Church教會

General Information 一般信息

In Christian theology, the church is defined as the community of those who are called to acknowledge the lordship of Jesus Christ and to collaborate in his historic mission for the coming of the kingdom, or reign, of God. The word church is derived from two Greek words, kuriake and ekklesia, the one meaning "belonging to the Lord," and the other "an assembly called forth."在基督教神學教會的定義是社會的人誰被稱為承認貴族身份的耶穌基督和協作,在他的歷史使命,為即將到來的王國,或統治,上帝的。教堂一詞源於兩個希臘字, kuriake和ekklesia ,一個意思是“屬於上帝” ,和其他“集會要求等等。 ” Etymologically, therefore, the church is God's holy people summoned to worship. Etymologically ,因此,教會是上帝的神聖的人傳喚到崇拜。

The church of the New Testament was described through various images drawn from pastoral life, agriculture, building construction, and even from family and married life.教會新約描述通過各種圖片取自田園生活,農業,建築,甚至從家庭和婚姻生活。 Thus the church is called a sheepfold (John 10:1 - 10), the field of God (1 Cor. 3:9), a vineyard (Matt. 21:33 - 43), God's building (1 Cor. 3:9), God's household in the Spirit (Eph. 2:19 - 22), God's dwelling place among humankind (Rev. 21:3), the Lord's spotless spouse (Rev. 19:7), and the body of Christ (1 Cor. 12:12 - 28).因此,教堂被稱為羊圈(約翰10:1 -1 0) ,外地的上帝( 1肺心病。 3點0 9) ,葡萄園(瑪特泰2 1:33- 43 ),上帝的建設(1肺心病。3時0 9分) ,上帝的家庭中的精神(以弗所書2點19 -2 2) ,上帝的居住地之間的人類(修訂2 1點0 3) ,上帝一塵不染的配偶(啟示錄1 9時0 7分) ,以及基督的奧體( 1肺心病。 12:12 -2 8) 。

In addition to designating the entire body of Christians, church is used to denote the individual Christian denominations, as well as the building used for Christian worship. 除了指定的整個身體的基督徒,教會是指個人的基督教教派,以及建立用於基督教崇拜。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
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Bibliography 目錄
H Kung, The Church (1967); R McBrien, Church: The Continuing Quest (1970). H西貢,教會( 1967年) ; R McBrien ,教會:繼續尋求( 1970年) 。


Church, Church Visible, Church Invisible教會,教堂可見,無形的教會

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The word Church was derived probably from the Greek kuriakon (ie, "the Lord's house"), which was used by ancient authors for the place of worship.教會這個詞可能源自從希臘kuriakon (即“上帝之家” ) ,這是古代用作者的禮拜場所。 In the New Testament it is the translation of the Greek word ecclesia, which is synonymous with the Hebrew kahal of the Old Testament, both words meaning simply an assembly, the character of which can only be known from the connection in which the word is found.在新約聖經是翻譯的希臘詞教會,這就是希伯來kahal舊約,這兩個詞的含義只是一個組裝的性質,它只能被稱為從連接在該單詞被發現。 There is no clear instance of its being used for a place of meeting or of worship, although in post-apostolic times it early received this meaning.沒有明確的實例,其被用於一個地方的會議或崇拜,但在後使徒的時候儘早收到這個意思。 Nor is this word ever used to denote the inhabitants of a country united in the same profession, as when we say the "Church of England," the "Church of Scotland," etc.也不是這個詞以往任何時候都用來表示居民的一個國家團結在同一個行業,當我們說“英格蘭教會”和“蘇格蘭教會”等

We find the word ecclesia used in the following senses in the New Testament:我們發現這個詞用於教會在下列感官在新約:

The church visible "consists of all those throughout the world that profess the true religion, together with their children." 教堂可見 “包括所有那些在世界各地的信奉真正的宗教,連同他們的孩子。 ” It is called "visible" because its members are known and its assemblies are public.這就是所謂“看得見” ,因為其成員被稱為及其組件是公開的。 Here there is a mixture of "wheat and chaff," of saints and sinners.這裡是一個混合的“小麥和糠, ”聖人與罪人。 "God has commanded his people to organize themselves into distinct visible ecclesiastical communities, with constitutions, laws, and officers, badges, ordinances, and discipline, for the great purpose of giving visibility to his kingdom, of making known the gospel of that kingdom, and of gathering in all its elect subjects. Each one of these distinct organized communities which is faithful to the great King is an integral part of the visible church, and all together constitute the catholic or universal visible church." “上帝已命令他的人民自己組織成不同的有形教會的社區,與憲法,法律,和主席團成員,徽章,法令,紀律,為偉大的目的,使能見度他的王國,使已知的福音的王國,並收集在其所有選舉議題。每個人對這些不同的有組織的社區這是忠實於偉大的國王是不可分割的一部分可見教堂,和所有一起構成了天主教或普遍可見的教堂。 “

A credible profession of the true religion constitutes a person a member of this church.一個可靠的職業真正的宗教構成一個人的一員這個教堂。 This is "the kingdom of heaven," whose character and progress are set forth in the parables recorded in Matt.這是“天國” ,其性質和進步中所規定寓言錄馬特。 13. 13 。 The children of all who thus profess the true religion are members of the visible church along with their parents.兒童因此,誰所有信奉宗教的真正成員的可見教堂連同他們的父母。 Children are included in every covenant God ever made with man.兒童是包含在每一個契約上帝以往任何時候都取得男子。 They go along with their parents (Gen. 9:9-17; 12:1-3; 17:7; Ex. 20:5; Deut. 29:10-13).他們跟隨他們的父母(創9:9-17 ; 12:1-3 ;十七時07分;惠。 20時05 ; Deut 。 29:10-13 ) 。

Peter, on the day of Pentecost, at the beginning of the New Testament dispensation, announces the same great principle. "The promise [just as to Abraham and his seed the promises were made] is unto you, and to your children" (Acts 2:38, 39).彼得,在一天的降臨,開始新約分配,宣布同偉大的原則。 “許諾[就像亞伯拉罕和他的承諾種子發了言]是你們和你們的孩子” (使徒2時38分, 39歲) 。 The children of believing parents are "holy", ie, are "saints", a title which designates the members of the Christian church (1 Cor. 7:14).孩子相信家長是“聖地” ,即是“聖人” ,標題指定成員的基督教教堂( 1肺心病。 7時14分) 。 (See Baptism.) (見洗禮。 )

The church invisible "consists of the whole number of the elect that have been, are, or shall be gathered into one under Christ, the head thereof." 教堂看不見“由全體人數的選舉已經,正在,或將聚集成一個基督下,負責人。 ” This is a pure society, the church in which Christ dwells.這是一個純粹的社會,教會在基督居住。 It is the body of Christ.這是基督的奧體。 it is called "invisible" because the greater part of those who constitute it are already in heaven or are yet unborn, and also because its members still on earth cannot certainly be distinguished.它被稱為“看不見的” ,因為大部份的人誰構成它已經在天堂或尚未出生的,而且還因為其成員在地球上仍然不能肯定是傑出的。 The qualifications of membership in it are internal and are hidden.的資格加入它的內部和隱藏。 It is unseen except by Him who "searches the heart."這是看不見的,除非他誰“搜索的核心。 ” "The Lord knoweth them that are his" (2 Tnn. 2:19). “魔戒knoweth他們,是他的” ( 2 Tnn 。 2時19分) 。 The church to which the attributes, prerogatives, and promises appertaining to Christ's kingdom belong, is a spiritual body consisting of all true believers, ie, the church invisible.該教堂的屬性,特權,並承諾附屬物,以基督的王國屬於,是一種精神而設立的機構,所有真正的信徒,即教會看不見的。

(1.) Its unity. God has ever had only one church on earth. ( 1 ) 。 及其團結。上帝都只有一個地球上教堂。 We sometimes speak of the Old Testament Church and of the New Testament church, but they are one and the same. The Old Testament church was not to be changed but enlarged (Isa. 49:13-23; 60:1-14).我們有時講舊約教會和新約教會,但它們是同一個。舊約教堂並沒有被改變,但擴大(以賽亞書49:13-23 ; 60:1-14 ) 。 When the Jews are at length restored, they will not enter a new church, but will be grafted again into "their own olive tree" (Rom. 11:18-24; comp. Eph. 2:11-22).當猶太人在長度恢復,他們將不會進入一個新的教堂,但將嫁接再次陷入“自己的橄欖樹” (羅馬書11:18-24 ;補償。厄。 2:11-22 ) 。 The apostles did not set up a new organization.在沒有宗徒建立一個新的組織。 Under their ministry disciples were "added" to the "church" already existing (Acts 2:47).在他們的弟子部是“補充”到“教會”已有(使徒二時47分) 。

(2.) Its universality. It is the "catholic" church; not confined to any particular country or outward organization, but comprehending all believers throughout the whole world. ( 2 。 ) 其普遍性。這是“天主教”教會;並不局限於任何特定的國家或離港的組織,但理解所有信徒整個世界。

(3.) Its perpetuity. It will continue through all ages to the end of the world. ( 3 。 ) 及其永久化。它將繼續通過建立不分年齡人人共享,以世界的盡頭。 It can never be destroyed.它永遠不能被摧毀。 It is an "everlasting kindgdom."這是一個“永恆的界。 ”

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


The Church教會

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The English word "church" derives from the late Greek word kyriakon, the Lord's house, a church building.英文單詞“教會”源自已故希臘詞kyriakon ,上帝的房子,教堂建設。 In the NT the word translates the Greek word ekklesia.在NT一詞翻譯希臘詞ekklesia 。 In secular Greek ekklesia designated a public assembly, and this meaning is still retained in the NT (Acts 19:32, 39, 41).在世俗的希臘ekklesia指定的公眾集會,這意思是仍然保留在新台幣(使徒19:32 , 39 , 41 ) 。

In the Hebrew OT the word qahal designates the assembly of God's people (eg, Deut. 10:4; 23:2 - 3; 31:30; Ps. 22:23), and the LXX, the Greek translation of the OT, translated this word with both ekklesia and synagoge.在希伯來文加時賽字qahal指定的集結上帝的人(例如, Deut 。 10時04分, 23時02 -3 ; 3 1:30;物質。 2 2:23)和L XX,希臘翻譯的催產素,翻譯這個詞都ekklesia和synagoge 。 Even in the NT ekklesia may signify the assembly of the Isrealites (Acts 7:38; Heb. 2:12); but apart from these exceptions, the word ekklesia in the NT designates the Christian church, both the local church (eg, Matt. 18:17; Acts 15:41; Rom. 16:16; 1 Cor. 4:17; 7:17; 14:33; Col. 4:15) and the universal church (eg, Matt. 16:18; Acts 20:28; 1 Cor. 12:28; 15:9; Eph. 1:22).即使在新台幣ekklesia可能意味著裝配Isrealites (使徒7點38 ;河北。 2點12分) ;但除了這些例外,這個詞ekklesia在NT指定的基督教教堂,無論是當地教堂(例如,馬特。 18:17 ;行為15:41 ;光盤。 16:16 ; 1肺心病。 4時17分, 7時17分; 14:33 ;上校4:15 )和普遍的教堂(例如,馬特。 16:18 ;行為20:28 ; 1肺心病。 12:28 ; 15:9 ;厄。 1時22分) 。

Origin原產地

According to Matthew, the only Gospel to use the word "church," the origin of the church goes back to Jesus himself (Matt. 16:18).據馬修,唯一的福音使用單詞“教堂” ,原產地的教堂可追溯到耶穌本人(瑪特泰16:18 ) 。 Historical problems, though, arise in regard to this passage. For only in Matt.歷史遺留問題,但出現在關於這一通道。只有在馬特。 16:18 and 18:17 does Jesus use the word "church," and there are no good reasons that Mark would omit the words of Matt. 16:17 - 19 if they were spoken by Jesus. 16:18和18:17耶穌不使用“教堂” ,也沒有很好的理由,馬克將省略的話馬特。 16:17 -1 9如果他們所講耶穌。 Further, if Jesus expected God to establish his kingdom soon (cf. Mark 9:1; 13:30), then he would not have foreseen the need to establish a church with regulations for binding and loosing, ie, to decide which actions are permissible and not permissible according to the teachings of Jesus.此外,如果上帝耶穌預計建立他的王國很快(參見馬克9:1 ; 13:30 ) ,那麼他就不會預見到需要建立一個教堂法規約束力和鬆動,即決定哪些行動允許和不允許根據耶穌的教誨。 Matt.馬特。 16:18 - 19 may well be the Syrian church's declaration of independence from the synagogue and may derive from that early community which identified itself with Peter. 16:18 -1 9很可能是敘利亞教會的獨立宣言的猶太教堂和可能來自社會,早日確定自己與彼得。

The question thus arises: Did Jesus intend to establish the church? The answer to this question must be based not on statements of church dogma but on careful interpretation of the NT writings.因此,問題在於:難道耶穌打算建立教會?這個問題的答案應該不是基於報表的教會的教條,而是認真的解釋新台幣著作。 Here one's conclusions will be affected by the degree to which one assigns various statements of Jesus to Jesus himself or to the postresurrection church and by one's interpretation of terms such as "Son of man" and parables such as the fish net, the leaven, and seeds of growth (Matt. 13:47 - 50; 13:33; Mark 4:1 - 20).在這裡一個人的結論將受影響的程度,其中一個指定的各種報表的耶穌耶穌本人或postresurrection教堂和一的解釋條款,如“人之子”和寓言,如魚網,該曲,並種子的成長(瑪特泰13時47分-5 0; 1 3:33;馬克4 :1- 20 )。 Critical study of the Gospels reveals that Jesus probably did not give teachings for the purpose of establishing and ordering the church. Rather his whole life and teaching provide the foundations upon which the church was created and called into being through its faith in the risen Lord.關鍵的研究表明,福音耶穌可能沒有教義為建立和訂購的教堂。而是他的整個生命和教學提供了基礎的教會成立,並要求到正在通過其信仰復活的主。

Nature自然保護區

Throughout most of history the nature of the church has been defined by divided Christians trying to establish the validity of their own existence.在整個歷史上的大多數的性質,教會已確定的分成基督徒試圖建立的有效性自己的存在。 The Donatists of North Africa in the early centuries focused on the purity of the church and claimed to be the only church that measured up to the biblical standard.在多納徒派北非的早期世紀的重點是純潔的教堂,並聲稱是唯一的教堂測量到聖經的標準。 In the Middle Ages various sects defined the church in such ways as to claim that they, and not the Roman Catholic Church, were the true church.在中世紀界定各教派的教堂在這種方式要求他們,而不是羅馬天主教會,是真正的教堂。 The Arnoldists emphasized poverty and identification with the masses; the Waldenses stressed literal obedience to Jesus' teachings and emphasized evangelical preaching. Arnoldists強調的貧窮和鑑定同人民群眾的字面Waldenses強調服從耶穌的教誨,並強調福音講道。 Roman Catholics claimed that the only true church was that over which the pope was supreme as successor of the apostle Peter.羅馬天主教會聲稱,只有真正的教堂,超過了教皇是最高的繼任者的倡導者彼得。 The Reformers Martin Luther and John Calvin, following John Wycliffe, distinguished between the visible and invisible church, claiming that the invisible church consists of the elect only.改革者馬丁路德和約翰凱爾文後,約翰威克里夫,區分了有形和無形的教會,聲稱無形的教會由選舉只。 Thus an individual, including the pope, might be a part of the visible church but not a part of the invisible and true church.因此,個人,包括教宗,可能是部分有形教會,而不是一部分的無形和真正的教堂。

If one is to be true to the NT testimony, it must be acknowledged that there is a multiplicity of images and concepts that contribute to an understanding of the nature of the church.如果是真正的新台幣的證詞,但必須承認,有各種各樣的形象和概念,有助於理解的性質教堂。 In the appendix of Images of the Church in the New Testament, Paul Minear lists ninety six images which he classifies as (1) minor images, (2) the people of God, (3) the new creation, (4) the fellowship in faith, and (5) the body of Christ.附錄中的形象會在新約,保羅Minear列出96圖像,他歸類為( 1 )未成年人的圖像, ( 2 )人民的上帝, ( 3 )新的創造, ( 4 )在金信仰, ( 5 )基督的奧體。 Listing only a few of these will demonstrate the great diversity of images: the salt of the earth, a letter from Christ, branches of the vine, the elect lady, the bride of Christ, exiles, ambassadors, a chosen race, the holy temple, priesthood, the new creation, fighters against Satan, the sanctified slaves, friends, sons of God, household of God, members of Christ, spiritual body.上市只有少數這些將表現出極大的多樣性圖片:鹽的地球,一個信基督,分支機構的藤蔓,在選舉夫人,新娘的基督,流亡者,大使,選定種族,神聖的寺院,鐸,新的創造,對撒旦戰士的神聖的奴隸,朋友,兒子的上帝,對上帝的家庭成員,基督,精神機構。

Though such a plethora of images exists, it is nonetheless possible and useful to find the major concepts that hold these many images together.雖然這種過多的圖像存在,但卻是可能的和有益的,尋找主要的概念,很多持有這些圖像在一起。 From the Council of Constantinople in 381 and reaffirmed at Ephesus (431) and Chalcedon (451) the church has affirmed itself to be "one, holy, catholic, and apostolic."安理會在君士坦丁堡381 ,並重申在以弗所( 431 )和迦克墩( 451 )教堂已經確認自己是“一,神聖的,天主教和使徒。 ”

The Church Is One教會是一個

According to the World Christian Encyclopedia (1982), there were an estimated 1,900 church denominations at the beginning of the twentieth century.根據世界基督教百科全書( 1982年) ,估計有1900年面值教堂在20世紀初。 Today there are an estimated 22,000.今天,估計有22,000名。 Do not such numbers effectively refute the theological assertion that the church is one?不要如此眾多有效地駁斥了神學斷言,教會是一個? The answer must be no.答案應該是否定的。

