Filioque Controversy Filioque爭議

General Information 一般信息

Protestant Perspective 新教透視

Based probably on the baptismal creed of Jerusalem, the Niceno - Constantinopolitan Creed contained a fuller statement concerning Christ and the Holy Spirit than the earlier formula.也許基於對信仰的洗禮耶路撒冷, Niceno -C onstantinopolitan信條載有充分的聲明和關於基督聖靈比以前的公式。 Its use in eucharistic worship is not much earlier than the 5th century.使用的聖體崇拜沒有多少早於公元5世紀。

The so - called Filioque ("and the Son") clause, expressing the double procession of the Spirit, was added at the Third Council of Toledo (589). The Nicene Creed is used by Roman Catholics, many Protestants, and the Eastern Orthodox; the last, however, reject the Filioque clause.所謂-所謂F ilioque( “與子” )的條款,表達了一倍遊行的精神,增加在第三次理事會托萊多( 5 89) 。尼西亞信經該所使用的羅馬天主教徒,許多新教徒和東正教;過去,但拒絕Filioque條款。

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Filioque

General Information 一般信息

Protestant Perspective 新教透視

Filioque is a combination of Latin words meaning "and from the Son," added to the Nicene Creed by the Third Council of Toledo in 589: Credo in Spiritum Sanctum qui ex patre filioque procedit ("I believe in the Holy Spirit who proceeds from the Father and Son"). It refers to the doctrine of the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son. Although it was accepted by the Western church as a belief by the end of the 4th century, the formula was not authorized for general liturgical use before the early part of the 11th century. Filioque結合了拉丁字的含義“ ,並從子” ,增加了尼西亞信經第三次理事會在589多: 信中Spiritum聖地歸仁前patre filioque procedit ( “我相信,在聖靈誰收益父與子“ ) 。 它指的是理論遊行聖靈由父子。雖然接受了西方教會的信仰年底前4世紀,公式是未經授權的一般禮儀使用前的早期部分的11世紀。 It was assailed vehemently by Photius, the patriarch of Constantinople (present-day Ýstanbul), in 867 and 879. The Eastern church did not accept the addition on two distinct grounds:這是強烈的抨擊Photius ,家長君士坦丁堡(現在的Ýstanbul ) ,在867和879 。 東部教會不接受另外的兩個不同的理由:

The filioque clause was probably devised in response to Arianism, which denied the full divinity of the Son. filioque條款的可能是制定針對Arianism ,這不能充分神的兒子。 To the Byzantines, however, the clause also appeared to compromise the primacy ("monarchy") of the Father, which according to the Eastern church is the source of deity.在拜占庭,但該條款也似乎妥協的首要( “君主立憲制” )的父親,而根據東歐教會是神源。 An unsuccessful attempt to reconcile the two points of view was made at the Council of Ferrara-Florence in 1439.未遂調和這兩種觀點是在安理會的費拉拉,佛羅倫薩在1439年。 The Eastern and Western churches have remained separate, and the doctrine represented by the term filioque stands as one of the primary points of difference between them.東部和西部教會仍然分開, 理論為代表的任期filioque已成為一個主要的點,兩者之間的差別。


Filioque

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The term means "and from the Son" and refers to the phrase in the Western version of the Nicene Creed which says that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. Originally this was not in the confessions agreed to at Nicaea (325) and Constantinople (381). It seems to have been first inserted at the local Council of Toledo (589) and in spite of opposition gradually established itself in the West, being officially endorsed in 1017. Photius of Constantinople denounced it in the ninth century, and it formed the main doctrinal issue in the rupture between East and West in 1054. An attempted compromise at Florence in 1439 came to nothing.這個詞意思是“ 從子” ,並提到了一句西方版本的尼西亞信經說,這聖靈收益父子。 原來這不是在供詞上商定尼西亞( 325 )和君士坦丁堡( 381 ) 。看來已經插入首次在地方理事會的托萊多( 589 ) ,儘管反對派逐漸確立了自己在西方,被正式批准在1017 。 Photius君士坦丁堡譴責它在第九世紀,它形成的主要理論問題的破裂東方與西方之間在1054年。妥協的企圖在佛羅倫薩在1439年來一無所獲。 Among the fathers Hilary, Jerome, Ambrose, Augustine, Epiphanius, and Cyril of Alexandria may be cited in its favor; Theodore of Mopsuestia and Theodoret against it; with the Cappadocians occupying the middle ground of "from the Father through the Son."在希拉里的父親,杰羅姆,劉漢銓,奧古斯丁,埃皮法尼烏斯,並西里爾亞歷山大可引的青睞;西奧多的Mopsuestia和Theodoret反對;與Cappadocians佔領了中間立場的“從父親的兒子。 ”

On the Eastern side two points may be made. 東側有兩點可以提出。 First, the relevant verse in John (15:26) speaks only of a proceeding from the Father. 首先,有關的詩句在約翰( 15:26 )僅一個從父。 Second, the addition never had ecumenical approval. 其次,除了從未有過基督教的批准。

Two points may also be made for the filioque. 兩點也可用於filioque 。 First, it safeguards the vital Nicene truth that the Son is consubstantial with the Father. 首先,它的重要保障尼西亞真理子是同質的父親。 Second, the Son as well as the Father sends the Spirit in John 15:26, and by analogy with this relationship to us we are justified in inferring that the Spirit proceeds from both Father and Son in the intratrinitarian relationship. Not to say this is to divorce the Spirit from the Son in contradiction of the passages that speak of him as the Spirit of Christ (cf. Rom. 8:9; Gal. 4:6). 第二,兒子以及父親的精神將在約翰15:26 ,並通過類比與這種關係對我們來說,我們有理由推斷精神收益兩父子在intratrinitarian關係。不說這是離婚精神的兒子在矛盾的段落說他是基督的精神(見光盤。 8時09分;半乳糖。 4:6 ) 。

GW Bromiley毛重Bromiley
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
K Barth, Church Dogmatics I / 1 12, 2; JND Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines; H Thielicke, The Evangelical Faith, II,; HB Swete, History of the Doctrine of the Procession of the Holy Spirit. K巴特,教會教義學的I / 12月1日, 2 ; JND凱利,早期基督教教義; H •悌理柯,福音派信仰,第二;正面Swete ,歷史主義的遊行聖靈。


Filioque

General Information 一般信息

Orthodox Perspective 東正教透視

By the 4th century a polarity developed between the Eastern and Western Christians in their respective understandings of the Trinity.由第四世紀極性發達國家之間的東歐和西歐基督徒在各自的理解三一。 In the West God was understood primarily in terms of one essence (the Trinity of Persons being conceived as an irrational truth found in revelation); in the East the tri-personality of God was understood as the primary fact of Christian experience.在西方上帝的理解主要方面的一個本質(三位一體的人被視為不合理的真理中發現的啟示) ;在東三人格的上帝被理解為主要事實,基督教的經驗。 For most of the Greek Fathers, it was not the Trinity that needed theological proof but rather God's essential unity.對於大多數的希臘教父,這不是三一神學需要證明,而是上帝的基本統一。 The Cappadocian Fathers (Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Basil of Caesarea) were even accused of being tri-theists because of the personalistic emphasis of their conception of God as one essence in three hypostases (the Greek term hypostasis was the equivalent of the Latin substantia and designated a concrete reality). For Greek theologians, this terminology was intended to designate the concrete New Testamental revelation of the Son and the Spirit, as distinct from the Father.在卡帕多細亞的父親(格里高利的果樹,格雷戈里的高利,和羅勒的愷撒) ,甚至被指控為三有神論者,因為personalistic強調其概念的上帝作為一個本質在三個hypostases (希任期本質相當於拉丁美洲質,並指定一個具體的現實) 。希臘神學家,這一術語的用意是指定具體的新Testamental啟示子和聖靈,不同於父親。

