Crucifix, Cross十字架,十字架

General Information 一般信息

The cross is among the oldest and most universal symbols.兩岸之間是最古老,最普遍的符號。 In preliterate societies it often represented a conjunction of dualities.在preliterate社會它往往代表著的雙重結合。 The horizontal arm was associated with the terrestrial, worldly, feminine, temporal, destructive, and negative, passive, and death, while the vertical arm connoted the celestial, spiritual, masculine, eternal, creative, positive, active, and life.橫向手臂與地面,世俗的,女性化,世俗,破壞性和消極的,被動的,和死亡,而垂直臂connoted的天體,精神,陽剛,永恆,創造性,積極,活躍,和生命。 Often symbolic of the four astrological elements of earth, water, fire, and air, a cross was also perceived as the cosmic axis from which radiated the spatial dimensions of height, length, width, and breadth, as well as the directions of north, east, south, and west.往往具有象徵意義的四個要素的星象地球,水,火,空氣,跨也被認為是宇宙的軸心輻射從空間層面的高度,長度,寬度,和廣度,以及東北方向,東,南,和西部。

The ankh (crux ansata) was an ancient Egyptian T - shaped cross surmounted with a loop.在安克(癥結ansata )是一種古老的埃及筆-克服形交叉與循環。 It symbolized the creative energies of the male and female and the essence of life.它象徵著創造力的男性和女性和生命的本質。 The simple T - shaped cross is named for the Greek letter tau.簡單的筆-形交叉命名為希臘字母頭。 It is often referred to as the Old Testament cross because Moses supposedly placed a brazen serpent on a T cross (Num. 21:6 - 9), and according to legend, the Israelites on Passover eve marked their doors with blood - drawn tau crosses to identify themselves as Yahweh's followers.這是常常被稱為舊約摩西,因為兩岸理應放在公然對蛇的T兩岸(民數記21點06 -9 ) ,並根據傳說,猶太人在逾越節前夕標誌著他們的門用鮮血-提請頭十字架以自己的身份,耶和華的追隨者。 Another name for the T cross is the crux commissa.另一個名字的T兩岸的癥結是commissa 。

In ancient Asian, European, and pre - Columbian American civilizations the left - directed swastika, or cruz gammata, appears to have been symbolic of solar power and movement. Hindus see the swastika as a sign of the resigned spirit, whereas Buddhists consider it an emblem of the Buddha's mind. The German Nazis adopted a right - directed swastika for their party logo because they believed it to be an ancient Nordic symbol.在古代亞洲,歐洲和前-哥倫比亞美洲文明的左邊-指示標誌,或者克魯斯ga mmata,似乎已經象徵性的太陽能和運動。教徒看到納粹的標誌辭職的精神,而佛教認為這是徽章的佛心。納粹德國通過了一項權利-針對納粹黨的標誌,因為他們認為這是一個古老的北歐國家的象徵。

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The erect pole and crossbar used to crucify Jesus Christ became the principal symbol of Christianity. A cross stood for both the actual Crucifixion and the concept of the Christian church. More than 50 variants were to develop, but the most important are the Greek cross, with its equilateral arms, and the Latin cross, with a vertical arm traversed near the top by a shorter horizontal arm. 極的直立和橫梁用來釘死耶穌成為主要象徵基督教。跨站為受難的實際和概念的基督教教堂。 50多個變種是發展,但最重要的是兩岸的希臘,與其等邊武器,與拉美交叉,垂直手臂走過上方附近的一個短的橫向的胳膊。 The Greek cross derives its name from its frequent use in the Greek and other Eastern Orthodox churches; the Latin cross was favored by the Western, or Roman Catholic, church.希臘跨其名稱源於其經常使用在希臘和其他東歐東正教教堂;拉丁美洲兩岸青睞的是西方,或羅馬天主教,教堂。

Other major shapes include the diagonal, or x - shaped, cross on which Saint Andrew is said to have been crucified, and the cross paty (or patee), in which the arms widen at the extremities.其他主要形態包括對角線,或X -形,交叉對聖安德魯據說是釘在十字架上,以及跨p aty(或p atee) ,其中擴大武器的四肢。 A variant of the cross paty is the Maltese cross, has eight points. The Chi - Rho is a cross formed by joining the first two letters of the Greek word for "Christ."一個變種,兩岸paty是馬耳他十字架,有8分。遲浩田-盧是一個交叉連接形成的前兩個字母的希臘詞“基督” 。 The Celtic or Iona cross, developed in early medieval Ireland and Scotland, is distinguished by a circle surrounding the point of crossing. Two graduated crossbars indicate the Lorraine cross associated with archbishops and patriarchs, whereas the Papal cross has three graduated crossbars.凱爾特或艾奧娜交叉,年初制定的中世紀蘇格蘭和北愛爾蘭,是傑出的一個圓圈周圍的過境點。兩名畢業於交叉表明洛林兩岸相關始祖大主教和,而教皇兩岸有三個交叉畢業。 A commonly used Eastern Orthodox variant of the cross of Lorraine has an additional crossbar diagonally placed near the base.一個常用的東正教變異兩岸的洛林擁有一個額外的交叉角放在附近的基地。

The placement of the cross is often symbolic.安置兩岸往往是象徵性的。 Crosses surmounting orbs or spheres refer to the global triumph of Christianity.雜交克服orbs或領域指的是全球基督教勝利。 A cross erected on the site of a pagan temple indicated the victory of Christianity, and territory conquered by Christians would be claimed initially by planting a cross in the ground.跨豎立在網站上一個異教徒寺廟的勝利表明基督教和領土征服基督徒聲稱將最初由種植一個跨在地上。

The cross was not widely depicted before the 4th century AD, when Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire. 兩岸沒有得到廣泛描繪前公元4世紀時,基督教成為官方宗教的羅馬帝國。 Earlier, when Christians were often persecuted, the cross was frequently disguised as an anchor, or some other mundane object. Second century Christians, however, had already begun to make the sign of the cross as a gesture of identification, blessing, and warding off of evil. In the Roman church the sign of the cross was made from left to right and in Eastern Orthodox churches from right to left. 稍早時,往往是基督徒的迫害,兩岸經常偽裝成一個錨,或其他一些平凡的對象。第二世紀的基督徒,但是,已經開始使的跡象,兩岸的一種姿態識別,祝福,和抵擋邪惡。 在羅馬教會的跡象,兩岸是由左向右和東歐的東正教教堂由右至左。

A crucifix is a cross bearing a painted or sculptured image of Christ. Crucifixes first appeared in the 5th century, and from the 9th century on medieval artists increasingly aimed at a realistic portrayal of Christ's suffering. 十字架是一個跨附有畫或雕塑形象的基督。十字架最早出現在公元5世紀,從9世紀的中世紀的藝術家越來越多地以一個現實的寫照基督的苦難。 The Renaissance created a fashion for a more ideally conceived imagery that dramatically returned to pathos under the emotional taste of the baroque period. During the Reformation, Protestants generally repudiated the use of representational religious imagery; the crucifix therefore became associated with Roman Catholicism.文藝復興創造了一個時裝更理想的構思圖像,大大返回感傷的情緒下領略巴洛克時期。 在改革,新教徒普遍譴責使用代表性的宗教圖像;十字架因此成為與信奉羅馬天主教。

