of the order in favour of Peter of Cattaneo.正是在這個場合,弗朗西斯,毫無疑問,騷擾和沮喪的傾向背叛了大量的修士放鬆嚴格的規則,根據promptings人採取謹慎態度,和感覺,或許unfitted的地方,現在所謂主要用於組織能力,放棄他的立場作為一般的秩序,有利於彼得的Cattaneo 。 But the latter died in less than a year, being succeeded as vicar-general by the unhappy Brother Elias, who continued in that office until the death of Francis.但後者死在不到一年的時間裡,被成功地為副主教,一般的不愉快埃利亞斯兄弟,誰繼續在該辦事處,直至死亡的弗朗西斯。

The saint, meanwhile, during the few years that remained in him, sought to impress on the friars by the silent teaching of personal example of what sort he would fain have them to be.在聖與此同時,在幾年,留在他的努力留下深刻印象的修士的沉默教學個人的例子什麼樣,他將強迫他們的。 Already, while passing through Bologna on his return from the East, Francis had refused to enter the convent there because he had heard it called the "House of the Friars" and because a studium had been instituted there.目前,雖然通過他的博洛尼亞返回從東,弗朗西斯一直拒絕進入修道院,因為他聽說它被稱為“白宮的天主教方濟會” ,並因為studium已經制定有。 He moreover bade all the friars, even those who were ill, quit it at once, and it was only some time after, when Cardinal Ugolino had publicly declared the house to be his own property, that Francis suffered his brethren to re-enter it.此外,他吩咐所有的修士,甚至那些誰生病,退出它一次,它只是一段時間後,當樞機主教烏戈利諾已公開宣布房子是他自己的財產,受他的弗朗西斯兄弟重新輸入。 Yet strong and definite as the saint's convictions were, and determinedly as his line was taken, he was never a slave to a theory in regard to the observances of poverty or anything else; about him indeed, there was nothing narrow or fanatical.然而,強烈和明確的聖徒,被法庭定罪,並毅然為他行採取了,他從來沒有一個奴隸的理論,關於紀念活動的貧困或其他任何;對他確實沒有任何狹窄或狂熱。 As for his attitude towards study, Francis desiderated for his friars only such theological knowledge as was conformable to the mission of the order, which was before all else a mission of example.至於他對待學習的態度,弗朗西斯desiderated他的修士只有這樣的神學知識,是符合任務的命令,這是在所有其他任務的例子。 Hence he regarded the accumulation of books as being at variance with the poverty his friars professed, and he resisted the eager desire for mere book-learning, so prevalent in his time, in so far as it struck at the roots of that simplicity which entered so largely into the essence of his life and ideal and threatened to stifle the spirit of prayer, which he accounted preferable to all the rest. In 1221, so some writers tell us, Francis drew up a new rule for the Friars Minor.因此,他認為積累的書籍作為差異與貧困宣稱他的修士,他抵制了渴望的願望僅僅是書籍的學習,因此在他的流行時間,到目前為止,因為它襲擊的根源是簡單進入所以基本上進入實質他的生活和理想,並威脅要扼殺的精神祈禱,他最好佔全部休息。在1221年,因此有些作家告訴我們,弗朗西斯制定了一項新的規則為天主教方濟會。 Others regard this so-called Rule of 1221 not as a new rule, but as the first one which Innocent had orally approved; not, indeed, its original form, which we do not possess, but with such additions and modifications as it has suffered during the course of twelve years.其他方面的這個所謂的規律1221年不是一個新的規則,但作為第一個無辜的口頭批准;沒有,事實上,它的原始形式,而我們不具備,但這些補充和修訂,因為它受到期間12年。 However this may be, the composition called by some the Rule of 1221 is very unlike any conventional rule ever made. It was too lengthy and unprecise to become a formal rule, and two years later Francis retired to Fonte Colombo, a hermitage near Rieti, and rewrote the rule in more compendious form.然而,這可能是所謂的組成部分規則的1221年是非常不同於任何以往傳統的規則作出。這是過於冗長, unprecise成為一個正式的規則,兩年後退休的,以弗朗西斯豐特科倫坡,一個草庵附近瑞耶提,並改寫了規則,更簡練的形式。 This revised draft he entrusted to Brother Elias, who not long after declared he had lost it through negligence.這個修訂草案委託給他兄弟埃利亞斯,誰不長後,宣布他已經失去它通過疏忽。 Francis thereupon returned to the solitude of Fonte Colombo, and recast the rule on the same lines as before, its twenty-three chapters being reduced to twelve and some of its precepts being modified in certain details at the instance of Cardinal Ugolino. In this form the rule was solemnly approved by Honorius III, 29 November, 1223 (Litt. "Solet annuere").弗朗西斯隨即返回孤獨的豐特科倫坡,並改寫規則在同一線之前,其23章減少到12個和它的一些規則進行修改,在某些細節上的實例樞機烏戈利諾。以這種形式法治是莊嚴批准挪留三, 1223年11月29日( Litt. “ Solet annuere ” ) 。 This Second Rule, as it is usually called or Regula Bullata of the Friars Minor, is the one ever since professed throughout the First Order of St. Francis (see RULE OF SAINT FRANCIS).這第二條規則,因為它通常被稱為或雷Bullata的天主教方濟會,是一個自宣稱整個一階的聖弗朗西斯(見規律的聖弗朗西斯) 。 It is based on the three vows of obedience, poverty, and chastity, special stress however being laid on poverty, which Francis sought to make the special characteristic of his order, and which became the sign to be contradicted.它是基於三個誓言服從,貧窮和貞節,但特別強調被解僱的貧窮,這弗朗西斯力求使特色的他的命令,並成為簽署的矛盾。 This vow of absolute poverty in the first and second orders and the reconciliation of the religious with the secular state in the Third Order of Penance are the chief novelties introduced by Francis in monastic regulation.這誓言絕對貧困中的第一和第二的訂單與和解的宗教與世俗國家的三階的懺悔是長介紹了新奇的弗朗西斯在寺院管理。

It was during Christmastide of this year (1223) that the saint conceived the idea of celebrating the Nativity "in a new manner", by reproducing in a church at Greccio the praesepio of Bethlehem, and he has thus come to be regarded as having inaugurated the popular devotion of the Crib.正是在Christmastide今年( 1223 )表示,聖的想法是慶祝耶穌“在一個新的方式” ,由音響在教堂Greccio的praesepio伯利恆,他因此被視為具有落成全民奉獻的垛。 Christmas appears indeed to have been the favourite feast of Francis, and he wished to persuade the emperor to make a special law that men should then provide well for the birds and the beasts, as well as for the poor, so that all might have occasion to rejoice in the Lord.聖誕節似乎確實一直是最喜愛的節日弗朗西斯,他希望說服皇帝作出一項特別法律,男性應提供良好的鳥類和獸類,以及為窮人服務,使所有可能有機會在歡慶上帝。

Early in August, 1224, Francis retired with three companions to "that rugged rock 'twixt Tiber and Arno", as Dante called La Verna, there to keep a forty days fast in preparation for Michaelmas.早在8月, 1224年,弗朗西斯退休的三個同伴到“這崎嶇的搖滾twixt泰伯和阿諾” ,因為所謂香格里拉丹特薇娜,有保持快速四十天準備米迦勒。 During this retreat the sufferings of Christ became more than ever the burden of his meditations; into few souls, perhaps, had the full meaning of the Passion so deeply entered.在此務虛的苦難耶穌基督成為比以往任何時候更加的負擔,他沉思;到幾年的靈魂,也許有充分的意義的激情深深地進入。 It was on or about the feast of the Exaltation of the Cross (14 September) while praying on the mountainside, that he beheld the marvellous vision of the seraph, as a sequel of which there appeared on his body the visible marks of the five wounds of the Crucified which, says an early writer, had long since been impressed upon his heart.這是約在節日的喜悅十字( 9月14日) ,而祈禱的山坡,他看見奇妙的設想,六翼天使,作為續集的出現對他的身體明顯標誌的五個傷口在這十字架說,早期的作家,早已了深刻的印象時他的心。 Brother Leo, who was with St. Francis when he received the stigmata, has left us in his note to the saint's autograph blessing, preserved at Assisi, a clear and simple account of the miracle, which for the rest is better attested than many another historical fact.兄弟利奧,誰是與聖弗朗西斯時,他收到了傷,離開了我們在他的說明聖的簽名祝福,保存在阿西西,一個簡單明了的帳戶的奇蹟,這為更好的休息證明比許多其他歷史事實。 The saint's right side is described as bearing on open wound which looked as if made by a lance, while through his hands and feet were black nails of flesh, the points of which were bent backward.在聖的右側被形容為影響傷口看上去猶如所作的槍,同時通過他的手和腳被釘子黑色的肉,點的是向後彎曲。 After the reception of the stigmata, Francis suffered increasing pains throughout his frail body, already broken by continual mortification.在接待的傷,弗朗西斯受到越來越多的痛苦在他身體虛弱,已經打破了持續的屈辱。 For, condescending as the saint always was to the weaknesses of others, he was ever so unsparing towards himself that at the last he felt constrained to ask pardon of "Brother Ass", as he called his body, for having treated it so harshly.因為,居高臨下的聖一向是對他人的弱點,他是這麼不留情的對自己說,在過去他認為限制,要求赦免的“兄弟驢” ,因為他要求他的屍體,因為他們對待如此嚴厲。 Worn out, moreover, as Francis now was by eighteen years of unremitting toil, his strength gave way completely, and at times his eyesight so far failed him that he was almost wholly blind.破舊的,此外,由於弗朗西斯現在是由18歲的不懈勞作,他的力量完全讓位,有時他的視力至今沒有他,他幾乎完全失明。