Modern Orthodox theologians tend to emphasize this personalistic approach to God; they claim that they discover in it the original biblical personalism, unadulterated in its content by later philosophical speculation.現代東正教神學往往強調這一點personalistic辦法,上帝,他們聲稱,他們發現在它原來的聖經人格,純正的內容後來哲學猜測。

Polarization of the Eastern and the Western concepts of the Trinity is at the root of the Filioque dispute. The Latin word Filioque ("and from the Son") was added to the Nicene Creed in Spain in the 6th century. By affirming that the Holy Spirit proceeds not only "from the Father" (as the original creed proclaimed) but also "from the Son," the Spanish councils intended to condemn Arianism by reaffirming the Son's divinity. Later, however, the addition became an anti-Greek battle cry, especially after Charlemagne (9th century) made his claim to rule the revived Roman Empire. 偏振東,西方的概念是三位一體的根源, Filioque爭端。拉丁詞Filioque ( “和子” )添加到尼西亞信經在西班牙6世紀。申明,羅馬精神收益的不僅是“從父” (如原來的信仰宣布) ,而且“從子” ,西班牙議會打算譴責Arianism重申兒子的神。後來,然而,除了成為一個反希臘戰鬥口號後,特別是查理曼(九世紀)提出了索賠的統治,恢復了羅馬帝國。 The addition was finally accepted in Rome under German pressure. It found justification in the framework of Western conceptions of the Trinity; the Father and the Son were viewed as one God in the act of "spiration" of the Spirit.此外終於在羅馬接受根據德國的壓力。還發現理由框架內的西方概念的三位一體;父子被視為一個上帝的行為“ spiration ”的精神。

The Byzantine theologians opposed the addition, first on the ground that the Western Church had no right to change the text of an ecumenical creed unilaterally and, second, because the Filioque clause implied the reduction of the divine persons to mere relations ("the Father and the Son are two in relation to each other, but one in relation to the Spirit"). For the Greeks the Father alone is the origin of both the Son and the Spirit. Patriarch Photius (9th century) was the first Orthodox theologian to explicitly spell out the Greek opposition to the Filioque concept, but the debate continued throughout the Middle Ages. 拜占庭神學家反對此外,首次在地面上,西方教會沒有權利改變文字的基督教信仰單方面第二,因為Filioque條款意味著減少了神聖的人僅僅關係( “父親和子是兩個相互關係,而是一個涉及精神“ ) 。對於希臘人父單獨的原產地是兩個子和聖靈。主教Photius (九世紀)是第一個東正教神學明確闡明了希臘反對Filioque的概念,但持續的辯論整個中世紀。


Filioque

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(An excerpt to our presentation regarding the Second Ecumenical Council, the First Council of Constantinople, of 381 AD, is presented here as indicating historical views on the subject.) (摘錄給我們介紹關於第二個基督教理事會,第一屆理事會君士坦丁堡,公元381名,是這裡的歷史表明對這個問題的看法。 )

Historical Excursus on the Introduction into the Creed of the Words "and the Son."歷史附錄引種到信條的詞“和兒子。 ”

The introduction into the Nicene Creed of the words "and the Son" (Filioque) has given rise to, or has been the pretext for, such bitter reviling between East and West (during which many statements unsupported by fact have become more or less commonly believed) that I think it well in this place to set forth as dispassionately as possible the real facts of the case.在引入的尼西亞信經“和子” ( Filioque )已引起,或已為藉口,這種痛苦的謾罵東方與西方之間(在這期間許多發言不受事實上已成為或多或少普遍相信) ,我認為它在這個地方來闡明的冷靜,盡可能真實案件事實。 I shall briefly then give the proof of the following propositions:我將簡要然後給予證明以下命題:

1. 1 。 That no pretence is made by the West that the words in dispute formed part of the original creed as adopted at Constantinople, or that they now form part of that Creed.沒有任何藉口是由西方國家的爭端字的組成部分的原始信仰上通過君士坦丁堡,或者說,他們現在組成部分的信條。

2. 2 。 That so far from the insertion being made by the Pope, it was made in direct opposition to his wishes and command.迄今從插入正在作出的教皇,它是直接反對他的願望和命令。

3. 3 。 That it never was intended by the words to assert that there were two 'Archai in the Trinity, nor in any respect on this point to differ from the teaching of the East.這是從來沒有的話斷言,有兩個' Archai在三一,也不在任何方面在這一點上,以不同的教學問題。

4. 4 。 That it is quite possible that the words were not an intentional insertion at all.這是很有可能的話是不是有意在所有插入。

5. 5 。 And finally that the doctrine of the East as set forth by St. John Damascene is now and always has been the doctrine of the West on the procession of the Holy Spirit, however much through ecclesiastico-political contingencies this fact may have become obscured.最後是學說東所闡述聖約翰大馬士革現在一直是理論的西方關於遊行聖靈,無論通過ecclesiastico政治突發事件這一事實可能已經模糊不清。

With the truth or falsity of the doctrine set forth by the Western addition to the creed this work has no concern, nor even am I called upon to treat the historical question as to when and where the expression "and the Son" was first used.隨著真理或謬誤的理論闡述西方除了信仰這項工作不關心,甚至我呼籲對待歷史問題,何時何地表達“與子”是首次使用。 For a temperate and eminently scholarly treatment of this point from a Western point of view, I would refer the reader to Professor Swete's On the History of the Doctrine of the Procession of the Holy Spirit.對於溫帶和突出的學術待遇這一點從西方的角度來看,我謹提及讀者Swete教授的論的歷史主義的遊行聖靈。 In JM Neale's History of the Holy Eastern Church will be found a statement from the opposite point of view. JM尼爾在歷史的東羅馬教會將找到一份聲明相反的觀點。 The great treatises of past years I need not mention here, but may be allowed to enter a warning to the reader, that they were often written in the period of hot controversy, and make more for strife than for peace, magnifying rather than lessening differences both of thought and expression.偉大的論文過去幾年我不需要在這裡提及,但可允許進入的警告讀者,他們往往是書面的時期熱點爭議,使更多的爭鬥比的和平,放大鏡,而不是減少分歧雙方的思想和言論自由。

Perhaps, too, I may be allowed here to remind the readers that it has been said that while "ex Patre Filioque procedens" in Latin does not necessitate a double source of the Holy Spirit, the expression ekporeuomenon ek tou patros kai ek tou Huiou does.或許,我也有可能被允許在這裡提醒讀者,它一直在說,雖然“前Patre Filioque procedens ”在拉丁美洲並不一定雙重來源聖靈,表達ekporeuomenon綻出頭patros偕綻出頭Huiou不。 On such a point I am not fit to give an opinion, but St. John Damascene does not use this expression.在這樣一個點,我不適合發表意見,但聖約翰大馬士革不使用這種提法。

1. 1 。 That no pretence is made by the West that the words in dispute ever formed part of the creed as adopted at Constantinople is evidently proved by the patent fact that it is printed without those words in all our Concilias and in all our histories.沒有任何藉口是由西方的話都在爭端的組成部分所通過的信條在君士坦丁堡,顯然是證明了專利的事實,即它是沒有印製這些話在我們所有的Concilias和所有我們的歷史。 It is true that at the Council of Florence it was asserted that the words were found in a copy of the Acts of the Seventh Ecumenical which they had, but no stress was even at that eminently Western council laid upon the point, which even if it had been the case would have shewn nothing with regard to the true reading of the Creed as adopted by the Second Synod.的確,在安理會的佛羅倫薩有人斷言,被發現的話在一份行為基督教第七他們,但沒有壓力即使在西方國家顯然奠定的一點,即使已的情況下將shewn方面沒有什麼真正的讀信條通過的第二次會議。 [210]On this point there never was nor can be any doubt. [ 210 ]在這一點上是從未有也不能有任何懷疑。