When the art of Heraldry developed in medieval Europe, various types of Christian crosses were employed as symbols, or charges, in the designing of coats - of - arms.當藝術的紋章發達國家在中世紀歐洲,不同類型的基督教十字架的符號受僱擔任,或收費,在設計的外套的--武器。 A cross with equal arms and a diagonal cross, or saltire, were the most traditional heraldic forms.跨平等的武器和對角線交叉,或saltire ,是最傳統的紋章的形式。 Many of the insignias for medieval and Renaissance chivalric orders were crosses: the Maltese cross, for example, was the heraldic symbol of the Knights of Malta (the Hospitalers). The flags of Switzerland, Greece, and the Scandinavian countries display various crosses.許多徽章的中世紀和文藝復興時期的騎士訂單跨越:馬耳他交叉,例如,是紋章的象徵,馬耳他騎士團(在Hospitalers ) 。國旗的瑞士,希臘,和斯堪的納維亞國家的各種組合顯示。 The British Union Jack was designed to unify the diagonal crosses of Saint Patrick (Ireland) and Saint Andrew (Scotland) with the rectilinear cross of Saint George (England).英國國旗的目的是要統一對角交叉的聖帕特里克(愛爾蘭)和聖安德魯(蘇格蘭)與直線交叉的聖喬治(英格蘭) 。 A Saint Andrew's cross dominated the American Confederate flag, and it was subsequently incorporated into the state flags of some former Confederacy members.阿聖安德魯的交叉為主的美國邦聯的旗幟,並隨後納入國家國旗的一些前邦聯成員。

Robert J Loescher羅萊斯徹

Bibliography 目錄
GW Benson, The Cross, Its History and Symbolism (1974); J Campbell, The Mythic Image (1974); JE Cirlot, A Dictionary of Symbols (1962); R Guenon, The Symbolism of the Cross (1975); J Hall, Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art (1979).毛重班森,兩岸,其歷史和象徵意義( 1974年) ; J坎貝爾,圖像的神話( 1974年) ;流行性乙型腦炎Cirlot ,詞典符號( 1962年) ; R長尾,在象徵性的十字架( 1975年) ; J大廳詞典主體和符號的藝術( 1979年) 。


The Crucifix十字架

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Three kinds of Cross were in use: the so-called St. Andrew's Cross (x, the Crux decussata), the Cross in the form of a T (Crux Commissa), and the ordinary Latin Cross (+, Crux immissa).三種交叉使用中的:所謂的聖安德魯的交叉(十,關鍵decussata ) ,跨形式的一個T (癥結Commissa ) ,和普通拉丁十字( + ,癥結immissa ) 。 We believe that Jesus bore the last of these.我們認為,耶穌的最後承擔這些。 This would also most readily admit of affixing the board with the threefold inscription, which we know His Cross bore.這也最容易接納張貼董事會的三倍,題詞,我們知道他的十字孔。 Besides, the universal testimony of those who lived nearest the time (Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, and others), and who, alas!此外,普遍的證詞,這些人誰最接近的時間(賈斯汀烈士,依等) ,以及誰,唉! had only too much occasion to learn what crucifixion meant, is in favour of this view.只有太多的機會了解十字架的意思,是贊成這種觀點。

This Cross, as St. John expressly states, Jesus Himself bore at the outset.這種交叉,如聖約翰明確規定,耶穌自己承擔首先。 And so the procession moved on towards Golgotha. Not only the location, but even the name of that which appeals so strongly to every Christian heart, is matter of controversy. The name cannot have been derived from the skulls which lay about, since such exposure would have been unlawful, and hence must have been due to the skull-like shape and appearance of the place. Accordingly, the name is commonly explained as the Greek form of the Aramaean Gulgalta, or the Hebrew Gulgoleth, which means a skull.因此,遊行動議走向墓地。 不僅是位置,但即使名稱那些呼籲如此強烈地向每一名基督信徒的心,是有爭議的問題。名稱不能被來自奠定頭骨約,因為這種接觸本來非法的,因而必須是由於頭骨形狀和外觀的地方。因此,名字是常見的解釋為希臘的形式Aramaean Gulgalta ,或希伯來文Gulgoleth ,這意味著頭骨。

The brief spring day was verging towards the 'evening of the Sabbath.'春季的短暫一天接近於實現'晚上的安息日。 In general, the Law ordered that the body of a criminal should not be left hanging unburied over night.一般來說,法律命令,該機構的犯罪不應該掛埋葬過夜。 (a Deut. 21:23; comp. Jos. Wariv. 5, 2) Perhaps in ordinary circumstances the Jews might not have appealed so confidently to Pilate as actually to ask (3 'ask,' John 19:31.) him to shorten the sufferings of those on the Cross, since the punishment of crucifixion often lasted not only for hours but days, ere death ensued. (一Deut 。 21:23 ;補償。聖何塞Wariv 。 5 , 2 )或許在一般情況下的猶太人可能不會如此自信地呼籲,以實際彼拉多問( 3 '問: '約翰19:31 ) 。他縮短這些苦難的十字架上,因為懲罰十字架往往不僅持續了幾個小時,但天,元件死亡接踵而至。 But here was a special occasion.但這裡是一個特殊的時刻。

The Sabbath about to open was a 'high - day', it was both a Sabbath and the second Paschal Day, which was regarded as in every respect equally sacred with the first, nay, more so, since the so - called Wavesheaf was then offered to the Lord.安息日即將開放是一個'高-天' ,這既是一個安息日和第二復活節日,被視為在各方面都同樣神聖的第一次,不,更多的是,至今仍是-所謂Wa vesheaf當時提供給主。 And what the Jews now proposed to Pilate was, indeed, a shortening, but not in any sense a mitigation, of the punishment. Sometimes there was added to the punishment of crucifixion that of breaking the bones (crurifragium) by means of a club or hammer.和猶太人現在提議將彼拉多的確是縮短,但不是在任何意義上緩解,處罰的力度。 有時又增加懲罰十字架是打破骨頭( crurifragium )通過俱樂部或錘。 This would not itself bring death, but the breaking of the bones was always followed by a coup de grace, by sword, lance, or stroke (the perforatio or percussio sub alas), which immediately put an end to what remained of life. (1 Comp. Friedlieb, Archaeol. d. Leidensgesch. pp.163 - 168; but especially Nebe, us ii. pp. 394, 395.) Thus the 'breaking of the bones' was a sort of increase of punishment, by way of compensation for its shortening by the final stroke that followed. 這本身不會帶來死亡,但打破的骨頭總是其次是政變的寬限期,以劍,槍,或中風(或的perforatio唉percussio分) ,這立即停止還有什麼生活。 (一比較。 Friedlieb , Archaeol 。 d. Leidensgesch 。 pp.163 -1 68; ,特別是N ebe,我們二。頁。 3 94, 3 95。 )因此, '斷骨頭'是一種增加了處罰,方式補償其縮短了最後中風之後。

It were unjust to suppose, that in their anxiety to fulfil the letter of the Law as to burial on the eve of that high Sabbath, the Jews had sought to intensify the sufferings of Jesus.這是不公正的假設,在他們的焦慮履行的信法,以埋葬的前夕,高安息日,猶太人曾試圖加強苦難耶穌基督。 The text gives no indication of this; and they could not have asked for the final stroke to be inflicted without the 'breaking of the bones,' which always preceded it. The irony of this punctilious care for the letter of the Law about burial and high Sabbath by those who had betrayed and crucified their Messiah on the first Passover - day is sufficiently great, and, let us add, terrible, without importing fictitious elements. John, who, perhaps, immediately on the death of Christ, left the Cross, alone reports circumstance.案文並沒有表明了這一點,他們不能要求的最後中風是美國的'斷骨頭,它總是在這之前。 諷刺這一拘泥形式的照顧的信法和有關安葬高安息日的人誰背叛和他們的彌賽亞釘在十字架上的第一個逾越節-每天有足夠的偉大,讓我們添加的,可怕的,沒有進口虛構的內容。約翰,誰,也許就立即死亡的基督,離開了跨單獨報告的情況。