During an access of anguish, Francis paid a last visit to St. Clare at St. Damian's, and it was in a little hut of reeds, made for him in the garden there, that the saint composed that "Canticle of the Sun", in which his poetic genius expands itself so gloriously.在接受訪問的痛苦,付出了弗朗西斯上次訪問聖克萊爾在聖達米安的,它是在小屋的蘆葦,為他的花園裡有,即聖組成的“頌歌的太陽” ,在他的詩歌天才擴大本身,使光榮。 This was in September, 1225.這是9月, 1225 。 Not long afterwards Francis, at the urgent instance of Brother Elias, underwent an unsuccessful operation for the eyes, at Rieti.不久弗朗西斯,在緊迫的實例兄弟埃利亞斯,接受手術不成功的眼睛,在瑞耶提。 He seems to have passed the winter 1225-26 at Siena, whither he had been taken for further medical treatment.他似乎已經通過了1225年至1226年冬季在錫耶納,何處,他已採取了進一步治療。 In April, 1226, during an interval of improvement, Francis was moved to Cortona, and it is believed to have been while resting at the hermitage of the Celle there, that the saint dictated his testament, which he describes as a "reminder, a warning, and an exhortation".今年4月, 1226年,在間隔的改善,弗朗西斯被轉移到科爾托納,它被認為是休息,而在草庵的勒那裡的聖支配遺書,他形容為一個“提醒人們,一個警告,並告誡“ 。 In this touching document Francis, writing from the fullness of his heart, urges anew with the simple eloquence, the few, but clearly defined, principles that were to guide his followers, implicit obedience to superiors as holding the place of God, literal observance of the rule "without gloss", especially as regards poverty, and the duty of manual labor, being solemnly enjoined on all the friars.在這感人的文件弗朗西斯,書面充滿了他的心,再次敦促與簡單的口才,少數,但明確的定義,原則,指導他的追隨者,隱服從上級舉辦的地點上帝,字面遵守規則“沒有光澤” ,尤其是在貧困和責任體力勞動,責成被莊嚴的所有修士。

Meanwhile alarming dropsical symptoms had developed, and it was in a dying condition that Francis set out for Assisi.同時令人震驚的脹症狀已制定,這是一個垂死的條件是弗朗西斯訂出的阿西西。 A roundabout route was taken by the little caravan that escorted him, for it was feared to follow the direct road lest the saucy Perugians should attempt to carry Francis off by force so that he might die in their city, which would thus enter into possession of his coveted relics.繞道採取了小車隊的護送他,有人擔心後續的直接道路,以免俏皮Perugians應嘗試開展了弗朗西斯用武力,使他可能死在他們的城市,從而進入藏他夢寐以求的文物。 It was therefore under a strong guard that Francis, in July, 1226, was finally borne in safety to the bishop's palace in his native city amid the enthusiastic rejoicings of the entire populace.因此,下一個強大的後衛弗朗西斯,今年7月, 1226年,終於在安全承擔的主教的宮殿在祖國的城市因rejoicings的熱情,整個民眾。 In the early autumn Francis, feeling the hand of death upon him, was carried to his beloved Porziuncola, that he might breathe his last sigh where his vocation had been revealed to him and whence his order had struggled into sight.在初秋弗朗西斯,感受到了死亡的手對他進行對他心愛的Porziuncola ,他可能會呼吸的最後一口氣,他的使命已經發現他和他的命令何處掙扎到了視線。 On the way thither he asked to be set down, and with painful effort he invoked a beautiful blessing on Assisi, which, however, his eyes could no longer discern.在路上他問那兒確定下來,並與痛苦的努力,他援引一個美麗的祝福阿西西,然而,他的眼睛再也無法分辨。 The saint's last days were passed at the Porziuncola in a tiny hut, near the chapel, that served as an infirmary.在聖最後的日子,正通過在Porziuncola在一個小棚屋附近的教堂,這是一個療養院。 The arrival there about this time of the Lady Jacoba of Settesoli, who had come with her two sons and a great retinue to bid Francis farewell, caused some consternation, since women were forbidden to enter the friary.在到達那裡大約這個時候,夫人雅各巴的Settesoli ,誰來與她的兩個兒子和一個偉大的隨從申辦弗朗西斯告別,造成了一些驚愕,因為婦女被禁止進入修道院。 But Francis in his tender gratitude to this Roman noblewoman, made an exception in her favour, and "Brother Jacoba", as Francis had named her on account of her fortitude, remained to the last.但弗朗西斯在他的投標感謝這個羅馬貴婦,提出一個例外,她贊成,和“兄弟雅各巴” ,因為弗朗西斯已經任命她到她的毅力,仍然到最後。

On the eve of his death, the saint, in imitation of his Divine Master, had bread brought to him and broken.前夕,他死亡時,聖,模仿他的神聖的碩士,帶來了麵包給他,並打破。 This he distributed among those present, blessing Bernard of Quintaville, his first companion, Elias, his vicar, and all the others in order.這一點,他分佈在那些目前,伯納德的祝福Quintaville ,他的第一個同伴,埃利亞斯,他的副主教,和所有其他的命令。 "I have done my part," he said next, "may Christ teach you to do yours." “我這樣做我而言,他說: ”明年, “可能基督教你做你的。 ” Then wishing to give a last token of detachment and to show he no longer had anything in common with the world, Francis removed his poor habit and lay down on the bare ground, covered with a borrowed cloth, rejoicing that he was able to keep faith with his Lady Poverty to the end.然後,希望給去年的象徵脫離,並表明他不再有任何共同的世界,弗朗西斯刪除他那可憐的習慣,放下在光禿禿的地面,覆蓋著借來的布,歡欣鼓舞,他能夠繼續誠意他的夫人貧困的目的。 After a while he asked to have read to him the Passion according to St. John, and then in faltering tones he himself intoned Psalm 141.過了一陣子,他要求讀給他的激情根據聖約翰,然後在搖搖欲墜的鈴聲他自己intoned詩篇141 。 At the concluding verse, "Bring my soul out of prison", Francis was led away from earth by "Sister Death", in whose praise he had shortly before added a new strophe to his "Canticle of the Sun".在總結詩句, “讓我的靈魂的監獄” ,弗朗西斯率領遠離地球的“姐妹之死” ,在其讚美他前不久增加了一個新的strophe他的“頌歌的太陽” 。 It was Saturday evening, 3 October, 1226, Francis being then in the forty-fifth year of his age, and the twentieth from his perfect conversion to Christ.這是星期六晚上, 1226年10月3日,弗朗西斯被然後在第四十五屆一年他的年齡,和第二十屆他完美的轉換基督。

The saint had, in his humility, it is said, expressed a wish to be buried on the Colle d'Inferno, a despised hill without Assisi, where criminals were executed. However this may be, his body was, on 4 October, borne in triumphant procession to the city, a halt being made at St. Damian's, that St. Clare and her companions might venerate the sacred stigmata now visible to all, and it was placed provisionally in the church of St. George (now within the enclosure of the monastery of St. Clare), where the saint had learned to read and had first preached.在聖了,在他的謙遜,這是說,表示希望被安葬在科爾德地獄,一個沒有鄙視山阿西西,在罪犯被處決。然而,這可能是他的屍體被10月4日,承擔在勝利遊行的城市,停止正在聖達米安的,聖克萊爾和她的同伴可能崇敬的神聖傷現在看到的所有,這是把暫時的聖喬治教堂(現在的內文修道院的聖克萊爾) ,在聖獲悉閱讀並首次宣講。 Many miracles are recorded to have taken place at his tomb.許多奇蹟都記錄了發生在他的墓。 Francis was canonized at St. George's by Gregory IX, 16 July, 1228.弗朗西斯被冊封在聖喬治的格里高利九, 1228年7月16號。 On that day following the pope laid the first stone of the great double church of St. Francis, erected in honour of the new saint, and thither on 25 May, 1230, Francis's remains were secretly transferred by Brother Elias and buried far down under the high altar in the lower church.在那一天之後,教皇奠基的偉大雙教堂的聖弗朗西斯,豎立在履行新的聖人,和對岸的5月25日, 1230弗朗西斯的遺體被秘密轉移的兄弟埃利亞斯並埋葬了深遠的高壇在較低的教堂。 Here, after lying hidden for six centuries, like that of St. Clare's, Francis's coffin was found, 12 December, 1818, as a result of a toilsome search lasting fifty-two nights.在這裡,隱藏後躺在6世紀以來,這樣的聖克萊爾,弗朗西斯的遺體被發現, 1818年12月12日,由於辛苦尋找持久52夜。 This discovery of the saint's body is commemorated in the order by a special office on 12 December, and that of his translation by another on 25 May.這一發現對聖的屍體是在紀念秩序的一個特別辦公室12月12日,和他的翻譯再於5月25日。 His feast is kept throughout the Church on 4 October, and the impression of the stigmata on his body is celebrated on 17 September.他的節日是保持整個教會於10月4日,和印象的傷對他的身體是慶祝9月17日。