First of all, the NT witness is clear regarding the unity of the church.首先,新台幣證人是明確的關於統一的教堂。 In 1 Cor.在1肺心病。 1:10 - 30 Paul warns against divisions in the church and urges the people to be united in Christ. 1:10 -3 0保羅警告不要分裂教會,並敦促人民團結在基督。 In this same letter (ch. 12), he states that while there are many gifts, there is one body (cf. Rom. 12:3 - 8).在這同一信(章12 ) ,他指出,雖然有許多禮物,有一具屍體(見光盤。 12點03分-8 ) 。 The Gospel of John speaks of the one shepherd and the one flock (10:16), and Jesus prays that his followers may be one even as Father and Son are one (17:20 - 26).在約翰福音講的一個牧羊人和一個羊群( 10:16 ) ,和耶穌祈禱,他的追隨者可能是即使父與子是一個( 17:20 -2 6) 。 In Gal.在加爾。 3:27 - 28 Paul declares that in Christ all are one, with no distinction of race, social status, or sex. 3點27分-2 8保羅宣布,在基督都是一個,沒有不分種族,社會地位,或性別。 Acts 2:42 and 4:32 are likewise eloquent testimony to the oneness of the church. 2點42分行為和4時32分也同樣雄辯地證明一體的教堂。 Perhaps the most stirring passage on this point is Eph.也許最攪拌通過在這一點上是厄。 4:1 - 6: "There is one body and one Spirit, just as you were called to the one hope that belongs to your call, one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of us all, who is above all and through all and in all" (vss. 4 - 6). 4:1 -6 : “有一具屍體和一名精神,就像你被稱為一個希望,屬於您的電話,一個上帝,一個信念,一個洗禮,一個上帝和父親的我們所有人,首先是誰所有的一切,並通過在所有“ ( vss. 4 -6 ) 。

Unity, however, does not demand uniformity.統一,但不要求統一。 Indeed, from the beginning the church has manifested itself in many local churches (in Jerusalem, Antioch, Corinth, Ephesus, etc.); and the one NT church had neither uniformity of worship nor structures, or even a uniform theology.事實上,從一開始就教會體現在許多地方教會(在耶路撒冷,安提阿,科林斯,以弗所等) ;和一元堂既沒有統一的崇拜,也不結構,甚至是一個統一的神學。 Certainly the ecumenical movement which arose in this century out of the missionary movement of the nineteenth century has challenged the church today to recognize that "God wills unity" (Faith and Order Conference, Lausanne, 1927).當然,基督教運動產生的,在本世紀的傳教運動,十九世紀挑戰的教堂今天認識到, “上帝的意志統一” (信仰和秩序會議,洛桑, 1927年) 。 The challenge for Christians today is to live in unity without insisting that our worship, structure, and theology be more uniform than that of the NT church.所面臨的挑戰基督徒今天是生活在沒有堅持團結,我們的崇拜,結構和神學更均勻超過新台幣教堂。 Unity is possible when we stop thinking of our church or denomination as the vine and all others as the branches.統一是可能的,我們停止思想,我們的教會或教派的藤蔓和所有其他的分支機構。 Rather, Jesus is the vine and all of us are branches.相反,耶穌是葡萄與我們所有人都分行。

The Church Is Holy該教堂是神聖的

According to 1 Cor., Christians there were guilty of incest (5:1), suing one another in pagan courts (6:6), defrauding each other (6:8), having sexual relations with prostitutes (6:16).據1肺心病。 ,基督徒犯有亂倫( 5:1 ) ,起訴相互異教徒法院( 6時06分) ,騙取對方(六時08分) ,發生性關係與妓女( 6:16 ) 。 In Rome the weak Christians were judging the strong Christians, and the latter despised the former (Rom. 14:10).在羅馬的薄弱基督徒判斷強有力的基督徒,後者鄙視前(羅馬書14:10 ) 。 Such is the partial testimony of the NT concerning the reality of sin in the church, but then one scarcely needs to leave the twentieth century church to verify this reality.這是部分證詞新台幣關於現實的罪惡在教堂裡,但後來一個幾乎需要離開二十世紀的教堂來驗證這一現實。 Does not the presence of sin refute the theological assertion that the church is holy?不在場的情況下罪孽反駁神學斷言,教堂是神聖的? Again, the answer is no.同樣,答案是否定的。

Various solutions have been proposed in the history of the church to reconcile the fact that the holy church is a sinful church.各種解決辦法提出了歷史上的教堂調和的事實,神聖的教堂是一個罪孽深重的教堂。 Donatists as well as Gnostics, Novationists, Montanists, Cathari, and other sects solved the problem by claiming that they alone were holy while all others were not really members of the church.多納徒派以及Gnostics , Novationists , Montanists , Cathari ,和其他宗派的解決了這個問題,聲稱只有他們是神聖的,而所有其他人沒有真正成員的教堂。 But 1 John 1:8 reminds one that the church which has no sin to confess simply does not exist.但是約翰一書1:8想起一個教堂,沒有罪孽懺悔根本不存在。 Others have claimed that the members are sinful but the church is holy.另一些人聲稱,成員是罪孽深重,但教堂是神聖的。 But the church does not exist in the abstract; it is sinful people who constitute the church.但是,教會不存在抽象的,它是有罪的人誰構成了教堂。 Gnostics claimed that the body was sinful while the soul was holy. Gnostics稱,屍體被罪惡的靈魂,同時是神聖的。 But biblical anthropology declares that it is the whole, undivided human being who is sinful.但聖經人類學聲明,它是整體,不可分割的人誰是有罪的。

The solution lies in the awareness of what "holy" means in the Bible. To be holy is to be separated from what is profane and to be dedicated to the service of God.解決辦法在於認識什麼“神聖”是指在聖經。為了神聖的是分開什麼是世俗的,並致力於服務的上帝。 It does not mean that the Christian is free of sin.這並不意味著基督教是免費的罪孽。 The apostle Paul said of himself: "Not that I have already obtained this or am already perfect" (Phil. 3:12a), and in the greetings to the Corinthian Christians he calls them "sanctified" and "saints."使徒保羅說自己: “不,我已經得到這個或我已經完美” ( Phil. 3點12分一) ,並在問候,科林斯基督徒,他呼籲他們“神聖化”和“聖人” 。 Christians are holy in that they are separated for God's service and set apart by God (2 Thess. 2:13; Col. 3:12, etc.).基督信徒神聖的,因為它們分隔為上帝的服務和設置除了上帝( 2洛尼基。二時十三分;上校3點12分,等等) 。

The Church Is Catholic教會是天主教

The word "catholic" derives from the Latin catholicus, which in turn derives from the Greek katholikos, meaning "universal."單詞“天主教”來自拉丁美洲catholicus ,而這又源於希臘katholikos ,意思是“普遍的。 ” Although the word is not used in the NT to describe the church, the concept which it expresses is biblical.雖然這個詞不是用來新台幣來形容教會的概念,它表示是聖經。 Ignatius of Antioch wrote in the early second century, "Wherever the bishop is, there his people should be, just as where Jesus Christ is, there is the Catholic Church" (Smyr. 8:2).安提阿的伊格內修寫在第二個世紀初, “無論是主教,但他的人民應該是,就像在耶穌基督是,有天主教會” ( Smyr. 8:2 ) 。 Only from the third century on was "catholic" used in a polemical sense to refer to those who were "orthodox" Christians as opposed to schismatics and heretics.只有從第三世紀是“天主教”用在爭論的意義是指那些誰是“正統”基督信徒的反對schismatics和異教徒。 To speak of the catholicity of the church is thus to refer to the entire church, which is universal and which has a common identity of origin, lordship, and purpose.發言的共通性教堂因此,提及整個教堂,這是普遍的,其中有一個共同的身份,血統,貴族身份和目的。

While the local church is an entire church, it is not the entire church.雖然當地教堂是一個完整的教堂,它不是整個教堂。 As catholic, the church includes believers of past generations and believers of all cultures and societies.天主教,教會的信徒包括過去幾代和信徒的所有文化和社會。 It is unfortunate that the church in the Western world has for far too long formulated theology and mission strategy in isolation from the churches of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, the churches of the two thirds world.不幸的是,教會在西方世界已經太久制定的神學和使命的戰略孤立於教會的非洲,亞洲和拉丁美洲,教會的三分之二的世界。 The World Christian Encyclopedia shows that whites now represent 47.4 percent of the Christian population of the world, the first time in 1,200 years that whites are not the majority.世界基督教百科全書表明,白人佔百分之47.4的基督教人口的世界上,第一次在一千二百年的白人並不佔多數。 Two hundred eight million Christians speak Spanish, 196 million speak English, 128 million speak Portuguese, followed by German, French, Italian, Russian, Polish, Ukrainian, and Dutch. 200名基督信徒800多萬講西班牙語, 1.96億講英語, 1.28億講葡萄牙語,其次是德語,法語,意大利語,俄語,波蘭語,烏克蘭語,和荷蘭語。

The Church Is Apostolic教會使徒

Eph.厄。 2:20 states that the church is "built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone." 2點20分指出,教會是“基礎的基礎,使徒和先知,基督耶穌自己為基石。 ” Apostles are those who were eyewitnesses of the ministry of Jesus, and prophets are Christian prophets who were spokesmen for the risen Jesus.使徒是誰被目擊者部耶穌和先知是基督教先知誰是發言人上升耶穌。 Previous centuries of Christians assumed that the NT manuscripts were written by the apostles or else by someone who was closely associated with them. Many critical scholars today question apostolic authorship for all four Gospels, Acts, James, 1 and 2 Peter, Jude, and Revelation, and further question or reject Pauline authorship of Ephesians, Colossians, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus and Hebrews.前幾個世紀的基督徒認為,新台幣手稿撰寫的使徒或者由誰是密切聯繫他們。許多關鍵問題的學者今天使徒為作者所有四個福音,行為,詹姆斯,第1和第2彼得,洛,與啟示,並進一步的問題或拒絕波利娜以弗所書作者,歌羅西書, 1提摩太后書,泰特斯和希伯來人。 Yet the truth is that regardless of who wrote these Gospels and letters, the church canonized these writings and accepted them as normative for faith and practice.然而事實是,不管是誰寫這些福音書和信件,教會冊封這些著作,並接受其作為規範性的信仰和實踐。 The message of these documents is thus the norm by which the life of the church is to be measured; and the church can be one, holy, and catholic only if it is an apostolic church.該郵件,這些文件是這樣的準則,其中生活教會來衡量;和教會可以是一個,神聖的,和天主教只有當它是一個使徒的教會。

To claim that the church is apostolic is not to assert a direct line of succession through specific individuals.聲稱牧靈教堂是不主張直接的繼承通過具體的個人。 It is to recognize that the message and the mission of the apostles as mediated through Scripture must be that of the whole church.這是認識到,信息和使命的使徒作為中介通過聖經必須是整個教堂。

The adjectives "one, holy, catholic, apostolic" are terms specific enough to describe the essential nature of the church and yet allow for differences within denominations and churches in the ways in which each fulfills the mission and ministry of the church in the world.形容詞“一,神聖的,天主教,使徒”的規定不夠具體描述的基本性質的教堂,但允許內部的分歧教派和教會的方式實現相互的使命和省的教堂在世界上。 As previously mentioned, the NT uses nearly a hundred images that relate to the church.如前所述, NT使用近百年的圖片涉及到教堂。 One major image, the body of Christ, is especially rich in what it communicates about the nature of the church.一個主要的形象,基督的奧體,尤其是豐富的通訊什麼的性質教堂。

The Body of Christ基督的奧體

Of the NT writers only Paul uses this term.新台幣作家保羅只使用這個詞。 It is significant that he speaks of the church as the body of Christ but never as a body of Christians.重要的是,他談到了教會作為基督的奧體,但從未作為一個機構的基督徒。 Scholars debate how literally Paul intended this phrase to be understood.學者辯論如何打算字面保羅這句話來理解。 One may safely say that though the image may perhaps be taken too literally, it cannot be taken too seriously.人們可以有把握地說,雖然形象或許是太字面上看,它不能採取過於嚴重。

Christians are one body in Christ with many members (Rom. 12:4 - 5; I Cor. 12:27).基督徒是一個在基督身體的許多成員(羅馬書12點04分-5 ,我肺心病。 1 2:27) 。 Indeed, the church is the body of Christ (Eph. 1:22 - 23; 4:12), who is the head of the body (Eph. 5:23; Col. 1:18); and the body is dependent on its head for its life and growth (Col. 2:19).事實上,教會是基督的奧體(以弗所書1點22分-2 3; 4點1 2分) ,誰是負責人的身體(以弗所書5點2 3;上校1 :18) ;和機構的依賴其負責人的生活和成長(上校2時19分) 。 The church is never directly called the bride of Christ, but is so understood by Paul's analogy in which the husband - wife relationship is said to be like the Christ - church relationship (Eph. 5:22 - 33).該教堂是從未直接稱為基督的新娘,但這樣的理解保羅的比喻中的丈夫-妻子的關係據說是像基督-教會的關係(以弗所書5時2 2 -3 3) 。 Husband and wife are to be one flesh, and this is the same regarding Christ and the church (Eph. 5:31 - 32).丈夫和妻子是成為一體,這是相同的關於基督和教會(以弗所書5時31 -3 2) 。

Through this image several important theological concepts are expressed concerning the church.通過這一形象的幾個重要的神學概念是表示對教堂。 Christians form a unity both with Christ and with one another, and Christ is acknowledged as both the authority who stands over the church and the one who gives life and growth.基督徒形成一個團結都與基督和相互合作,和基督是公認的權威都站在誰的教堂和一個誰給生活和成長。 Also, this image is a strong assertion regarding the need for and proper appreciation of the diverse gifts that God gives to the church.此外,這個形象是一個強大的主張,認為有必要和適當的讚賞各種不同的禮物,上帝給教堂。

Purpose目的

God has called the church out of the world for a purpose. He intended for his creation to have fellowship with him.上帝呼籲教會了世界的目的。他打算為他的創作有研究他。 When that fellowship was broken, God called the people of Israel to be "a light to the nations" (Isa. 42:5 - 8); but when Israel failed, God called a remnant (Isa. 10:20 - 22).當金被打破,所謂的上帝對以色列人民是“輕的國家” (以賽亞書42:5 -8 ) ;但是當以色列失敗了,上帝所謂的殘餘(以賽亞書1 0:20- 22 )。 In the fullness of time God himself entered fully into human history in the birth of Jesus Christ, whom Simeon at the temple called "a light for revelation to the Gentiles, and for glory to thy people Israel" (Luke 2:32).在時機成熟上帝自己進入完全融入人類歷史上在耶穌基督誕生的,其中西門的廟宇稱為“光的啟示外邦人,和你的榮耀以色列人民” (路加2時32分) 。 Jesus then called twelve disciples as symbolic of the new Israel of the end time which he was creating (Matt. 19:28).然後所謂的耶穌十二門徒作為象徵性的新的以色列結束時間,他創造(瑪特泰19:28 ) 。 These twelve formed the nucleus of God's new people, the church, which like Israel of old has been called into being to be the means by which all of humanity is restored to fellowship with its creator (Acts 1:8; Matt. 28:18 - 20).這些形成了12個核上帝的新人們,教會,這與以色列一樣的舊一直到被稱為是手段,全人類的恢復研究與創作者(使徒1:8 ;馬特。 28:18 -2 0) 。

The church has a dual purpose; it is to be a holy priesthood (1 Pet. 2:5) and is to "declare the wonderful deeds of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light" (1 Pet. 2:9).教堂有雙重目的,這將是一個神聖的神父( 1寵物。 2:5 )和是“宣布奇妙事蹟,他誰要求你的黑暗他了不起的輕” ( 1寵物。二時09 ) 。 It is the whole church in relationship to the world which is to exercise the tasks of priesthood.這是整個教堂的關係,這是世界上行使的任務鐸。 As a priesthood the church is entrusted with the responsibility of bringing God's word to mankind and of interceding with God on behalf of mankind.作為一個教會神職人員被賦予的責任,把上帝的話對人類和上帝在同代表全人類。

In addition to the priestly function the church also has a missionary function of declaring God's wonderful deeds.除了祭司功能的教堂也有傳教士的作用宣布上帝的奇妙事蹟。 The missionary task of the church is not optional, for by its very nature the church is mission.傳教士的任務是教會不是可有可無的,因為就其本身的性質是教會的使命。 Furthermore, mission is in and to the world, not in and to itself.此外,任務是在和世界,而不是和自己。

RL Omanson北京Omanson
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
K Barth, Church Dogmatics IV; GC Berkouwer, The Church; E Brunner, The Christian Doctrine of the Church, Faith, and the Consummation; RN Flew, Jesus and His Church; H Kung, The Church; JH Leith, ed., Creeds of the Church; P Minear, Images of the Church in the NT ; KL Schmidt, TDNT, III; H Schwaz, The Christian Church; E Schweizer, The Church As the Body of Christ; DD Bannerman, The Scripture Doctrine of the Church; EG Jay, The Church; D Watson, I Believe in the Church; FJA Hort, The Christian Ecclesia; A Cole, The Body of Christ. K巴特,教會教義學四;氣相色譜Berkouwer ,教會電子布,基督教教義的教會,信仰和完善;考試飛越,耶穌和他的教會; H西貢,教會;華雷斯,編輯。 ,信仰教會; P Minear ,形象的教會新台幣;吉隆坡施密特, TDNT ,三; H Schwaz ,基督教教會;電子郵件施魏策爾,教會作為基督的奧體;差異班納,聖經教義的教會;乙二醇傑,教會; D華生,我相信在教會; FJA園藝,基督教教會;阿什利科爾,基督的奧體。


The Church教會

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The term church (Anglo-Saxon, cirice, circe; Modern German, Kirche; Sw., Kyrka) is the name employed in the Teutonic languages to render the Greek ekklesia (ecclesia), the term by which the New Testament writers denote the society founded by Our Lord Jesus Christ.任期教堂(盎格魯撒克遜人, cirice , circe ;現代德語,教堂;瑞士法郎。 , Kyrka )的名稱是受僱於日爾曼語言,使希臘ekklesia (教會) ,任期其中新約全書作家指社會成立由我們的主耶穌基督。 The derivation of the word has been much debated.推導一詞一直備受爭議。 It is now agreed that it is derived from the Greek kyriakon (cyriacon), ie the Lord's house, a term which from the third century was used, as well as ekklesia, to signify a Christian place of worship.現在一致認為,這是來自希臘kyriakon ( cyriacon ) ,即上帝的房子,一個長期而從第三世紀的使用,以及ekklesia ,意味著一個基督教的禮拜場所。 This, though the less usual expression, had apparently obtained currency among the Teutonic races.這,雖然不太正常表達,獲得了明顯的貨幣之間的日爾曼比賽。 The Northern tribes had been accustomed to pillage the Christian churches of the empire, long before their own conversion.北部部落已習慣於掠奪的基督教教堂的帝國,早在他們自己的轉換。 Hence, even prior to the arrival of the Saxons in Britain, their language had acquired words to designate some of the externals of the Christian religion.因此,即使到來之前的薩克遜人在英國,他們的語言已經獲得的話,指定一些外部的基督教。