Perhaps it was when he concerted with Joseph of Arimathaea, with Nicodemus, or the two Marys, about measures for the burying of Christ, that he learned of the Jewish deputation to Pilate, followed it to Praetorium, and then watched how it was all carried out on Golgotha.也許是當他與約瑟夫協調一致的Arimathaea ,與尼科迪默斯,或兩個瑪麗,大約措施,埋葬基督,他的經驗教訓的猶太人派遣到彼拉多,其次它Praetorium ,然後看著它如何進行所有對墓地。 He records, how Pilate acceded to the Jewish demand, and gave directions for the crurifragium, and permission for the after - removal of the dead bodies, which otherwise might have been left to hang, till putrescence or birds of prey had destroyed them.他的記錄,如何彼拉多加入猶太人的需求,給方向crurifragium ,並允許後-取消屍體,否則可能會被掛起,直到腐爛或猛禽摧毀了他們。 But John also tells us what he evidently regards as so great a prodigy that he specially vouches for it, pledging his own veracity, as an eyewitness, and grounding on it an appeal to the faith of those to whom his Gospel is addressed.但是,約翰還告訴我們,他顯然認為如此巨大的天才,他專門為它vouches ,保證自己的真實性,作為一名目擊者,並接地它呼籲信仰的那些人是他的福音處理。

It is, that certain 'things came to pass (not as in our AV 'were done') that the Scripture should be fulfilled,' or, to put it otherwise, by which the Scripture was fulfilled.這是某些'事情來通過(而不是在我們的AV '做' )認為聖經應得到履行,或者把它否則,其中聖經是履行。 These things were two, to which a thrid phenomenon, not less remarkable, must be added.這些東西有兩個,其中三分之一的現象,而不是更少顯著的,必須補充。 For, first, when, in the crurifragium, the soldiers had broken the bones of two malefactors, and then came to the Cross of Jesus, they found that He was dead already, and so 'a bone of Him' was 'not broken.'因為,第一,當時在crurifragium ,士兵們已經打破了骨頭,兩個263 ,然後來到十字耶穌,他們發現,他已經死了,所以'骨的他'是'沒有打破。 ' Had it been otherwise, the Scripture concerning the Paschal Lamb, (a Ex. 12:46; Numb. 9:12) as well that concerning the Righteous Suffering Servant of Jehovah, (b Ps. 34:20) would have been broken.如果不是,否則,聖經關於逾越節羔羊, (一惠。 12:46 ;麻木了。 9點12 ) ,以及,關於正義的苦難耶和華的僕人, (二素。 34:20 )將被打破。 In Christ alone these two ideas of the Paschal Lamb and the Righteous Suffering Servant of Jehovah are combined into a unity and fulfilled in their highest meaning.僅在基督這兩個思想的逾越節羔羊和正義的苦難僕人耶和華是合併為一個統一和實現其最高的意義。

And when, by a strange concurrence of circumstances, it 'came to pass' that, contrary to what might have been expected, 'a bone of Him' was 'not broken' this outward fact served as the finger to point to the predictions which were fulfilled of Him.時,被一陌生同意的情況下, '來傳遞'說,相反,可能已經預期,骨的他'是'沒有打破'這一事實外向擔任手指指向其中的預測得到滿足他。

Not less remarkable is the second fact.不少於顯著的是第二個事實。 If, on the Cross of Christ, these two fundamental ideas in the prophetic description of the work of the Messiah had been set forth: the fulfilment of the Paschal Sacrifice, which, as that of the Covenant, underlay all sacrifices, and the fulfilment of the ideal of the Righteous Servant of God, suffering in a world that hated God, and yet proclaimed and realising His Kingdom, a thrid truth remained to be exhibited.如果在十字架上的耶穌,這兩個基本思想的預言描述的工作彌賽亞已規定:履行復活節祝福,因為這盟約,背後所有的犧牲,並履行理想的正義的僕人上帝,苦難的世界憎恨上帝,尚未宣布和實現他的英國,第三真相仍有待展出。 It was not in regard to the character, but the effects, of the Work of Christ, its reception, alike in the present and in the future.這不是方面的特點,但影響工作的基督,它的接待,都在現在和將來。

This had been indicated in the prophecies of Zechariah, (c Zech. 12:10) which foretold how, in the day of Israel's final deliverance and national conversion, God would pour out the spirit of grace and of supplication, and as 'they shall look on Him Whom they pierced,' the spirit of true repentance would be granted them, alike nationally and individually.這已表明在撒迦利亞的預言, (三撒加利亞。 12:10 )的預言如何,在當天對以色列的最終解脫和國家的轉換,上帝將傾的精神,寬限期和祈求,並作為'他們應他期待他們穿, '的精神,真正的懺悔將給予他們,都在國家和個人。 The application of this to Christ is the more striking, that even the Talmud refers the prophecy to the Messiah.適用本基督更是驚人,即使是塔木德是指預言的彌賽亞。 (d Sukk. 52 a) And as these two things really applied to Christ, alike in His rejection and in His future return, (e Rev. 1:7) so did the strange historical occurence at His Crucifixion once more point to it as the fulfilment of Scripture prophecy. (四Sukk 。 52 )和上述兩件事情真的適用於基督,都在他的拒絕和他未來的回報, (英文修訂版1時07 ) ,所以沒有發生奇怪的歷史上在十字架上再次指向它作為履行聖經的預言。 For, although the soldiers, on finding Jesus dead, broke not one of His Bones, yet, as it was necessary to make sure of His Death, one of them, with a lance, 'pierced His Side, with a wound so deep, that Thomas might afterwards have thrust his hand into His Side.因為,儘管士兵,找到耶穌死了,沒有一個突破,他的骨頭,但因為它是必要的,以確定他的死亡,其中一人,以長矛,刺穿他身邊,與傷口如此之深,托馬斯說有可能以後推力他的手到他身邊。 (f John 20:27) (女約翰20:27 )

And with these two, as fulfilling Holy Scripture, yet a third phenonmenon was associated, symbolic of both.與這兩項,作為履行聖經,但第三個現象是相關的,象徵性的。 As the soldier pierced the side of the Dead Christ, 'forthwith came thereout Blood and Water.'正如士兵穿一側的死基督,隨即來到由此血和水。

It has been thought by some, (1 So, with various modifications, which need not here be detailed, first, Dr. Gruner (Comment. Antiq. Med. de Jesu Christ Morte, Hal. 1805), who, however, regarded Jesus as not quite dead when the lance pierced the heart, and, of late, Dr. Stroud (The Physical Cause of the Death of Christ, 1871), and many interpreters (see Nebe, us pp. 400, 401).) that there was physical cause for this, that Christ had literally died of a broken heart, and that, when the lance pierced first the lung filled with blood and then the pericardium filled with serous fluid, (2 But certainly not through a separation of the serum and the cruor, which is the mark of beginning putrefaction.) there flowed from the wound this double stream.它已被認為一些, ( 1因此,在各種修改,不需要在這裡詳細說明,第一,博士格魯納( Comment. Antiq 。醫科大學。基督耶穌的死,哈爾。 1805年) ,誰然而,認為耶穌作為不太死亡時,長矛刺穿心臟,以及最近博士斯特勞德(物理死因的基督, 1871年) ,和許多口譯(見Nebe ,我們頁。 400 , 401 ) 。 )有是身體的原因,這個基督的字面心碎而死,而且,當矛刺穿肺部首充滿血液,然後心包充滿漿液性液體, ( 2但可以肯定不是通過分離血清和該凝血,這是標誌著開始腐爛。 )有源自這種雙重傷口流。