2. 2 。 The addition was not made at the will and at the bidding of the Pope.此外並沒有在意志和在招標教皇。 It has frequently been said that it was a proof of the insufferable arrogancy of the See of Rome that it dared to tamper with the creed set forth by the authority of an Ecumenical Synod and which had been received by the world.它經常被說,這是證明了難以忍受arrogancy的羅馬教廷,它敢於篡改教義規定由一個權威的基督教主教會議,並已收到世界各地。 Now so far from the history of this addition to the creed being a ground of pride and complacency to the advocates of the Papal claims, it is a most marked instance of the weakness of the papal power even in the West.現在,迄今為止歷史上的這一除了信仰被地面的驕傲和自滿的主張教皇聲稱,這是一個最顯著的實例的弱點,教皇權力即使是在西方。

"Baronius," says Dr. Pusey, "endeavours in vain to find any Pope, to whom the `formal addition' may be ascribed, and rests at last on a statement of a writer towards the end of the 12th century, writing against the Greeks. `If the Council of Constantinople added to the Nicene Creed, `in the Holy Ghost, the Lord, and Giver of life,' and the Council of Chalcedon to that of Constantinople, `perfect in Divinity and perfect in Humanity, consubstantial with the Father as touching his Godhead, consubstantial with us as touching his manhood,' and some other things as aforesaid, the Bishop of the elder Rome ought not to be calumniated, because for explanation, he added one word [that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Son] having the consent of very many bishops and most learned Cardinals.' “ Baronius , ”蒲賽博士說, “努力白費找到任何教宗,向他發出正式此外` '可歸咎於,並落在最後一個發言一個作家走向結束的12世紀,寫作對希臘人。 `如果安理會君士坦丁堡添加到尼西亞信經, `在聖靈,上帝,並賜予的生命, '和理事會的迦克墩到君士坦丁堡, `完美的神和完美的人性,同質同父親為他神體感人,同質同我們接觸他的男子漢氣概,和其他一些東西前述,主教老羅馬不應該誣衊,因為解釋,他說一個字[即聖靈收益子]具有非常同意許多主教和樞機最教訓。 `For the truth of which,' says Le Quien, `be the author responsible!' `真相其中,樂Quien說, `作者是負責任的! It seems to me inconceivable, that all account of any such proceeding, if it ever took place, should have been lost."在我看來,似乎不可思議,所有帳戶的任何此類程序,如果它發生,應已丟失。 “ [211] [ 211 ]

We may then dismiss this point and briefly review the history of the matter.然後,我們可能會駁回了這一點,並簡要地回顧歷史的問題。

There seems little doubt that the words were first inserted in Spain. As early as the year 400 it had been found necessary at a Council of Toledo to affirm the double procession against the Priscillianists, [212] and in 589 by the authority of the Third Council of Toledo the newly converted Goths were required to sign the creed with the addition.人們似乎毫無疑問,話是第一次在西班牙插入。早在400年已發現有必要在托萊多理事會確認遊行的雙重打擊Priscillianists , [ 212 ]和589的權威的第三托萊多安理會新轉換的哥特人被要求簽署的信條加上。 [213]From this time it became for Spain the accepted form, and was so recited at the Eighth Council of Toledo in 653, and again in 681 at the Twelfth Council of Toledo. [ 213 ]從這個時候它成為西班牙接受的形式,並背誦,以便在第八屆理事會的托萊多在653和681再次在第十二屆理事會托萊多。 [214] [ 214 ]

But this was at first only true of Spain, and at Rome nothing of the kind was known.但是,這是第一次真正的西班牙,並沒有在羅馬的那種是眾所周知的。 In the Gelasian Sacramentary the Creed is found in its original form.在Gelasian Sacramentary的信條是在其原有形態。 [215]The same is the case with the old Gallican Sacramentary of the vii th or viii th century. [ 215 ]相同的情況下與舊的高盧聖Sacramentary的第七或八世紀 [216] [ 216 ]

However, there can be no doubt that its introduction spread very rapidly through the West and that before long it was received practically everywhere except at Rome.但是,毫無疑問,它的引進蔓延十分迅速通過西部和,不久收到它幾乎無處不在羅馬除外。

In 809 a council was held at Aix-la-Chapelle by Charlemagne, and from it three divines were sent to confer with the Pope, Leo III, upon the subject.在809理事會舉行阿亨的查理曼,從三個divines被送往同教皇利奧三世時,這一問題。 The Pope opposed the insertion of the Filioque on the express ground that the General Councils had forbidden any addition to be made to their formulary.教皇反對插入Filioque上表示,地面,總務委員會已禁止任何除了作他們的處方。 [217]Later on, the Frankish Emperor asked his bishops what was "the meaning of the Creed according to the Latins," [218] and Fleury gives the result of the investigations to have been, "In France they continued to chant the creed with the word Filioque, and at Rome they continued not to chant it." [ 217 ]後來,法蘭克皇帝問他的主教是什麼“的含義信條按照拉丁人, ” [ 218 ]和弗勒裡給出了結果的調查已“ ,在法國他們繼續唱的信條這個詞Filioque ,並在羅馬,他們繼續不詠它。 “ [219] [ 219 ]

So firmly resolved was the Pope that the clause should not be introduced into the creed that he presented two silver shields to the Confessio in St. Peter's at Rome, on one of which was engraved the creed in Latin and on the other in Greek, without the addition.所以下定決心是教皇,該條款不應當引入的信條,他提出了兩個銀盾的Confessio在聖彼得在羅馬,對其中之一是在信仰刻在拉丁美洲和其他希臘,而不增加。 This act the Greeks never forgot during the controversy.這種行為希臘人從來沒有忘記在爭議。 Photius refers to it in writing to the Patriarch of Acquileia. Photius它是指以書面形式向Acquileia主教。 About two centuries later St. Peter Damian [220] mentions them as still in place; and about two centuries later on, Veccur, Patriarch of Constantinople, declares they hung there still.大約兩百年後聖彼得達米安[ 220 ]提到他們仍然存在;約兩個世紀後, Veccur ,君士坦丁堡牧首,宣布他們還有掛。 [221] [ 221 ]

It was not till 1014 that for the first time the interpolated creed was used at mass with the sanction of the Pope.這不是到1014 ,在第一次信仰是插在大規模使用的制裁教皇。 In that year Benedict VIII.在這一年篤八。 acceded to the urgent request of Henry II.加入了迫切要求亨利二世。 of Germany and so the papal authority was forced to yield, and the silver shields have disappeared from St. Peter's.德國和教宗的權力而被迫屈服,以及銀盾已經消失的聖彼得。

3. 3 。 Nothing could be clearer than that the theologians of the West never had any idea of teaching a double source of the Godhead.沒有什麼可以比這更清晰的神學西方從未有過任何想法,教學的雙重來源神體。 The doctrine of the Divine Monarchy was always intended to be preserved, and while in the heat of the controversy sometimes expressions highly dangerous, or at least clearly inaccurate, may have been used, yet the intention must be judged from the prevailing teaching of the approved theologians.該理論的神聖君主制一直打算予以保留,同時在激烈的爭議,有時表現非常危險的,或者至少清楚準確,可能已被使用,但必須是打算從判斷當前的教學批准神學。 And what this was is evident from the definition of the Council of Florence, which, while indeed it was not received by the Eastern Church, and therefore cannot be accepted as an authoritative exposition of its views, yet certainly must be regarded as a true and full expression of the teaching of the West.什麼,這是很明顯的定義理事會佛羅倫薩,雖然的確是沒有收到由東方教會,因此不能接受作為一個權威的論斷,其觀點,但一定要被視為真正的和充分體現了教學的西方。 "The Greeks asserted that when they say the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father, they do not use it because they wish to exclude the Son; but because it seemed to them, as they say, that the Latins assert the Holy Spirit to proceed from the Father and the Son, as from two principles and by two spirations, and therefore they abstain from saying that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. But the Latins affirm that they have no intention when they say the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son to deprive the Father of his prerogative of being the fountain and principle of the entire Godhead, viz. of the Son and of the Holy Ghost; nor do they deny that the very procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son, the Son derives from the Father; nor do they teach two principles or two spirations; but they assert that there is one only principle, one only spiration, as they have always asserted up to this time." “希臘人聲稱,當他們說,聖靈從父,他們不使用它,因為他們希望排除的兒子,但因為它似乎給他們,因為他們說,這種主張的拉丁人聖靈要從父子,從兩項原則和兩個spirations ,因此他們棄權說,聖靈的收益父子。但拉丁人申明,它們不打算時,他們說,聖靈收益父子剝奪他父親的特權被噴泉和原則,整個神體,即。子和聖靈;也不否認,非常遊行的聖靈的兒子,子來自父親;也不教兩個原則或兩個spirations ,但他們聲稱,有一個唯一的原則,只有一個spiration ,因為他們一直聲稱這一行動的時間。 “