The present article is arranged as follows:本文章安排如下:

I. The term Ecclesia一,教會的任期

II.二。 The Church in Prophecy教會在預言

III.三。 Its Constitution by Christ; the Church after the Ascension其憲法的基督;教會後,阿森松

IV.四。 Its Organization by the Apostles其組織由使徒

V. The Church, a Divine Society五,教堂,神聖的社會

VI.六。 The Church, the Necessary Means of Salvation教會的必要手段拯救

VII.七。 Visibility of the Church可見教會

VIII.八。 The Principle of Authority; Infallibility; Jurisdiction原則管理局;犯錯誤;管轄權

IX.九。 Members of the Church成員教會

X. Indefectibility of the Church; Continuity十Indefectibility教會;連續性

XI.十一。 Universality of the Church; the "Branch" Theory普遍性的教會;的“處”理論

XII.十二。 Notes of the Church注教會

XIII.十三。 The Church, a Perfect Society教會,一個完美的社會

I. THE TERM ECCLESIA一,任期教會

In order to understand the precise force of this word, something must first be said as to its employment by the Septuagint translators of the Old Testament. Although in one or two places (Psalm 25:5; Judith 6:21; etc.) the word is used without religious signification, merely in the sense of "an assembly", this is not usually the case.為了了解準確的力量這個詞,但首先必須說,作為其就業的譯本翻譯舊約。雖然在一個或兩個地方(詩篇25:5 ;朱迪6點21分;等)的字是用沒有宗教意義,只是意義上的“組裝” ,這是通常不會如此。 Ordinarily it is employed as the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew qahal, ie, the entire community of the children of Israel viewed in their religious aspect.通常它是用來作為希臘相當於希伯來文qahal ,即整個社會的兒童認為以色列在其宗教方面的問題。 Two Hebrew words are employed in the Old Testament to signify the congregation of Israel, viz.兩個希伯來字受僱於舊約示眾,以色列,即。 qahal 'êdah. qahal ' êdah 。 In the Septuagint these are rendered, respectively, ekklesia and synagoge.在七十這些都是提供,分別ekklesia和synagoge 。 Thus in Proverbs v, 14, where the words occur together, "in the midst of the church and the congregation", the Greek rendering is en meso ekklesias kai synagoges.因此,在諺語五, 14日,在那裡發生的話一起, “在艱難的教堂和教會” ,希臘提供的途中觀ekklesias偕synagoges 。 The distinction is indeed not rigidly observed -- thus in Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers, both words are regularly represented by synagoge -- but it is adhered to in the great majority of cases, and may be regarded as an established rule.這種區別確實是不是嚴格遵守-從而在出埃及記,利未記和數字,這兩個詞經常派s ynagoge-但它堅持在絕大多數情況下,可被視為一項既定規則。 In the writings of the New Testament the words are sharply distinguished.在著作的新約聖經的話是急劇尊敬。 With them ecclesia denotes the Church of Christ; synagoga, the Jews still adhering to the worship of the Old Covenant.他們教會是指基督教會; synagoga ,猶太人仍然堅持以崇拜的舊盟約。 Occasionally, it is true, ecclesia is employed in its general significance of "assembly" (Acts 19:32; 1 Corinthians 14:19); and synagoga occurs once in reference to a gathering of Christians, though apparently of a non-religious character (James 2:2) But ecclesia is never used by the Apostles to denote the Jewish Church.有時候,這是真的,教會是受僱在其普遍意義的“大會” (使徒19:32 ;哥林多前書14:19 ) ;和synagoga發生一次提到聚會的基督徒,但顯然是一個非宗教性質的(詹姆斯2點02分) ,但教會是從未使用過的使徒指猶太人教堂。 The word as a technical expression had been transferred to the community of Christian believers.這個詞作為一個技術性的表達已被轉移到社區的基督教信徒。

It has been frequently disputed whether there is any difference in the signification of the two words.這是經常爭議是否有任何差異意義的兩個詞。 St. Augustine (in Psalm. lxxvii, in PL, XXXVI, 984) distinguishes them on the ground that ecclesia is indicative of the calling together of men, synagoga of the forcible herding together of irrational creatures: "congregatio magis pecorum convocatio magis hominum intelligi solet". But it may be doubted whether there is any foundation for this view.聖奧古斯丁(在詩篇。 lxxvii ,在特等,三十六, 984 )區分他們的理由是教會表明了召集的男人, synagoga的羊群一起強行不合理的動物: “ congregatio馬吉斯家畜convocatio馬吉斯hominum intelligi solet 。 “但它可能會懷疑是否有任何的基礎這一觀點。 It would appear, however, that the term qahal, was used with the special meaning of "those called by God to eternal life", while 'êdah, denoted merely "the actually existing Jewish community" (Schürer, Hist. Jewish People, II, 59).這樣看來,然而,長期qahal ,是用特殊意義的“那些所謂的上帝永恆的生命” ,而' êdah ,表明只是“的實際存在的猶太社區” ( Schürer ,組織胺。猶太人民,二現年59歲) 。 Though the evidence for this distinction is drawn from the Mishna, and thus belongs to a somewhat later date, yet the difference in meaning probably existed at the time of Christ's ministry.雖然證據這一區別是取自米示拿,因此屬於一個有點日後,但在意義上的差異可能存在時,基督的部。 But however this may have been, His intention in employing the term, hitherto used of the Hebrew people viewed as a church, to denote the society He Himself was establishing cannot be mistaken.但是,無論這可能是,他打算在任期聘用,迄今使用的希伯來人看作是一個教堂,指社會的他本人正在建立不能弄錯了。 It implied the claim that this society now constituted the true people of God, that the Old Covenant was passing away, and that He, the promised Messias, was inaugurating a New Covenant with a New Israel.這意味著聲稱,現在這個社會構成真正的人民的上帝,該公約是老的逝世,而且他所許諾的弭賽亞,是開創一個新盟約的一種新的以色列。

As signifying the Church, the word Ecclesia is used by Christian writers, sometimes in a wider, sometimes in a more restricted sense.作為象徵教會,教會一詞所使用的基督教作家,有時是在更廣泛的,有時是在一個更受限制意義。

It is employed to denote all who, from the beginning of the world, have believed in the one true God, and have been made His children by grace.它是用來指所有誰,從一開始就對世界,都認為在一個真正的上帝,並取得了他的孩子們的寬限期。 In this sense, it is sometimes distinguished, signifying the Church before the Old Covenant, the Church of the Old Covenant, or the Church of the New Covenant.從這個意義上講,有時是尊敬,標誌著教會前的舊盟約,教會舊盟約,或教堂的新盟約。 Thus St. Gregory (Epp. V, ep. xviii ad. Joan. Ep. Const., in PL, LXXVII, 740) writes: "Sancti ante legem, sancti sub lege, sancti sub gratiâ, omnes hi . . . in membris Ecclesiæ sunt constituti" (The saints before the Law, the saints under the Law, and the saints under grace -- all these are constituted members of the Church).因此,聖格里高利( Epp.五,上皮。十八廣告。瓊。內啡肽。康斯特。 ,在特等, LXXVII , 740頁)寫道: “聖事前legem ,聖亞學院,聖子特惠,適用的高新技術。 。 。在membris教會必須遵守constituti “ (聖在法律面前,聖人根據該法,並根據寬限期聖人-所有這些都是構成成員堂) 。

It may signify the whole body of the faithful, including not merely the members of the Church who are alive on earth but those, too, whether in heaven or in purgatory, who form part of the one communion of saints.這可能意味著整個身體的忠誠,不僅包括成員的教會誰活著的地球上,但這些,也不論是在天上還是在煉獄,誰的組成部分之一共融的聖人。 Considered thus, the Church is divided into the Church Militant, the Church Suffering, and the Church Triumphant.因此認為,教會分為好戰的教會,教會的痛苦,教會的勝利。

It is further employed to signify the Church Militant of the New Testament. Even in this restricted acceptation, there is some variety in the use of the term.它是進一步明示採用的教會激進的新約。即使在這種限制驗收,有一些品種一詞的使用。 The disciples of a single locality are often referred to in the New Testament as a Church (Revelation 2:18; Romans 16:4; Acts 9:31), and St. Paul even applies the term to disciples belonging to a single household (Romans 16:5; 1 Corinthians 16:19, Colossians 4:15; Philemon 1-2).門徒一個單一的地點常常是中提到的新約聖經作為一個教會(啟示2時18分;羅馬16時04分;行為9時31分) ,以及甚至聖保祿適用的任期為弟子屬於一個單一的家庭(羅馬16點05 ;哥林多前書16:19 ,歌羅西書4:15 ;腓利門書1-2 ) 。 Moreover, it may designate specially those who exercise the office of teaching and ruling the faithful, the Ecclesia Docens (Matthew 18:17), or again the governed as distinguished from their pastors, the Ecclesia Discens (Acts 20:28).此外,它可指定專門誰行使這些辦事處的教學和執政的信徒,在教會Docens (馬太18:17 ) ,或再次管轄不同於他們的牧師,在教會Discens (使徒20:28 ) 。 In all these cases the name belonging to the whole is applied to a part.在所有這些案件的名稱屬於整個應用的一部分。 The term, in its full meaning, denotes the whole body of the faithful, both rulers and ruled, throughout the world (Ephesians 1:22; Colossians 1:18).這個詞,在其全部含義,是指整個身體的忠誠,無論統治者和統治,在世界各地(以弗所書1時22分;歌羅西書1:18 ) 。 It is in this meaning that the Church is treated of in the present article.正是在這個意義,教會的處理在本規定。 As thus understood, the definition of the Church given by Bellarmine is that usually adopted by Catholic theologians: "A body of men united together by the profession of the same Christian Faith, and by participation in the same sacraments, under the governance of lawful pastors, more especially of the Roman Pontiff, the sole vicar of Christ on earth" (Coetus hominum ejusdem christianæ fidei professione, et eorumdem sacramentorum communione colligatus, sub regimine legitimorum pastorum et præcipue unius Christi in Terris vicarii Romani Pontificis. -- Bellarmine, De Eccl., III, ii, 9).因此,作為理解的定義,教會給予貝拉明的是,通常通過的天主教神學家: “一個男人身體團結在一起的專業相同的基督教信仰,並參加同樣的聖禮,根據治理的合法牧師,尤其是羅馬教皇,唯一的副主教基督在地球上“ ( Coetus hominum ejusdem christianæ信professione等eorumdem sacramentorum communione colligatus ,分regimine legitimorum pastorum等præcipue unius基督在Terris vicarii吉普賽Pontificis 。 -貝拉明,德傳道書。 ,三,二, 9 ) 。 The accuracy of this definition will appear in the course of the article.的準確性,這個定義將出現在球場的文章。

II.二。 THE CHURCH IN PROPHECY教堂的預言

Hebrew prophecy relates in almost equal proportions to the person and to the work of the Messias.希伯來文中涉及的預言幾乎相同比例的人的工作弭賽亞。 This work was conceived as consisting of the establishment of a kingdom, in which he was to reign over a regenerated Israel.這項工作被認為是構成建立一個王國,在他統治了再生以色列。 The prophetic writings describe for us with precision many of the characteristics which were to distinguish that kingdom.該預言的著作為我們描述精確的許多特點是區分的王國。 Christ during His ministry affirmed not only that the prophecies relating to the Messias were fulfilled in His own person, but also that the expected Messianic kingdom was none other than His Church.基督在他的部肯定不僅預言有關弭賽亞人履行自己的人,而且預期的彌賽亞王國不是別人,正是他的教會。 A consideration of the features of the kingdom as depicted by the Prophets, must therefore greatly assist us in understanding Christ's intentions in the institution of the Church.審議的特點,所描述王國的先知,因此必須極大地幫助我們理解耶穌的意圖機構的教會。 Indeed many of the expressions employed by Him in relation to the society He was establishing are only intelligible in the Light of these prophecies and of the consequent expectations of the Jewish people.事實上,許多的表現形式由他僱用有關的社會,他正在建立只是可理解根據這些預言和由此期望的猶太人民。 It will moreover appear that we have a weighty argument for the supernatural character of the Christian revelation in the precise fulfillment of the sacred oracles.此外,它會出現,我們有份量的論據超自然性質的基督教啟示的確切履行神聖的神諭。

A characteristic feature of the Messianic kingdom, as predicted, is its universal extent.的特點王國的救世主,作為預測,是其普遍性的程度。 Not merely the twelve tribes, but the Gentiles are to yield allegiance to the Son of David.不只是十二個部族,但外邦人是產量效忠的兒子大衛。 All kings are to serve and obey him; his dominion is to extend to the ends of the earth (Psalm 21:28 sq.; 2:7-12; 116:1; Zechariah 9:10).所有的國王是服務和服從他,他的統治是擴大到天涯海角(詩篇21:28平方米; 2:7-12 ; 116:1 ;撒迦利亞9:10 ) 。 Another series of remarkable passages declares that the subject nations will possess the unity conferred by a common faith and a common worship -- a feature represented under the striking image of the concourse of all peoples and nations to worship at Jerusalem.另一個顯著一系列的段落宣布,受國家將擁有統一賦予一個共同的信念和共同的崇拜-一個功能下派的突出形象的匯合所有民族和國家在耶路撒冷禮拜。 "It shall come to pass in the last days (ie in the Messianic Era] . . . that many nations shall say: Come and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways and we will walk in his paths; for the law shall go forth out of Sion, and the word of the Lord out of Jerusalem" (Micah 4:1-2; cf. Isaiah 2:2; Zechariah 8:3). This unity of worship is to be the fruit of a Divine revelation common to all the inhabitants of the earth (Zack., xiv, 8). Corresponding to the triple office of the Messias as priest, prophet, and king, it will be noted that in relation to the kingdom the Sacred Writings lay stress on three points: (a) it is to be endowed with a new and peculiar sacrificial system; (b) it is to be the kingdom of truth possessed of a Divine revelation; (c) it is to be governed by an authority emanating from the Messias. “這應是通過在最後幾天(即在彌賽亞時代] 。 。 。 ,許多國家應說:來吧,讓我們進入到山區的主,和家中的神雅各布;和他將教導我們,他的方式,我們將走在他的路徑;法律規定應去的錫永,和這個詞上帝的耶路撒冷“ (米卡4:1-2 ;比照。以賽亞二點零二;撒迦利亞8點03分) 。這種團結的崇拜將是水果的神聖啟示共同所有居民的地球( Zack. ,十四, 8 ) 。對應的三重辦公室弭賽亞作為牧師,先知,並國王,這將是指出,在有關英國聖寫作突出三點: (一)它是被賦予了一個新的和獨特的祭祀制度; ( b )它是王國擁有真理神的啟示; ( c )它是由一個權威來自弭賽亞。

In regard to the first of these points, the priesthood of the Messias Himself is explicitly stated (Ps. cix, 4); while it is further taught that the worship which He is to inaugurate shall supersede the sacrifices of the Old Dispensation.關於第一點,牧師的弭賽亞本人是明確指出(詩篇捷達夥伴, 4 ) ;同時進一步告訴我們,崇拜他是啟用將取代犧牲的老配方。 This is implied, as the Apostle tells us, in the very title, "a priest after the order of Melchisedech"; and the same truth is contained in the prediction that a new priesthood is to be formed, drawn from other peoples besides the Israelites (Isaiah 66:18), and in the words of the Prophet Malachias which foretell the institution of a new sacrifice to be offered "from the rising of the sun even to the going down" (Malachi 1:11).這是隱含的,因為使徒告訴我們,在非常標題“後,一名神父的命令Melchisedech ” ;和相同的事實是中所載的預測,一個新的神父要成立,來自其他國家的人民除了以色列人(以賽亞書66:18 ) ,並在的話先知Malachias這預示該機構的一個新的犧牲,以提供“從上升的太陽甚至下降” (瑪拉基1點11分) 。 The sacrifices offered by the priesthood of the Messianic kingdom are to endure as long as day and night shall last (Jeremiah 33:20).犧牲所提供的神職人員的彌賽亞王國是忍受,只要晝夜應昨(耶利米33:20 ) 。

The revelation of the Divine truth under the New Dispensation attested by Jeremias: "Behold the days shall come saith the Lord, and I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Juda . . . and they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, saying: Know the Lord: for all shall know me from the least of them even to the greatest" (Jeremiah 31:31, 34), while Zacharias assures us that in those days Jerusalem shall be known as the city of truth.啟示的神聖真理的新配方證明Jeremias : “看,幾天來必應上帝,我將作出新的契約與以色列的房子與房子猶大。 。 。並應教無每一個男人更多的他的鄰居,他說:知道主:所有應知道我是最不甚至最大“ (耶利米31:31 , 34 ) ,而撒迦利亞向我們保證,在那些日子裡耶路撒冷應稱為城市的真相。 (Zechariah 8:3). (撒迦利亞8點03 ) 。

The passages which foretell that the Kingdom will possess a peculiar principle of authority in the personal rule of the Messias are numerous (eg Psalms 2 and 71; Isaiah 9:6 sq.); but in relation to Christ's own words, it is of interest to observe that in some of these passages the prediction is expressed under the metaphor of a shepherd guiding and governing his flock (Ezekiel 34:23; 37:24-28).其中通道預知王國將擁有特殊的權力原則的個人統治的弭賽亞有很多(如詩篇第2和第71條;以賽亞9點06平方米) ;但與基督自己的話來說,這是利益地看到,在其中一些段落的預測是根據對比喻的一個牧羊人的指導和管理他的羊群(以西結34:23 ; 37:24-28 ) 。 It is noteworthy, moreover, that just as the prophecies in regard to the priestly office foretell the appointment of a priesthood subordinate to the Messias, so those which relate to the office of government indicate that the Messias will associate with Himself other "shepherds", and will exercise His authority over the nations through rulers delegated to govern in His name (Jeremiah 18:6; Psalm 44:17; cf. St. Augustine Enarr. in Psalm. 44:no. 32).值得注意的是,此外,正如預言中關於祭司辦公室預言任命一名神職人員從屬於弭賽亞,使那些涉及到政府辦公室指出,協理弭賽亞將與自己的“牧羊人” ,將行使他的權力,國家通過下放給統治者在治理他的名字(耶利米18時06分;詩篇44:17 ;比照。 Enarr聖奧古斯丁。在詩篇。 44 :沒有。 32 ) 。 Another feature of the kingdom is to be the sanctity of its members.另一個特點是,英國是神聖的成員。 The way to it is to be called "the holy way: the unclean shall not pass over it".該方法是被稱為“神聖的方式:不潔不得超越它。 ” The uncircumcised and unclean are not to enter into the renewed Jerusalem (Isaiah 35:8; 52:1).在猶太人和不潔不進入新的耶路撒冷(以賽亞書35:8 , 52:1 ) 。