(3 The fullest and most satisfactory physical explanation is that given by the Rev. S Haughton, and reprinted in the Speaker's Commentary on 1 John, pp. 349, 350. It demonstrates, that this phenomenon would take place, but only if a person who was also being crucified died of rupture of the heart.) In such cases, the lesson would be that reproach had literally broken His Heart. ( 3最充分和最令人滿意的物理解釋是,由牧師語霍頓,並重印議長評1約翰頁。 349 , 350 。它表明,這一現象將發生,但只有一個人誰是被釘在十字架上也死於破裂的心。 )在這種情況下,教訓將是責備實際上打破了他的心。 (a Ps. 99;20.) But we can scarcely believe that John could have wished to convey this without clearly setting it forth, thus assuming on the part of his readers knowledge of an obscure, and, it must be added, a scientifically doubtful phenomenon. Accordingly, we rather believe that to John, as to most of us, the significance of the fact lay in this, that out of the Body of One dead had flowed Blood and Water, that corruption had not fastened on Him. (一素。 99 20 。 )但是,我們幾乎可以認為,美國可能希望轉達這一不明確設置等等,從而承擔的一部分,他的讀者了解一個不起眼的,而且,它必須說,以科學值得懷疑的現象。因此,我們相信,而不是約翰,因為我們大多數人來說,意義其實在於,這個出一具死了流入血液和水,腐敗現象還沒有拴在他身上。

Then, there would be the symbolic meaning conveyed by the Water (from the pericardium) and the Blood (from the heart), a symbolism most true, if corruption had no power nor hold on Him, if in Death He was not dead, if He vanquished Death and Corruption, and in this respect also fulfilled the prophetic ideal of not seeing corruption. (b Ps. xvi. 10.) To this symbolic bearing of the flowing of Water and Blood from His pierced side, on which the Evangelist dwells in his Epistle, (c 1 John 6) and to its external expression in the symbolism of the two Sacraments, we can only point the thoughtful Christian. 然後,將有象徵意義傳達的水(從心包)和血液(發自內心) ,一個最真實的象徵,如果腐敗現象沒有權力也沒有對他進行,如果死他沒有死,如果他征服死亡和腐敗,並在這方面也實現了理想的預言沒有看到腐敗現象。 (二素。十六。 10 。 )為了這個象徵性的軸承流動的水和血從他穿的方面,對居住的傳播者在他的書, (三約翰一書6 )和它的外部表達的象徵意義的兩個聖禮,我們只能指出周到的基督徒。 For, the two Sacraments mean that Christ had come; that over Him, Who was crucified for us and loved us unto death with His broken heart, Death and Corruption had no power; and that He liveth for us with the pardoning and cleansing power of His offered Sacrifice.對於這兩個聖禮意味著基督已經到來; ,超過他,誰是釘在十字架上為我們和我們愛你們死刑,他的破碎的心,死亡和腐敗並沒有權力;和他liveth我們的赦免和清洗權力他提供的犧牲。

Yet one other scene remains to be recorded.然而,另外一個場景仍然被記錄下來。 Whether before, or, more probably, after the Jewish deputation to the Roman Governor, another and a strange application came to Pilate. It was from one apparently well known, a man not only of wealth and standing, (d Matthew.) whose noble bearing (4 This seems implied in the expression (AV 'honourable') Mark 15:43.) corresponded to his social condition, and who was known as a just and a good man.無論是前,或更可能後,猶太人派遣羅馬總督,又一個奇怪的應用來彼拉多。這是從一個顯然是眾所周知的,一個人不僅是財富和地位, (四馬修。 )的崇高軸承( 4這似乎暗示在表達(視聽'光榮' )馬克15:43 ) 。相當於他的社會狀況,以及誰被稱為公正和一個好人。 (e Luke) Joseph of Arimathaea was a Sanhedrist, (5 Taken in connection with Luke 23:51, this is probably the meaning of Otherwise we would have) but he had not consented either to the counsel or the deed of his colleagues. (戊盧克)約瑟夫Arimathaea是一個Sanhedrist , ( 5兩者結合路加23:51 ,這可能是意義上的,否則我們會) ,但他沒有同意或者向律師或契據他的同事們。 It must have been generally known that he was one of those 'which waited for the Kingdom of God.'它必須被一般人都知道,他是其中之一,它在等待上帝王國的。

But he had advanced beyond what that expression implies. Although secretly, for fear of the Jews.但他先進的超越意味著表達。雖然秘密,怕猶太人。 (John) he was a disciple of Jesus. (約翰)他是耶穌的門徒。 It is in strange contrast to this 'fear,' that )t.這是奇怪此相反恐懼心理,認為)噸 Mark tells us, that, 'having dared,' 'he went in unto Pilate and asked for the Body of Jesus'.馬克告訴我們,說, '有敢' , '他在你們彼拉多,並要求該機構的耶穌' 。

Thus, under circumstances the most unlikely and unforgivable, were his fears converted into boldness, and he, whom fear of the Jews had restrained from making open avowal of discipleship during the life - time of Jesus, not only professed such of the Crucified Christ, (2 At the same time I feel, that this might have been represented by the Jews as not quite importing what it really was, as rather an act of pietas towards the Rabbi of Nazareth than of homage to the Messiahship of Jesus.) but took the most bold and decide step before Jews and Gentiles in connection with it.因此,根據的情況下,最不可能和不可原諒的,是他的恐懼轉化成勇氣,他,他害怕猶太人從決策約束avowal開放的門徒在生命-耶穌時,不僅宣稱這種被釘十字架的基督, ( 2同時我覺得,這可能已經為代表的猶太人不太進口什麼是真的,而不是作為行為的pietas對拉比拿撒勒,而不是致敬, Messiahship耶穌。 ) ,但在最大膽的一步,並決定之前,猶太人和外邦人與此有關。

So does trial elicit faith, and the wind, which quenches the feeble flame that plays around the outside, fan into brightness the fire that burns deep within, though for a time unseen.那麼,審判促使信念,風,這quenches的微弱火焰圍繞發揮外面,扇到亮度的火災,燒傷深內,雖然有一段時間看不見。 Joseph of Arimathaea, now no longer a secret disciple, but bold in the avowal of his regents love, would show to the Dead Body of his Master all veneration.約瑟夫Arimathaea ,現在不再是一個秘密的弟子,但大膽的avowal他的校董的愛,將顯示的屍體,他的所有碩士崇拜。 And the Divinely ordered concurrence of circumstances not only helped his pious purpose, but invested all with deepest symbolic significance.和神下令同意的情況下,不僅幫助他的虔誠的目的,但投資都深切的象徵意義。 It was Friday afternoon, and the Sabbath was drawing near.這是星期五下午,和安息日是臨近。

(3 No time therefore was to be lost, if due honour were to be paid to the Sacred Body. Pilate gave it to Joseph of Arimathaea. Such was within his power, and a favour not unfrequently accorded in like circumstances. ( 3沒有時間因此喪失,如果由於榮幸被支付給神聖的機構。彼拉多送給約瑟夫Arimathaea 。這是他的權力範圍內,並沒有unfrequently贊成給予類似的情況。

(4 See the proof in Wetstein, ad loc.) But two things must have powerfully impressed the Roman Governor, and deepened his former thoughts about Jesus: first, that the death on the Cross had taken place so rapidly, a circumatance on which he personally questioned the Centurion, (b Mark) and then the bold appearance and request of such a man as Joseph of Arimathaea. ( 4見證明Wetstein ,廣告祿) 。兩件事,但必須有強有力的印象羅馬總督,並加深他的前耶穌思考:第一,死在十字架上發生了如此迅速,一個circumatance對他本人質疑的Centurion , (二馬克) ,然後大膽的外觀和要求,這樣一個人作為約瑟夫Arimathaea 。