4. 4 。 It is quite possible that when these words were first used there was no knowledge on the part of those using them that there had been made any addition to the Creed.很可能這些話時,首次使用了沒有知識的一部分,那些使用他們,有作出任何除了信條。 As I have already pointed out, the year 589 is the earliest date at which we find the words actually introduced into the Creed.正如我已經指出,今年是589的最早日期上,我們找到的話實際上引入信條。 Now there can be no doubt whatever that the Council of Toledo of that year had no suspicion that the creed as they had it was not the creed exactly as adopted at Constantinople. This is capable of the most ample proof.現在可以毫無疑問的是,安理會的托萊多的這一年沒有任何懷疑,因為他們的信條了,這並非信仰完全一樣通過君士坦丁堡。這是能夠最充分的證據。

In the first place they declared, "Whosoever believes that there is any other Catholic faith and communion, besides that of the Universal Church, that Church which holds and honours the decrees of the Councils of Nice, Constantinople, I. Ephesus, and Chalcedon, let him be anathema."首先,他們宣布, “任何人認為有其他任何信仰天主教和共融,除了是普世教會,該教會擁有和榮譽的法令安理會尼斯,君士坦丁堡,一以弗所,並迦克墩,讓他被詛咒。 “ After some further anathemas in the same sense they repeat "the creed published at the council of Nice," and next, "The holy faith which the 150 fathers of the Council of Constantinople explained, consonant with the great Council of Nice."經過進一步anathemas在同樣的意義,他們重複“的信條發表在安理會尼斯, ”明年, “神聖信仰的150父親理事會君士坦丁堡解釋,符合安理會的偉大尼斯。 ” And then lastly, "The holy faith which the translators of the council of Chalcedon explained."然後最後說: “神聖的信仰筆譯理事會的卡爾西解釋說。 ” The creed of Constantinople as recited contained the words "and from the Son."的信條君士坦丁堡作為背誦載的話“ ,並從兒子。 ” Now the fathers at Toledo were not ignorant of the decree of Ephesus forbidding the making of "another faith" (heteran pistin) for they themselves cite it, as follows from the acts of Chalcedon; "The holy and universal Synod forbids to bring forward any other faith; or to write or believe or to teach other, or be otherwise minded. But whoso shall dare either to expound or produce or deliver any other faith to those who wish to be converted etc."現在,父親在托萊多不知道該法令禁止以弗所作出的“另一種信仰” ( heteran pistin )為他們自己舉,因為如下的行為迦克墩“ ;神聖和普遍禁止向議會提出任何其他信仰,或寫或相信或其他教,或有其他想法。 whoso ,但不敢也應闡述或生產或提供其他任何信仰的人誰願意要轉換等等“ Upon this Dr. Pusey well remarks, [222] "It is, of course, impossible to suppose that they can have believed any addition to the creed to have been forbidden by the clause, and, accepting it with its anathema, themselves to have added to the creed of Constantinople."在此博士蒲賽以及言論, [ 222 ] “這當然是不可能的假設,他們可以相信任何除了信仰已被禁止的條款,並接受它的詛咒,自己有添加到君士坦丁堡的信條。 “

But while this is the case it might be that they understood heteran of the Ephesine decree to forbid the making of contradictory and new creeds and not explanatory additions to the existing one.但是,在這種情況下它可能是因為他們理解heteran的Ephesine法令,禁止製造矛盾和新的信仰,而不是解釋性補充現有的。 Of this interpretation of the decree, which would seem without any doubt to be the only tenable one, I shall treat in its proper place.這種解釋法令,這似乎毫無疑問是唯一站得住腳的,我應將其適當的位置。

We have however further proof that the Council of Toledo thought they were using the unaltered creed of Constantinople.然而我們必須進一步證明,安理會的托萊多以為他們是利用原有的信仰君士坦丁堡。 In these acts we find they adopted the following; "for reverence of the most holy faith and for the strengthening of the weak minds of men, the holy Synod enacts, with the advice of our most pious and most glorious Lord, King Recarede, that through all the churches of Spain and Gallæcia, the symbol of faith of the council of Constantinople, ie of the 150 bishops, should be recited according to the form of the Eastern Church, etc."在這些行為,我們發現他們通過以下; “的崇敬的最神聖的信仰和加強薄弱頭腦,神聖的主教會議制定的建議,我們最虔誠和最輝煌的上帝,國王Recarede ,這所有的教堂,西班牙和Gallæcia的象徵信仰理事會的君士坦丁堡,即150主教,應當根據朗誦的形式,東歐教會等“

This seems to make the matter clear and the next question which arises is, How the words could have got into the Spanish creed?這似乎使問題明確,接下來的問題而產生的,如何的話可以進入西班牙的信條? I venture to suggest a possible explanation.我冒昧地提出一個可能的解釋。 Epiphanius tells us that in the year 374 "all the orthodox bishops of the whole Catholic Church together make this address to those who come to baptism, in order that they may proclaim and say as follows."埃皮法尼烏斯告訴我們,在今年374 “所有的東正教會主教整個天主教會共同使這個地址對那些誰來的洗禮,使他們可在宣布說如下。 ” [223]If this is to be understood literally of course Spain was included. [ 223 ]如果這是可以理解字面當然西班牙被列入。 Now the creed thus taught the catechumens reads as follows at the point about which our interest centres:現在的信條從而教導慕道如下點左右,我們的興趣中心:

Kai eis to hagion pneuma pisteuomen,...ek tou patros ekporeuomenon kai ek tou Huiou lambanomenon kai pisteuomenon, eis mian katholiken ktl Now it looks to me as if the text had got corrupted and that there should be a full stop after lambanomenon, and that pisteuomenon should be pisteuomen.啟順向hagion元氣pisteuomen , ...綻出頭patros ekporeuomenon偕綻出頭Huiou lambanomenon偕pisteuomenon ,順棉katholiken ktl現在看來,我好像案文得到損壞,所以應全面停止後, lambanomenon ,並這pisteuomenon應pisteuomen 。 These emendations are not necessary however for my suggestion although they would make it more perfect, for in that case by the single omission of the word lambanomenon the Western form is obtained.這些emendations是沒有必要的但是我的建議儘管他們將使它更加完美,為在這種情況下,由單一的疏漏一詞lambanomenon西方的形式獲得。 It will be noticed that this was some years before the Constantinopolitan Council and therefore nothing would be more natural than that a scribe accustomed to writing the old baptismal creed and now given the Constantinopolitan creed, so similar to it, to copy, should have gone on and added the kai ek tou Huiou, according to habit.這將是注意到,這是幾年前的Constantinopolitan安理會,因此沒有將再自然不過的抄寫寫習慣於舊的洗禮信仰和現在給予Constantinopolitan的信條,所以它相似的,複製,應該去上並增加了開綻出頭Huiou ,根據習慣。