It has been said with pardonable warmth that Francis entered into glory in his lifetime, and that he is the one saint whom all succeeding generations have agreed in canonizing.有人說,與情有可原溫暖弗朗西斯進入輝煌的一生,他是一個聖人所有後代已同意在封為。 Certain it is that those also who care little about the order he founded, and who have but scant sympathy with the Church to which he ever gave his devout allegiance, even those who know that Christianity to be Divine, find themselves, instinctively as it were, looking across the ages for guidance to the wonderful Umbrian Poverello, and invoking his name in grateful remembrance.一定是那些還沒有誰照顧的以他創立,以及誰,但很少有同情,教會了他以往任何時候都讓他虔誠的效忠,即使是那些誰知道,基督教是神聖的,找到自己,本能的,因為它是尋找跨越年齡的指導奇妙翁布里亞Poverello ,並援引他的名字在紀念感謝。 This unique position Francis doubtless owes in no small measure to his singularly lovable and winsome personality.這種獨特的地位無疑歸功於弗朗西斯在很大程度上他的奇異可愛和迷人的個性。 Few saints ever exhaled "the good odour of Christ" to such a degree as he.以往很少有聖人呼出“好氣味基督”到這種程度他。 There was about Francis, moreover, a chivalry and a poetry which gave to his other-worldliness a quite romantic charm and beauty.有大約弗朗西斯,此外,騎士和詩歌這給他的其他世一個相當浪漫的魅力和美感。 Other saints have seemed entirely dead to the world around them, but Francis was ever thoroughly in touch with the spirit of the age.其他聖人似乎完全死亡,以他們周圍的世界,但弗朗西斯是以往任何時候都深入聯繫時代精神。 He delighted in the songs of Provence, rejoiced in the new-born freedom of his native city, and cherished what Dante calls the pleasant sound of his dear land. And this exquisite human element in Francis's character was the key to that far-reaching, all-embracing sympathy, which may be almost called his characteristic gift.他高興在普羅旺斯的歌曲,高興地在新出生的自由,他的城市,珍惜但丁要求什麼愉快的聲音,他親愛的土地。而這精緻的人的因素在弗朗西斯的性格是關鍵,是影響深遠,無所不包的同情,這可能是幾乎呼籲他特有的禮物。 In his heart, as an old chronicler puts it, the whole world found refuge, the poor, the sick and the fallen being the objects of his solicitude in a more special manner.在他的心,作為一個老chronicler所說的那樣,整個世界找到了避難所,窮人,病人和正在下降的對象在他的關懷更特別的方式進行。

Heedless as Francis ever was of the world's judgments in his own regard, it was always his constant care to respect the opinions of all and to wound the feelings of none.弗朗西斯不顧作為曾經是世界上判決在自己的方面,它總是不斷的照顧他尊重大家的意見和傷口的感情沒有。 Wherefore he admonishes the friars to use only low and mean tables, so that "if a beggar were to come to sit down near them he might believe that he was but with his equals and need not blush on account of his poverty." One night, we are told, the friary was aroused by the cry "I am dying."何故,他的修士admonishes只使用低和平均表,所以說, “如果有一個乞丐來坐下不久他們,他可能會認為他不過是與他平等的,不需要臉紅考慮到他的貧困。 ”有一天晚上我們被告知,該修道院是所引起的哭泣: “我死去。 ” "Who are you", exclaimed Francis arising, "and why are dying?" “你是誰” ,引起驚叫弗朗西斯“ ,以及為什麼正在死去? ” "I am dying of hunger", answered the voice of one who had been too prone to fasting. “我餓死” ,回答的聲音,一個誰也已經空腹容易。 Whereupon Francis had a table laid out and sat down beside the famished friar, and lest the latter might be ashamed to eat alone, ordered all the other brethren to join in the repast.於是,弗朗西斯已經表列出坐下旁邊的飢餓修士,並以免後者可能是羞於獨自吃,下令所有其他兄弟一道就餐。 Francis's devotedness in consoling the afflicted made him so condescending that he shrank not from abiding with the lepers in their loathly lazar-houses and from eating with them out of the same platter.弗朗西斯的devotedness在安慰受災使他如此居高臨下,他減少而不是從守法的麻風病人在其loathly拉扎爾,房屋和從飲食與他們相同的盤片。

But above all it is his dealings with the erring that reveal the truly Christian spirit of his charity.但最重要的是他打交道犯錯誤,表明真正的基督教精神,他的慈善事業。 "Saintlier than any of the saint", writes Celano, "among sinners he was as one of themselves". “ Saintlier比任何聖” ,寫作品, “罪人中他是作為一個自己的” 。 Writing to a certain minister in the order, Francis says: "Should there be a brother anywhere in the world who has sinned, no matter how great soever his fault may be, let him not go away after he has once seen thy face without showing pity towards him; and if he seek not mercy, ask him if he does not desire it. And by this I will know if you love God and me."寫作一定部長秩序,弗朗西斯說: “如果有一個兄弟在世界任何地方得罪了誰,不管多麼偉大的soever他的過錯可能是,讓他不會消失後,他再次看到你的臉沒有顯示對他的憐憫; ,如果他不尋求憐憫,問他如果他不希望這樣做。和本我會知道你是否喜歡和我的上帝。 “ Again, to medieval notions of justice the evil-doer was beyond the law and there was no need to keep faith with him.同樣,到中世紀的正義觀念的邪惡善人超越了法律,也沒有必要不斷地同他。 But according to Francis, not only was justice due even to evil-doers, but justice must be preceded by courtesy as by a herald.但據弗朗西斯,不僅是由於正義甚至邪惡的事,而是正義之前,必須禮貌作為一個先驅。 Courtesy, indeed, in the saint's quaint concept, was the younger sister of charity and one of the qualities of God Himself, Who "of His courtesy", he declares, "gives His sun and His rain to the just and the unjust". This habit of courtesy Francis ever sought to enjoin on his disciples.禮貌,事實上,在聖的古怪的概念,是妹妹的慈善機構之一,品質的上帝,是誰“ ,他禮貌” ,他宣稱, “給他和他的太陽雨的公正和不公正的” 。這個習慣,禮貌弗朗西斯以往任何時候都力求責成對他的弟子。 "Whoever may come to us", he writes, "whether a friend or a foe, a thief or a robber, let him be kindly received", and the feast which he spread for the starving brigands in the forest at Monte Casale sufficed to show that "as he taught so he wrought". “誰可以來找我們” ,他寫道, “無論是朋友或敵人,一個小偷或強盜,讓他將懇請收到” ,以及節日,他傳播的飢餓強盜在森林中在蒙特卡洛卡薩萊足以表明, “作為他教他造成的” 。

The very animals found in Francis a tender friend and protector; thus we find him pleading with the people of Gubbio to feed the fierce wolf that had ravished their flocks, because through hunger "Brother Wolf" had done this wrong.非常動物中發現弗朗西斯招標的朋友和保護者;因此,我們找到他懇求人民的古比奧餵狼的激烈ravished了他們的雞群,通過飢餓,因為“兄弟狼”做了這一錯誤。 And the early legends have left us many an idyllic picture of how beasts and birds alike susceptible to the charm of Francis's gentle ways, entered into loving companionship with him; how the hunted leveret sought to attract his notice; how the half-frozen bees crawled towards him in the winter to be fed; how the wild falcon fluttered around him; how the nightingale sang with him in sweetest content in the ilex grove at the Carceri, and how his "little brethren the birds" listened so devoutly to his sermon by the roadside near Bevagna that Francis chided himself for not having thought of preaching to them before. Francis's love of nature also stands out in bold relief in the world he moved in.和早期的傳說給我們留下了許多田園詩般的圖片如何獸類和鳥類都容易的魅力弗朗西斯的溫柔的方式,進入愛好陪伴他;如何追捕leveret設法吸引他的通知書;如何半凍結蜜蜂檢索對他在冬季要餵;如何野生獵鷹飄揚在他周圍;如何夜鶯唱與他甜蜜的內容在冬青林在Carceri ,以及如何他的“小兄弟鳥”如此虔誠的聆聽他布道的附近的路邊Bevagna弗朗西斯斥責說自己沒想到向他們宣講之前。弗朗西斯的愛自然也隨時在勇敢救濟在世界上,他搬進 He delighted to commune with the wild flowers, the crystal spring, and the friendly fire, and to greet the sun as it rose upon the fair Umbrian vale.他高興地鄉的野生花卉,晶體春天,和友好的火,迎接太陽的上升,因為它的公平翁布里亞瓦萊。 In this respect, indeed, St. Francis's "gift of sympathy" seems to have been wider even than St. Paul's, for we find no evidence in the great Apostle of a love for nature or for animals.在這方面,事實上,聖弗朗西斯的“禮物的同情”似乎已經被更廣泛的甚至比聖保祿,因為我們沒有發現證據證明偉大的使徒的熱愛大自然或動物。