The later uninspired apocalyptic literature of the Jews shows us how profoundly these predictions had influenced their national hopes, and explains for us the intense expectation among the populace described in the Gospel narratives.後來平庸世界末日文學的猶太人告訴我們如何深刻的這些預測影響了其國家的希望,並解釋了我們的期望之間激烈的民眾中所描述的福音說明。 In these works as in the inspired prophecies the traits of the Messianic kingdom present two very different aspects.在這些作品中的靈感預言性狀的彌賽亞王國本兩個非常不同的方面。 On the one hand, the Messias is a Davidic king who gathers together the dispersed of Israel, and establishes on this earth a kingdom of purity and sinlessness (Psalms of Solomon, xvii).一方面,在弭賽亞是一個Davidic國王誰聚集分散的以色列,並確定在地球上一個王國的純潔和清白(所羅門詩篇,十七) 。 The foreign foe is to be subdued (Assumpt. Moses, c. x) and the wicked are to be judged in the valley of the son of Hinnon (Enoch, xxv, xxvii, xc).外國的敵人是制服( Assumpt.摩西角x )和惡人都來評判山谷中的兒子Hinnon (伊諾克,二十五,二十七,坐標) 。 On the other hand, the kingdom is described in eschatological characters.另一方面,王國中描述的末世論字符。 The Messias is pre-existent and Divine (Enoch, Simil., xlviii, 3); the kingdom He establishes is to be a heavenly kingdom inaugurated by a great world-catastrophe, which separates this world (aion outos), from the world to come (mellon).該弭賽亞預先存在和神聖(伊諾克, Simil 。 ,四十八, 3 ) ;王國他確立將是一個天國落成的一個偉大的世界大災難,分隔這個世界(上傳圖片outos ) ,從世界來(梅隆) 。 This catastrophe is to be accompanied by a judgment both of angels and of men (Jubilees, x, 8; v, 10; Assumpt. Moses, x, 1).這場災難是伴隨著兩個判斷和天使男子( Jubilees ,設8條;五, 10 ; Assumpt 。摩西,設1 ) 。 The dead will rise (Ps. Solom., iii, 11) and all the members of the Messianic kingdom will become like to the Messias (Enoch, Simil., xc, 37).死者將上升(詩篇Solom 。 ,三, 11人)和全體成員的彌賽亞將成為英國一樣的弭賽亞(伊諾克, Simil 。 ,坐標, 37 ) 。 This twofold aspect of the Jewish hopes in regard to the coming Messias must be borne in mind, if Christ's use of the expression "Kingdom of God" is to be understood.這方面有兩個猶太人的希望寄託在關於未來弭賽亞必須牢記,如果基督的使用“上帝”是可以理解。 Not infrequently, it is true, He employs it in an eschatological sense.並不罕見,這是真的,他僱用了它的末世論意義。 But far more commonly He uses it of the kingdom set up on this earth -- of His Church.但更為常見的,他使用它的王國建立在地球上-他的教會。 These are indeed, not two kingdoms, but one.這些確實是,沒有兩個王國,而是一個。 The Kingdom of God to be established at the last day is the Church in her final triumph.上帝王國的設立在最後一天是教會在她的最後勝利。

III.三。 CONSTITUTION BY CHRIST憲法的基督

The Baptist proclaimed the near approach of the Kingdom of God, and of the Messianic Era.浸會宣布不久的辦法王國的上帝,救世主的時代。 He bade all who would share its blessings prepare themselves by penance.他吩咐所有誰將分享其祝福準備自己的懺悔。 His own mission, he said, was to prepare the way of the Messias.他自己的使命,他說,鋪平道路的弭賽亞。 To his disciples he indicated Jesus of Nazareth as the Messias whose advent he had declared (John 1:29-31).為了他的弟子他指出拿撒勒的耶穌的弭賽亞的到來,他已宣布(約1:29-31 ) 。 From the very commencement of His ministry Christ laid claim in an explicit way to the Messianic dignity.從一開始他的部基督索賠奠定一個明確的方式向彌賽亞的尊嚴。 In the synagogue at Nazareth (Luke 4:21) He asserts that the prophecies are fulfilled in His person; He declares that He is greater than Solomon (Luke 11:31), more venerable than the Temple (Matthew 12:6), Lord of the Sabbath (Luke 6:5).在猶太教堂在拿撒勒(路4時21分)聲稱,他的預言是履行他的人;他宣稱,他是大於所羅門群島(路11:31 ) ,更古老的比寺(馬太12時06分) ,主在安息日(路加6時05分) 。 John, He says, is Elias, the promised forerunner (Matthew 17:12); and to John's messengers He vouchsafes the proofs of His Messianic dignity which they request (Luke 7:22).約翰,他說,是埃利亞斯,所承諾的先行者(馬太17:12 ) ;和約翰的使者,他vouchsafes的證明他的救世主的尊嚴,他們要求(路7點22分) 。 He demands implicit faith on the ground of His Divine legation (John 6:29).他要求隱含的信念在地面上,他神聖的公館(約翰6時29分) 。 His public entry into Jerusalem was the acceptance by the whole people of a claim again and again reiterated before them.他的公開進入耶路撒冷是接受全體人民的要求,並再次重申它們之前。 The theme of His preaching throughout is the Kingdom of God which He has come to establish.在他的主題是宣揚整個王國的上帝,他已經確定。 St. Mark, describing the beginning of His ministry, says that He came into Galilee saying, "The time is accomplished, and the Kingdom of God is at hand".聖馬克,說明他開始部說,他到加利利說: “時間完成,上帝王國的是手” 。 For the kingdom which He was even then establishing in their midst, the Law and the Prophets had been, He said, but a preparation (Luke 16:16; cf. Matthew 4:23; 9:35; 13:17; 21:43; 24:14; Mark 1:14; Luke 4:43; 8:1; 9:2, 60; 18:17).王國而他即使在那時建立在他們中間,法律和先知了,他說,但準備(路加16:16 ;比照。馬修4:23 , 9:35 , 13:17 ; 21 : 43 ; 24:14 ;馬克一點14 ;盧克4時43分; 8:1 ;九時02分, 60歲; 18:17 ) 。

When it is asked what is this kingdom of which Christ spoke, there can be but one answer.當問這是什麼王國,其中以基督,就不可能有一個答案。 It is His Church, the society of those who accept His Divine legation, and admit His right to the obedience of faith which He claimed.這是他的教會,社會的人誰接受他的神聖的公館,並承認他的權利,服從信仰他聲稱。 His whole activity is directed to the establishment of such a society: He organizes it and appoints rulers over it, establishes rites and ceremonies in it, transfers to it the name which had hitherto designated the Jewish Church, and solemnly warns the Jews that the kingdom was no longer theirs, but had been taken from them and given to another people.他的整個活動是針對建立這樣一個社會:他組織,並任命了它的統治者,建立儀式和慶典中,轉讓給它的名稱,該名稱迄今指定的猶太人教堂,並鄭重警告猶太人的王國不再是自己的,但已採取了從他們給另一個人。 The several steps taken by Christ in organizing the Church are traced by the Evangelists.若干所採取的步驟基督教教會組織正在追查的福音派。 He is represented as gathering numerous disciples, but as selecting twelve from their number to be His companions in an especial manner.他是代表收集了許多弟子,但作為選拔12從他們的人數是他的同伴在一個特殊的方式進行。 These share His life.這些分享他的生活。 To them He reveals the more hidden parts of His doctrine (Matthew 13:11).對他們,他揭示了更多隱藏的部分他的理論(馬太13點11分) 。 He sends them as His deputies to preach the kingdom, and bestows on them the power to work miracles. All are bound to accept their message; and those who refuse to listen to them shall meet a fate more terrible than that of Sodom and Gomorra (Matthew 10:1-15).他將它們作為他的副手宣揚的王國,並賦予他們的權力,創造奇蹟。一切都必須接受他們的訊息;和誰拒絕聽取他們的應符合的命運更可怕比所多瑪和Gomorra (馬修10:1-15 ) 。 The Sacred Writers speak of these twelve chosen disciples in a manner indicating that they are regarded as forming a corporate body.神聖的作家談論這十二門徒選擇的方式表明,它們被視為成立一個法人團體。 In several passages they are still termed "the twelve" even when the number, understood literally, would be inexact.在一些段落他們仍稱之為“ 12 ”即使在數量,字面上理解,將是不確切的。 The name is applied to them when they have been reduced to eleven by the defection of Judas, on an occasion when only ten of them were present, and again after the appointment of St. Paul has increased their number to thirteen (Luke 24:33; John 20:24; 1 Corinthians 15:5; Revelation 21:14).該名稱是適用於他們時,他們已減少到11所背叛的猶大,在一個場合時,只有10人出席,並再次任命後,聖保羅已經增加了它們的編號,以13 (路加24:33 ;約翰20:24 ;哥林多前書15時05 ;啟示21時14 ) 。

In this constitution of the Apostolate Christ lays the foundation of His Church. But it is not till the action of official Judaism had rendered it manifestly impossible to hope the Jewish Church would admit His claim, that He prescribes for the Church as a body independent of the synagogue and possessed of an administration of her own.在這一憲法的基督傳教奠定了基礎,他教會。但這不是到行動的官方猶太教提供了顯然不可能希望猶太人教堂將承認他的主張,說他訂的教會作為一個獨立的機構猶太教堂,並擁有一個管理自己。 After the breach had become definite, He calls the Apostles together and speaks to them of the judicial action of the Church, distinguishing, in an unmistakable manner, between the private individual who undertakes the work of fraternal correction, and the ecclesiastical authority empowered to pronounce a judicial sentence (Matthew 18:15-17).後違反已成為明確的,他呼籲使徒在一起,給他們講的司法行動,教會區別,在一個明白無誤的方式,與個人誰承擔的工作兄弟般的校正,並賦予教會發音司法判決(馬太18:15-17 ) 。 To the jurisdiction thus conferred He attached a Divine sanction.管轄權因此授予他附上了神聖的制裁。 A sentence thus pronounced, He assured the Apostles, should be ratified in heaven.因此,刑罰宣告,他向使徒,應該批准在天堂。 A further step was the appointment of St. Peter to be the chief of the Twelve.了進一步的步驟是任命聖彼得是長12 。 For this position he had already been designated (Matthew 16:15 sqq.) on an occasion previous to that just mentioned: at Cæsarea Philippi, Christ had declared him to be the rock on which He would build His Church, thus affirming that the continuance and increase of the Church would rest on the office created in the person of Peter.這一立場,他已經被指定(馬太16:15 sqq 。 )對以往的場合該剛才提到的:在該撒利亞腓立,基督已宣布將他的岩石上,他將建立他的教會,從而確認繼續並增加了教會將其餘的辦公室創建人彼得。 To him, moreover, were to be given the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven -- an expression signifying the gift of plenary authority (Isaiah 22:22). The promise thus made was fulfilled after the Resurrection, on the occasion narrated in John, xxi.他說,此外,要考慮到鑰匙的天國-表達意的禮物全體會議權力(以賽亞書2 2:22) 。許諾從而實現了被復活後之際,講述約翰, 21 。 Here Christ employs a simile used on more than one occasion by Himself to denote His own relation to the members of His Church -- that of the shepherd and his flock.基督在這裡採用了明喻用不止一次的表示自己與他自己的成員他的教會-是牧羊人和他的羊群。 His solemn charge, "Feed my sheep", constituted Peter the common shepherd of the whole collective flock.他的莊嚴責任, “牧養我的羊群” ,構成了彼得的共同牧羊人整個集體的羊群。 (For a further consideration of the Petrine texts see article PRIMACY.) To the twelve Christ committed the charge of spreading the kingdom among all nations, appointing the rite of baptism as the one means of admission to a participation in its privileges (Matthew 28:19). (如需進一步審議伯多祿文本見第至高無上。 )在12基督承諾負責傳播英國所有國家之間,任命了成年禮的洗禮作為一種手段接納了參與其特權(馬太28 : 19 ) 。

In the course of this article detailed consideration will be given to the principal characteristics of the Church.在本文章詳細考慮的主要特點教會。 Christ's teaching on this point may be briefly summarized here.基督的教學在這一點上可能會在這裡簡要概述。 It is to be a kingdom ruled in His absence by men (Matthew 18:18; John 21:17).這將是一個英國統治在他缺席的男子(馬太18:18 ;約翰21:17 ) 。 It is therefore a visible theocracy; and it will be substituted for the Jewish theocracy that has rejected Him (Matthew 21:43).因此,這是一個明顯的神,它將會取代猶太神已經拒絕他(馬太21:43 ) 。 In it, until the day of judgment, the bad will be mingled with the good (Matthew 13:41).在這份備忘錄中,直到有一天判斷,壞將混在一起的好(馬太13:41 ) 。 Its extent will be universal (Matthew 28:19), and its duration to the end of time (Matthew 13:49); all powers that oppose it shall be crushed (Matthew 21:44).其程度將是普遍的(馬太28:19 ) ,其持續時間結束時(馬太13:49 ) ;一切權力,反對應粉碎(馬太21:44 ) 。 Moreover, it will be a supernatural kingdom of truth, in the world, though not of it (John 18:36).此外,這將是一個超自然的王國的真理,在世界上,但不是它(約18:36 ) 。 It will be one and undivided, and this unity shall be a witness to all men that its founder came from God (John 17:21). It is to be noticed that certain recent critics contest the positions maintained in the preceding paragraphs.這將是一個不可分割的,這種團結應是一個見證所有的人,其創始人是來自上帝(約翰17:21 ) 。應該注意到,最近發生的一些批評競賽的立場保持在前面的段落。 They deny alike that Christ claimed to be the Messias, and that the kingdom of which He spoke was His Church.他們都否認基督自稱為弭賽亞,而且英國的他談到他的教會。 Thus, as regards Christ's claim to Messianic dignity, they say that Christ does not declare Himself to be the Messias in His preaching: that He bids the possessed who proclaimed Him the Son of God be silent: that the people did not suspect His Messiahship, but formed various extravagant hypotheses as to his personality.因此,關於基督的要求彌賽亞的尊嚴,他們說,基督沒有宣布自己是弭賽亞在他的說教:即他的出價宣布誰擁有他上帝之子保持沉默:即人們不懷疑他的Messiahship ,但形成各種奢侈的假設,以他的個性。 It is manifestly impossible within the limits of this article to enter on a detailed discussion of these points.這顯然是不可能的限度內,這一條進入了一個詳細的討論這些點。 But, in the light of the testimony of the passages above cited, it will be seen that the position is entirely untenable. In reference to the Kingdom of God, many of the critics hold that the current Jewish conception was wholly eschatological, and that Christ's references to it must one and all be thus interpreted.但是,根據的證詞上面列舉通道,可以看到的立場是完全站不住腳的。提及上帝王國的,許多批評者認為,目前的猶太人的概念是完全末世論,並基督的提到它必須一個都將就此解釋。 This view renders inexplicable the numerous passages in which Christ speaks of the kingdom as present, and further involves a misconception as to the nature of Jewish expectations, which, as has been seen, together with eschatological traits, contained others of a different character.這種看法使得許多令人費解的段落中談到基督王國本,並進一步涉及一種誤解的性質猶太人的期望,因為已經看到,連同末世論性狀,載他人不同的特點。 Harnack (What is Christianity? p. 62) holds that in its inner meaning the kingdom as conceived by Christ is "a purely religious blessing, the inner link of the soul with the living God".哈納克(什麼是基督教?第62頁)認為,在其內涵王國所設想的基督是“一個單純的宗教祝福的內在聯繫的靈魂與上帝的生活。 ” Such an interpretation can in no possible way be reconciled with Christ's utterances on the subject.這樣的解釋可以在任何可能的方式加以調和與基督的話語這個問題。 The whole tenor of his expressions is to lay stress on the concept of a theocratic society.整個男高音歌唱家,他表現是突出的概念,一個神權政治的社會。

The Church after the Ascension教會在阿森松島

The doctrine of the Church as set forth by the Apostles after the Ascension is in all respects identical with the teaching of Christ just described.該學說的教會所規定的門徒後,阿森松島是在所有方面都相同的教學基督剛才所描述的。 St. Peter, in his first sermon, delivered on the day of Pentecost, declares that Jesus of Nazareth is the Messianic king (Acts 2:36).聖彼得大教堂,在他第一次講道,交付之日聖靈降臨節,宣布拿撒勒的耶穌是彌賽亞國王(使徒2點36分) 。 The means of salvation which he indicates is baptism; and by baptism his converts are aggregated to the society of disciples (ii, 41).的手段拯救他表明是洗禮;的洗禮和他的轉換是匯集社會的門徒(二41 ) 。 Though in these days the Christians still availed themselves of the Temple services, yet from the first the brotherhood of Christ formed a society essentially distinct from the synagogue.儘管在這些天的基督徒還是利用自己的廟服務,但是從第一次的基督兄弟成立了一個社會基本上是有別於猶太教堂。 The reason why St. Peter bids his hearers accept baptism is none other than that they may "save themselves from this unbelieving generation".為什麼聖彼得出價聽眾接受他的洗禮無非是他們可以“挽救自己從這個不信的一代” 。 Within the society of believers not only were the members united by common rites, but the tie of unity was so close as to bring about in the Church of Jerusalem that condition of things in which the disciples had all things common (ii, 44).在社會的信徒不僅是聯合國成員的共同儀式,但配合的團結是如此接近,使教會在耶路撒冷的條件外,其中的弟子了一切事物的共同(二44 ) 。

