Death of God Theology上帝之死神學

General Information 一般信息

In Thus Spake Zarathustra (1883 - 85), Friedrich Nietzsche introduced in eloquent poetic prose the concepts of the death of God, the superman, and the will to power.在查拉圖斯特拉如是說( 1883年至1885年) ,尼采雄辯地介紹了詩歌散文的概念,死亡的上帝,超人,以及將權力。 Vigorously attacking Christianity and democracy as moralities for the "weak herd," he argued for the "natural aristocracy" of the superman who, driven by the "will to power," celebrates life on earth rather than sanctifying it for some heavenly reward.大力攻擊基督教和民主作為道德的“弱勢群體” ,他主張的“自然貴族”的超人誰,推動了“權力意志” ,慶祝地球上的生命,而不是sanctifying它的一些天上的獎勵。 Such a heroic man of merit has the courage to "live dangerously" and thus rise above the masses, developing his natural capacity for the creative use of passion.這樣的英雄值得的人已經勇敢地“活危險” ,從而超越群眾,發展自己的自然能力,創造性地使用激情。

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Bibliography 目錄
HG Alderman, Nietzsche's Gift (1977); DB Allison, ed., The New Nietzsche: Contemporary Styles of Interpretation (1985); P Bergman, Nietzsche (1987); JA Bernstein, Nietzsche's Moral Philosophy (1987); H Bloom, ed., Friedrich Nietzsche (1987); FC Copleston Friedrich Nietzsche: Philosopher of Culture (1975); AC Danto, Nietzsche as Philosopher (1965); V Durr, et al., eds., Nietzsche: Literature and Values (1988); E Heller, The Importance of Nietzsche (1989); RJ Hollingdale, Nietzsche: The Man and His Philosophy (1973); W Kaufmann, Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist (1975); B Magnus, Nietzsche's Existential Imperative (1978); KM May, Nietzsche and the Spirit of Tragedy (1990); A Nehemas, Nietzsche: Life as Literature (1985); R Solomon, ed., Nietzsche (1973); TB Strong, Friedrich Nietzsche and the Politics of Transfiguration (1976); M Warren, Nietzsche and Political Thought (1988).氫化物阿爾德曼,尼采的禮物( 1977年) ;數據庫阿利森版。 ,新尼采:當代風格的解釋( 1985年) ; P伯格曼,尼采( 1987年) ;茉莉伯恩斯坦,尼采的道德哲學( 1987 ) ; H布盧姆,編輯。 ,尼采( 1987年) ;隊Copleston尼采:哲學家的文化( 1975年) ;交流丹托,尼采的哲學家( 1965年) ; V研究生,等。合編。 ,尼采:文學和價值觀( 1988年) ;電子郵件海勒的重要性,尼采( 1989年) ;雷諾Hollingdale ,尼采:男人和他的哲學( 1973年) ; W考夫曼,尼采:哲學家,心理學家,反基督( 1975年) ;乙馬格努斯,尼采的生存勢在必行( 1978年) ;昆明5月,尼采的悲劇精神( 1990年) ;阿Nehemas ,尼采:生命的文學( 1985年) ; R所羅門版。 ,尼采( 1973年) ;結核病強,尼采和政治變( 1976年) ; M沃倫尼采和政治思想( 1988年) 。


Death of God Theology上帝之死神學

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Also known as radical theology, this movement flourished in the mid 1960s.也被稱為激進的神學,這個運動的蓬勃發展在20世紀60年代中期。 As a theological movement it never attracted a large following, did not find a unified expression, and passed off the scene as quickly and dramatically as it had arisen.作為一個神學運動從未吸引了大量以下,沒有找到一個統一的表達,並通過現場盡快和顯著,因為它出現了。 There is even disagreement as to who its major representatives were.甚至有分歧是誰其主要代表。 Some identify two, and others three or four.有些查明兩個,其他三個或四個。 Although small, the movement attracted attention because it was a spectacular symptom of the bankruptcy of modern theology and because it was a journalistic phenomenon.雖然小,運動引起了人們的關注,因為這是一個壯觀的症狀破產的現代神學,因為這是一個新聞現象。 The very statement "God is dead" was tailor - made for journalistic exploitation.非常聲明“上帝已死”是裁縫-為新聞剝削。 The representatives of the movement effectively used periodical articles, paperback books, and the electronic media.代表運動的有效利用期刊文章,平裝本圖書,和電子媒體。