However this is a mere suggestion, I think I have shewn that there is strong reason to believe that whatever the explanation may be, the Spanish Church was unaware that it had added to or changed the Constantinopolitan creed.然而,這僅僅是一種建議,我想我已經shewn ,有強有力的理由相信,無論解釋可能是,西班牙教會不知道,它已增加或更改Constantinopolitan信條。

5. 5 。 There remains now only the last point, which is the most important of all, but which does not belong to the subject matter of this volume and which therefore I shall treat with the greatest brevity.還有現在只有最後一點,這是最重要的,但不屬於標的物的數量和,因此我將治療最大的簡潔。 The writings of St. John Damascene are certainly deemed entirely orthodox by the Easterns and always have been.著作聖約翰大馬士革當然是被認為完全正統的東方,始終已。 On the other hand their entire orthodoxy has never been disputed in the West, but a citation from Damascene is considered by St. Thomas as conclusive.另一方面他們的整個正統從來沒有在有爭議的西方世界,而是引用來自大馬士革被認為是聖托馬斯作為最後定論。 Under these circumstances it seems hard to resist the conclusion that the faith of the East and the West, so far as its official setting forth is concerned, is the same and always has been.在這種情況下,似乎難以抗拒的結論是,信仰的東方和西方,迄今作為其官方規定而言,是相同的,並一直。 And perhaps no better proof of the Western acceptance of the Eastern doctrine concerning the eternal procession of the Holy Spirit can be found than the fact that St.也許沒有更好的證明了西方接受理論東部關於永恆的遊行聖靈可以找到比一個事實,即街 John Damascene has been in recent years raised by the pope for his followers to the rank of a Doctor of the Catholic Church.約翰大馬士革已經在最近幾年所提出的教皇為他的追隨者的行列博士天主教。

Perhaps I may be allowed to close with two moderate statements of the Western position, the one by the learned and pious Dr. Pusey and the other by the none less famous Bishop Pearson.也許我有可能被允許雙方密切與溫和的聲明中西方的立場,一個由經驗教訓和虔誠的蒲賽博士和其他的沒有那麼著名的主教皮爾遜。

Dr. Pusey says:蒲賽博士說:

"Since, however, the clause, which found its way into the Creed, was, in the first instance, admitted, as being supposed to be part of the Constantinopolitan Creed, and, since after it had been rooted for 200 years, it was not uprooted, for fear of uprooting also or perplexing the faith of the people, there was no fault either in its first reception or in its subsequent retention." “但是,由於該條款,發現其進入信條是,在一審承認,作為理應部分Constantinopolitan信條,並自後,已經紮根200年,有人沒有連根拔起,怕也連根拔起或令人費解的信念的人,沒有過錯無論是在其第一次接待或在其隨後的保留。 “

"The Greeks would condemn forefathers of their own, if they were to pronounce the clause to be heretical. For it would be against the principles of the Church to be in communion with an heretical body. But from the deposition of Photius, ad 886 to at least ad 1009, East and West retained their own expression of faith without schism. [224] " “希臘人的祖先會譴責自己,如果他們宣布的條款是邪教。對於將違背了教會的共融中與邪教的機構。但是從沉積Photius ,廣告886到至少廣告1009年,東非和西非保留表達自己的信仰而分裂。 [ 224 ] “

"ad 1077, Theophylact did not object to the West, retaining for itself the confession of faith contained in the words, but only excepted against the insertion of the words in the Creed. [225] " “廣告1077年, Theophylact並不反對西方國家,保留自己的供詞所載的信念的話,但只對例外添加的信條。 [ 225 ] ”

And Bp.和BP 。 Pearson, explaining Article VIII.皮爾遜,解釋第八條。 of the Creed says: "Now although the addition of words to the formal Creed without the consent, and against the protestations of the Oriental Church be not justifiable; yet that which was added is nevertheless a certain truth, and may be so used in that Creed by them who believe the same to be a truth; so long as they pretend it not to be a definition of that Council, but an addition or explication inserted, and condemn not those who, out of a greater respect to such synodical determinations, will admit of no such insertions, nor speak any other language than the Scriptures and their Fathers spoke."的信條說: “現在雖然除了字的正式信條的同意,並針對抗議的東方教會是沒有道理,但認為這是增加還是有一定的真理,可能是這樣用的他們信條誰相信,相同的是一個真理;只要他們假裝這不是一個定義,安理會,但除了插入或解釋,並譴責那些誰沒有,在更大的尊重等synodical決定,會承認沒有這樣的插入,也不講任何其他語言的聖經,並以他們的父輩。 “


Footnotes腳註

[210] In fact the contention of the Latins was that the words were inserted by II. [ 210 ]事實上,爭論的拉丁人的是,話是插入二。 Nice!好的! To this the Easterns answered most pertinently "Why did you not tell us this long ago?"為了這個東方最切中要害的回答“你為什麼沒有告訴我們這個很久以前? ” They were not so fortunate when they insisted that St. Thomas would have quoted it, for some scholars have thought St. Thomas but ill acquainted with the proceedings at the Seventh Synod.他們沒有這麼幸運時,他們堅持認為,聖托馬斯將引用它,對於一些學者認為聖托馬斯,但虐待熟悉法律程序的第七次會議。 Vide Hefele, Concil.視頻Hefele , Concil 。 XLVIII., § 810. [211] EB Pusey.四十八。 , § 810 。 [ 211 ]電子束蒲賽。 On the clause "and The Son," p.論條款“的兒子” ,頁 68. [212] Hefele. 68 。 [ 212 ] Hefele 。 Hist.歷史。 of the Councils, Vol.安理會卷。 III., p.三。頁 175. [213] Hefele. 175 。 [ 213 ] Hefele 。 Hist.歷史。 Counc., Vol. Counc 。卷。 IV., p.四。頁 416. [214] Hefele. 416 。 [ 214 ] Hefele 。 Hist.歷史。 Counc., Vol. Counc 。卷。 IV., p.四。頁 470; Vol. 470 ;卷。 V., p.五,第 208. [215] Muratorius. 208 。 [ 215 ] Muratorius 。 Ord.奧德。 Rom., Tom.光碟。 ,湯姆。 I., col.一,山口。 541. [216] Mabillon. 541 。 [ 216 ] Mabillon 。 Mus.小家鼠。 Ital., Tom.意大利。 ,湯姆。 I., p.一,第 313 and p. 313頁 376. [217] Labbe and Cossart. 376 。 [ 217 ]拉韋和科薩特。 Concilia, Tom. Concilia ,湯姆。 vii., col.七。山口。 1194. [218] Capit. 1194 。 [ 218 ]資本。 Reg. 64347 。 Franc., Tom.法郎。 ,湯姆。 I., p.一,第 483. [219] Fleury. 483 。 [ 219 ]弗勒裡。 Hist.歷史。 Eccl., Liv.傳道書。 ,麗芙。 xlv., chap.第四十五。 ,第三章。 48. [220] Pet. 48 。 [ 220 ]寵物。 Damian.達米安。 Opusc., xxxviii. [221] Leo Allat. Opusc 。 ,三十八。 [ 221 ]利奧Allat 。 Græc. Græc 。 Orthod., Tom. Orthod 。 ,湯姆。 I., p.一,第 173. [222] EB Pusey. 173 。 [ 222 ]電子束蒲賽。 On the clause, "and the Son," p.論條款, “和兒子, ”頁 48. [223] Epiphanius, Ancoratus, cxx. [224] Peter of Antioch about ad 1054, says that he had heard the name of the Roman Pontiff recited from the Diptychs at the mass at Constantinople forty-five years before. 48 。 [ 223 ]埃皮法尼烏斯, Ancoratus , cxx 。 [ 224 ]彼得安提阿的有關廣告1054說,他聽到的名字背誦羅馬教皇從Diptychs在君士坦丁堡大眾在四五年前。 Le Quien, p.樂Quien頁 xii. [225] EB Pusey.十二。 [ 225 ]電子束蒲賽。 On the clause "and the Son," p.論條款“和兒子, ”頁 72. 72 。