Hardly less engaging than his boundless sense of fellow-feeling was Francis's downright sincerity and artless simplicity.幾乎不到從事比他無限的責任感同胞的感覺是弗朗西斯的徹頭徹尾的誠意和爛漫簡單。 "Dearly beloved," he once began a sermon following upon a severe illness, "I have to confess to God and you that during this Lent I have eaten cakes made with lard." “親愛親愛的, ”他一旦開始講道時下列嚴重疾病, “我不得不承認上帝和你,在這個四旬期我已經吃了蛋糕與豬油。 ” And when the guardian insisted for the sake of warmth upon Francis having a fox skin sewn under his worn-out tunic, the saint consented only upon condition that another skin of the same size be sewn outside.而當監護人堅持為了對弗朗西斯溫暖了狐狸的皮縫在他的破舊的中山裝,在聖同意只有在另一種條件,皮膚大小相同的縫製外面。 For it was his singular study never to hide from men that which known to God.因為這是他獨特的研究從來沒有隱藏從該男子是眾所周知的上帝。 "What a man is in the sight of God," he was wont to repeat, "so much he is and no more" -- a saying which passed into the "Imitation", and has been often quoted. “什麼人在看不到上帝, ”他是慣於重複, “這麼多,他沒有更多的” -這句話說進入了“模仿” ,並已經常引用。

Another winning trait of Francis which inspires the deepest affection was his unswerving directness of purpose and unfaltering following after an ideal.另一位獲獎法蘭西特質的鼓舞最深的是他的感情堅定不移的直接因果關係的宗旨和堅定以下後,一個理想。 "His dearest desire so long as he lived", Celano tells us, "was ever to seek among wise and simple, perfect and imperfect, the means to walk in the way of truth." To Francis love was the truest of all truths; hence his deep sense of personal responsibility towards his fellows. “他最親愛的願望,只要他生活” ,作品告訴我們, “是以往任何時候都在尋求明智和簡單,健全和不完善,手段,走在這樣的真相。 ”弗朗西斯愛情是最真實的一切真理;因此,他強烈的個人責任對他的研究員。 The love of Christ and Him Crucified permeated the whole life and character of Francis, and he placed the chief hope of redemption and redress for a suffering humanity in the literal imitation of his Divine Master.基督的愛和他的十字架貫穿整個生命和特點的弗朗西斯,他把主要希望贖回和糾正對人類苦難的字面模仿他的神聖的主。 The saint imitated the example of Christ as literally as it was in him to do so; barefoot, and in absolute poverty, he proclaimed the reign of love.在聖模仿的榜樣,基督,因為它實際上是在他這樣做;赤腳,並在絕對貧困中,他宣布了統治的愛。 This heroic imitation of Christ's poverty was perhaps the distinctive mark of Francis's vocation, and he was undoubtedly, as Bossuet expresses it, the most ardent, enthusiastic, and desperate lover of poverty the world has yet seen.這英勇的模仿基督的貧窮也許是獨特的標誌弗朗西斯的使命,他無疑是,作為波舒哀表示,該最熱心,熱情,和絕望的情人貧窮的世界還沒有見過。 After money Francis most detested discord and divisions.弗朗西斯錢後最憎恨不和諧和分歧。 Peace, therefore, became his watchword, and the pathetic reconciliation he effected in his last days between the Bishop and Potesta of Assisi is bit one instance out of many of his power to quell the storms of passion and restore tranquility to hearts torn asunder by civil strife.和平,因此,成了他的座右銘,而且可悲的和解,他對他的最後幾天之間的主教和Potesta阿西西是位一個實例了他的許多權力,以平息風暴的熱情和恢復安寧心臟四分五裂民間紛爭。 The duty of a servant of God, Francis declared, was to lift up the hearts of men and move them to spiritual gladness.責任僕人上帝,弗朗西斯宣稱,是為了提升人們的心中,並移動到精神感到高興。 Hence it was not "from monastic stalls or with the careful irresponsibility of the enclosed student" that the saint and his followers addressed the people; "they dwelt among them and grappled with the evils of the system under which the people groaned".因此,它不是“從寺院攤位或仔細不負責任的行為所附的學生”的聖和他的追隨者給人民, “他們談到它們之間和對付罪惡的制度下,人民呻吟” 。 They worked in return for their fare, doing for the lowest the most menial labour, and speaking to the poorest words of hope such as the world had not heard for many a day.他們的工作,以換取他們的車費,做最低的最卑賤的勞動,並說最貧窮的話,如希望世界沒有聽說過許多天。 In this wise Francis bridged the chasm between an aristocratic clergy and the common people, and though he taught no new doctrine, he so far repopularized the old one given on the Mount that the Gospel took on a new life and called forth a new love.在這一明智的弗朗西斯橋之間的鴻溝貴族神職人員和普通民眾,雖然他沒有教新的理論,他迄今repopularized舊鑑於山上的福音了一個新的生命,並要求提出了新的愛情。

Such in briefest outline are some of the salient features which render the figure of Francis one of such supreme attraction that all manner of men feel themselves drawn towards him, with a sense of personal attachment.這種在briefest大綱的一些突出的特點,使人物弗朗西斯這樣一個最高的吸引力,所有男人的方式提請覺得自己對他,有正義感的個人感情。 Few, however, of those who feel the charm of Francis's personality may follow the saint to his lonely height of rapt communion with God.很少,但這些誰覺得魅力弗朗西斯的個性可能會按照他的聖孤獨的高度全神貫注與上帝。 For, however engaging a "minstrel of the Lord", Francis was none the less a profound mystic in the truest sense of the word.為,但從事的“音樂家上帝” ,弗朗西斯是因為沒有欠了深刻的神秘主義的真實含義。 The whole world was to him one luminous ladder, mounting upon the rungs of which he approached and beheld God.整個世界對他是一個發光的梯子,越來越多的高高處於他走近看見上帝。 It is very misleading, however, to portray Francis as living "at a height where dogma ceases to exist", and still further from the truth to represent the trend of his teaching as one in which orthodoxy is made subservient to "humanitarianism".這是非常誤導,但是,把弗朗西斯的生活“在高度的教條不復存在” ,並進一步從真相是大勢所趨,他作為一個教學中的正統是屈從於“人道主義” 。 A very cursory inquiry into Francis's religious belief suffices to show that it embraced the entire Catholic dogma, nothing more or less.一個非常粗略的調查,弗朗西斯的宗教信仰足以表明它擁抱整個天主教教義,沒有什麼更多的或更少。 If then the saint's sermons were on the whole moral rather than doctrinal, it was less because he preached to meet the wants of his day, and those whom he addressed had not strayed from dogmatic truth; they were still "hearers", if not "doers", of the Word.如果然後聖的說教是對整個的道德,而不是理論上的,它還不是因為他鼓吹,以滿足他的希望一天,那些人講話沒有偏離教條的真理;他們仍然是“聽眾” ,如果不是“事“的Word 。 For this reason Francis set aside all questions more theoretical than practical, and returned to the Gospel. Again, to see in Francis only the loving friend of all God's creatures, the joyous singer of nature, is to overlook altogether that aspect of his work which is the explanation of all the rest -- its supernatural side.出於這個原因弗朗西斯擱置所有問題,更不是實際的理論,並返回福音。再次看到弗朗西斯只有愛好的朋友都是上帝的造物,在愉快的歌手性質,是完全忽視這一方面,他的工作是解釋所有的休息-它超自然的一方。 Few lives have been more wholly imbued with the supernatural, as even Renan admits.幾年的生活更全充滿超自然,即使雷南承認。 Nowhere, perhaps, can there be found a keener insight into the innermost world of spirit, yet so closely were the supernatural and the natural blended in Francis, that his very asceticism was often clothed in the guide of romance, as witness his wooing the Lady Poverty, in a sense that almost ceased to be figurative.任何地方,也許會有發現了激烈洞察內心世界的精神,但如此緊密的超自然與自然融合的弗朗西斯,他非常禁慾主義往往是穿著指南中的浪漫,他作為證人吸引夫人貧窮,在某種意義上,幾乎不再是比喻。 For Francis's singularly vivid imagination was impregnate with the imagery of the chanson de geste, and owing to his markedly dramatic tendency, he delighted in suiting his action to his thought.對於弗朗西斯的奇異豐富的想像力是受孕的圖像香頌德geste ,由於他的顯著戲劇性的傾向,他高興的適合他的行動,他的思想。 So, too, the saint's native turn for the picturesque led him to unite religion and nature.同樣,在聖本土轉風景如畫使他團結宗教和性質。 He found in all created things, however trivial, some reflection of the Divine perfection, and he loved to admire in them the beauty, power, wisdom, and goodness of their Creator.他發現在所有創造的東西,但是瑣碎,有些反映了神聖的完美,他喜歡欣賞他們的美麗,權力,智慧,善良的造物主。 And so it came to pass that he saw sermons even in stones, and good in everything. Moreover, Francis's simple, childlike nature fastened on the thought, that if all are from one Father then all are real kin.所以來傳遞,他認為即使是在說教的石頭,和良好的一切。此外,弗朗西斯很簡單,童稚的性質牢的思想,如果大家都從一個父親當時都是真正的親人。 Hence his custom of claiming brotherhood with all manner of animate and inanimate objects.因此,他聲稱自訂的兄弟情誼與各種形式的動畫和無生命的物體。 The personification, therefore, of the elements in the "Canticle of the Sun" is something more than a mere literary figure.的人格化,因此,要素在“頌歌的太陽”是不僅僅是一個文學家。 Francis's love of creatures was not simply the offspring of a soft or sentimental disposition; it arose rather from that deep and abiding sense of the presence of God, which underlay all he said and did.弗朗西斯的愛的動物不只是後代軟或感傷的處分;它產生的,而從深和守法意識存在的上帝,這一切背後,他並沒有說。 Even so, Francis's habitual cheerfulness was not that of a careless nature, or of one untouched by sorrow.即便如此,弗朗西斯的慣常是愉快而不是一個粗心的性質,或一個不受悲傷。 None witnessed Francis's hidden struggles, his long agonies of tears, or his secret wrestlings in prayer.沒有看到弗朗西斯的隱蔽鬥爭中,他長期痛苦的眼淚,或他的秘密wrestlings祈禱。 And if we meet him making dumb-show of music, by playing a couple of sticks like a violin to give vent to his glee, we also find him heart-sore with foreboding at the dire dissensions in the order which threatened to make shipwreck of his ideal.如果我們滿足他的決策啞巴出現的音樂,發揮了幾個棍子像一個小提琴,以發洩他的高興,我們也發現他心臟有預感酸痛的悲慘糾紛中的秩序,威脅,使沉船的他的理想。 Nor were temptations or other weakening maladies of the soul wanting to the saint at any time.也不是誘惑或其他削弱弊病的靈魂想要的聖在任何時候。

