Comparative Religion比較宗教學

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Although it is possible to trace the origin of comparative religion to the sixth century Greek thinker Xenophanes, who noted that different peoples tend to depict God in their own image, it was not until the nineteenth century that the study of comparative religion began in earnest.雖然這是可能的,追查來源,比較宗教,以六世紀希臘思想家色諾芬尼,誰指出,不同的民族往往描繪上帝在他們自己的形象,但直到19世紀,研究比較宗教才真正開始。 Under the influence of evolutionary theory a number of scholars found what they believed to be evolutionary links between various religious traditions.的影響下,進化理論的一些學者發現了他們認為是進化之間的聯繫各種不同的宗教傳統。 Chief among these were F Max Muller, EB Tylor, and JG Fraser.其中最主要的是F馬克斯繆勒錠泰勒和JG弗雷澤。 The discipline gained rapid academic recognition, and chairs were established in various institutions, particularly the new universities of North America.紀檢得以迅速學術承認,並主持建立了各種機構,特別是新的大學的北美。 In Britain the subject tended to serve the needs of the empire and was closely linked to the study of Asian languages.在英國,但往往服務的需求帝國密切相關的研究亞洲語言。 In Germany it took the form of the history of religions, which was seen as an adjunct to Christian theology.在德國它的形式是歷史上的宗教,這被看作是輔助基督教神學。

In the United States, under the influence of institutions like the University of Chicago, it became an important element in the expression of the American liberal consensus.在美國的影響下,機構,如美國芝加哥大學,它成為一個重要組成部分表達了美國自由主義的共識。 As an undergraduate subject comparative religion became highly popular in the late 1960s and early 1970s, with the result that new religious studies departments were opened in many universities in Britain and North America.作為一個本科比較宗教問題成為極受歡迎的20世紀60年代末和70年代初,其結果是新的宗教研究部門開設了許多大學在英國和北美。

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In its crudest form comparative religion makes the assumption that all religions are essentially one. Thus the ten commandments of Judaism, the teachings of Jesus, the four noble truths of Buddhism, and various Hindu moral codes are compared to show that they all contain a common denominator such as the command to love one's neighbor. In a similar way it is often argued that despite apparent differences, all men worship a supreme being. 在其粗暴的形式比較宗教使假設,即所有的宗教基本上是一個。因此,十誡猶太教的教義的耶穌,四諦的佛教,印度教和各種道德準則的比較表明 ,它們都包含一個共同的分母如命令,以愛自己的鄰居。以類似的方式往往是爭辯說,儘管明顯的差異,所有的人崇拜的最高福祉。 However, serious study of various religions has revealed more disagreements than agreements.然而,認真研究各種宗教透露更多的分歧比協議。 Thus, while it may be true that English housewives and African women in Uganda carry umbrellas, this information tells us very little about the actual life style of the women involved. Using an umbrella to protect oneself from the rain is not the same as using it to avoid the glare of the sun.因此,雖然它可能是真實的,英文的家庭主婦和非洲婦女在烏干達開展雨傘,這一信息告訴我們甚少的實際生活方式的婦女參與。用雨傘保護自己的雨是不一樣的使用為了避免強光的太陽。

Similarly, prayer to God in Christianity and meditation in Buddhism may look similar, but the object of each exercise is very different. Such a religion as Theravada Buddhism, in fact, presents a strong argument against crude forms of comparative religion because of its rejection of the importance of belief in God and denial of the existence of an individual self.同樣,向上帝祈禱在基督教和佛教的坐禪可能看起來類似,但每個物體運動是非常不同的。這種宗教作為小乘佛教,事實上,提出了一個有力的論據對原油形式的比較宗教,因為它拒絕的重要性,相信上帝和否認存在個別自我。 As a result of considerations like these, the study of religion as a universal phenomenon with a variety of different expressions has become increasingly complex. Some scholars still retain a desire to find an underlying unity, while many others have abandoned this quest in favor of the study of a particular religious tradition which they recognize to be unique.由於這樣的考慮,研究宗教作為一種普遍現象,以各種不同的表現形式也變得越來越複雜。一些學者仍然希望找到一個基本的統一,而其他許多人已放棄了這種追求有利於研究某一特定宗教傳統,他們認識到是獨一無二的。

I Hexham餘赫克瑟姆
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
EJ Sharp, Comparative Religion; M Eliade and JM Kitagawa, eds., The History of Religions; N Smart, Reasons and Faiths.伯克利分校夏普,比較宗教學; M亞德和JM北側,合編。 ,歷史宗教; ñ智能,原因及信仰。


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