Filioque

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Filioque is a theological formula of great dogmatic and historical importance. On the one hand, it expresses the Procession of the Holy Ghost from both Father and Son as one Principle; on the other, it was the occasion of the Greek schism. Both aspects of the expression need further explanation. Filioque是一個神學公式的偉大教條的和歷史的重要性。一方面,它表達了遊行的聖靈從父與子作為一個原則;另一方面,它是為紀念希臘的分裂。兩個方面表達需要作進一步的解釋。

I. DOGMATIC MEANING OF FILIOQUE一,教條式的意義FILIOQUE

The dogma of the double Procession of the Holy Ghost from Father and Son as one Principle is directly opposed to the error that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father, not from the Son.該教條的雙重遊行的聖靈從父與子的一個原則是直接反對錯誤的聖靈從父,而不是從子。 Neither dogma nor error created much difficulty during the course of the first four centuries.無論錯誤的教條,也沒有造成很大的困難過程中,頭四個世紀。 Macedonius and his followers, the so-called Pneumatomachi, were condemned by the local Council of Alexandria (362) and by Pope St. Damasus (378) for teaching that the Holy Ghost derives His origin from the Son alone, by creation. Macedonius和他的追隨者,即所謂的Pneumatomachi ,被譴責的地方理事會的亞歷山德里亞( 362 )和教宗聖達瑪斯( 378 )教學的聖靈源於他的原產地單獨的兒子,通過創造。 If the creed used by the Nestorians, which was composed probably by Theodore of Mopsuestia, and the expressions of Theodoret directed against the ninth anathema by Cyril of Alexandria, deny that the Holy Ghost derives His existence from or through the Son, they probably intend to deny only the creation of the Holy Ghost by or through the Son, inculcating at the same time His Procession from both Father and Son.如果信仰所使用的Nestorians ,這是可能的組成西奧多的Mopsuestia ,並表達Theodoret針對第九屆詛咒的西里爾亞歷山大否認聖靈源於他的存在或通過兒子,他們可能打算否認只設立了聖靈或通過子,灌輸在同一時間他的遊行從父與子。 At any rate, if the double Procession of the Holy Ghost was discussed at all in those earlier times, the controversy was restricted to the East and was of short duration.無論如何,如果雙重遊行的聖靈討論了所有在那些較早時候,爭議僅限於東亞和是短暫的。

The first undoubted denial of the double Procession of the Holy Ghost we find in the seventh century among the heretics of Constantinople when St. Martin I (649-655), in his synodal writing against the Monothelites, employed the expression "Filioque".第一個不容置疑的否定的雙重遊行的聖靈我們發現在第七世紀的異端君士坦丁堡時,聖馬丁口( 649-655 ) ,在他的書面主教會議對Monothelites ,受僱的表達“ Filioque ” 。 Nothing is known about the further development of this controversy; it does not seem to have assumed any serious proportions, as the question was not connected with the characteristic teaching of the Monothelites.沒有人知道關於進一步發展這一爭議;似乎並不承擔任何嚴重的地步,因為這個問題是不是與特色教學的Monothelites 。

In the Western church the first controversy concerning the double Procession of the Holy Ghost was conducted with the envoys of the Emperor Constantine Copronymus, in the Synod of Gentilly near Paris, held in the time of Pepin (767).在西方教會的第一個爭議,關於雙重遊行的聖靈進行的特使Copronymus皇帝君士坦丁,在主教會議Gentilly在巴黎附近舉行的時間丕平( 767 ) 。 The synodal Acts and other information do not seem to exist.行為的主教和其他信息似乎並不存在。 At the beginning of nineth century, John, a Greek monk of the monastery of St. Sabas, charged the monks of Mt.年初九世紀,約翰,希臘僧人的寺院街Sabas ,負責僧侶山。 Olivet with heresy, they had inserted the Filioque into the Creed.奧利韋與異端,他們插入到Filioque信條。 In the second half the same century, Photius, the successor of the unjustly deposed Ignatius, Patriarch of Constantinople (858), denied the Procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son, and opposed the insertion of the Filioque into the Constantinopolitan creed.在下半場同樣的世紀, Photius ,繼承了不公正的廢黜伊格內修,主教君士坦丁堡( 858 ) ,剝奪了遊行的聖靈的兒子,並反對插入Filioque到Constantinopolitan信條。 The same position was maintained towards the end of the tenth century by the Patriarchs Sisinnius and Sergius, and about the middle of the eleventh century by the Patriarch Michael Caerularius, who renewed and completed the Greek schism.同樣的立場是保持接近年底的10世紀的始祖Sisinnius和塞爾吉烏斯,以及中間的11世紀的主教邁克爾Caerularius ,誰恢復並完成了希臘的分裂。

The rejection of the Filioque, or the double Procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father and Son, and the denial of the primacy of the Roman Pontiff constitute even today the principal errors of the Greek church.拒絕Filioque ,或雙遊行的聖靈從父與子,並剝奪的首要羅馬教皇甚至在今天構成的主要錯誤的希臘教堂。 While outside the Church doubt as to the double Procession of the Holy Ghost grew into open denial, inside the Church the doctrine of the Filioque was declared to be a dogma of faith in the Fourth Lateran Council (1215), the Second council of Lyons (1274), and the Council of Florence (1438-1445).雖然教會以外的疑問,雙重遊行的聖靈成長為公開否認,教會內的理論Filioque被宣布為教條的信念第四次拉特蘭會議( 1215 ) ,第二次理事會萊昂斯( 1274 ) ,以及理事會的佛羅倫薩( 1438年至1445年) 。 Thus the Church proposed in a clear and authoritative form the teaching of Sacred Scripture and tradition on the Procession of the Third Person of the Holy Trinity.因此,教會提出的一個明確的和權威性的形式教學中的聖經和傳統的加工第三人的聖三一。

As to the Sacred Scripture, the inspired writers call the Holy Ghost the Spirit of the Son (Galatians 4:6), the Spirit of Christ (Romans 8:9), the Spirit of Jesus Christ (Philippians 1:19), just as they call Him the Spirit of the Father (Matthew 10:20) and the Spirit of God (1 Corinthians 2:11).至於聖經,作者的靈感致電聖靈精神的兒子(加拉太4:6 ) ,精神的基督(羅馬書8時09 ) ,精神耶穌基督(腓利1點19分) ,就像他們呼籲他的精神之父(馬太10:20 )和上帝的聖靈(哥林多前書2點11 ) 。 Hence they attribute to the Holy Ghost the same relation to the Son as to the Father.因此,他們的屬性聖靈同有關兒子的父親。

Again, according to Sacred Scripture, the Son sends the Holy Ghost (Luke 24:49; John 15:26; 16:7; 20:22; Acts 2:33; Titus 3:6), just as the Father sends the Son (Romans 3:3; etc.), and as the Father sends the Holy Ghost (John 14:26).再次,根據聖經的兒子,發出了聖靈(路24:49 ;約翰15:26 ;十六時07 ; 20:22 ;行為2時33分;泰特斯3點06 ) ,正如父親發出了兒子(羅馬書3時03 ;等) ,以及作為父親發出了聖靈(約14:26 ) 。