Christ had declared that His kingdom should be spread among all nations, and had committed the execution of the work to the twelve (Matthew 28:19).基督已宣布,他的王國應該分散在所有國家,並已承諾的執行工作, 12 (馬太28:19 ) 。 Yet the universal mission of the Church revealed itself but gradually.然而,普遍使命的教會發現本身,而是循序漸進。 St. Peter indeed makes mention of it from the first (Acts 2:39).聖彼得的確使得提到它從第一(使徒2點39分) 。 But in the earliest years the Apostolic activity is confined to Jerusalem alone.但是,在最早的幾年,使徒的活動僅限於耶路撒冷的獨立。 Indeed an old tradition (Apollonius, cited by Eusebius "Hist. Eccl.", V, xvii, and Clem. Alex., "Strom.", VI, v, in PG IX, 264) asserts that Christ had bidden the Apostles wait twelve years in Jerusalem before dispersing to carry their message elsewhere.的確是一個古老的傳統(阿波羅紐斯,由優西比烏引“組織胺。傳道書。 ” ,五,十七,和克萊姆。阿萊克斯。 “斯特羅姆。 ” ,六,五,九中前列腺素, 264 )聲稱耶穌曾bidden使徒等待12年前在耶路撒冷進行分散他們的信息別處。 The first notable advance occurs consequent on the persecution which arose after the death of Stephen, AD 37.第一次發生引人注目的進展由此就產生迫害去世後,斯蒂芬,公元37 。 This was the occasion of the preaching of the Gospel to the Samaritans, a people excluded from the privileges of Israel, though acknowledging the Mosaic Law (Acts 8:5).這是為紀念宣揚福音的樂善好施,一個人被排除在以色列的特權,但承認鑲嵌法(使徒8時05 ) 。 A still further expansion resulted from the revelation directing St. Peter to admit to baptism Cornelius, a devout Gentile, ie one associated to the Jewish religion but not circumcised.仍然進一步擴大造成的啟示指揮聖彼得承認洗禮科尼利厄斯,一個虔誠的詹蒂萊,即聯繫一個猶太宗教,而是沒有割禮。 From this tune forward circumcision and the observance of the Law were not a condition requisite for incorporation into the Church.從這一調整著割禮和遵守的法律,不是必要條件納入教會。 But the final step of admitting those Gentiles who had known no previous connection with the religion of Israel, and whose life had been spent in paganism, was not taken till more than fifteen years after Christ's Ascension; it did not occur, it would seem, before the day described in Acts xiii, 46, when, at Antioch in Pisidia, Paul and Barnabas announced that since the Jews accounted themselves unworthy of eternal life they would "turn to the Gentiles".但最後一步承認這些外邦人誰知道以前沒有與以色列的宗教,而且其壽命已花費在異教,沒有採取到超過15年後耶穌升天;它沒有發生,看來,一天前所述的行為十三, 46歲時,在安提阿在彼西底的安提阿,保羅和巴拿巴宣布,自猶太人佔自己不配永恆的生命,他們將“轉向外邦人” 。

In the Apostolic teaching the term Church, from the very first, takes the place of the expression Kingdom of God (Acts 5:11).在教學使徒教會的任期,從第一,取代英國的表達上帝(使徒5點11分) 。 Where others than the Jews were concerned, the greater suitability of the former name is evident; for Kingdom of God had special reference to Jewish beliefs.凡超過其他的猶太人而言,更大的適用性,以前的名稱是顯而易見的;的王國上帝特別提到猶太人的信仰。 But the change of title only emphasizes the social unity of the members.但改名只強調社會團結的成員。 They are the new congregation of Israel -- the theocratic polity: they are the people (laos) of God (Acts 15:14; Romans 9:25; 2 Corinthians 6:16; 1 Peter 2:9 sq.; Hebrews 8:10; Revelation 18:4; 21:3).他們是新的聚集以色列-神權政體:他們是人民(老撾)神(使徒1 5:14;羅馬書9 :25;哥林多後書6時1 6分;彼得前書2時0 9平方米;希伯來8 : 10 ;啟示18點04 ;二十一點03分) 。 By their admission to the Church, the Gentiles have been grafted in and form part of God's fruitful olive-tree, while apostate Israel has been broken off (Romans 11:24).他們的加入教會,外邦人已嫁接和組成部分上帝的富有成果的橄欖樹樹,而叛教以色列一直中斷(羅馬書11:24 ) 。 St. Paul, writing to his Gentile converts at Corinth, terms the ancient Hebrew Church "our fathers" (1 Corinthians 10:1).聖保祿,寫他的詹蒂萊轉換在科林斯,職權古代希伯來教會“我們的父親” (哥林多前書10:1 ) 。 Indeed from time to time the previous phraseology is employed, and the Gospel message is termed the preaching of the Kingdom of God (Acts 20:25; 28:31).事實上不時以前的用語是就業,並福音訊息又被稱為說教王國的上帝(使徒20:25 ; 28:31 ) 。

Within the Church the Apostles exercised that regulative power with which Christ had endowed them.在教會的使徒行使調控權力與基督賦予他們。 It was no chaotic mob, but a true society possessed of a corporate life, and organized in various orders.這是暴徒沒有混亂,而是一個真正的社會擁有一個企業生命,並舉辦各種訂單。 The evidence shows the twelve to have possessed (a) a power of jurisdiction, in virtue of which they wielded a legislative and judicial authority, and (b) a magisterial office to teach the Divine revelation entrusted to them.有證據表明,有12個擁有( a )在管轄範圍內的權力,在他們可以據此掌握立法和司法權威,和( b )神辦事處教神聖的啟示託付給他們。 Thus (a) we find St. Paul authoritatively prescribing for the order and discipline of the churches.因此, (一)我們發現聖保祿處方權威性的秩序和紀律的教堂。 He does not advise; he directs (1 Corinthians 11:34; 26:1; Titus 1:5).他沒有意見,他指示(哥林多前書11:34 ; 26:1 ;泰特斯1:5 ) 。 He pronounces judicial sentence (1 Corinthians 5:5; 2 Corinthians 2:10), and his sentences, like those of other Apostles, receive at times the solemn sanction of miraculous punishment (1 Timothy 1:20; Acts 5:1-10).他宣布司法判決(哥林多前書五點05分;哥林多後書2時10分) ,和他的句子,像其他使徒,有時收到的嚴正制裁神奇的處罰(提摩太前書1:20 ;行為5:1-10 ) 。 In like manner he bids his delegate Timothy hear the causes even of priests, and rebuke, in the sight of all, those who sin (1 Timothy 5:19 sq.).在他喜歡的方式投標的代表霍震霆聽到的原因,甚至神職人員,並訓斥,在看不到的是,這些誰罪孽(提摩太前書5時19平方米) 。 (b) With no less definiteness does he assert that the Apostolate carries with it a doctrinal authority, which all are bound to recognize. ( b )在不確定性,他斷言,使徒帶有理論權威,這都是有義務承認。 God has sent them, he affirms, to claim "the obedience of faith" (Romans 1:5; 15:18).上帝把他們送到,他申明,聲稱“在服從信仰” (羅馬書1:5 ; 15:18 ) 。 Further, his solemnly expressed desire, that even if an angel from heaven were to preach another doctrine to the Galatians than that which he had delivered to them, he should be anathema (Galatians 1:8), involves a claim to infallibility in the teaching of revealed truth.此外,他莊嚴地表達的願望,即使一個天使從天上被宣揚另一個理論的加拉太,而不是他已交付給他們,他應該是詛咒(加拉太1:8 ) ,涉及索賠犯錯誤的教學對發現的真理。

While the whole Apostolic College enjoyed this power in the Church, St. Peter always appears in that position of primacy which Christ assigned to him.雖然整個使徒高校享有這一權力的教堂,聖彼得總是出現在該位置的首要基督指派給他。 It is Peter who receives into the Church the first converts, alike from Judaism and from heathenism (Acts 2:41; 10:5 sq.), who works the first miracle (Acts 3:1 sqq.), who inflicts the first ecclesiastical penalty (Acts 5:1 sqq.).這是彼得誰接收到的第一個教會轉換,都來自猶太教和來自異教(使徒2點41分; 10點05平方米) ,誰第一個工程奇蹟(使徒3:1 sqq 。 )誰造成的第一個教會死刑(使徒5:1 sqq 。 ) 。 It is Peter who casts out of the Church the first heretic, Simon Magus (Acts 8:21), who makes the first Apostolic visitation of the churches (Acts 9:32), and who pronounces the first dogmatic decision (Acts 15:7).這是彼得誰給了教會的第一個異教徒,西蒙賢者(使徒8時21分) ,誰第一個提出探視的使徒教會(使徒9時32分) ,誰宣布的第一教條的決定(使徒15時07 ) 。 (See Schanz, III, p. 460.) So indisputable was his position that when St. Paul was about to undertake the work of preaching to the heathen the Gospel which Christ had revealed to him, he regarded it as necessary to obtain recognition from Peter (Galatians 1:18). (見坎茲,三, 460頁。 )所以無可爭議的是他的立場,即聖保祿時左右進行傳教工作的異教徒的基督福音透露了他,他認為這是必須獲得承認彼得(加拉太1:18 ) 。 More than this was not needful: for the approbation of Peter was definitive.以上這並不是必需的:認可彼得是明確的。

IV.四。 ORGANIZATION BY THE APOSTLES組織使徒

Few subjects have been so much debated during the past half-century as the organization of the primitive Church.少數科目有這麼多的辯論,在過去半個世紀以來該組織的原始教會。 The present article cannot deal with the whole of this wide subject.本文章無法處理的整個這一廣泛的問題。 Its scope is limited to a single point.其範圍僅限於一個單一的點。 An endeavour will be made to estimate the existing information regarding the Apostolic Age itself.努力將作出估計,現有的有關使徒時代本身。 Further light is thrown on the matter by a consideration of the organization that is found to have existed in the period immediately subsequent to the death of the last Apostle.此外光拋出關於這個問題的審議該組織發現已經存在的時期以後立即死亡的最後使徒。 (See BISHOP.) The independent evidence derived from the consideration of each of these periods will, in the opinion of the present writer, be found, when fairly weighed, to yield similar results. (見主教。 )獨立的證據來自審議的每一個時期將這些認為,目前的作家,被發現時,相當重,產生類似的結果。 Thus the conclusions here advanced, over and above their intrinsic value, derive support from the independent witness of another series of authorities tending in all essentials to confirm their accuracy.因此,這裡的結論先進,遠遠超過其內在價值,獲得支持的證人獨立的另一系列當局傾向於在所有必需品,以確認其準確性。 The question at issue is, whether the Apostles did, or did not, establish in the Christian communities a hierarchical organization.這個問題的問題是,無論是使徒沒有,或者沒有建立在基督教社區層次的組織。 All Catholic scholars, together with some few Protestants, hold that they did so.所有天主教學者,加上一些少數的新教徒認為,他們這樣做。 The opposite view is maintained by the rationalist critics, together with the greater number of Protestants.與此相反的觀點是保持理性的批評,再加上越來越多的新教徒。

In considering the evidence of the New Testament on the subject, it appears at once that there is a marked difference between the state of things revealed in the later New Testament writings, and that which appears in those of an earlier date.在審議證明了新約全書的主題,但似乎一次是有明顯差異的狀態揭示事物的新約後的著作,而且它會出現在那些一個較早的日期。 In the earlier writings we find but little mention of an official organization.在先前的著作,但我們發現很少提到的一個官方組織。 Such official positions as may have existed would seem to have been of minor importance in the presence of the miraculous charismata of the Holy Spirit conferred upon individuals, and fitting them to act as organs of the community in various grades.這樣的官方立場可能存在似乎已經輕微的重要性在場的情況下奇蹟般的charismata聖靈授予個人,並擬合它們作為機關的社會在各個年級。 St. Paul in his earlier Epistles has no messages for the bishops or deacons, although the circumstances dealt with in the Epistles to the Corinthians and in that to the Galatians would seem to suggest a reference to the local rulers of the Church.聖保羅在其早先的書信沒有任何消息的主教或執事,雖然這種情況下處理的書信的科林蒂安斯並在此向加拉太似乎表明,參照當地統治者的教會。 When he enumerates the various functions to which God has called various members of the Church, he does not give us a list of Church offices.當他列舉了各種職能的上帝已要求各成員教會,他並沒有給我們一個清單,教會辦事處。 "God", he says, "hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondly prophets, thirdly doctors [didaskaloi]; after that miracles; then the graces of healings, helps, governments, kinds of tongues" (1 Corinthians 12:28). “上帝” ,他說, “上帝設置的一些教堂,第一使徒,第二先知,第三醫生[ didaskaloi ] ;後,奇蹟;然後青睞的healings ,幫助,政府,種舌頭” (哥林多前書12 : 28 ) 。 This is not a list of official designations.這不是一個名單,正式的名稱。 It is a list of "charismata" bestowed by the Holy Spirit, enabling the recipient to fulfill some special function.這是一個清單“ charismata ”賦予的聖靈,使受援國實現一些特殊功能。 The only term which forms an exception to this is that of apostle.只有長期形成一個例外,這是使徒。 Here the word is doubtless used in the sense in which it signifies the twelve and St. Paul only.在這裡,無疑是詞中使用的意義它標誌著12和聖保祿只。 As thus applied the Apostolate was a distinct office, involving a personal mission received from the Risen Lord Himself (1 Corinthians 1:1; Galatians 1:1).因此,作為傳教適用是一個獨特的辦公室,涉及個人使命收到了復活的主親自(哥林多前書1:1 ;加拉太1:1 ) 。 Such a position was of altogether too special a character for its recipients to be placed in any other category.這種立場完全是太特殊的字符為受助人放置在任何其他類別。 The term could indeed be used in a wider reference.這個詞的確可以用在更廣泛的範圍。 It is used of Barnabas (Acts 14:13) and of Andronicus and Junias, St. Paul's kinsmen (Romans 16:7).這是用巴拿巴(使徒14:13 )和尼克斯和Junias ,聖保祿麵團(羅馬16點○七) 。 In this extended signification it is apparently equivalent to evangelist (Ephesians 4:11; 2 Timothy 4:5) and denotes those "apostolic men", who, like the Apostles, went from place to place labouring in new fields, but who had received their commission from them, and not from Christ in person.在這延長它的意義顯然是相當於傳道(以弗所書4時11分;提摩太后書4時05分) ,並指這些“使徒的男人” ,誰一樣,使徒,從地方勞動在新的領域,但誰收到了他們從這些佣金,而不是從基督的人。 (See APOSTLES.) (見使徒。 )

The "prophets", the second class mentioned, were men to whom it was given to speak from time to time under the direct influence of the Holy Spirit as the recipients of supernatural inspiration (Acts 13:2; 15:23; 21:11; etc.).的“先知” ,第二級提到,有男子是誰給發言不時下,直接影響聖靈的接受者超自然的啟示(使徒13時02 ; 15:23 ; 21時十一;等) 。 By the nature of the case the exercise of such a function could be occasional only.根據案件的性質行使這種功能可以偶爾只。 The "charisma" of the "doctors" (or teachers) differed from that of the prophets, in that it could be used continuously.的“魅力”的“醫生” (或教師)不同於先知,因為它可以用來不斷。 They had received the gift of intelligent insight into revealed truth, and the power to impart it to others.他們還收到了禮物的智能洞察揭示真理,權力傳授給他人。 It is manifest that those who possessed such a power must have exercised a function of vital moment to the Church in those first days, when the Christian communities consisted to so large an extent of new converts.這是明顯的,這些誰擁有這種權力必須有行使職能的重要時刻,教會在這些第一天,當基督教社區組成,以如此之大的程度新的轉換。 The other "charismata" mentioned do not call for special notice.其他的“ charismata ”提到並不要求特殊的通知。 But the prophets and teachers would appear to have possessed an importance as organs of the community, eclipsing that of the local ministry.但是,先知和教師,似乎已經擁有的重要性,是機關的社會, 11959.63 ,在當地政府。 Thus in Acts, xiii, 1, it is simply related that there were in the Church which was at Antioch prophets and doctors.因此,在行為,十三, 1 ,這只是相關的,有在教會是在安提阿先知和醫生。 There is no mention of bishops or deacons.沒有提到主教或執事。 And in the Didache -- a work as it would seem of the first century, written before the last Apostle had passed away -- the author enjoins respect for the bishops and deacons, on the ground that they have a claim similar to that of the prophets and doctors.在十二使徒遺訓-一項工作,因為它似乎在二十一世紀,寫在最後使徒已經去世-作者責令尊重主教和執事,理由是他們有類似的要求,在先知和醫生。 "Appoint for yourselves", he writes, "bishops and deacons, worthy of the Lord, men who are meek, and not lovers of money, and true and approved; for unto you they also perform the service [leitourgousi ten leitourgian] of the prophets and doctors. Therefore despise them not: for they are your honourable men along with the prophets and teachers" (c. xv). “任命自己” ,他寫道: “主教和執事,不愧為上帝,男人誰是溫順,不愛錢,真正和批准;為你們也履行服務[ leitourgousi 10 leitourgian ]的先知和醫生。因此不能輕視他們:因為他們是你的光榮男子連同先知和教師“ (角XV )號決議。