History歷史

This movement gave expression to an idea that had been incipient in Western philosophy and theology for some time, the suggestion that the reality of a transcendent God at best could not be known and at worst did not exist at all.這一運動體現了這一想法已經初步在西方哲學和神學一段時間,這一建議的現實超越的上帝,充其量可能不知道,並在最壞的根本不存在。 Philosopher Kant and theologian Ritschl denied that one could have a theoretical knowledge of the being of God.哲學家康德和神學Ritschl否認,人們可以有一個理論知識的福祉上帝。 Hume and the empiricists for all practical purposes restricted knowledge and reality to the material world as perceived by the five senses.休謨和empiricists對所有實際用途限於知識和現實的物質世界所認為的五感。 Since God was not empirically verifiable, the biblical world view was said to be mythological and unacceptable to the modern mind.自從上帝沒有經驗可核查的,聖經的世界觀據說是希臘神話中的和不可接受的現代一點。 Such atheistic existentialist philosophers as Nietzche despaired even of the search of God; it was he who coined the phrase "God is dead" almost a century before the death of God theologians.這種無神論的存在主義哲學家的尼采甚至絕望的搜索上帝,這是他誰創造了一句“上帝死了”近一個世紀前死亡的上帝的神學。

Midtwentieth century theologians not associated with the movement also contributed to the climate of opinion out of which death of God theology emerged. Midtwentieth世紀的神學家沒有相關的運動也有助於氣候的意見,其中死亡上帝的神學出現。 Rudolf Bultmann regarded all elements of the supernaturalistic, theistic world view as mythological and proposed that Scripture be demythologized so that it could speak its message to the modern person.魯道夫布特曼認為所有要素supernaturalistic ,有神論的世界觀作為神話和建議,聖經是demythologized ,以便它能夠講的信息,現代的人。

Paul Tillich, an avowed antisupernaturalist, said that the only nonsymbolic statement that could be made about God was that he was being itself.保羅蒂利希,一個公開antisupernaturalist ,他說,只有nonsymbolic聲明,可以提出對上帝的是,他被本身。 He is beyond essence and existence; therefore, to argue that God exists is to deny him.他是超越本質和存在;因此,認為上帝存在的否認他。 It is more appropriate to say God does not exist.這是更為恰當地說上帝不存在。 At best Tillich was a pantheist, but his thought borders on atheism.在最好的蒂利希是一個pantheist ,但他的思想對無神論的邊界。 Dietrich Bonhoeffer (whether rightly understood or not) also contributed to the climate of opinion with some fragmentary but tantalizing statements preserved in Letters and Papers from Prison.迪特里希潘霍華(是否正確地理解或不)也促成了氣候的見解與一些零碎的,但誘人的報表保存在信件和文件從監獄。 He wrote of the world and man "coming of age," of "religionless Christianity," of the "world without God," and of getting rid of the "God of the gaps" and getting along just as well as before.他寫的世界和人“時代的到來, ”的“ religionless基督教”的“世界上沒有上帝, ”和擺脫“上帝的差距”和相處一樣好面前。 It is not always certain what Bonhoeffer meant, but if nothing else, he provided a vocabulary that later radical theologians could exploit.這是某些並不總是華意味著什麼,但如果沒有別的,他提供了一個詞彙,後來激進的神學家可以利用。

It is clear, then, that as startling as the idea of the death of God was when proclaimed in the mid 1960s, it did not represent as radical a departure from recent philosophical and theological ideas and vocabulary as might superficially appear.很明顯,那麼,作為驚人的想法,上帝死亡時宣布在20世紀60年代中期,它並不代表激進背離最近哲學和神學思想和詞彙表面上可能出現。