Francis's lightsomeness had its source in that entire surrender of everything present and passing, in which he had found the interior liberty of the children of God; it drew its strength from his intimate union with Jesus in the Holy Communion.弗朗西斯的lightsomeness有其來源在這整個交出一切本和傳球,他發現了內部自由兒童的上帝;它提請其強度從他的親密工會與耶穌的聖餐。 The mystery of the Holy Eucharist, being an extension of the Passion, held a preponderant place in the life of Francis, and he had nothing more at heart than all that concerned the cultus of the Blessed Sacrament.在神秘的聖體聖事,被延長的激情,舉行了優勢的地方生活中的弗朗西斯,他沒有更多的心比所有有關的宗教局的祝福聖餐。 Hence we not only hear of Francis conjuring the clergy to show befitting respect for everything connected with the Sacrifice of the Mass, but we also see him sweeping out poor churches, questing sacred vessels for them, and providing them with altar-breads made by himself.因此,我們不僅聽到弗朗西斯變戲法神職人員顯示符合尊重一切與祭祀的群眾,但我們也看到他席捲了窮人的教堂,神聖的探索為他們的船隻,並為他們提供的祭壇,麵包自己所作。 So great, indeed, was Francis's reverence for the priesthood, because of its relation to the Adorable Sacrament, that in his humility he never dared to aspire to that dignity.如此之大,實際上是弗朗西斯的尊敬的神父,因為它關係到可愛的聖餐,在他的謙遜,他從來不敢嚮往的尊嚴。

Humility was, no doubt, the saint's ruling virtue.謙卑是,毫無疑問,在聖執政的美德。 The idol of an enthusiastic popular devotion, he ever truly believed himself less than the least.偶像的熱烈歡迎奉獻,他都真正相信自己小於最小。 Equally admirable was Francis's prompt and docile obedience to the voice of grace within him, even in the early days of his ill-defined ambition, when the spirit of interpretation failed him.同樣令人欽佩的是弗朗西斯的迅速和溫順服從的聲音,他的寬限期內,甚至在初期,他的定義不清的野心,當精神的解釋沒有他。 Later on, the saint, with as clear as a sense of his message as any prophet ever had, yielded ungrudging submission to what constituted ecclesiastical authority.後來,聖,並明確作為一個常識,他的任何消息先知過,取得了ungrudging提交什麼構成教會的權威。 No reformer, moreover, was ever, less aggressive than Francis.沒有改革,而且是以往任何時候都那麼激進比弗朗西斯。 His apostolate embodied the very noblest spirit of reform; he strove to correct abuses by holding up an ideal.他的牧靈體現了非常崇高的改革精神;他竭力糾正濫用舉行了一個理想。 He stretched out his arms in yearning towards those who longed for the "better gifts".他伸出他的胳膊在對那些渴望渴望誰的“更好的禮物” 。 The others he left alone.另外,他獨自。

And thus, without strife or schism, God's Poor Little Man of Assisi became the means of renewing the youth of the Church and of imitating the most potent and popular religious movement since the beginnings of Christianity.因此,沒有紛爭或分裂,上帝的可憐的小矮人成為阿西西的手段,延長的青年教會和模仿的最有力的和流行的宗教運動開始以來,基督教。 No doubt this movement had its social as well as its religious side.毫無疑問,這個運動有其社會以及宗教方面。 That the Third Order of St.這三階聖 Francis went far towards re-Christianizing medieval society is a matter of history.弗朗西斯遠朝著重新Christianizing中世紀的社會是一個歷史問題。 However, Francis's foremost aim was a religious one.然而,弗朗西斯的首要目標是一個宗教之一。 To rekindle the love of God in the world and reanimate the life of the spirit in the hearts of men -- such was his mission.重新點燃上帝的愛在世界和復活生命的精神在人們的心中-例如是他的使命。 But because St. Francis sought first the Kingdom of God and His justice, many other things were added unto him.但是,由於聖弗朗西斯首先尋求上帝的國和他的正義,還有許多其他的東西又增加了祂。 And his own exquisite Franciscan spirit, as it is called, passing out into the wide world, became an abiding source of inspiration.和他自己的精湛濟的精神,因為它是所謂的,經過了廣泛進入世界,成為一個守法的靈感源泉。 Perhaps it savours of exaggeration to say, as has been said, that "all the threads of civilization in the subsequent centuries seem to hark back to Francis", and that since his day "the character of the whole Roman Catholic Church is visibly Umbrian".也許savours的誇張地說,因為一直說, “所有的線程的文明在隨後的數百年徐克似乎回到弗朗西斯” ,而且因為他的一天“的性質,整個羅馬天主教會是明顯的翁布里亞” 。

It would be difficult, none the less, to overestimate the effect produced by Francis upon the mind of his time, or the quickening power he wielded on the generations which have succeeded him.這將是困難的,但是,過分的影響所產生的弗朗西斯到他的時間,或加快他揮舞權力的後代已接任。 To mention two aspects only of his all-pervading influence, Francis must surely be reckoned among those to whom the world of art and letters is deeply indebted.提到這兩個方面只有他的所有普遍的影響力,弗朗西斯肯定是不可忽視的那些人的世界的藝術和信件是感激。 Prose, as Arnold observes, could not satisfy the saint's ardent soul, so he made poetry.散文,因為阿諾德指出,不能滿足聖熱切的靈魂,所以他提出詩歌。 He was, indeed, too little versed in the laws of composition to advance far in that direction.他的確是太少,精通法律的組成,推動迄今在朝著這個方向努力。 But his was the first cry of a nascent poetry which found its highest expression in the "Divine Comedy"; wherefore Francis has been styled the precursor of Dante. What the saint did was to teach a people "accustomed to the artificial versification of courtly Latin and Provencal poets, the use of their native tongue in simple spontaneous hymns, which became even more popular with the Laudi and Cantici of his poet-follower Jacopone of Todi".但他是第一次哭了新生的詩歌發現它的最高表現在“神曲” ;何故弗朗西斯一直風格的先驅但丁。什麼聖所做的就是教人“習慣於人工韻律的典雅拉丁美洲和普羅旺斯詩人,使用其母語的簡單自發的讚美詩,成為更受歡迎的Laudi和Cantici他的詩人跟隨Jacopone的陶迪“ 。 In so far, moreover, as Francis's repraesentatio, as Salimbene calls it, of the stable at Bethlehem is the first mystery-play we hear of in Italy, he is said to have borne a part in the revival of the drama.到目前為止,此外,弗朗西斯的repraesentatio ,因為它塞利姆呼籲,穩定在伯利恆是第一個謎,我們聽到的發揮,在意大利,據說他承擔了一部分的振興戲劇。 However this may be, if Francis's love of song called forth the beginnings of Italian verse, his life no less brought about the birth of Italian art.然而,這可能是,如果弗朗西斯的愛情的歌曲提出所謂的開端詩句意大利,他的生活不低於帶來的誕生,意大利藝術。 His story, says Ruskin, became a passionate tradition painted everywhere with delight.他的故事,說金,成為一個充滿激情的傳統畫處處與喜悅。 Full of colour, dramatic possibilities, and human interest, the early Franciscan legend afforded the most popular material for painters since the life of Christ.全彩色,戲劇的可能性,與人類的利益,早日濟傳說提供了最流行的材料的畫家,因為生活的基督。 No sooner, indeed did Francis's figure make an appearance in art than it became at once a favourite subject, especially with the mystical Umbrian School.不久,確實弗朗西斯的數字出現使藝術成為比上一次喜歡的話題,尤其是神秘的翁布里亞學校。 So true is this that it has been said we might by following his familiar figure "construct a history of Christian art, from the predecessors of Cimabue down to Guido Reni, Rubens, and Van Dyck".因此,真正的是,它一直在說,我們可能會由他熟悉的人物“ ,建造一個歷史的基督教藝術,從前任的奇馬布埃下降到圭多雷尼,魯本斯,和範戴克” 。