It would appear, then, indisputable that in the earliest years of the Christian Church ecclesiastical functions were in a large measure fulfilled by men who had been specially endowed for this purpose with "charismata" of the Holy Spirit, and that as long as these gifts endured, the local ministry occupied a position of less importance and influence.這樣看來,那麼,不容置疑的,在最早的幾年的基督教教會的職能在很大程度上滿足了男人誰已賦予專門為此與“ charismata ”聖靈,並認為,只要這些禮品忍受,當地政府被佔領的地位不太重要和影響力。 Yet, though this be the case, there would seem to be ample ground for holding that the local ministry was of Apostolic institution: and, further, that towards the later part of the Apostolic Age the abundant "charismata" were ceasing, and that the Apostles themselves took measures to determine the position of the official hierarchy as the directive authority of the Church.然而,儘管這種情況,似乎有充分的理由認為當地政府是使徒機構: ,並進一步,這對後來的一部分,使徒時代的豐富的“ charismata ”被停止,而且使徒自己採取了一些措施,以確定的立場,官方層次的指令,權威的教會。 The evidence for the existence of such a local ministry is plentiful in the later Epistles of St. Paul (Philippians, 1 and 2 Timothy, and Titus).證據存在的這樣一個地方部是大量的書信後聖保羅(腓利, 1提摩太后書,並泰特斯) 。 The Epistle to the Philippians opens with a special greeting to the bishops and deacons.在書信的腓利開放特別問候的主教和執事。 Those who hold these official positions are recognized as the representatives in some sort of the Church.這些誰持有這些官方的立場是公認的代表在某種教會。 Throughout the letter there is no mention of the "charismata", which figure so largely in the earlier Epistles. It is indeed urged by Hort (Christian Ecelesia, p. 211) that even here these terms are not official titles.在信中沒有提及的“ charismata ” ,這在很大程度上數字,以便在早期書信。這的確是敦促撫(基督教Ecelesia ,第211頁)在這裡,即使這些條款,並非正式名稱。 But in view of their employment as titles in documents so nearly contemporary, as I Clem., c.但是,鑑於他們的就業,作為商品在文件,近當代的,因為我克萊姆。角 4, and the Didache, such a contention seems devoid of all probability. 4 ,和十二使徒遺訓,這樣的爭論似乎毫無概率。

In the Pastoral Epistles the new situation appears even more clearly.在牧區書信的新形勢下顯得更為明顯。 The purpose of these writings was to instruct Timothy and Titus regarding the manner in which they were to organize the local Churches.的目的,這些著作是指導霍震霆和提圖斯的方式就在他們組織當地的教會。 The total absence of all reference to the spiritual gifts can scarcely be otherwise explained than by supposing that they no longer existed in the communities, or that they were at most exceptional phenomena.完全沒有提及的所有的精神禮物簡直是另有解釋比猜想,他們不再存在的社區,或者說他們是在極為特殊的現象。 Instead, we find the Churches governed by a hierarchical organization of bishops, sometimes also termed presbyters, and deacons.相反,我們找到教會由一個分層組織的主教,有時也稱為長老和執事。 That the terms bishop and presbyter are synonymous is evident from Titus 1:5-7: "I left thee in Crete, that thou shouldest . . . ordain priests in every city . . . For a bishop must be without crime."該條款主教和長老是同義詞是顯而易見的泰特斯1:5-7 : “我離開你在克里特島,這你shouldest 。 。 。祝聖司鐸在每一個城市。 。 。的主教必須是沒有犯罪。 ” These presbyters form a corporate body (1 Timothy 4:14), and they are entrusted with the twofold charge of governing the Church (1 Timothy 3:5) and of teaching (1 Timothy 3:2; Titus 1:9).這些長老組成一個法人團體(提摩太前書四點14分) ,他們是受委託的雙重負責管理教會(提摩太前書3時05分)和教學(提摩太前書3:2 ;泰特斯1點09 ) 。 The selection of those who are to fill this post does not depend on the possession of supernatural gifts.選擇那些誰目的是為了填補這一職位並不取決於擁有超自然的禮物。 It is required that they should not be unproved neophytes, that they should be under no charge, should have displayed moral fitness for the work, and should be capable of teaching.這是規定,他們不應該未經證實的新手,他們應該沒有任何費用,應該有道義上的健身展示的工作,並應能教學。 (1 Timothy 3:2-7; Titus 1:5-9) The appointment to this office was by a solemn laying on of hands (1 Timothy 5:22). (提摩太前書3:2-7 ;泰特斯1:5-9 )任命為這個辦公室是由一個莊嚴的鋪設舉手(提摩太前書5時22分) 。 Some words addressed by St. Paul to Timothy, in reference to the ceremony as it had taken place in Timothy's case, throw light upon its nature.有些話由聖保祿提摩太,在提到儀式,因為它發生在霍震霆的情況,揭示其性質。 "I admonish thee", he writes, "that thou stir up the grace (charisma) of God, which is in thee by the laying on of my hands" (2 Timothy 1:6). “我告誡你” ,他寫道, “那你挑起的恩典(魅力)的上帝,這是你的鋪設上的我的手” (提摩太后書1:6 ) 。 The rite is here declared to be the means by which a charismatic gift is conferred; and, further, the gift in question, like the baptismal character, is permanent in its effects.該儀式是在這裡宣布的手段有魅力的禮物就是賦予; ,並進一步的禮物問題,如洗禮特點,是永久性的影響。 The recipient needs but to "waken into life" [anazopyrein] the grace he thus possesses in order to avail himself of it.受援國的需要,而是“喚醒生命” [ anazopyrein ]寬限期,他因此擁有以自己的利用它。 It is an abiding endowment. There can be no reason for asserting that the imposition of hands, by which Timothy was instructed to appoint the presbyters to their office, was a rite of a different character, a mere formality without practical import.這是一個守法捐贈。不可能有任何理由主張實行手中,其中霍震霆奉命任命長老他們的辦公室,是一個成年禮的性質不同,流於形式沒有實際意義。

With the evidence before us, certain other notices in the New Testament writings, pointing to the existence of this local ministry, may be considered. There is mention of presbyters at Jerusalem at a date apparently immediately subsequent to the dispersion of the Apostles (Acts 11:30; cf. 15:2; 16:4; 21:18).在證據面前,某些其他告示在新約著作,指出了存在的這個地方部,可以考慮。有提到長老在耶路撒冷的日期顯然隨後立即向分散的使徒(使徒11日: 30 ;比照。 15時02分, 16時04分; 21:18 ) 。 Again, we are told that Paul and Barnabas, as they retraced their steps on their first missionary journey, appointed presbyters in every Church (Acts 14:22).同樣,我們被告知,保羅和巴拿巴,因為他們回顧他們的步驟,在他們的第一代傳教旅程,任命長老教會在每一個(使徒14:22 ) 。 So too the injunction to the Thessalonians (1 Thessalonians 5:12) to have regard to those who are over them in the Lord (proistamenoi; cf. Romans 12:6) would seem to imply that there also St. Paul had invested certain members of the community with a pastoral charge.同樣的禁令的尼迦(帖撒羅尼迦前書5點12 )有關於那些誰是他們的主( proistamenoi ;比照。羅馬12點06 )似乎意味著還有聖保祿已投入某些成員社會與農牧收費。 Still more explicit is the evidence contained in the account of St. Paul's interview with the Ephesian elders (Acts 20:17-23).不過更明確的證據是中到聖保羅採訪時以弗所長老(使徒20:17-23 ) 。 It is told that, sending from Miletus to Ephesus, he summoned "the presbyters of the Church", and in the course of his charge addressed them as follows: "Take heed to yourselves and to the whole flock, wherein the Holy Ghost has placed you bishops to tend [poimainein] the Church of God" (xx, 28).這是告知,從米利發送到以弗所,他召見“的長老教會” ,並在其負責處理如下: “以注意自己和整個羊群,其中聖靈已經把您主教往往[ poimainein ]上帝的教會“ ( XX條, 28條) 。 St. Peter employs similar language: "The presbyters that are among you, I beseech, who am myself also a presbyter . . . tend [poimainein] the flock of God which is among you."聖彼得採用類似的語言: “長老說的是你,我求求,誰相信自己也是一個牧師。 。 。往往[ poimainein ]的羊群這是上帝在你們中間。 ” These expressions leave no doubt as to the office designated by St. Paul, when in Ephesians 4:11, he enumerates the gifts of the Ascended Lord as follows: "He gave some apostles, and some prophets, and other some evangelists, and other some pastors and doctors [tous de poimenas kai didaskalous]. The Epistle of St. James provides us with yet another reference to this office, where the sick man is bidden send for the presbyters of the Church, that he may receive at their hands the rite of unction (James 5:14).這些表現形式離開毫無疑問,該辦事處指定的聖保羅時,在以弗所書4時11分,他列舉了禮物的登上主如下: “他給了一些使徒,和一些先知,和其他一些福音派,和其他一些牧師和醫生[人人德poimenas偕didaskalous ] 。的書聖雅各福群為我們提供了又一次提到這個辦公室,那裡的病夫是bidden發送的長老教會,他可能會收到他們手中的成年禮的油膏(詹姆斯5時14分) 。

The term presbyter was of common use in the Jewish Church, as denoting the "rulers" of the synagogue (cf. Luke 13:14).這個詞牧師是在共同使用的猶太人教堂,象的“統治者”的猶太教堂(參見盧克13:14 ) 。 Hence it has been argued by some non-Catholic writers that in the bishops and deacons of the New Testament there is simply the synagogal organization familiar to the first converts, and introduced by them into the Christian communities.因此,有人認為一些非天主教作家,在主教和執事的新約全書有僅僅是熟悉synagogal組織的第一次轉換,並介紹了他們的基督教社區。 St. Paul's concept of the Church, it is urged, is essentially opposed to any rigid governmental system; yet this familiar form of organization was gradually established even in the Churches he had founded.聖保祿概念的教會,這是敦促,基本上是反對任何政府制度僵化,但這個熟悉的組織形式是逐步建立即使是在他教會成立。 In regard to this view it appears enough to say that the resemblance between the Jewish "rulers of the synagogue" and the Christian presbyter-episcopus goes no farther than the name.關於這一觀點似乎足夠地說,相似的猶太人之間的“統治者的猶太教堂”和基督教牧師, episcopus不用任何超出這個名字。 The Jewish official was purely civil and held office for a time only.以色列官方純粹是民間和辦公室舉行的時間只。 The Christian presbyterate was for life, and its functions were spiritual.基督教presbyterate為生命,其職能是精神。 There is perhaps more ground for the view advocated by some (cf. de Smedt, Revue des quest. hist., vols. XLIV, L), that presbyter and episcopus may not in all cases be perfectly Synonymous.人們也許更地面的觀點所主張的一些(參見德Smedt ,雜誌的追求。歷史。 ,第一卷和第二卷。四十四, L )和該發起人和episcopus可能無法在所有情況下是完全同義。 The term presbyter is undoubtedly an honorific title, while that of episcopus primarily indicates the function performed.任期發起人無疑是一個尊稱,而episcopus主要表明了履行的職能。 It is possible that the former title may have had a wider significance than the latter.有可能是前冠軍可能有更廣泛的意義超過了後者。 The designation presbyter, it is suggested, may have been given to all those who were recognized as having a claim to some voice in directing the affairs of the community, whether this were based on official status, or social rank, or benefactions to the local Church, or on some other ground; while those presbyters who had received the laying on of hands would be known, not simply as "presbyters", but as "presiding [proistamenoi -- I Thess., v. 12) presbyters", "presbyter-bishops", "presbyter-rulers" (hegoumenoi -- Hebrews 13:17).指定發起人,有人建議,可能已經考慮到所有這些誰被承認為有一些人的聲音在指導社區事務,這是否是基於官方地位,或社會階級,或benefactions地方教堂,或在一些其他理由,而這些長老誰收到了關於鋪設的雙手將已知的,而不是僅僅作為“長老” ,而是“主持[ proistamenoi -我洛尼基。訴1 2)長老” , “牧師,主教“ , ”牧師統治者“ ( hegoumenoi -希伯來書1 3:17) 。

It remains to consider whether the so-called "monarchical" episcopate was instituted by the Apostles.它仍然以考慮是否所謂的“君主”主教被提起的使徒。 Besides establishing a college of presbyter-bishops, did they further place one man in a position of supremacy, entrusting the government of the Church to him, and endowing him with Apostolic authority over the Christian community?除了建立一個學院的牧師,主教,他們還沒有一人發生在一個至高無上的地位,政府委託的教會他,並賦予他的權力與使徒的基督教社區? Even if we take into account the Scriptural evidence alone, there are sufficient grounds for answering this question in the affirmative.即使我們考慮到聖經的證據就有充分的理由回答這個問題是肯定的。 From the time of the dispersion of the Apostles, St. James appears in an episcopal relation to the Church of Jerusalem (Acts 12:17; 15:13; Galatians 2:12).從時間上的分散使徒,聖雅各福群會出現在一個主教與教會的耶路撒冷(使徒12:17 ; 15:13 ;加拉太2時12分) 。 In the other Christian communities the institution of "monarchical" bishops was a somewhat later development.在基督教社區其他機構的“君主”主教是一個後來的發展。 At first the Apostles themselves fulfilled, it would seem, all the duties of Supreme oversight.在第一使徒自己的滿足,似乎所有的職責最高法院的監督。 They established the office when the growing needs of the Church demanded it.他們設立了辦公室時,日益增加的需要,教會要求它。 The Pastoral Epistles leave no room to doubt that Timothy and Titus were sent as bishops to Ephesus and to Crete respectively.田園書信留下任何餘地疑問,霍震霆和提圖斯被作為以弗所主教,並分別克里特島。 To Timothy full Apostolic powers are conceded.要充分使徒蒂莫權力讓步。 Notwithstanding his youth he holds authority over both clergy and laity.儘管青年時代,他擁有的權力都神職人員和信徒。 To him is confided the duty of guarding the purity of the Church's faith, of ordaining priests, of exercising jurisdiction.他是賦予的職責守衛的純潔性教會的信仰,對祝聖司鐸,行使管轄權。 Moreover, St. Pauls exhortation to him, "to keep the commandment without spot, blameless, unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ" shows that this was no transitory mission.此外,街聖保羅告誡他, “保持誡沒有現貨,無可指責的,你們的到來我們的主耶穌基督”顯示,這是沒有任何過渡性的使命。 A charge so worded includes in its sweep, not Timothy alone, but his successors in an office which is to last until the Second Advent.控罪包括措辭,以便在其橫掃,而不是僅僅蒂莫西,但他的繼任者在辦公室這將持續到第二降臨。 Local tradition unhesitatingly reckoned him among the occupants of the episcopal see.當地的傳統毫不猶豫地認為他的居住者之間的主教見。 At the Council of Chalcedon, the Church of Ephesus counted a succession of twenty-seven bishops commencing with Timothy (Mansi, VII, 293; cf. Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., III, iv, v).在安理會的迦克墩,教會計數以弗所繼承的27主教開始與霍震霆(曼西,七, 293 ;比照。優西比烏,組織胺。傳道書。 ,三,四,五) 。

These are not the sole evidences which the New Testament affords of the monarchical episcopate.這些都不是唯一的證據的提供新約的帝王主教。 In the Apocalypse the "angels" to whom the letters to the seven Churches are addressed are almost certainly the bishops of the respective communities.在啟示錄的“天使”的人寫信給七個教會的問題是幾乎可以肯定的主教各自的社區。 Some commentators, indeed, have held them to be personifications of the communities themselves.一些評論家認為,事實上,舉行了他們personifications的社區本身。 But this explanation can hardly stand.但是,這很難解釋的立場。 St. John, throughout, addresses the angel as being responsible for the community precisely as he would address its ruler.聖約翰,在整個,地址天使作為負責社會正是因為他將解決其統治者。 Moreover, in the symbolism of ch.此外,在象徵性的路。 i, the two are represented under different figures: the angels are the stars in the right hand of the Son of Man; the seven candlesticks are the image which figures the communities.一,兩下代表不同的數字:天使的星級右手的人子;七個燭台是數字圖像的社區。 The very term angel, it should be noticed, is practically synonymous with apostle, and thus is aptly chosen to designate the episcopal office.非常長期的天使,應該注意到,幾乎是同義詞,使徒,因此是恰當選擇指定主教辦公室。 Again the messages to Archippus (Colossians 4:17; Philemon 2) imply that he held a position of special dignity, superior to that of the other presbyters.再次郵件Archippus (歌羅西書4時17分;腓利門書2 )暗示,他舉行了一次特殊的地位尊嚴,優於其他長老。 The mention of him in a letter entirely concerned with a private matter, as is that to Philemon, is hardly explicable unless he were the official head of the Colossian Church.提及他在信中關心的完全是私事,這是為了腓利門書,很難解釋,除非他的官方負責人Colossian教會。 We have therefore four important indications of the existence of an office in the local Churches, held by a Single person, and carrying with it Apostolical authority.因此,我們四個重要標誌存在的一個辦公室在當地教會,舉行了由單一的人,帶著它使徒的權威。 Nor can any difficulty be occasioned by the fact that as yet no special title distinguishes these successors of the Apostles from the ordinary presbyters.也不能被任何困難所引起的事實,還沒有特別的名稱區分這些接班人使徒從普通長老。 It is in the nature of things that the office should exist before a title is assigned to it.這是性質的東西,辦公室應該存在之前,標題是分配給它。 The name of apostle, we have seen, was not confined to the Twelve.的名稱使徒,我們已經看到,並非僅限於十二。 St. Peter (I Peter, V, 1) and St. John (2 and 3 John 1:1) both speak of themselves as presbyters". St. Paul speaks of the Apostolate as a diakonia. A parallel case in later ecclesiastical history is afforded by the word pope. This title was not appropriated to the exclusive use of the Holy See till the eleventh century. Yet no one maintains that the supreme pontificate of the Roman bishop was not recognized till then. It should cause no surprise that a precise terminology, distinguishing bishops, in the full sense, from the presbyter-bishops, is not found in the New Testament. The conclusion reached is put beyond all reasonable doubt by the testimony of the sub-Apostolic Age. This is so important in regard to the question of the episcopate that it is impossible entirely to pass it over. It will be enough, however, to refer to the evidence contained in the epistles of St. Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, himself a disciple of the Apostles. In these epistles (about AD 107) he again and again asserts that the supremacy of the bishop is of Divine institution and belongs to the Apostolic constitution of the Church. He goes so far as to affirm that the bishop stands in the place of Christ Himself. "When ye are obedient to the bishop as to Jesus Christ," he writes to the Trallians, "it is evident to me that ye are living not after men, but after Jesus Christ.聖彼得(彼得,五, 1 )和聖約翰( 2約翰三書1:1 )都講自己是長老。 “聖保祿談到作為一個使徒Diakonia組織。並行的情況下在以後的教會歷史所提供的是這個詞教宗。此標題不撥的獨家使用羅馬教廷,直到11世紀。然而,沒有人堅持認為,最高教皇的羅馬主教不承認然後到。應引起毫不奇怪,一個精確的術語,區分主教,在充分意義上說,從牧師,主教,是不是發現了新約。達成的結論提出了超越一切合理懷疑的證詞分使徒時代。這是非常重要的方面問題的主教,這是不可能完全通過它。這將是不夠的,然而,提及的證據中所載的書信聖伊格內修,主教安提,對於自己的弟子使徒。在這些書信(約公元107 ) ,他一再聲稱,至高無上的主教是神聖的機構,屬於憲法使徒的教會。他甚至肯定,站在主教的地方基督自己。 “當你們都服從主教,以耶穌基督, “他寫道的Trallians , ”很明顯,我認為你們的生活後,沒有男人,但在耶穌基督。 . . be ye obedient also to the presbytery as to the Apostles of Jesus Christ" (ad Trall., n. 2). He also incidentally tells us that bishops are found in the Church, even in "the farthest parts of the earth" (ad Ephes., n. 3) It is out of the question that one who lived at a period so little removed from the actual Apostolic Age could have proclaimed this doctrine in terms such as he employs, had not the episcopate been universally recognized as of Divine appointment. It has been seen that Christ not only established the episcopate in the persons of the Twelve but, further, created in St. Peter the office of supreme pastor of the Church. Early Christian history tells us that before his death, he fixed his residence at Rome, and ruled the Church there as its bishop. It is from Rome that he dates his first Epistle, speaking of the city under the name of Babylon, a designation which St. John also gives it in the Apocalypse (c. xviii). At Rome, too, he suffered martyrdom in company with St. Paul, AD 67. The list of his successors in the see is known, from Linus, Anacletus, and Clement, who were the first to follow him, down to the reigning pontiff. The Church has ever seen in the occupant of the See of Rome the successor of Peter in the supreme pastorate. (See POPE.)是你們聽話還向長老為使徒耶穌基督“ (廣告Trall 。 ,注2 ) 。他還順便告訴我們,主教是在教會,即使在”最遙遠的地方的地球“ (廣告Ephes 。 ,注3 )這是不可能的,一個誰住在一個時期拆除這麼少的實際使徒時代可能宣布這一理論方面,如他僱用了,沒有的主教被公認的神聖任命。人們看到,基督不僅設立了主教的人的12個,但進一步的,成立於聖彼得辦公室的最高牧師的教會。早期基督教的歷史告訴我們,他去世之前,他固定的居住在羅馬,並裁定教會有其主教。這是從羅馬說,他的日期他頭書,講的城市的名字巴比倫,指定其中聖約翰還給它的啟示(角十八) 。在羅馬,也有殉難,他在公司的聖保羅,公元67 。名單他的繼任者在看到眾所周知,史努比, Anacletus ,並克萊門特,誰是第一個跟著他走,到在位教宗。教會從未見過的乘員的羅馬教廷的繼任者彼得的最高牧師。 (見教皇。 )