Nature自然保護區

Just what was death of God theology?究竟什麼是上帝的死亡神學? The answers are as varied as those who proclaimed God's demise.這些問題的答案是多樣的那些誰宣布上帝的消亡。 Since Nietzsche, theologians had occasionally used "God is dead" to express the fact that for an increasing number of people in the modern age God seems to be unreal.自尼采,神學有時用“上帝死了”來表達這一事實為越來越多的人在當今時代上帝似乎是不現實的。 But the idea of God's death began to have special prominence in 1957 when Gabriel Vahanian published a book entitled God is Dead.但是這種觀點上帝的死亡開始有特殊突出在1957年時,加布里埃爾Vahanian出版了一本書,題為上帝已經死了。 Vahanian did not offer a systematic expression of death of God theology. Vahanian沒有提供有系統的表達死亡的上帝的神學。 Instead, he analyzed those historical elements that contributed to the masses of people accepting atheism not so much as a theory but as a way of life.相反,他分析了這些歷史因素,有助於人民群眾的接受無神論沒有這麼多的理論,但作為一種生活方式。 Vahanian himself did not believe that God was dead. Vahanian本人並不認為上帝已經死了。 But he urged that there be a form of Christianity that would recognize the contemporary loss of God and exert its influence through what was left.但是,他敦促有一個基督教形式,承認當代損失的上帝和施加其影響力通過什麼是左邊。 Other proponents of the death of God had the same assessment of God's status in contemporary culture, but were to draw different conclusions.其他的支持者死亡的上帝具有同樣的評估上帝的地位,在當代文化,但得出不同的結論。

Thomas JJ Altizer believed that God had actually died.傑傑阿爾泰澤爾托馬斯認為,上帝實際上已經死亡。 But Altizer often spoke in exaggerated and dialectic language, occasionally with heavy overtones of Oriental mysticism.但是阿爾泰澤爾往往以誇大和辯證的語言,偶爾沉重的色彩與東方的神秘主義。 Sometimes it is difficult to know exactly what Altizer meant when he spoke in dialectical opposites such as "God is dead, thank God!"有時很難確切地知道阿爾泰澤爾意味著當他以辯證的對立統一,如“上帝已經死了,感謝上帝! ” But apparently the real meaning of Altizer's belief that God had died is to be found in his belief in God's immanence.但是很顯然的真正含義阿爾泰澤爾的信念,上帝已經死亡可能是在他的信仰上帝的內涵。 To say that God has died is to say that he has ceased to exist as a transcendent, supernatural being.如果說,上帝已經死亡是說,他已不復存在作為一個超然的,超自然。 Rather, he has become fully immanent in the world.相反,他已經成為完全的內在世界。 The result is an essential identity between the human and the divine.其結果是一個重要的身份之間的人力和神聖的。 God died in Christ in this sense, and the process has continued time and again since then. Altizer claims the church tried to give God life again and put him back in heaven by its doctrines of resurrection and ascension.上帝在基督死在這個意義上,整個過程持續時間,並再次從那時起。阿爾泰澤爾索賠教堂試圖給上帝的生活,並讓他在天上回到其理論的復活和升天。 But now the traditional doctrines about God and Christ must be repudiated because man has discovered after nineteen centuries that God does not exist.但是,現在傳統的理論有關上帝和基督必須被推翻,因為他發現了19世紀後,上帝是不存在的。 Christians must even now will the death of God by which the transcendent becomes immanent.基督徒即使是現在必須將死亡的上帝其中變得內在的超越性。

For William Hamilton the death of God describes the event many have experienced over the last two hundred years.對於威廉漢密爾頓死亡的上帝介紹了事件的許多經歷過過去二百年。 They no longer accept the reality of God or the meaningfulness of language about him. Nontheistic explanations have been substituted for theistic ones. This trend is irreversible, and everyone must come to terms with the historical - cultural - death of God.他們不再接受現實的上帝或意義的語言對他。 Nontheistic解釋已經取代有神論的。這種趨勢是不可逆轉的,每個人都必須正視歷史-文化-死亡的上帝。 God's death must be affirmed and the secular world embraced as normative intellectually and good ethically.上帝的死亡必須予以肯定和擁護世俗世界的規範性知識和良好的道德。 Indeed, Hamilton was optimistic about the world, because he was optimistic about what humanity could do and was doing to solve its problems.事實上,漢密爾頓是樂觀的世界,因為他是持樂觀態度是人類可以做和正在解決其問題。