Now the "mission" or "sending" of one Divine Person by another does not mean merely that the Person said to be sent assumes a particular character, at the suggestion of Himself in the character of Sender, as the Sabellians maintained; nor does it imply any inferiority in the Person sent, as the Arians taught; but it denotes, according to the teaching of the weightier theologians and Fathers, the Procession of the Person sent from the Person Who sends.現在的“任務”或“發送”一個神人的另一個並不意味著只是該人說是被假設某一性質,在自己建議的性質寄件人,作為Sabellians保持不變;也不意味著有任何自卑的人發出,因為Arians教,但它表示,根據教學的重神學家和父親,遊行的人發送的人發送。 Sacred Scripture never presents the Father as being sent by the Son, nor the Son as being sent by the Holy Ghost.聖經從未提出了作為父親發出的兒子,也不是兒子被送往由聖靈。 The very idea of the term "mission" implies that the person sent goes forth for a certain purpose by the power of the sender, a power exerted on the person sent by way of a physical impulse, or of a command, or of prayer, or finally of production; now, Procession, the analogy of production, is the only manner admissible in God.在這個想法的任期“使命” ,意味著人不用來回發送某一目的的權力,發件人,施加權力的人通過發送身體的衝動,或命令,或祈禱,或最終的生產;現在,遊行,這個比喻的生產,是唯一的方式接納為上帝。 It follows that the inspired writers present the Holy Ghost as proceeding from the Son, since they present Him as sent by the Son. Finally, St. John (16:13-15) gives the words of Christ: "What things soever he [the Spirit] shall hear, he shall speak; ...he shall receive of mine, and shew it to you. All things whatsoever the Father hath, are mine."因此,作家的啟發目前,聖靈作為出發點的兒子,因為他目前所發出的兒子。最後,聖約翰( 16:13-15 )為的話耶穌: “什麼事情soever他[精神]應聽到,他應講; ...他應獲得的地雷,並蔡堅給您。萬物何父上帝,是我的。 “ Here a double consideration is in place.這裡的雙重考慮到位。 First, the Son has all things that the Father hath, so that He must resemble the Father in being the Principle from which the Holy Ghost proceeds.首先,兒子所有的事情父上帝,所以他必須象在父親的原理是從聖靈收益。 Secondly, the Holy Ghost shall receive "of mine" according to the words of the Son; but Procession is the only conceivable way of receiving which does not imply dependence or inferiority.其次,聖靈,應領取“地雷”根據的話的兒子,但遊行是唯一可以想像的方式接收這並不意味著依賴或自卑。 In other words, the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son.換句話說,聖靈所得的兒子。

The teaching of Sacred Scripture on the double Procession of the Holy Ghost was faithfully preserved in Christian tradition.教學中的聖經上的雙重遊行的聖靈是忠實地保存在基督教傳統。 Even the Greek Orthodox grant that the Latin Fathers maintain the Procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son.即使是希臘東正教授予的拉丁教父維持遊行的聖靈的兒子。 The great work on the Trinity by Petavius (Lib. VII, cc. iii sqq.) develops the proof of this contention at length.偉大的工作三位一體的Petavius ( Lib.七,抄送。 ㈢ sqq 。 )開發的證明這一論點的長度。 Here we mention only some of the later documents in which the patristic doctrine has been clearly expressed:在這裡,我們只提及一些後來的文件中教父的理論已經明確表示:

the dogmatic letter of St. Leo I to Turribius, Bishop of Astorga, Ep.信的教條式的聖利奧一世以Turribius ,主教阿斯託加內啡肽。 XV, c.第十五角 i (447);口( 447 ) ;

the so-called Athanasian Creed;所謂Athanasian信條;

several councils held at Toledo in the years 447, 589 (III), 675 (XI), 693 (XVI);一些議會托萊多舉行的幾年中447 , 589 (三) , 675 (十一) , 693 (十六) ;

the letter of Pope Hormisdas to the Emperor Justius, Ep.信教皇卡爾米斯達斯皇帝Justius ,內啡肽。 lxxix (521); lxxix ( 521 ) ;

St. Martin I's synodal utterance against the Monothelites, 649-655;聖馬丁本人的話語主教會議對Monothelites , 649-655 ;

Pope Adrian I's answer to the Caroline Books, 772-795;亞德我的答案,卡羅琳圖書, 772-795 ;

the Synods of Mérida (666), Braga (675), and Hatfield (680);在Synods的梅里達( 666 ) ,布拉加( 675 ) ,並哈特菲爾德( 680 ) ;

the writing of Pope Leo III (d. 816) to the monks of Jerusalem;撰寫教皇利奧三世(草816 )的僧侶耶路撒冷;

the letter of Pope Stephen V (d. 891) to the Moravian King Suentopolcus (Suatopluk), Ep.信司提反V (草891 )的摩拉維亞國王Suentopolcus ( Suatopluk ) ,內啡肽。 xiii;十三;

the symbol of Pope Leo IX (d. 1054);象徵教皇利奧九(草1054年) ;

the Fourth Lateran Council, 1215;第四次拉特蘭理事會, 1215 ;

the Second Council of Lyons, 1274; and the第二屆理事會的里昂, 1274年和

Council of Florence, 1439.理事會佛羅倫薩, 1439 。

Some of the foregoing conciliar documents may be seen in Hefele, "Conciliengeschichte" (2d ed.), III, nn.一些conciliar上述文件可以看出在Hefele , “ Conciliengeschichte ” ( 2版。 ) ,三,神經網絡。 109, 117, 252, 411; cf. 109 , 117 , 252 , 411 ;比照。 PG XXVIII, 1557 sqq.前列腺素二十八, 1557 sqq 。 Bessarion, speaking in the Council of Florence, inferred the tradition of the Greek Church from the teaching of the Latin; since the Greek and Latin Fathers before the ninth century were the members of the same Church, it is antecedently improbable that the Eastern Fathers should have denied a dogma firmly maintained by the Western.貝薩利昂發言,在安理會中的佛羅倫薩,推斷的傳統希臘教會從教學的拉丁美洲;以來,希臘和拉丁教父面前的是九世紀的成員相同的教會,這是先行難以置信的東歐父親應已否認教條堅決維護西方。 Moreover, there are certain considerations which form a direct proof for the belief of the Greek Fathers in the double Procession of the Holy Ghost.此外,還有一些因素,形成一個直接證據的信念,父親在希臘的雙重遊行的聖靈。

First, the Greek Fathers enumerate the Divine Persons in the same order as the Latin Fathers; they admit that the Son and the Holy Ghost are logically and ontologically connected in the same way as the Son and Father [St.首先,希臘父親列舉神的人在同一順序的拉丁教父;承認,他們的兒子和聖靈邏輯和ontologically連接相同的方式作為兒子和父親[街 Basil, Ep. cxxv; Ep.巴西爾,內啡肽。第CXXV號;內啡肽。 xxxviii (alias xliii) ad Gregor.三十八(化名XLIII )號的廣告格雷戈爾。 fratrem; "Adv.Eunom.", I, xx, III, sub init.] fratrem “ ; Adv.Eunom 。 ” ,我二十,三,分初始化。 ]

Second, the Greek Fathers establish the same relation between the Son and the Holy Ghost as between the Father and the Son; as the Father is the fountain of the Son, so is the Son the fountain of the Holy Ghost (Athanasius, Ep. ad Serap. I, xix, sqq.; "De Incarn.", ix; Orat. iii, adv. Arian., 24; Basil, "Adv. Eunom.", v, in PG., XXIX, 731; cf. Greg. Naz., Orat. xliii, 9).其次,希臘父親建立相同的關係,兒子和聖靈之間的父子;為天父是噴泉的兒子,所以兒子是噴泉的聖靈(亞他那修,內啡肽。廣告小型企業研究資助。一,十九, sqq 。 “德Incarn 。 ” ㈨ ; Orat 。三,副詞。阿里安。 , 24 ;巴茲爾, “腺病毒。 Eunom 。 ” ,第五,在前列腺素。 ,第29屆, 731 ;比照。格雷格。納茲。 , Orat 。四十三, 9 ) 。