The evidence thus far considered seems to demonstrate beyond all question that the hierarchical organization of the Church was, in its essential elements, the work of the Apostles themselves; and that to this hierarchy they handed on the charge entrusted to them by Christ of governing the Kingdom of God, and of teaching the revealed doctrine.有證據認為迄今似乎表明以外的所有問題的等級組織的教堂,在其基本要素,工作的使徒本身;並為此他們交出層次的收費委託給他們的基督執政英國的上帝,教學理論的發現。 These conclusions are far from being admitted by Protestant and other critics.這些結論還遠遠沒有得到承認的新教和其他批評者。 They are unanimous in holding that the idea of a Church -- an organized society -- is entirely foreign to the teaching of Christ. It is therefore, in their eyes, impossible that Catholicism, if by that term we signify a worldwide institution, bound together by unity of constitution, of doctrine, and of worship, can have been established by the direct action of the Apostles.他們一致認為的想法教會-一個有組織的社會-則是完全陌生的教學基督。因此,在他們眼中,天主教不可能的,如果通過這個詞意味著我們在全世界的機構,約束團結在一起的憲法,在理論和崇拜,可以成立了直接行動的使徒。 In the course of the nineteenth century many theories were propounded to account for the transformation of the so-called "Apostolic Christianity" into the Christianity of the commencement of the third century, when beyond all dispute the Catholic system was firmly established from one end of the Roman Empire to the other.在十九世紀的許多理論提出了考慮到轉型的所謂的“使徒基督教”到基督教開始的第三個世紀,當所有的爭端以外的天主教系統是牢固確立的一端羅馬帝國的其他。 At the present day (1908) the theories advocated by the critics are of a less extravagant nature than those of FC Baur (1853) and the Tübingen School, which had so great a vogue in the middle of the nineteenth century.目前一天( 1908年)的理論所倡導的批評是不奢侈的性質比隊鮑爾( 1853年)和蒂賓根大學學院,這如此巨大的風尚在十九世紀中葉。 Greater regard is shown for the claims of historical possibility and for the value of early Christian evidences.大方面的顯示要求的歷史可能性和價值的早期基督教的證據。 At the same time it is to be observed that the reconstruction's suggested involve the rejection of the Pastoral Epistles as being documents of the second century.同時,要指出的是,重建的建議涉及拒絕田園書信作為文件的第二個世紀。 It will be sufficient here to notice one or two salient points in the views which now find favour with the best known among non-Catholic writers.這將足以在這裡通知一個或兩個要點的意見,贊成現在發現的最有名的非天主教作家。

It is held that such official organization as existed in the Christian communities was not regarded as involving special spiritual gifts, and had but little religious significance.它認為,這種官方組織中存在的基督教社區不被視為涉及特殊的精神禮物,但並沒有宗教意義。 Some writers, as has been seen, believe with Holtzmann that in the episcopi and presbyteri, there is simply the synagogal system of archontes and hyperetai.一些作家,作為一直被認為與Holtzmann ,在episcopi和presbyteri ,但僅僅是synagogal系統archontes和hyperetai 。 Others, with Hatch, derive the origin of the episcopate from the fact that certain civic functionaries in the Syrian cities appear to have borne the title of "episcopi".其他人,與孵化,獲得原產地的主教的事實,某些公民機關在敘利亞城市似乎已經證明“稱號episcopi ” 。 Professor Harnack, while agreeing with Hatch as to the origin of the office, differs from him in so far as he admits that from the first the superintendence of worship belonged to the functions of the bishop.哈納克教授,雖然同意孵化,以原產地的辦公室,不同於他在迄今他承認,從第一次的監督禮拜屬於職能的主教。 The offices of prophet and teacher, it is urged, were those in which the primitive Church acknowledged a spiritual significance.該辦事處的先知和教師,這是要求,是那些原始的教會承認的精神意義。 These depended entirely on special charismatic gifts of the Holy Ghost.這些完全取決於特殊魅力的禮物的聖靈。 The government of the Church in matters of religion was thus regarded as a direct Divine rule by the Holy Spirit, acting through His inspired agents.政府的教會在宗教事務,因此被視為神聖的直接統治聖靈,通過他的啟發劑。 And only gradually, it is supposed, did the local ministry take the place of the prophets and teachers, and inherit from them the authority once attributed to the possessors of spiritual gifts alone (cf. Sabatier, Religions of Authority, p. 24).只有逐步進行,這是假定,但當地政府採取的地點先知和教師,並繼承他們的權力一旦歸因於擁有獨立的精神禮物(見薩巴蒂爾,宗教管理局,第24頁) 。 Even if we prescind altogether from the evidence considered above, this theory appears devoid of intrinsic probability.即使我們prescind完全從上述證據認為,這一理論似乎缺乏內在的概率。 A direct Divine rule by "charismata" could only result in confusion, if uncontrolled by any directive power possessed of superior authority.一個直接的神聖規則“ charismata ”只能造成混亂,如果不加控制的任何指令的權力擁有優越的權威。 Such a directive and regulative authority, to which the exercise of spiritual gifts was itself subject, existed in the Apostolate, as the New Testament amply shows (1 Corinthians 14).這樣的指令和規範權力,而行使的精神禮物本身就是問題,存在的傳教,因為新約全書充分表明(哥林多前書14 ) 。 In the succeeding age a precisely similar authority is found in the episcopate.在接替年齡正是類似的權力被發現在該主教。 Every principle of historical criticism demands that the source of episcopal power should be sought, not in the "charismata", but, where tradition places it, in the Apostolate itself.每一個歷史的原則,要求,批評的來源主教權力應尋求,而不是在“ charismata ” ,但是,在傳統地點,在傳教本身。

It is to the crisis occasioned by Gnosticism and Montanism in the second century that these writers attribute the rise of the Catholic system.這是這場危機所引起的諾斯替主義和孟他努在第二世紀,這些作家上升屬性的天主教制度。 They say that, in order to combat these heresies, the Church found it necessary to federate itself, and that for this end it established a statutory, so-called "apostolic" faith, and further secured the episcopal supremacy by the fiction of "apostolic succession", (Harnac, Hist. of Dogma, II, ii; Sabatier, op. cit., pp. 35-59).他們說,為了打擊這些邪說,教會認為有必要結成同盟本身,並為此目的設立一個法定的,所謂的“使徒”的信念,進一步確保了祝至高無上的小說的“使徒繼承“ ( Harnac ,組織胺。的教條,二,二;薩巴蒂爾,同前。前。頁。 35-59 ) 。 This view appears to be irreconcilable with the facts of the case.這種看法似乎是不可調和的與案件事實的。 The evidence of the Ignatian epistles alone shows that, long before the Gnostic crisis arose, the particular local Churches were conscious of an essential principle of solidarity binding all together into a single system. Moreover, the very fact that these heresies gained no foothold within the Church in any part of the world, but were everywhere recognized as heretical and promptly excluded, suffices to prove that the Apostolic faith was already clearly known and firmly held, and that the Churches were already organized under an active episcopate.的證據僅Ignatian書信表明,早在諾斯底危機站起身來,特別是當地的教會意識到的一個基本原則,團結結合起來成一個單一系統。此外,這一事實本身獲得這些歪理邪說沒有立足之內教會在世界的任何部分,但各地公認的邪教,並迅速排除在外,足以證明,使徒的信仰已經很清楚和堅定地舉行,該教會已經舉辦了積極的主教。 Again, to say that the doctrine of Apostolic succession was invented to cope with these heresies is to overlook the fact that it is asserted in plain terms in the Epistle of Clement, c.同樣,說的理論,繼承使徒發明對付這些歪理邪說是忽視了這樣一個事實,這是在平原斷言中的條款書克萊門特角 xlii.四十二。

M. Loisy's theory as to the organization of the Church has attracted so much attention in recent years as to call for a brief notice.先生盧瓦西理論作為該組織的教會受到如此關注,近年來在呼籲簡短的通知。 In his work, "L'Evangile et l'Eglise", he accepts many of the views held by critics hostile to Catholicism, and endeavours by a doctrine of development to reconcile them with some form of adhesion to the Church.在他的工作, “歐萊雅吉爾徽章等近教堂” ,他接受的許多意見批評了敵對的天主教,並努力通過理論發展的調和與某種形式的加入教會。 He urges that the Church is of the nature of an organism, whose animating principle is the message of Jesus Christ. This organism may experience many changes of external form, as it develops itself in accordance with its inner needs, and with the requirements of its environment.他敦促教會性質的有機體,其生動活潑的原則,是信息耶穌基督。這種生物體可能會遇到許多變化的外在形式,因為它本身的發展按照其內在的需要,並要求其環境。 Yet so long as these changes are such as are demanded in order that the vital principle may be preserved, they are unessential in character.然而,只要這些變化,如被要求,以使重要的原則可以得到維護,他們是非本質的性質。 So far indeed are they from being organic alterations, that we ought to reckon them as implicitly involved in the very being of the Church.到目前為止,他們確實是被有機改建,我們應該看他們含蓄地參與非常正教會。 The formation of the hierarchy he regards as a change of this kind.形成的層次,他認為改變這種。 In fact, since he holds that Jesus Christ mistakenly anticipated the end of the world to be close at hand, and that His first disciples lived in expectation of His immediate return in glory, it follows that the hierarchy must have had some such origin as this.事實上,自從他認為耶穌基督誤預計世界的盡頭是近在咫尺,而且他的第一個弟子住在期望他立即返回的榮耀,因此,等級必須有一些這樣的原產地,因為這。 It is out of the question to attribute it to the Apostles.正是出於這一問題歸咎於它的使徒。 Men who believed the end of the world to be impending would not have seen the necessity of endowing a society with a form of government intended to endure.男子誰相信世界末日將臨將不會看到的必要性賦予的社會與形式的政府打算忍受。

These revolutionary views constitute part of the theory known as Modernism, whose philosophical presuppositions involve the complete denial of the miraculous.這些革命性的意見組成部分的理論被稱為現代主義,其涉及哲學前提完整的剝奪奇蹟。 The Church, according to this theory, is not a society established by eternal Divine interposition.教會,根據這一理論,是不是建立一個社會永恆的神的干預。 It is a society expressing the religious experience of the collectivity of consciences, and owing its origin to two natural tendencies in men, viz.這是一個社會表達的宗教經驗,集體的良心,由於其原產地為兩個自然傾向的男性,即。 the tendency of the individual believer to communicate his beliefs to others, and the tendency of those who hold the same beliefs to unite in a society.的傾向,個別信徒傳達自己的信念給他人,以及這些趨勢誰持有同樣的信念,以團結的社會。 The Modernist theories were analyzed and condemned as "the synthesis of all the heresies" in the Encyclical "Pascendi Dominici gregis" (18 September, 1907).現代理論進行了分析,並譴責為“綜合所有的異端邪說”的通諭“ Pascendi Dominici gregis ” ( 07年九月十八日) 。 The principal features of M. Loisy's theory of the Church had been already included among the condemned propositions contained in the Decree "Lamentabili" (3 July, 1907).主要特點先生盧瓦西理論的教會已經列入譴責主張載於法令“ Lamentabili ” ( ○七年7月3日) 。 The fifty-third of the propositions there singled out for reprobation is the following: "The original constitution of the Church is not immutable; but the Christian society like human society is subject to perpetual change."第五十三的主張,有挑出來進行譴責如下: “原來的憲法,教會不是一成不變的,但基督教社會,人類社會正受到永久改變。 ”

V. THE CHURCH, A DIVINE SOCIETY五,教堂,神聖的社會

The church, as has been seen, is a society formed of living men, not a mere mystical union of souls.教堂,因為已經看到的那樣,是一個社會形成男女的生活,不僅僅是一個神秘的工會的靈魂。 As such it resembles other societies.因此,它類似於其他社會。 Like them, it has its code of rules, its executive officers, its ceremonial observances.與他們一樣,有其代碼的規則,其高層管理人員,其禮儀紀念活動。 Yet it differs from them more than it resembles them: for it is a supernatural society. The Kingdom of God is supernatural alike in its origin, in the purpose at which it aims, and in the means at its disposal.然而,它不同於他們更類似於比他們:因為它是一個超自然的社會。王國上帝是超自然的都在其原籍國,在目的上它的目標是,在手段。 Other kingdoms are natural in their origin; and their scope is limited to the temporal welfare of their citizens. The supernatural character of the Church is seen, when its relation to the redemptive work of Christ is considered.其他王國的自然在其原產地; ,其範圍是有限的時空福利的公民。超自然性質的教會是看到,當其有關救贖的工作被認為是基督。 It is the society of those whom He has redeemed from the world.這是社會的人,他贖回的世界。 The world, by which term are signified men in so far as they have fallen from God, is ever set forth in Scripture as the kingdom of the Evil One.世界,其中長期是標誌著男子在迄今他們已經從上帝,是以往任何時候都規定聖經作為王國的邪惡之一。 It is the "world of darkness" (Ephesians 6:12), it is "seated in the wicked one" (1 John 6:19), it hates Christ (John 15:18).這是“世界的黑暗” (以弗所書6時12 ) ,它是“坐在惡人之一” (約翰一書6點19分) ,它討厭基督(約翰15:18 ) 。 To save the world, God the Son became man.為了拯救世界,上帝的兒子成為男人。 He offered Himself as a propitiation for the sins of the whole world (1 John 2:2).他表示願意把自己打扮成和解的罪孽整個世界(約翰一書2時02分) 。 God, Who desires that all men should be saved, has offered salvation to all; but the greater part of mankind rejects the proffered gift.上帝,誰的願望,所有男人應該保存,提供了拯救所有;但更大的一部分,人類拒絕proffered禮物。 The Church is the society of those who accept redemption, of those whom Christ "has chosen out of the world" (John 15:19).教會是社會的人誰接受贖回,這些人基督“已選擇了的世界” (約15:19 ) 。 Thus it is the Church alone which He "hath purchased with his own blood" (Acts 20:28).因此,教會他僅這“上帝購買自己的血” (使徒20:28 ) 。 Of the members of the Church, the Apostle can say that "God hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of the Son of his love" (Colossians 1:13).成員的教會,使徒可以說, “上帝交付我們的力量,黑暗,上帝翻譯我們進入王國的兒子他的愛情” (歌羅西書1:13 ) 。 St. Augustine terms the Church "mundus salvatus" -- the redeemed world -- and speaking of the enmity borne towards the Church by those who reject her, says: "The world of perdition hates the world of salvation" ("in Joan.", Tract. lxxx, vii, n. 2 in PL, XXXV, 1885).聖奧古斯丁教堂條款“ Mundus的salvatus ” -世界的贖回-和發言的敵意承擔對教會的人誰拒絕她說: “世界毀滅恨世界上的救贖”( “在瓊。 “道。 lxxx ,七,注2特等,三十五, 1885年) 。 To the Church Christ has given the means of grace He merited by His life and death.教會基督的手段給予的寬限期,他值得的他的生活和死亡。 She communicates them to her members; and those who are outside her fold she bids to enter that they too may participate in them.她傳達他們對她的成員和那些誰不屬於她,她的出價倍進入,他們也可以參與其中。 By these means of grace -- the light of revealed truth, the sacraments, the perpetual renewal of the Sacrifice of Calvary -- the Church carries on the work of sanctifying the elect.通過這些手段的寬限期-鑑於發現真理,聖禮,永遠延續犧牲髑髏-教會從事的工作sa nctifying的選舉。 Through their instrumentality each individual soul is perfected, and conformed to the likeness of the Son of God.通過其機關每一個人的靈魂是完善,符合肖像的上帝之子。