Probably the oldest likeness of Francis that has come down to us is that preserved in the Sacro Speco at Subiaco.也許是最古老的肖像弗朗西斯已經下降到我們的是,保存在聖山Speco在薩伯卡。 It is said that it was painted by a Benedictine monk during the saint's visit there, which may have been in 1218. The absence of the stigmata, halo, and title of saint in this fresco form its chief claim to be considered a contemporary picture; it is not, however, a real portrait in the modern sense of the word, and we are dependent for the traditional presentment of Francis rather on artists' ideals, like the Della Robbia statue at the Porziuncola, which is surely the saint's vera effigies, as no Byzantine so-called portrait can ever be, and the graphic description of Francis given by Celano (Vita Prima, c. lxxxiii).這是說,這是一個畫本篤和尚在聖的訪問有可能已經在1218 。缺席的情況下傷,暈,標題和聖在此壁畫其主要形式要求被視為當代的圖片;不是,但是,一個真正的畫像在現代意義上的,我們都依賴傳統出示的弗朗西斯,而對藝術家的理想,像雕像德拉羅比亞在Porziuncola ,這無疑是聖的蘆薈肖像,因為沒有拜占庭所謂的肖像都不能得到,並且圖形描述弗朗西斯給予切拉諾(簡歷初步角LXXXIII號) 。 Of less than middle height, we are told, and frail in form, Francis had a long yet cheerful face and soft but strong voice, small brilliant black eyes, dark brown hair, and a sparse beard. His person was in no way imposing, yet there was about the saint a delicacy, grace, and distinction which made him most attractive.不到中等高度,我們被告知,和年老體弱的形式,弗朗西斯有很長尚未開朗面對和軟,但強大的聲音,小輝煌的黑眼睛,深棕色的頭髮,和稀疏的鬍子。他的人是絕不強加於人,尚未有關於聖佳餚,寬限期,並區分這使他最有吸引力的。

The literary materials for the history of St. Francis are more than usually copious and authentic.文學材料的歷史,聖弗朗西斯超過通常豐富和真實的。 There are indeed few if any medieval lives more thoroughly documented.確實有很少有哪個中世紀的生活更徹底地記錄在案。 We have in the first place the saint's own writings. These are not voluminous and were never written with a view to setting forth his ideas systematically, yet they bear the stamp of his personality and are marked by the same unvarying features of his preaching.我們必須擺在首位的聖自己的著作。這些都不是大量的,並沒有寫過,以闡明他的思想系統,但他們承擔郵票他的個性和特點是相同的功能不變的說教。 A few leading thoughts taken "from the words of the Lord" seemed to him all sufficing, and these he repeats again and again, adapting them to the needs of the different persons whom he addresses.少數領導的想法採取“從字的上帝”在他看來所有sufficing ,這些重複序列,他一次又一次地,使其適應需要的不同的人,他的地址。 Short, simple, and informal, Francis's writings breathe the unstudied love of the Gospel and enforce the same practical morality, while they abound in allegories and personification and reveal an intimate interweaving of Biblical phraseology.總之,簡單,和非正式的,弗朗西斯的著作呼吸自發愛的福音和執行相同的實際道德,儘管他們很多在寓言和人格化,並揭示出一種親密交織的聖經用語。

Not all the saint's writings have come down to us, and not a few of these formerly attributed to him are now with greater likelihood ascribed to others. The extant and authentic opuscula of Francis comprise, besides the rule of the Friars Minor and some fragments of the other Seraphic legislation, several letters, including one addressed "to all the Christians who dwell in the whole world," a series of spiritual counsels addressed to his disciples, the "Laudes Creaturarum" or "Canticle of the Sun", and some lesser praises, an Office of the Passion compiled for his own use, and few other orisons which show us Francis even as Celano saw him, "not so much a man's praying as prayer itself". In addition to the saint's writings the sources of the history of Francis include a number of early papal bulls and some other diplomatic documents, as they are called, bearing upon his life and work.並非所有的聖作品來給我們,而不是幾個以前由於他現在正以更大的可能性歸因於他人。現存的和真實的opuscula弗朗西斯組成,除了規則和天主教方濟會的一些片斷其他Seraphic立法,幾封信,其中包括處理“的所有基督教徒誰住在整個世界” ,一系列精神文明律師給他的弟子中, “ Laudes Creaturarum ”或“頌歌的太陽” ,和一些較小的讚揚,一個辦公室編纂的激情為自己使用,而且其他幾個orisons表明我們弗朗西斯甚至切拉諾看見他, “不是一個人的祈禱的祈禱本身。 ”除了聖的著作的來源歷史弗朗西斯包括一些早期教皇的牛和其他一些外交文件,因為它們是所謂的,同時他的生活和工作。 Then come the biographies properly so called.然後再適當的傳記所謂的。 These include the lives written 1229-1247 by Thomas of Celano, one of Francis's followers; a joint narrative of his life compiled by Leo, Rufinus, and Angelus, intimate companions of the saint, in 1246; and the celebrated legend of St. Bonaventure, which appeared about 1263; besides a somewhat more polemic legend called the "Speculum Perfectionis", attributed to Brother Leo, the state of which is a matter of controversy.這些措施包括書面的生活由托馬斯1229年至1247年的作品之一,弗朗西斯的追隨者;聯合說明他的生活由利奧Rufinus ,並鐘,親密伴侶的聖,在1246年和著名的傳說聖文德這一點似乎對1263 ;除了較為論戰傳說所謂的“反射鏡Perfectionis ” ,歸因於兄弟利奧的狀態這是一個有爭議的問題。 There are also several important thirteenth-century chronicles of the order, like those of Jordan, Eccleston, and Bernard of Besse, and not a few later works, such as the "Chronica XXIV. Generalium" and the "Liber de Conformitate", which are in some sort a continuation of them.還有一些重要的十三世紀編年史的命令一樣,約旦, Eccleston ,和貝爾納的貝塞,而不是少數幾個後來的作品,如“慢性二十四。 Generalium ”和“書德Conformitate ” ,這在某種延續他們。 It is upon these works that all the later biographies of Francis's life are based.這是這些作品時,所有後來的傳記弗朗西斯的生活的基礎。

Recent years have witnessed a truly remarkable upgrowth of interest in the life and work of St. Francis, more especially among non-Catholics, and Assisi has become in consequence the goal of a new race of pilgrims.近年來一個真正了不起的發育有興趣的生活和工作的聖弗朗西斯,尤其是在非天主教徒,已成為阿西西的後果目標的一個新的種族的朝聖者。 This interest, for the most part literary and academic, is centered mainly in the study of the primitive documents relating to the saint's history and the beginnings of the Franciscan Order.這種興趣,大部分是文學和學術,是中心的主要研究的原始文件的有關聖的歷史,並開始在濟秩序。 Although inaugurated some years earlier, this movement received its greatest impulse from the publication in 1894 of Paul Sabatier's "Vie de S. François", a work which was almost simultaneously crowned by the French Academy and place upon the Index.雖然成立幾年前,這一運動得到的最大衝擊來自於1894年出版的保羅薩巴蒂爾的“人生的第弗朗索瓦”的工作幾乎是同時獲得由法國科學院和地點的指數。 In spite of the author's entire lack of sympathy with the saint's religious standpoint, his biography of Francis bespeaks vast erudition, deep research, and rare critical insight, and it has opened up a new era in the study of Franciscan resources.儘管作者的整個缺乏同情與聖的宗教的角度來看,他的傳記弗朗西斯bespeaks廣大博學,深入研究,並罕見的重要見解,並開闢了一個新的時代,研究濟的資源。 To further this study an International Society of Franciscan Studies was founded at Assisi in 1902, the aim of which is to collect a complete library of works on Franciscan history and to compile a catalogue of scattered Franciscan manuscripts; several periodicals, devoted to Franciscan documents and discussions exclusively, have moreover been established in different countries.為了推動這一研究的國際社會濟學成立於1902年阿西西,其目的是收集一個完整的圖書館工程,濟歷史,並彙編目錄分散濟手稿;幾個期刊,專門文件和濟專門討論,而且已經建立了在不同的國家。 Although a large literature has grown up around the figure of the Poverello within a short time, nothing new of essential value has been added to what was already known of the saint.雖然有大量文獻也長大了,周圍的數字的Poverello很短的時間內,沒有任何新的基本價值已添加到什麼是已知的聖。 The energetic research work of recent years has resulted in the recovery of several important early texts, and has called forth many really fine critical studies dealing with the sources, but the most welcome feature of the modern interest in Franciscan origins has been the careful re-editing and translating of Francis's own writings and of nearly all the contemporary manuscript authorities bearing on his life.充滿活力的研究工作近年來已導致恢復了一些重要的早期文本,並呼籲了許多真正重要的研究,罰款處理的來源,但最值得歡迎的特點,現代的興趣濟的起源一直是認真的重新編輯和翻譯弗朗西斯自己的著作和幾乎所有的當代手稿當局影響他的生活。 Not a few of the controverted questions connected therewith are of considerable import, even to those not especially students of the Franciscan legend, but they could not be made intelligible within the limits of the present article.沒有幾個controverted相關的問題是相當大的進口,甚至那些沒有特別是學生的弗朗西斯傳說,但他們無法理解的範圍內,本規定。 It must suffice, moreover, to indicate only some of the chief works on the life of St. Francis.它必須足夠,而且表明只有部分主要工程對生活的聖弗朗西斯。