(5 The Arimathaea of Joseph is probably the modern Er - Ram, two hours north of Jerusalem, on a conical hill, somewhat east of the road that leads from Jerusalem to Nablus (Jos. Ant. 8:12. 3), the Armathaim of the LXX. The objection of Keim (which it would take too long to discuss in a note) are of no force (comp. his Jesu von Naz. III. p. 516). It is one of the undesigned evidences of the accuracy of Luke, that he described it as belonging to Judaea. For, whereas Ramah in Mount Ephraim originally belonged to Samaria, it was afterwards separated from the latter and joined to the province of Judaea (comp. 1 Macc. 10:38; 11:28, 34).) Or did the Centurion express to the Governer also some such feeling as that which had found utterance under the Cross in the words: 'Truly this Man was the Son of God'? ( 5 Arimathaea約瑟夫可能是現代爾-拉姆,兩個小時耶路撒冷以北的,一個錐形山,有些地區的道路,導致從耶路撒冷納布盧斯(聖何塞螞蟻。 8點1 2分。 3 ) , A rmathaim LXX的。反對的凱姆(它將要花太長時間討論中指出)是任何力量( comp.他耶穌馮納茲。三。頁516 ) 。它是非故意的證據準確性的盧克,他形容這是屬於猶太。對,而Ramah以法蓮山原來屬於撒馬利亞,但後來脫離了後者,加入到省的猶太( comp.一排雷協委會。 10點38分; 11 : 28日, 34 ) 。 )或者沒有百夫長表示,總督也有這種感覺因為這其中發現了話語跨下的話: '這個人真的是上帝的兒子' ?

The proximity of the holy Sabbath, and the consequent need of haste, may have suggested or determined the proposal of Joseph to lay the Body of Jesus in his own rock hewn new tomb,接近神聖的安息日,以及因此而需要的倉促,可能有建議或決定的建議約瑟夫奠定了車身的耶穌在他自己的搖滾hewn新墓,

(1 Meyer regards the statement of Matthew to the effect (27:60) as inconsistent with the notice in John 19:42. I really cannot see any inconsistency, nor does his omission of the fact that the tomb was Joseph's seem to me fatal. The narrative of John is concentrated on the burying rather than its accessories. Professor Westcott thinks that John 19:41, implies 'that the sepulchre in which the Lord was laid was not chosen as His final resting place.' But of this also I do not perceive evidence.) wherein no one had yet been laid. ( 1邁耶認為,聲明馬修的影響( 27:60 )為不符合通知,約翰19時42分。我實在看不出有任何不一致之處,他也不會遺漏的事實,墓是約瑟夫在我看來致命。敘述的約翰是集中埋葬,而不是它的配件。 Westcott教授認為,約翰19:41 ,意味著'的墳墓,其中主奠定不是作為他的最後的安息之地。 '但是這個我也不認為證據。 ) ,其中沒有一個尚未奠定了基礎。 (a Luke) (一盧克)

The symbolic significance of this is the more marked, that the symbolism was undersigned.的象徵意義,這是更為顯著,該是象徵以下。 These rock hewn sepulchres, and the mode of laying the dead in them, have been very fully described in connection with the burying of Lazarus.這些岩石hewn sepulchres和模式奠定了死在他們都非常充分說明與掩埋的拉撒路。 We may therefore wholly surrender overselves to the sacred thoughts that gather around us.因此,我們可以完全投降overselves的神聖的想法,聚集在我們周圍。 The Cross was lowered and laid on the ground; the curel nails drawn out, and the ropes unloosed. Joseph, with those who attended him, 'wrapped' the Sacred Body 'in a clean linen cloth,' and rapidly carried It to the rock hewn tomb in the garden close by.跨降低奠定地面上的釘子curel抽出,並繩索解開。約瑟夫,與誰出席了他, '包裝'聖體'在一個乾淨的亞麻布,並迅速進行它的岩石hewn墓在花園附近。 Such a rock hewn tomb or cave (Meartha) had niches (Kukhin), where the dead were laid.這種岩石hewn墓或洞穴( Meartha )有壁龕( Kukhin ) ,其中死者是奠定了基礎。

. It will be remembered, that at the entrance to 'the tomb', and within 'the rock', there was 'a court,' nine feet square, where ordinarly the bier was deposited, and its bearers gathered to do the last offices for the Dead. 人們將記住,在入口處的'墳墓' ,和'石頭' ,但'法院'九英尺平方米,其中ordinarly的壽材交存,其承擔收集做最後辦事處為死。 Thither we supposes Joseph to have carried the Sacred Body, and then the last scene to have taken place.那兒,我們假設約瑟夫已經進行的神聖機構,然後最後一幕有發生。 For now another, kindered to Joseph in spirit, history, and position, had come.現在另一個kindered約瑟夫的精神,歷史和地位,已經成熟。 The same spiritual Law, which had brought Joseph to open confession, also constrained the profession of that other Sanhedrist, Nicodemus.同樣的精神,該法約瑟夫帶來了開放的供詞,也制約了行業的其他Sanhedrist ,尼科迪默斯。 We remember, how at the first he had, from fear of detection, come to Jesus by night, and with what bated breath he had pleaded with his colleagues not so much the cause of Christ, as on His behalf that of law and justice.我們記得,如何在第一他,免於恐懼的發現,到耶穌的夜晚,與屏息以待,他懇求他的同事們沒有這麼多的原因基督,因為以他的名義的法律和正義。 (b John 7:50) (二約翰7:50 )

He now came, bringing 'a roll' of myrrh and aloes, in the fragrant mixture well known to the Jews for purposes of anointing or burying.現在他來了,把'唱名'的沒藥和蘆薈,在芬芳的混合物熟知的猶太人為目的的anointing或掩埋。

It was in 'the court' of the tomb that the hasty embalmment, if such it may be called, took place.這是在'法庭'的陵墓的倉促embalmment ,如它可被稱為發生。 None of Christ's former disciples seem to have taken part in the burying.沒有基督的前弟子似乎已經參加了掩埋。 John may have withdrawn to bring tidings to, and to comfort the Virgin Mother; the others also, that had 'stood after off, beholding,'appear to have left.約翰可能撤回提請消息,並安慰母親的美屬維爾京的其他人也,有'為關閉後, beholding ,似乎已經離開。

Only a few faithful ones, (a Luke) notably among them Mary Magdalene and the other Mary, the mother of Joseses, stood over against the tomb, watching at some distance where and how the Body of Jesus was laid.只有少數幾個忠實的, (一盧克)特別是其中抹大拉的馬利亞和其他瑪麗的母親Joseses ,站在對墓,觀看距離在一些地方和如何體的耶穌奠定了基礎。 It would scarcely have been in accordance with Jewish manners, if these women had mingled more closely with the two Sanhedrists and their attendants.這幾乎已按照猶太人的舉止,如果這些婦女有更密切的交融與兩個Sanhedrists和他們的服務員。 From where they stood they could only have had a dim view of what passed within the court, and this may explain how, on their return, they 'prepared spices and ointments' (b Luke.) for the more full honours which they hoped to pay the Dead after the Sabbath was past.從那裡他們站在他們只能有暗淡看法通過法院,這可能解釋為什麼,他們返回時,他們'準備香料和藥膏' (二盧克) 。以便更充分榮譽,他們希望支付後的死是過去的安息日。