Paul van Buren is usually associated with death of God theology, although he himself disavowed this connection.保羅的範布倫通常與死亡的上帝的神學,儘管他本人否認這一點。 But his disavowal seems hollow in the light of his book The Secular Meaning of the Gospel and his article "Christian Education Post Mortem Dei."但他否認似乎空心鑑於他的書世俗意義的福音和他的文章“基督教教育驗屍上帝。 ” In the former he accepts empiricism and the position of Bultmann that the world view of the Bible is mythological and untenable to modern people.在前者,他接受經驗主義的立場說,布特曼世界觀聖經是站不住腳的神話和現代的人。 In the latter he proposes an approach to Christian education that does not assume the existence of God but does assume "the death of God" and that "God is gone."在後者,他提出了一種辦法,基督教教育,不承擔上帝存在,但不承擔“死亡的上帝”和“上帝是不見了。 ”

Van Buren was concerned with the linguistic aspects of God's existence and death.範布倫關注的是語言方面的上帝的存在和死亡。 He accepted the premise of empirical analytic philosophy that real knowledge and meaning can be conveyed only by language that is empirically verifiable.他接受的前提下,實證分析哲學,真正的知識和意義可以轉達只有通過語言,憑經驗核查。 This is the fundamental principle of modern secularists and is the only viable option in this age.這是基本原則和現代世俗主義是唯一可行的選擇這個年齡。 If only empirically verifiable language is meaningful, ipso facto all language that refers to or assumes the reality of God is meaningless, since one cannot verify God's existence by any of the five senses.如果只有憑經驗核查的語言是有意義的,事實上所有的語言,是指或假設的現實,上帝是毫無意義的,因為一個無法驗證上帝的存在的任何五官。 Theism, belief in God, is not only intellectually untenable, it is meaningless.有神論,相信上帝,不僅是智力站不住腳的,這是毫無意義的。 In The Secular Meaning of the Gospel van Buren seeks to reinterpret the Christian faith without reference to God.在世俗的意義福音範布倫要求重新基督教信仰沒有提及上帝。 One searches the book in vain for even one clue that van Buren is anything but a secularist trying to translate Christian ethical values into that language game.一個搜尋這本書徒勞的,甚至一個線索範布倫是什麼,而是世俗試圖把基督教道德價值觀念到這種語言遊戲。 There is a decided shift in van Buren's later book Discerning the Way, however.有一個決定改變範布倫後來書辨路,但是。

In retrospect, it becomes clear that there was no single death of God theology, only death of God theologies.回過頭來看,它顯然沒有單一的死亡神學上帝,只有上帝的死亡theologies 。 Their real significance was that modern theologies, by giving up the essential elements of Christian belief in God, had logically led to what were really antitheologies.其現實意義是,現代theologies ,放棄的基本要素基督教信仰的上帝,在邏輯上導致了什麼是真正antitheologies 。 When the death of God theologies passed off the scene, the commitment to secularism remained and manifested itself in other forms of secular theology in the late 1960s and the 1970s.當死亡的上帝theologies通過現場,承諾的世俗主義依然存在,體現在其他形式的宗教神學在20世紀60年代末和70年代。

SN Gundry失效Gundry

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
TJJ Altizer, The Gospel of Christian Atheism; TJJ Altizer and W Hamilton, Radical Theology and the Death of God; SN Gundry and AF Johnson, eds., Tensions in Contemporary Theology; K Hamilton, God Is Dead: The Anatomy of a Slogan; PM van Buren, "Christian Education Post Mortem Dei," RelEd 60; G Vahanian, No Other God. TJJ阿爾泰澤爾,福音基督教無神論; TJJ阿爾泰澤爾和W漢密爾頓,激進的神學和上帝之死;失效Gundry和AF約翰遜,合編。緊張當代神學; K漢密爾頓,上帝是死:解剖的口號;下午範布倫, “基督教教育驗屍棣, ” RelEd 60 ; G Vahanian ,沒有任何其他的上帝。


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