Third, passages are not wanting in the writings of the Greek Fathers in which the Procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son is clearly maintained: Greg. Thaumat., "Expos. fidei sec.", vers.第三,通道是不想在著作中希父親在遊行隊伍的聖靈的兒子顯然是保持:格雷格。 Thaumat 。 “博覽會。信仰秒。 ”自願。 saec.南美。 IV, in Rufius, Hist.四,在Rufius ,組織胺。 Eccl., VII, xxv; Epiphanius, Haer., c.傳道書。 ,七,二十五;埃皮法尼烏斯, Haer 。角 lxii, 4; Greg. lxii , 4 ;格雷格。 Nyss. Nyss 。 Hom.紅。 iii in orat. ㈢在orat 。 domin.); Cyril of Alexandria, "Thes.", ass.域。 ) ;西里爾亞歷山大, “ Thes 。 ”屁股。 xxxiv; the second canon of synod of forty bishops held in 410 at Seleucia in Mesopotamia; the Arabic versions of the Canons of St. Hippolytus; the Nestorian explanation of the Symbol.三十四,第二個佳能的主教會議的主教舉行第四十一410在塞琉西亞的美索不達米亞;的阿拉伯文版本的規聖西波呂;的景教解釋的符號。

The only Scriptural difficulty deserving our attention is based on the words of Christ as recorded in John 15:26, that the Spirit proceeds from the Father, without mention being made of the Son.唯一的聖經的困難值得我們注意的是基於基督的話記錄在約翰15:26 ,該收益精神之父,沒有提到正在取得的兒子。 But in the first place, it can not be shown that this omission amounts to a denial; in the second place, the omission is only apparent, as in the earlier part of the verse the Son promises to "send" the Spirit.但是,擺在首位,但不能表明,這一數額不拒絕;在第二位,遺漏只有明顯,因為在早期的一部分,詩的兒子承諾“發送給朋友”的精神。 The Procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son is not mentioned in the Creed of Constantinople, because this Creed was directed against the Macedonian error against which it sufficed to declare the Procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father.遊行的聖靈的兒子是沒有提到的信條君士坦丁堡,因為這一信條是針對馬其頓錯誤對它足以宣布遊行的聖靈從父。 The ambiguous expressions found in some of the early writers of authority are explained by the principles which apply to the language of the early Fathers generally.模棱兩可的表情中發現一些早期作家的權威解釋是,這些原則適用於語言的早期父親一般。

II.二。 HISTORICAL IMPORTANCE OF THE FILIOQUE歷史意義的FILIOQUE

It has been seen that the Creed of Constantinople at first declared only the Procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father; it was directed against the followers of Macedonius who denied the Procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father.它被視為該信條在君士坦丁堡不僅首次宣布遊行的聖靈從父,這是針對追隨者Macedonius誰剝奪了遊行聖靈從父。 In the East, the omission of Filioque did not lead to any misunderstanding.在東方,遺漏Filioque並沒有導致任何誤解。 But conditions were different in Spain after the Goths had renounced Arianism and professed the Catholic faith in the Third Synod of Toledo, 589.但條件是不同的西班牙後的哥特放棄了Arianism並宣稱信仰天主教第三次會議的托萊多, 589 。 It cannot be acertained who first added the Filioque to the Creed; but it appears to be certain that the Creed, with the addition of the Filioque, was first sung in the Spanish Church after the conversion of the Goths.它不能acertained誰第一次增加了Filioque的信條,但它似乎是肯定的信條,並增加了Filioque ,首次成在西班牙教會轉換後的哥特。 In 796 the Patriarch of Aquileia justified and adopted the same addition at the Synod of Friaul, and in 809 the Council of Aachen appears to have approved of it. The decrees of this last council were examined by Pope Leo III, who approved of the doctrine conveyed by the Filioque, but gave the advice to omit the expression in the Creed.在796宗主教阿奎理由,並採取了同樣的除了在主教會議Friaul ,並在809安理會亞琛似乎已經批准了它。法令最後這個委員會審查了教皇利奧三,誰批准的學說傳達的Filioque ,但他的意見,省略表達的信條。 The practice of adding the Filioque was retained in spite of the papal advice, and in the middle of the eleventh century it had gained a firm foothold in Rome itself.這種做法增加了Filioque被保留,儘管教皇的意見,並在中間11世紀它已獲得了堅實的立足點在羅馬本身。 Scholars do not agree as to the exact time of its introduction into Rome, but most assign it to the reign of Benedict VIII (1014-15).學者們不同意,以確切的時間其引入羅馬,但大部分分配給統治篤第八章( 1014至1015年) 。

The Catholic doctrine was accepted by the Greek deputies who were present at the Second Council of Florence, in 1439, when the Creed was sung both in Greek and Latin, with the addition of the word Filioque.天主教教義的接受了希臘代表誰出席了第二屆理事會佛羅倫薩,在1439年,當信條是朴智星在希臘文和拉丁文,加上這個詞Filioque 。 On each occasion it was hoped that the Patriarch of Constantinople and his subjects had abandoned the state of heresy and schism in which they had been living since the time of Photius, who about 870 found in the Filioque an excuse for throwing off all dependence on Rome.每一次,人們希望在君士坦丁堡主教和他的臣民放棄了國家的異端和分裂,他們在一直以來的生活時, Photius ,約870誰發現了Filioque的藉口扔了所有依賴於羅馬。 But however sincere the individual Greek bishops may have been, they failed to carry their people with them, and the breach between East and West continues to this day.但是,無論個人真誠的希臘主教可能已經,他們沒有履行他們的人民和他們違背東方與西方之間一直持續到今天。

It is a matter for surprise that so abstract a subject as the doctrine of the double Procession of the Holy Ghost should have appealed to the imagination of the multitude.這是一個令人驚訝的是,抽象的主題作為理論的雙重遊行的聖靈應該呼籲的想像力多種。 But their national feelings had been aroused by the desire of liberation from the rule of the ancient rival of Constantinople; the occasion of lawfully obtaining their desire appeared to present itself in the addition of Filioque to the Creed of Constantinople.但他們的民族感情已經引起的願望解放的規則古老的競爭對手君士坦丁堡;之際,合法取得的願望似乎本本身在增加Filioque的信條君士坦丁堡。 Had not Rome overstepped her rights by disobeying the injunction of the Third Council, of Ephesus (431), and of the Fourth, of Chalcedon (451)?羅馬並沒有超越她的權利,違反禁令的第三次理事會,以弗所( 431 ) ,以及第四,迦克墩( 451 ) ?

It is true that these councils had forbidden to introduce another faith or another Creed, and had imposed the penalty of deposition on bishops and clerics, and of excommunication on monks and laymen for transgressing this law; but the councils had not forbidden to explain the same faith or to propose the same Creed in a clearer way.誠然,這些委員會已禁止引進另一種信仰或另一信條,並實行罰款沉積的主教和神職人員,以及罰的僧俗的侵越這項法律,但議會沒有禁止同一解釋信仰或提出同樣的信條更明確的方式。 Besides, the conciliar decrees affected individual transgressors, as is plain from the sanction added; they did not bind the Church as a body.此外, conciliar法令受影響個別違法,這是平原的制裁表示,他們沒有約束力的教會作為一個機構。 Finally, the Councils of Lyons and Florence did not require the Greeks to insert the Filioque into the Creed, but only to accept the Catholic doctrine of the double Procession of the Holy Ghost.最後,安理會的里昂和佛羅倫薩並不需要希臘人插入Filioque的信條,但只接受天主教教義的雙重遊行的聖靈。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息撰稿歐塞爾馬斯。 Transcribed by Mary and Joseph P. Thomas.轉錄的瑪麗和約瑟夫托馬斯。 In memory of Father EC Joseph The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.在記憶的父親約瑟夫歐共體的天主教百科全書,第六卷。 Published 1909. 1909年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat , 09年九月一日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. +約翰M Farley, Archbishop of New York法利,大主教紐約


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