(1 John computes it at about 100 litras. As in all likelihood this would refer to Roman pounds, of about twelve ounces each, the amount is large, but not such as to warrant any reasonable objection. A servant could easily carry it, and it is not said that it was all used in the burying. If it were possible to find any similar use of the expression one might be tempted to regard the litras as indicating not the weight, but a coin. In that sense the words litra is used, sometimes as = 100 denars, in which case 100 litras would be = about 250 l., but more frequently as = 4 dranhms, in which case 100 litras would be = about 12 l. (comp. Herzfeld. Handelsgesch. p. 181). (約翰一書計算,在約100 litras 。如同所有可能這將是指羅馬磅,約每一十二盎司,數額大,但並非如令任何合理的反對意見。一個僕人可以很容易地進行,並這不是說,這是所有用於埋葬。如果能夠找到任何類似用途的表達可能是一個誘惑方面litras表明不作為的重量,而是一個硬幣。從這個意義上來說的話是litra使用,有時= 100第納爾,在這種情況下, 100 litras將=約250名湖,但更經常= 4 dranhms ,在這種情況下, 100 litras將=約12湖( comp.赫茲費爾德。 Handelsgesch 。頁181 ) 。

But the linguistic difficulty seems very great, while any possible objection to the weight of the spices is really inconsiderable.但是,語言的困難似乎非常大,而任何可能反對的重量香料確實是微不足道的。 For the kind of spices used in the burying, see Book EV.對於什麼樣的香料用於掩埋,見書電動車。 ch.路。 xxi. 21 。 (as the burying of Lazarus). (如埋葬拉撒路) 。 In later times there was a regular rubric and prayers with Kabbalistic symbolism (see Perles, Leichenfeierlichk. p. 11, Note 12).在稍後的時間有一個經常標題和祈禱與Kabbalistic象徵(見珍珠, Leichenfeierlichk 。第11頁,注12 ) 。 No doubt, the wounds in the Sacred Body of our Lord had been washed from their gore.)毫無疑問,傷口在神聖的身體我們的主已經被水從他們的戈爾。 )

For, it is of the greatest importance to remember, that hast characterised all that was done. It seems as if the 'clean linen cloth' in which the Body had been wrapped, was now torn into 'cloths' or swathes, into which the Body, limb by limb, was now 'bound,' (2 The Synopists record, that the Body of Jesus was 'wrapped' in a 'linen cloth;' John tells us that it was 'bound' with threads of aloes and myrrh of Nicodemus into 'swathes' or 'cloths,' even as they were found afterwards in the empty tomb, and by their side 'the napkin,' or soudarion, for the head. I have tried to combine the account of the Synoptists and that of John into a continuous narrative.) no doubt, between layers of myrrh and aloes, the Head being wrapped in a napkin.因為,這是最重要的要記住,你的特點是所有這樣做。 好像在'乾淨的亞麻布,在該機構已經結束,現在卻斷成了'布'或成片,將其身體,四肢的肢體,但現在'約束' ( 2 Synopists記錄,該機構的耶穌是'包'了'亞麻布; '約翰告訴我們,這是'約束'與線程的蘆薈和沒藥的尼科迪默斯到'大片'或'布'即使被發現後的空墓,以及他們一邊'的餐巾,或soudarion ,為頭。我試圖帳戶相結合的Synoptists和約翰進入一個持續的說明。 ) 毫無疑問,層間沒藥和蘆薈,頭被包裹在餐巾。

And so they laid Him to rest in the niche of the rock hewn new tomb. And as they went out, they rolled, as was the custom, a 'great stone,' the Golel, to close the entrance to the tomb, (c Sanh. 47 b.) probably leaning against it for support, as was the practice, a smaller stone, the so - called Dopheq. (d Ohai. ii 4.) It would be where the one stone was laid against the other, that on the next day, Sabbath though it was, the Jewish authorities would have affixed the seal, so that the slightest disturbance might become apparent.因此,他們奠定他休息的特殊岩石hewn新墓。而且他們出去,他們推出,如自定義,一個偉大的石頭, ' Golel,收的入口處墳墓, (三Sanh 。 47灣)可能倚著它的支持,是實踐中,較小的結石,即所謂-所謂D opheq。 (四O hai。 ㈡ 4 。 )將在一石下崗反對,認為次日,安息日雖然這是,猶太當局將貼密封,所以絲毫干擾可能變得十分明顯。

(3 But it must be admitted, that there are difficulties on this particular. See the remarks on this point at pp. 623 and 631, but espically pp, 636, 637.) to follow delegates from the Sanhedrin to the ceremony of cutting the Passover - sheaf. ( 3但是必須承認,有困難就這一具體。見的話在這一點上頁。 623和631 ,但espically頁, 636 , 637 。 )遵循代表公會的儀式削減逾越節-捆。 The Law had it, "he shall bring a sheaf (literally, the Omer) with the first - fruits of your harvest, unto the priest; and he shall wave the Omer before Jehovah, to be accepted for you."該法曾, “他應把捆(字面上看,奧馬爾)的第一-水果的收穫,你們的牧師,他應波的歐麥耶和華面前,接受你。 ”

This Passover - sheaf was reaped in public the evening before it was offered, and it was to witness this ceremony that the crowd had gathered around the elders.這逾越節-捆是在公眾獲得傍晚之前提供,這是見證這個儀式的人群聚集在了老人。 Already on the 14th Nisan the spot whence the first sheaf was to be reaped had been marked out, by tying together in bundles, while still standing, the barley that was to be cut down, according to custom, in the sheltered Ashes Valley across Kidron.已經在尼散月14日現貨何處的第一層是將已獲得顯著的,通過捆綁捆綁在一起,而依然屹立,大麥這是被砍掉,根據慣例,在保護整個流域的灰燼基德隆。 When the time for cutting the sheaf had arrived, that is, on the evening of the 15th Nisan, even though it were a Sabbath, just as the sun went down, three men, each with a sickle and basket, set to work.當時間切斷捆已抵達,就是晚上的十五尼桑,即使它是一個安息日,就像太陽墜毀,三名男子,每一個鐮刀和籃子裡,開始了工作。 Clearly to bring out what was distinctive in the ceremony, they first asked of the bystanders three times each of these questions: "Has the sun gone down?"顯然,以帶出什麼獨特的儀式,他們首先問的旁觀者每3倍對這些問題: “有太陽的下降? ” "With this sickle?" “有了這個鐮刀? ” "Into this basket?" “這個籃子? ” "On this Sabbath? (or first Passover - day)", and, lastly, "shall I reap?" “在這個安息日? (或第一個逾越節-天) ” ,最後, “我收穫? ”

Having each time been answered in the affirmative, they cut down barley to the amount of one ephah, or about three pecks and three pints of our English measure.在每一次得到肯定的答复,他們降低大麥的數額之一ephah ,或約3 pecks和三品脫我們的英語措施。 This is not the place to follow the ceremony farther, how the corn was threshed out, parched, ground, and one omer of the flour, mixed with oil and frankincense, waved before the Lord in the Temple on the second Paschal day (or 16th of Nisan).這是不適合的後續儀式更遠,如何玉米threshed了,口乾舌燥,地面,一個奧梅爾的麵粉,混合油和乳香,揮舞著面前的主廟的第二復活節天(或16的尼桑) 。 But, as this festive procession started, amidst loud demonstrations, a small band of mourners turned from having laid their dead Master in His resting place.但是,因為這節日遊行開始,由於大聲示威,一個小樂隊的葬禮變成擁有了他們的死在他的碩士安息之地。 The contrast is as sad as it is suggestive.對比是可悲的,因為它是暗示。 And yet, not in the Temple, nor by the priest, but in the silence of that garden tomb, was the first Omer of the new Paschal flour to be waved before the Lord.'然而,不是廟,也不是牧師,但在沉默的花園陵墓,是第一次歐麥新的復活節粉是揮舞上帝面前。 (1 See 'The Temple and its Services,' pp. 221 - 224.) ( 1見'廟和服務, '頁。 221 -2 24。 )

excerpts from Book 5, Chapter 15, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah圖書摘錄5日,第15章, 生活和時代的耶穌救世主
by Alfred Edersheim, 1886)由阿爾弗雷德愛德生, 1886年)