The writings of St. Francis have been published in "Opuscula SP Francisci Assisiensis" (Quaracchi, 1904); Böhmer, "Analekten zur Geschichte des Franciscus von Assisi" (Tübingen, 1904); U. d'Alençon, "Les Opuscules de S. François d' Assise" (Paris, 1905); Robinson, "The Writings of St. Francis of Assisi" (Philadelphia, 1906).該著作的聖弗朗西斯已經出版的“ Opuscula度Francisci Assisiensis ” ( Quaracchi , 1904年) ;博默, “ Analekten楚史濟馮阿西西” (蒂賓根大學, 1904年) ;美國德阿朗松, “法國Opuscules德語。弗朗索瓦之Assise “ (巴黎, 1905年) ;羅賓遜說: ”寫作的聖方濟各“ (費城, 1906年) 。

Publication information Written by Paschal Robinson. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.出版信息撰稿復活節羅賓遜。天主教百科全書,第六卷。 Published 1909. 1909年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat , 09年九月一日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. +約翰M Farley, Archbishop of New York法利,大主教紐約


Franciscan Order濟秩序

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

A term commonly used to designate the members of the various foundations of religious, whether men or women, professing to observe the Rule of St. Francis of Assisi in some one of its several forms.術語常用來指定成員的各種基金會的宗教,不論男女,信奉遵守規則的聖方濟各在一些人的幾種形式。 The aim of the present article is to indicate briefly the origin and relationship of these different foundations.其目的本文章簡要說明的起源和關係的這些不同的基礎。

ORIGIN OF THE THREE ORDERS原產地的三個訂單

It is customary to say that St. Francis founded three orders, as we read in the Office for 4 October:這是習慣地說,聖弗朗西斯成立三個訂單,因為我們讀到的辦公室10月4日:

Tres ordines hic ordinat: primumque Fratrum nominat Minorum: pauperumque fit Dominarum medius: sed Poenitentium tertius sexum capit utrumque.特雷斯ordines嗝ordinat : primumque Fratrum nominat Minorum : pauperumque適合Dominarum medius :基於Poenitentium特爾蒂烏斯sexum資本utrumque 。 (Brev. Rom. Serap., in Solem. SP Fran., ant. 3, ad Laudes) ( Brev.光盤。小型企業。 ,在索利姆。藻弗蘭。 ,螞蟻。 3 ,廣告Laudes )

These three orders -- the Friars Minor, the Poor Ladies or Clares, and the Brothers and Sisters of Penance -- are generally referred to as the First, Second, and Third Orders of St. Francis.這三個訂單-的天主教方濟會,窮人或C lares女士,以及兄弟姐妹們的懺悔-一般稱為第一,第二,第三和訂單的聖弗朗西斯。

First Order第一階

The existence of the Friars Minor or first order properly dates from 1209, in which year St. Francis obtained from Innocent III an unwritten approbation of the simple rule he had composed for the guidance of his first companions.存在的天主教方濟會或第一次為了適當的日期從1209年,在這一年聖弗朗西斯獲得無辜的第三一條不成文的讚許的簡單的規則,他組成的指導他的第一個同伴。 This rule has not come down to us in its original form; it was subsequently rewritten by the saint and solemnly confirmed by Honorius III, 29 Nov., 1223 (Litt. "Solet Annuere").這一規則還沒有下降到我們原來的形式;後來改寫了聖和莊嚴確認挪留三, 1223年十一月29日( Litt. “ Solet Annuere ” ) 。 This second rule, as it is usually called, of the Friars Minor is the one at present professed throughout the whole First Order of St. Francis (see RULE OF SAINT FRANCIS).這第二條規則,因為它通常是所謂的天主教方濟會是一個宣稱,目前在整個一階的聖弗朗西斯(見規律的聖弗朗西斯) 。

Second Order二階

The foundation of the Poor Ladies or second order may be said to have been laid in 1212.該基金會的窮國女子或二階可以說已經奠定在1212年。 In that year St. Clare who had besought St. Francis to be allowed to embrace the new manner of life he had instituted, was established by him at St. Damian's near Assisi, together with several other pious maidens who had joined her.在這一年聖克萊爾誰曾央求聖弗朗西斯被允許採用新的方式生活,他已經制定,確定了他在聖達米安的近阿西西,連同其他一些虔誠的姑娘誰也加入了她。 It is erroneous to suppose that St. Francis ever drew up a formal rule for these Poor ladies and no mention of such a document is found in any of the early authorities.這是錯誤的假設聖弗朗西斯以往任何時候都制定了一個正式的規則,這些可憐的女士們,沒有提到這樣一份文件中發現任何早期的當局。 The rule imposed upon the Poor Ladies at St. Damian's about 1219 by Cardinal Ugolino, afterwards Gregory IX, was recast by St. Clare towards the end of her life, with the assistance of Cardinal Rinaldo, afterwards Alexander IV, and in this revised form was approved by Innocent IV, 9 Aug., 1253 (Litt. "Solet Annuere").該規則強加給窮國女子在聖達米安的約1219年由紅衣主教烏戈利諾,後來格里高利九,被改寫的聖克萊爾快要結束時她的生命的協助下,紅衣主教裡納爾多,後來亞歷山大四世,並在此修訂形式批准了無辜四, 1253年8月9號( Litt. “ Solet Annuere ” ) 。 (See POOR CLARES). (見貧困CLARES ) 。

Third Order三階

Tradition assigns the year 1221 as the date of the foundation of the Brothers and Sisters of Penance, now known as tertiaries.傳統的分配1221年的日期基礎的兄弟姐妹們的懺悔,現在被稱為tertiaries 。 This third order was devised by St.這第三個命令是制定街 Francis as a sort of middle state between the cloister and the world for those who, wishing to follow in the saint's footsteps, were debarred by marriage or other ties from entering either the first or second order.弗朗西斯作為一種中間狀態之間的迴廊和世界的那些誰,希望後續的聖的腳步,有禁止結婚或其他關係進入無論是第一或第二秩序。 There has been some difference of opinion as to how far the saint composed a rule for these tertiaries.有一些不同的意見,以多大的聖組成的規則對這些tertiaries 。 It is generally admitted, however, that the rule approved by Nicholas IV, 18 Aug., 1289 (Litt. "Supra Montem") does not represent the original rule of the third order.人們普遍承認,但是,該規則批准的尼古拉四, 1289年8月18日( Litt. “前Montem ” )並不代表原來的規則,第三秩序。

Some recent writers have tried to show that the third order, as we now call it, was really the starting point of the whole Franciscan Order.最近的一些作家試圖表明,三階,因為我們現在稱呼它,是真正的起點,整個濟秩序。 They assert that the Second and Third Orders of St. Francis were not added to the First, but that the three branches, the Friars Minor, Poor ladies, and Brother and Sisters of Penance, grew out of the lay confraternity of penance which was St. Francis's first and original intention, and were separated from it into different groups by Cardinal Ugolino, the protector of the order, during St. Francis's absence in the East (1219-21).他們斷言,第二次和第三次命令聖弗朗西斯並沒有加入到第一,但是,這三個分支機構,在天主教方濟會,可憐的小姐,和兄弟姐妹們的懺悔,前身是奠定confraternity的懺悔這是聖。弗朗西斯第一次和原來的意圖,並分離成不同群體的樞機烏戈利諾,保護者的命令,在聖弗朗西斯的缺席東( 1219年至1221年) 。 This interesting, if somewhat arbitrary, theory is not without importance for the early history of all three orders, but it is not yet sufficiently proven to preclude the more usual account given above, according to which the Franciscan Order developed into three distinct branches, namely, the first, second, and third orders, by process of addition and not by process of division, and this is still the view generally received.這有趣的,如果有些武斷,理論是沒有意義的早期歷史的所有三個訂單,但尚未充分證明,以排除更通常的帳戶鑑於上述情況,根據該令濟發展成三個不同的分支,即,第一,第二,第三的訂單,通過進程此外,而不是由進程的分裂,這仍然是普遍的觀點得到。