Author Edersheim refers to MANY reference sources in his works.作者愛德生提到許多參考資料在他的作品。 As a Bibliography resource, we have created a separate Edersheim References list. All of his bracketed references indicate the page numbers in the works referenced.作為一個書目資源,我們創建了一個單獨的愛德生參考清單。所有提到他的括號內顯示頁碼的作品中引用。


Cross交叉

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Cross, in the New Testament was the instrument of crucifixion, and hence used for the crucifixion of Christ itself (Eph. 2:16; Heb. 12:2; 1 Cor. 1:17, 18; gal. 5:11; 6:12, 14; Phil. 3:18).交叉,在新約聖經是受難的工具,因此,用於耶穌受難本身(以弗所書2點16分;河北。 12:2 ; 1肺心病。一點17分, 18人;半乳糖苷酶。 5點11分, 6 : 12日, 14日;菲爾。三點18分) 。 The word is also used to denote any severe affliction or trial (Matt. 10:38; 16:24; Mark 8:34; 10:21).這個詞也用來指任何嚴重的疾病或審判(瑪特泰10:38 ; 16:24 ;馬克8點34分; 10:21 ) 。

The forms in which the cross is represented are these:-表格中交叉的代表有: -

After the conversion, so-called, of Constantine the Great (BC 313), the cross first came into use as an emblem of Christianity.轉換後,所謂的君士坦丁大帝(公元前313 ) ,兩岸首次投入使用為標誌的基督教。 He pretended at a critical moment that he saw a flaming cross in the heavens bearing the inscription, "In hoc signo vinces", ie, By this sign thou shalt conquer, and that on the following night Christ himself appeared and ordered him to take for his standard the sign of this cross.他假裝在關鍵時刻,他看到了燃燒的十字架上天空上面寫著“在特設signo賓塞斯” ,即通過這一標誌你應該征服,並於第二天晚上基督本人似乎並命令他採取的他標準的信號,這種跨。 In this form a new standard, called the Labarum, was accordingly made, and borne by the Roman armies.在此形成一個新的標準,稱為Labarum ,相應的進展,並承擔了羅馬軍隊。 It remained the standard of the Roman army till the downfall of the Western empire.它仍然是標準的羅馬軍隊到衰敗的西方帝國。 It bore the embroidered monogram of Christ, ie, the first two Greek letters of his name, X and P (chi and rho), with the Alpha and Omega.它承擔繡字母基督,即前兩個希臘字母他的名字,第十和P (池和盧) ,與亞爾發和奧米加。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


Cross (noun)跨(名詞)

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Cross denotes, primarily, "an upright pale or stake."紅十字會表示,主要是“一個正直的臉色蒼白或股份。 ” On such malefactors were nailed for execution.在這種釘263人執行。 Both the noun and the verb stauroo, "to fasten to a stake or pale, " are originally to be distinguished from the ecclesiastical form of a two beamed "cross."這兩個名詞和動詞stauroo “ ,以一個扣上股份或臉色蒼白, ”本來是有別於教會形式的兩個微笑“交叉” 。 The shape of the latter had its origin in ancient Chaldea, and was used as the symbol of the god Tammuz (being in the shape of the mystic Tau, the initial of his name) in that country and in adjacent lands, including Egypt.的形狀,後者起源於古代Chaldea ,並作為象徵神齋戒(即在形狀,神秘的頭,最初他的名字)在該國和鄰近的土地,其中包括埃及。 By the middle of the 3rd cent.由中間的第3次以上。 AD the churches had either departed from, or had travestied, certain doctrines of the Christian faith.公元教會或者離開,或travestied ,某些理論的信仰基督教。

In order to increase the prestige of the apostate ecclesiastical system pagans were received into the churches apart from regeneration by faith, and were permitted largely to retain their pagan signs and symbols.為了提高聲望,叛教教會系統共收到異教徒的教堂除了再生的信仰,在很大程度上被允許保留他們的異教的標誌和符號。 Hence the Tau or T, in its most frequent form, with the cross-piece lowered, was adopted to stand for the "cross" of Christ.因此,頭或T ,在其最常見的形式,與跨片下,通過起立為“跨”的基督。 As for the Chi, or X, which Constantine declared he had seen in a vision leading him to champion the Christian faith, that letter was the initial of the word "Christ" and had nothing to do with "the Cross" (for xulon, "a timber beam, a tree, " as used for the stauros).至於池,或X ,這君士坦丁宣布他看到了他的遠見領先,以冠軍的基督教信仰,這封信是最初的詞“基督” ,並沒有任何與“跨” (為xulon , “木材梁,一棵樹” ,作為用於stauros ) 。 The method of execution was borrowed by the Greeks and Romans from the Phoenicians.該法的執行是借來的希臘人和羅馬人從腓尼基人。

The stauros denotes (a) "the cross, or stake itself, " eg, Matt.該stauros指(一) “兩岸,或股份本身, ”例如,馬特。 27:32; (b) "the crucifixion suffered, " eg, 1 Cor. 27:32 ; (二) “的十字架遭受” ,例如, 1肺心病。 1:17-18, where "the word of the cross, " RV, stands for the gospel; Gal. 1:17-18 ,其中“字交叉, ”房車,隨時為福音;半乳糖。 5:11, where crucifixion is metaphorically used of the renunciation of the world, that characterizes the true Christian life; 6:12, 14; Eph. 2:16; Phil. 5點11分,在十字架是用來比喻的放棄世界,真實的特點基督徒的生活; 6點12 ,第14條;厄。 2時16分;菲爾。 3:18. 3時18分。 The judicial custom by which the condemned person carried his stake to the place of execution, was applied by the Lord to those sufferings by which His faithful followers were to express their fellowship with Him, eg, Matt.司法定制其中的人進行譴責他的股份的地點執行,適用於上帝的苦難,其中他的忠實追隨者被表達他們的研究與他的,例如,馬特。 10:38. 10:38 。


Cross交叉

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

1. 1 。

The stake (σταῦρος = or ) used by the Romans at crucifixion.股份( σταῦρος =或)所使用的古羅馬人在受難。 This was so familiar to the Jews in New Testament times that they spoke frequently of "men carrying their cross before them while going to be executed" (Gen. R. lvi.; Pesiḳ. R. xxxi., ed. Buber, 143b), as did Jesus (Matt. x. 38, xvi. 24, and parallels; see Crucifixion).這是非常熟悉的猶太人在新約時代,他們經常談到的“男子背著跨面前,而要被處死” (將軍河56 。 ; Pesiḳ 。河三十一。主編。布伯, 143b )一樣,耶穌(瑪特泰十, 38歲,十六。第24條,並相似之處;看到十字架) 。

2. 2 。

A specific Christian symbol: termed by Jews ("warp and woof"); also ("idol").一個具體的基督教象徵:稱為猶太人( “帷幄” ) ;也( “偶像” ) 。 Concerning this the law is: "As far as it is made an object of worship by Christians, it is to be treated as an idol and prohibited for use; if, however, it is worn as an ornament without any religious object, its use is permitted to the Jews" (Isserles, Shulḥan 'Aruk, Yore De'ah, 141, 1: R. Mordecai to 'Ab. Zarah iii. in the name of R. Eleazar b. Jacob of Worms).關於這一法律是: “至於它是一個對象的崇拜的基督徒,那就是被視為偶像,並禁止使用;但是,如果它是作為一個破舊沒有任何裝飾的宗教對象,其使用允許猶太人“ ( Isserles , Shulḥan ' Aruk ,昔日De'ah , 141 , 1 :河莫德以'抗體。 Zarah三。名稱中河埃萊亞薩灣雅各蟲) 。 However, being a Christian symbol, it has always been scrupulously avoided by Jews. Pious Jews would not even wear badges or decorations with the cross attached to them, whereas more liberal ones do not hesitate to wear either the Iron Cross as German soldiers, or the Red Cross as members of the Red Cross Society.然而,作為一個基督教的象徵,它始終嚴格地避免了猶太人。虔誠的猶太人甚至不佩戴胸卡或裝飾的交叉重視他們,而更寬鬆的請不要猶豫,穿上無論是鐵十字勳章是德國士兵,或紅十字會的成員,紅十字會。 To embroider ornamental crosses upon silk dresses for Christian ladiesis not forbidden to Jewish artists, according to Solomon b.繡花裝飾雜交後的絲綢禮服基督教ladiesis沒有明令禁止猶太藝術家,根據所羅門灣 Adret (see Berliner, "Aus dem Leben der Juden," 1900, pp. 13, 130). Adret (見柏林, “澳大利亞DEM的猶太人的生活” , 1900年,頁。 13 , 130 ) 。 The Jewish aversion to using any sign resembling a cross was so strong that in books on arithmetic or algebra written by Jews the plus sign was represented by an inverted "ḳameẓ" ().猶太人厭惡任何標誌使用類似兩岸是如此強烈,在書本上算術代數書面或由猶太人的加號的代表是一個倒“ ḳameẓ ” ( ) 。

The cross as a Christian symbol or "seal" came into use at least as early as the second century (see "Apost. Const." iii. 17; Epistle of Barnabas, xi.-xii.; Justin, "Apologia," i. 55-60; "Dial. cum Tryph." 85-97); and the marking of a cross upon the forehead and the chest was regarded as a talisman against the powers of demons (Tertullian, "De Corona," iii.; Cyprian, "Testimonies," xi. 21-22; Lactantius, "Divinæ Institutiones," iv. 27, and elsewhere).兩岸作為一個基督教的象徵或“海豹”投入使用,至少早在二世紀(見“ Apost 。康斯特。 ”三。 17 ;書巴拿巴, xi. - 12 。 ;賈斯汀, “辯解, ”我。 55-60 ; “撥號。暨Tryph 。 ” 85-97 ) ;和標記的一個跨時前額和胸部被視為一種護身符,對權力的惡魔(良, “德電暈, ”三。 ;塞浦路斯, “證詞”十一。 21-22 ;潭修斯, “ Divinæ Institutiones , ”四。 27日,和其他地方) 。 Accordingly the Christian Fathers had to defend themselves, as early as the second century, against the charge of being worshipers of the cross, as may be learned from Tertullian, "Apologia," xii., xvii., and Minucius Felix, "Octavius," xxix.因此,基督教父親為自己辯護,早在二世紀,負責對被朝拜的交叉,可從良, “縱容” ,十二。 ,十七。 ,並Minucius費利克斯“ ,屋大維, “二十九。 Christians used to swear by the power of the cross (see Apocalypse of Mary, viii., in James, "Texts and Studies," iii. 118).基督徒用來發誓的權力交叉(見瑪麗的啟示,八。 ,在詹姆斯, “文本和研究, ”三。 118 ) 。 Nevertheless Jewish teachers in the Middle Ages declared that Christians must be believed when swearing by the cross, as, in reality, they swear by the true God (Isaac of Corbeil, in "Sefer Miẓwot Ḳaṭan," 119, quoted by Güdemann, "Gesch. d. Erz. u. Cultur in Italien," 1880, i. 90).然而猶太教師在中世紀宣布,基督教徒必須相信宣誓就職時,由交叉,因為在現實中,他們發誓真正的上帝(伊薩克的科貝伊,在“ Miẓwot珥之書” , 119 ,引述Güdemann , “ Gesch 。 d. Erz 。美國培養在意大利, “ 1880年,島90 ) 。 The fact, however, that the cross was worshiped as an idol during the Middle Ages caused the Jews to avoid (compare Ex. xxiii. 13) the very word "Cross," as well as all derivatives of it; for instance, "kreuzer" they called "ẓelem" or, abbreviated, "ẓal"; and the town "Kreuznach" they called "Ẓelem-Maḳom."事實上,然而,兩岸是敬拜偶像作為一個在中世紀的猶太人造成的,以避免(比較前。二十三。 13 )非常改為“跨” ,以及所有衍生產品的它,例如, “策“他們所謂的” ẓelem “ ,或簡稱”灣“和城鎮”鏡頭“ ,他們所謂的” Ẓelem - Maḳom 。 “

Several forms of the cross appear to have been used: the simple form, like a plus sign, the so-called St. Andrew's cross, and the Latin cross, which is mentioned in Ezek.幾種形式的跨似乎已用於:簡單的形式,像一個加號,所謂的聖安德魯十字架,和拉丁美洲交叉,這是中提到Ezek 。 ix.九。 4 (Hebr.) as the "mark of life set upon the men to be saved" (compare Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, and Vulgate, or St. Jerome, to Ezek. lc; and Tertullian, "Adversus Marcum," iii. 22; compare Job xxxi. 35). 4 ( Hebr. )作為“標誌設置的生活的男子被保存” (比較雕, Symmachus , Theodotion ,以及拉丁文聖經,或聖杰羅姆,以Ezek 。立法會;和良, “ Adversus馬庫姆, ”三。 22 ;比較項目三十一。 35 ) 。 On the other hand, the oblique or St. Andrew's cross, resembling the letter "x," was used in Justin's time (see "Apologia," i. 60, where he compares the Christian cross with the cosmogonic starting-point in Plato's "Timæus," 36), and was known also to the Jews (see Anointing and Cabala), this form as the initial letter of Χριστός being preferably used.另一方面,傾斜或聖安德魯十字架,類似的信“ × ” ,用於賈斯汀的時間(見“縱容” , 60個島,在那裡他比較了兩岸基督教與cosmogonic起點柏拉圖的“提瑪友斯“ , 36歲) ,以及被稱為還對猶太人(見Anointing和Cabala ) ,此表作為初始信Χριστός正在最好使用。 In Jewish circles the original connections of both the Latin and the St. Andrew's cross were quite naturally ignored.在猶太人圈子原來的兩個連接拉丁美洲和聖安德魯的交叉是很自然不容忽視。

Kaufmann Kohler考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography 目錄
Zöckler, Das Kreuz Christi, 1875; Hastings, Dict. Zöckler ,達斯克羅伊茨基督, 1875年;黑斯廷斯,快譯通。 Bibl. Bibl 。 sv; Cheyne and Black, Encyc.希沃特;進益和黑海, Encyc 。 Bibl. Bibl 。 sv; Winer, BR sv; Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc.希沃特;納,溴希沃特;赫爾佐格,克,實時Encyc 。 sv; Krauss, Realencyclopädie der Christlichen Archäologie, sv希沃特;克勞斯, Realencyclopädie之Christlichen Archäologie ,希沃特


Also, see:此外,見:
Crucifixion 十字架
Seven Words On The Cross 七話兩岸
Words Inscribed on the Cross 接詞在十字架上
The Arising of Jesus 產生的耶穌

This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


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