PRESENT ORGANIZATION OF THE THREE ORDERS本組織的三個訂單

First Order第一階

Coming next to the present organization of the Franciscan Order, the Friars Minor, or first order, now comprises three separate bodies, namely: the Friars Minor properly so called, or parent stem, founded, as has been said in 1209; the Friars Minor Conventuals, and the Friars Minor Capuchins, both of which grew out of the parent stem, and were constituted independent orders in 1517 and 1619 respectively.接下來本組織的濟命令,天主教方濟會,或一階,現在有三個獨立的機構,即:天主教方濟會妥善所謂的,或父母幹,成立,因為一直在說, 1209 ;的天主教方濟會Conventuals ,以及天主教方濟會Capuchins ,兩者都增長了父母幹,並構成獨立的命令, 1517年和1619年分別。

All three orders profess the rule of the Friars Minor approved by Honorius III in 1223, but each one has its particular constitutions and its own minister general.所有這三個命令信奉法治的天主教方濟會批准挪留三世1223年,但每一個都有其特定的憲法和自己的部長一般。 The various lesser foundations of Franciscan friars following the rule of the first order, which once enjoyed a separate or quasi-separate existence, are now either extinct, like the Clareni, Coletani, and Celestines, or have become amalgamated with the Friars Minor, as in the case of the Observants, Reformati, Recollects, Alcantarines, etc. (On all these lesser foundations, now extinct, see FRIARS MINOR)較小的各種基礎濟修士以下的規則的第一道命令,曾經享有一個獨立或半獨立的存在,現在要么滅絕,如Clareni , Coletani ,並Celestines ,或已成為合併與天主教方濟會,作為的情況Observants , Reformati ,回憶, Alcantarines等(在所有這些較小的基金會,現已滅絕,見天主教方濟會)

Second Order二階

As regards the Second Order, of Poor ladies, now commonly called Poor Clares, this order includes all the different monasteries of cloistered nuns professing the Rule of St. Clare approved by Innocent IV in 1253, whether they observe the same in all its original strictness or according to the dispensations granted by Urban IV, 18 Oct., 1263 (Litt. "Beata Clara") or the constitutions drawn up by St.至於二階,貧困女士們,現在通常稱為窮國Clares ,這項命令包括所有不同的隱居寺廟僧尼信奉法治的聖克萊爾無辜批准在1253年四,觀察它們是否相同的所有原始嚴或根據特許授予的城市四, 1263年一十月十八日( Litt. “貝婭塔克拉拉” )或憲法起草了街 Colette (d. 1447) and approved by Pius II, 18 March, 1458 (Litt. "Etsi"). The Sisters of the Annunciation and the Conceptionists are in some sense offshoots of the second order, but they now follow different rules from that of the Poor Ladies.科萊特(草1447年) ,並經皮烏斯二, 1458年3月18號( Litt. “歐洲電信標準協會” ) 。修女的報喜和Conceptionists在某種意義上分支二階,但他們現在按照不同的規則從貧困女子。

Third Order三階

In connection with the Brothers and Sisters of Penance or Third order of St. Francis, it is necessary to distinguish between the third order secular and the third order regular.在與兄弟姐妹們的懺悔或第三秩序的聖弗朗西斯,這是必要區分三階世俗和三階常。

Secular.世俗。 The third order secular was founded, as we have seen, by St. Francis about 1221 and embraces devout persons of both sexes living in the world and following a rule of life approved by Nicholas IV in 1289, and modified by Leo XIII, 30 May, 1883 (Constit. "Misericors").第三為了世俗成立後,我們已經看到,由聖弗朗西斯約1221擁護和虔誠的男女生活在世界上之後,法治的生活批准的尼古拉斯在1289年四,和修改利奧十三世, 5月30日1883年( Constit. “ Misericors ” ) 。 It includes not only members who form part of logical fraternities, but also isolated tertiaries, hermits, pilgrims, etc.它不僅包括誰成員組成部分的合乎邏輯的兄弟,而且還孤立tertiaries ,隱士,朝聖者,等等

Regular.經常。 The early history of the third order regular is uncertain and is susceptible of controversy.早期歷史上的三階經常是不確定的,是容易引起爭議。 Some attribute its foundation to St. Elizabeth of Hungary in 1228, others to Blessed Angelina of Marsciano in 1395.有些屬性的基礎聖伊麗莎白匈牙利1228年,祝福他人的Marsciano安吉麗娜在1395年。 The latter is said to have established at Foligno the first Franciscan monastery of enclosed tertiary nuns in Italy.後者是說,在已經建立的第一個福利尼奧方濟各寺院封閉的高等教育在意大利修女。 It is certain that early in the fifteenth century tertiary communities of men and women existed in different parts of Europe and that the Italian friars of the third order regular were recognized as a mendicant order by the Holy See.可以肯定的是,早在15世紀高等教育的社區男性和女性存在著不同地區的歐洲和意大利修士的三階常已被公認為一個乞丐秩序的羅馬教廷。 Since about 1458 the latter body has been governed by own minister general and its members take solemn vows.自約1458年後身體一直由自己的部長一般,其成員採取的莊嚴誓言。

New Foundations.新的基金會。 In addition to this third order regular, properly so called, and quite independently of it, a very large number of Franciscan tertiary congregations -- both of men and women -- have been founded, more especially since the beginning of the ninteenth century.除了這個三階常,所謂正確,以及相當獨立於它,大量的方濟各大專院校教會-兩個男人和女人-已經成立,尤其是自1 9世紀初。 These new foundations have taken as a basis of their institutes a special rule for members of the third order living in community approved by Leo X. 20 Jan., 1521 (Bull "Inter").這些新的基金會作為一個根據其機構的特殊規則的成員三階生活在社會批准的利奧十, 1521年1月20日(公牛“間” ) 。 Although this rule is a greatly modified by their particular constitution which, for the rest, differ widely according to the end of each foundation.雖然這條規則是一個很大的修改憲法,特別是為休息,大不相同根據每年年底的基礎。 These various congregations of regular tertiaries are either autonomous or under episcopal jurisdiction, and for the most part they are Franciscan in name only, not a few of them having abandoned the habit and even the traditional cord of the order.這些不同的教會經常tertiaries要么自主或主教管轄下,並在大多數情況下他們是濟名存實亡,而不是少數人已放棄的習慣,甚至傳統的脊髓的秩序。

Publication information Written by Paschal Robinson.出版信息撰稿復活節羅賓遜。 Transcribed by Beth Ste-Marie. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.轉錄的貝絲聖瑪麗。天主教百科全書,第六卷。 Published 1909. 1909年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat , 09年九月一日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. +約翰M Farley, Archbishop of New York法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

For the vexed question of the origin and evolution of the third orders, see MÜLLER, Die Anfange des Minoritenordens und der Bussbruderschaften (Freiburg, 1885), 33 sqq; EHRLE in Zeitschr, jk Theol., XI, 743 sqq; MANDONNET, Les regles et le gouvernement de l Ordo de Paeniltentia au XIII siccle in Opuscules de critique historique, vol.對於棘手的問題的起源和演化的第三個訂單,見穆勒,模具Anfange萬Minoritenordens與德國Bussbruderschaften (弗賴堡, 1885年) , 33 sqq ; EHRLE在Zeitschr , jk Theol 。 ,十一, 743 sqq ; MANDONNET ,法國regles等樂戲說統治秩序的Paeniltentia太子港第十三siccle在Opuscules的批判歷史,第二卷。 l. fasc.汽車運動聯合會。 IV (Paris, 1902); LEMMENS in Rom. Quartalschrift, XVI, 93 sqq; VAN ORTROY in Analecta Bollandiana, XVIII, 294 sqq. XXIV, 415 sqq; D'ALENCON in Etudes Franciscaines, II, 646 sq; GOETZ in Zeitschrift for Kirchengeschichte, XXIII, 97-107.四(巴黎, 1902年) ; LEMMENS在ROM 。 Quartalschrift ,十六, 93 sqq ;增值ORTROY在Analecta Bollandiana ,十八, 294 sqq 。二十四, 415 sqq ;德阿朗松在研究Franciscaines ,二, 646平方米;戈茨在雜誌的Kirchengeschichte ,二十三, 97-107 。 The rules of the three orders are printed in Seraphicae Legislationis Textus originates (Quaracchi, 1897).這些規則的三個訂單印刷Seraphicae Legislationis Textus源於( Quaracchi , 1897年) 。 A general conspectus of the Franciscan Order and its various branches is given in HOLZ-APPEL, Manuale, Historia, OFM (Freiburg, 1909); HEIM-BUCHER, Die Orden und Kongregationen (Paderborn, 1907); II, 307-533; also PATREM, Tableau synoptique de tout l Ordre Seraphique (Paris, 1879): and CUSACK, St. Francis and the Franciscans (New York, 1867).一般概論的濟秩序及其各分支機構是在木材,阿佩爾, Manuale ,歷史,外交使團辦公室(弗賴堡, 1909年) ;海姆,布赫爾,模具和Kongregationen勳章(帕德博恩, 1907年) ;二, 307-533 ;還PATREM ,畫面synoptique德招徠升勳章Seraphique (巴黎, 1879年) :和庫薩克,聖弗朗西斯和方濟會(紐約, 1867年) 。


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