It is thus manifest that, when we regard the Church simply as the society of disciples, we are considering its external form only.因此,這是明顯的,當我們教會方面僅僅作為社會的弟子,我們正在考慮其外部形式只。 Its inward life is found in the indwelling of the Holy Ghost, the gifts of faith, hope, and charity, the grace communicated by the sacraments, and the other prerogatives by which the children of God differ from the children of the world.其向內的生活被發現在該留置的聖靈,禮品的信念,希望和慈善事業,在寬限期傳達的聖禮,和其他的特權,其中兒童的上帝不同於世界上的兒童。 This aspect of the Church is described by the Apostles in figurative language.這方面的教會所描述的使徒在比喻的語言。 They represent it as the Body of Christ, the Spouse of Christ, the Temple of God.他們代表它作為基督的奧體,配偶的基督,上帝的聖殿。 In order to understand its true nature some consideration of these comparisons is requisite.為了了解它的真正性質的一些考慮這些比較是必要的。 In the conception of the Church as a body governed and directed by Christ as the head, far more is contained than the familiar analogy between a ruler and his subjects on the one hand, and the head guiding and coordinating the activities of the several members on the other.在觀念的教會作為一個機構管轄,並指示由基督的頭,遠遠超過載熟悉的類比統治者和他的課題,一方面,和頭部指導和協調活動的幾個成員其他。 That analogy expresses indeed the variety of function, the unity of directive principle, and the Cooperation of the parts to a common end, which are found in a society; but it is insufficient to explain the terms in which St. Paul speaks of the union between Christ and His disciples.這的確比喻表示的各種功能,統一的指導原則和合作的部件一個共同的目的,是發現在一個社會,但它不足以解釋條款,其中聖保羅談到工會與基督和他的弟子。 Each of them is a member of Christ (1 Corinthians 6:15); together they form the body of Christ (Ephesians 4:16); as a corporate unity they are simply termed Christ (1 Corinthians 12:12).他們的每一個成員的基督(哥林多前書6:15 ) ;它們一起構成了基督的奧體(以弗所書四點16分) ;作為一個整體的團結,他們僅僅是稱為基督(哥林多前書12:12 ) 。

The intimacy of union here suggested is, however, justified, if we recall that the gifts and graces bestowed upon each disciple are graces merited by the Passion of Christ, and are destined to produce in him the likeness of Christ. The connection between Christ and himself is thus very different from the purely juridical relation binding the ruler of a natural society to the individuals belonging to it.在親密的工會在這裡建議然而,正當的,如果我們還記得,禮物和恩賜賦予每個弟子都是值得的青睞基督的受難史,是注定要在他出示的相似基督。之間的聯繫和基督因此,他非常不同的法律關係純粹是約束統治者的自然社會對個人屬於它。 The Apostle develops the relation between Christ and His members from various points of view.使徒發展之間的關係基督和他的成員來自不同的觀點。 As a human body is organized, each joint and muscle having its own function, yet each contributing to the union of the complex whole, so too the Christian society is a body "compacted and firmly joined together by that which every part supplieth" (Ephesians 4:16), while all the parts depend on Christ their head.由於人體組織,每個關節和肌肉有自己的功能,但每一個作出貢獻的工會複雜的整體,也是如此基督教社會是一個機構“ ,堅決壓縮和共同的那每一個部分supplieth ” (以弗所書4時16分) ,而所有部件依賴於基督的頭。 It is He Who has organized the body, assigning to each member his place in the Church, endowing each with the special graces necessary, and, above all, conferring on some of the members the graces in virtue of which they rule and guide the Church in His name (ibid., iv, 11). Strengthened by these graces, the mystical body, like a physical body, grows and increases.這是他舉辦了身體,分配給每一個成員他在教會,賦予每一個特別青睞有必要的,而且最重要的是,賦予一些成員的青睞在憑藉這一規則,並指導教會在他的名字(同上,四, 11 ) 。加固這些青睞,神秘的機構,如身體,成長和提高。 This growth is twofold.這種增長是雙重的。 It takes place in the individual, inasmuch as each Christian gradually grows into the "perfect man", into the image of Christ (Ephesians 4:13, 15; Romans 8:29).它發生在個人,因為每一個基督徒逐漸成長為“完美的人” ,變成形象的基督(以弗所書4點13 , 15 ;羅馬8時29分) 。 But there is also a growth in the whole body. As time goes on, the Church is to increase and multiply till it fills the earth. So intimate is the union between Christ and His members, that the Apostle speaks of the Church as the "fullness" (pleroma) of Christ (Ephesians 1:23; 4:13), as though apart from His members something were lacking to the head.但也存在一個增長的整個身體。隨著時間的推移,教會是成倍增加,直到它填補了地球。那麼親密是工會之間的基督和他的成員,該講使徒的教會的“豐滿“ ( pleroma )基督(以弗所書1點23分; 4點13分) ,好像除了他的一些成員缺乏的頭部。 He even speaks of it as Christ: "As all the members of the body whereas they are many, yet are one body, so also is Christ" (1 Corinthians 12:12).他甚至還談到了它作為基督: “正如所有成員的身體,而他們有很多,但有一具屍體,所以也是基督” (哥林多前書12:12 ) 。 And to establish the reality of this union he refers it to the efficacious instrumentality of the Holy Eucharist: "We being many, are one bread, one body: for we all partake of that one bread" (1 Corinthians 10:17 -- Greek text).並建立的現實,他這個工會是指它的有效工具的聖體聖事: “我們被許多人來說,是一個麵包,一具屍體:對我們大家都參與的,一個麵包” (哥林多前書10點17分-希臘文本) 。

The description of the Church as God's temple, in which the disciples are "living stones" (1 Peter 2:5), is scarcely less frequent in the Apostolic writings than is the metaphor of the body.說明教會作為神的廟宇,其中的弟子是“活石頭” (彼得前書2:5 ) ,是幾乎沒有那麼頻繁的使徒著作比隱喻的身體。 "You are the temple of the living God" (2 Corinthians 6:16), writes St. Paul to the Corinthians, and he reminds the Ephesians that they are "built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone; in whom all the building being framed together, groweth up into a holy temple in the Lord" (Ephesians 2:20 sq.). “你是廟裡的生活上帝” (哥林多後書6時16分) ,聖保祿寫道的科林蒂安,他提醒以弗所書即他們是“基礎的基礎,使徒和先知,耶穌基督本人是首席基石;在其中所有的建設正在制定在一起, groweth成一個神聖的廟宇上帝“ (以弗所書二點20分平方米) 。 With a slight change in the metaphor, the same Apostle in another passage (1 Corinthians 3:11) compares Christ to the foundation, and himself and other Apostolic labourers to the builders who raise the temple upon it.略有變化的比喻,同樣的使徒在另一通道(哥林多前書三時十一分)比較基督的基礎上,和他本人和其他使徒勞動者的建設者誰廟提高它。 It is noticeable that the word translated "temple" is naos, a term which signifies properly the inner sanctuary.值得注意的是,這個詞翻譯“廟”是納奧斯,任期,這反映出正確的內在庇護所。 The Apostle, when he employs this word, is clearly comparing the Christian Church to that Holy of Holies where God manifested His visible presence in the Shekinah.使徒,當他採用這個詞,顯然是比較基督教這一神聖的地方神至聖表現明顯的存在,他在Shekinah 。 The metaphor of the temple is well adapted to enforce two lessons.比喻的廟宇很好地適應執行兩個教訓。 On several occasions the Apostle employs it to impress on his readers the sanctity of the Church in which they have been incorporated.幾次使徒採用它打動他的讀者神聖的教會,他們在已被納入。 "If any shall violate the temple of God", he says, speaking of those who corrupt the Church by false doctrine, "him shall God destroy" (1 Corinthians 3:17). “如果有任何侵犯應廟神” ,他說,這些發言誰教會腐敗的虛假學說, “他不得破壞神” (哥林多前書3點17 ) 。 And he employs the same motive to dissuade disciples from forming matrimonial alliance with Unbelievers: "What agreement hath the temple of God with idols? For you are the temple of the living God" (2 Corinthians 6:16).他採用了相同的動機,以阻止弟子形成婚姻同盟信教: “什麼協議上帝廟上帝與偶像?對於您是寺廟的生活上帝” (哥林多後書6:16 ) 。 It further illustrates in the clearest way the truth that to each member of the Church God has assigned his own place, enabling him by his work there to cooperate towards the great common end, the glory of God.這進一步說明在最明顯的方式真理,即每個成員的教會上帝賦予自己的位置,使他有他的工作合作,實現共同的偉大目標,榮耀上帝。

The third parallel represents the Church as the bride of Christ.第三平行代表教會作為基督的新娘。 Here there is much more than a metaphor.在這裡,不僅僅是一個比喻。 The Apostle says that the union between Christ and His Church is the archetype of which human marriage is an earthly representation.使徒說,工會之間的基督和他的教會的原型是人類婚姻是人間的代表性。 Thus he bids wives be subject to their husbands, as the Church is subject to Christ (Ephesians 5:22 sq.).因此,他的出價妻子受丈夫的,因為教會是受基督(以弗所書5點22平方米) 。 Yet he points out on the other hand that the relation of husband to wife is not that of a master to his servant, but one involving the tenderest and most self-sacrificing love.然而,他指出,另一方面的關係丈夫的妻子而不是一個船長他的僕人,而是一個涉及tenderest和最自我犧牲的愛。 He bids husbands love their wives, "as Christ also loved the Church, and delivered himself up for it" (ibid., v, 25).他的出價丈夫愛自己的妻子, “作為基督也愛教會,並發表自己為它” (同上,第五,第25段) 。 Man and wife are one flesh; and in this the husband has a powerful motive for love towards the wife, since "no man ever hated his own flesh".丈夫和妻子是一個肉;並在此的丈夫有一個強大動力對愛情的妻子,因為“任何人都痛恨自己的肉” 。 This physical union is but the antitype of that mysterious bond in virtue of which the Church is so truly one with Christ, that "we are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones. 'For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and they shall be two in one flesh"' (Ephesians 5:30 sq.; Genesis 2:24).這實際是工會,但antitype的神秘鍵憑藉這一教會是一個真正的基督,說: “我們的成員,他的身體,他的肉體,和他的骨頭。出於這個原因,人要離開他的父親和母親,並應忠於他的妻子,並應在一兩肉“ (以弗所書5:30平方米;成因2時24分) 。 In these words the Apostle indicates the mysterious parallelism between the union of the first Adam with the spouse formed from his body, and the union of the second Adam with the Church.在這些話表明使徒神秘的並行關係,工會的第一亞當與配偶形成他的身體,以及工會第二亞當與教會。 She is "bone of his bones, and flesh of his flesh", even as Eve was in regard to our first father.她是“骨他的骨頭,肉和他的肉” ,即使是在除夕關於我們的第一個父親。 And those only belong to the family of the second Adam, who are her children, "born again of water and of the Holy Ghost".和那些只屬於家庭的第二個亞當,誰是她的孩子們, “重生的水和聖靈” 。 Occasionally the metaphor assumes a slightly different form.偶爾的比喻假設略有不同的形式。 In Apoc., xix, 7, the marriage of the Lamb to his spouse the Church does not take place till the last day in the hour of the Church's final triumph.在載脂蛋白C 。 , 19 , 7 ,婚姻的羔羊,以他的配偶,教會不會發生,直到最後一天中的小時教會的最後勝利。 Thus too St. Paul, writing to the Corinthians (2 Corinthians 11:2), compares himself to "the friend of the bridegroom", who played so important a part in the Hebrew marriage ceremony (cf. John 3:29).因此,過於聖保祿,書面向科林蒂安(哥林多後書11時02分) ,比較自己的“朋友的新郎” ,誰發揮如此重要的一部分在希伯來文婚禮(參見約翰3點29分) 。 He has, he says, espoused the Corinthian community to Christ, and he holds himself responsible to present it spotless to the bridegroom. Through the medium of these metaphors the Apostles set forth the inward nature of the Church.他,他說,擁護的科林斯社會基督,他認為自己負責,目前它一塵不染的新郎。通過這些媒介的隱喻使徒規定抵港性質的教會。 Their expressions leave no doubt that in them they always refer to the actually existing Church founded by Christ on earth -- the society of Christ's disciples.他們的表情離開毫無疑問,他們總是指的是實際存在的教會創辦的基督在地球上-社會基督的門徒。 Hence it is instructive to observe that Protestant divines find it necessary to distinguish between an actual and an ideal Church, and to assert that the teaching of the Apostles regarding the Spouse, the Temple, and the Body refers to the ideal Church alone (cf. Gayford in Hastings, "Dict. of the Bible", sv Church).因此,啟發指出,新教divines認為有必要區分的實際和理想的教會,並斷言,教學方面的使徒的配偶,廟,以及身體指的是理想的教會僅(參見蓋福德在黑斯廷斯, “快譯通。聖經” ,希堂) 。

VI.六。 THE NECESSARY MEANS OF SALVATION必要的手段拯救

In the preceding examination of the Scriptural doctrine regarding the Church, it has been seen how clearly it is laid down that only by entering the Church can we participate in the redemption wrought for us by Christ.在前面的審查有關聖經教義的教會,已經清楚地看到,這是規定,只有進入教堂,我們才能參加贖回為我們帶來了基督。 Incorporation with the Church can alone unite us to the family of the second Adam, and alone can engraft us into the true Vine.團與教會都不可能獨自我們團結起來,以家庭的第二個亞當,並就可以慢慢我們進入真正的藤蔓。 Moreover, it is to the Church that Christ has committed those means of grace through which the gifts He earned for men are communicated to them.此外,教會是基督已承諾這些手段的寬限期通過這些禮物,他獲得男子是傳達給他們。 The Church alone dispenses the sacraments.僅教會的聖禮免去。 It alone makes known the light of revealed truth.它使已知僅根據發現的真理。 Outside the Church these gifts cannot be obtained.教堂內外的這些禮物不能獲得。 From all this there is but one conclusion: Union with the Church is not merely one out of various means by which salvation may be obtained: it is the only means.從所有這一切只有一個結論:歐盟與教會不僅是一個出各種手段,拯救可:它是唯一的手段。

This doctrine of the absolute necessity of union with the Church was taught in explicit terms by Christ.這個理論是絕對必要的工會與教會是教導明確的基督。 Baptism, the act of incorporation among her members, He affirmed to be essential to salvation.洗禮,行為納入她的成員,他肯定是必不可少的拯救。 "He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved: he that believeth not shall be condemned" (Mark 16:16). “他的信,並受洗應保存:他的信沒有應予以譴責” (馬克16:16 ) 。 Any disciple who shall throw off obedience to the Church is to be reckoned as one of the heathen: he has no part in the Kingdom of God (Matthew 18:17).任何弟子誰應擺脫服從教會是不可忽視作為一個異教徒:他沒有參加上帝(馬太18:17 ) 。 St. Paul is equally explicit.聖保祿同樣是明確的。 "A man that is a heretic", he writes to Titus, "after the first and second admonition avoid, knowing that he that is such a one is . . . condemned by his own judgment" (Tit., iii, 10 sq.). “一名男子,這是邪教” ,他寫信給泰特斯“後第一次和第二次告誡避免,知道他是這樣一個人。 。 。譴責了自己的判斷” ( Tit. ,三, 10平方米) 。 The doctrine is summed up in the phrase, Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus.理論是在總結了一句,特Ecclesiam無salus 。 This saying has been the occasion of so many objections that some consideration of its meaning seems desirable.這句話已之際,如此眾多的反對,一些審議其含義似乎可取的。 It certainly does not mean that none can be saved except those who are in visible communion with the Church.這當然並不意味著沒有可以保存除外誰在可見的共融的教會。 The Catholic Church has ever taught that nothing else is needed to obtain justification than an act of perfect charity and of contrition.天主教會歷來告訴我們,沒有別的需要獲得比理由的行為完美的慈善機構和懺悔。 Whoever, under the impulse of actual grace, elicits these acts receives immediately the gift of sanctifying grace, and is numbered among the children of God.誰下,衝動的實際寬限期,引起這些行為立即收到的禮物sanctifying寬限期,並編號之間的兒童的上帝。 Should he die in these dispositions, he will assuredly attain heaven.如果他死在這些處分,他將肯定達到天堂。 It is true such acts could not possibly be elicited by one who was aware that God has commanded all to join the Church, and who nevertheless should willfully remain outside her fold.這是真正的這種行為不可能得到一個誰知道,上帝已命令所有加入該教會,以及誰應該隨意但仍然在她倍。 For love of God carries with it the practical desire to fulfill His commandments.為了上帝的愛帶有實際的願望實現他的誡命。 But of those who die without visible communion with the Church, not all are guilty of willful disobedience to God's commands.但是,這些誰死而不可見的共融的教會,並非所有犯有故意不服從上帝的命令。 Many are kept from the Church by Ignorance.許多人不斷從教會的無知。 Such may be the case of numbers among those who have been brought up in heresy.這種可能的情況下這些數字誰已經提出了在異端。 To others the external means of grace may be unattainable.對他人的外部手段的寬限期可能無法實現。 Thus an excommunicated person may have no opportunity of seeking reconciliation at the last, and yet may repair his faults by inward acts of contrition and charity.因此,一個逐出教會的人可能沒有機會尋求和解在最後,但他可能會修復斷裂的外來行為的懺悔和慈善事業。

It should be observed that those who are thus saved are not entirely outside the pale of the Church.應當指出,這些誰,因此保存不完全以外的蒼白的教會。 The will to fulfill all God's commandments is, and must be, present in all of them.該會履行所有上帝的誡命是而且必須是,目前在所有這些。 Such a wish implicitly includes the desire for incorporation with the visible Church: for this, though they know it not, has been commanded by God.這種含蓄地希望包括的願望納入有形與教會:對於這一點,儘管他們知道這不,一直指揮的上帝。 They thus belong to the Church by desire (voto).因此,他們屬於教會的願望(博托) 。

Moreover, there is a true sense in which they may be said to be saved through the Church.此外,有一個真正意義上它們可以說是拯救教會。 In the order of Divine Providence, salvation is given to man in the Church: membership in the Church Triumphant is given through membership in the Church Militant.在秩序的神聖普羅維登斯,救恩是考慮到人在教會:加入教會的勝利是通過加入教會好戰。 Sanctifying grace, the title to salvation, is peculiarly the grace of those who are united to Christ in the Church: it is the birthright of the children of God. Sanctifying寬限期,標題為拯救,是獨有的寬限期誰的人團結在基督的教會:它是與生俱來的兒童的上帝。 The primary purpose of those actual graces which God bestows upon those outside the Church is to draw them within the fold.其主要目的是實際青睞那些上帝賦予以外的教會是利用它們在倍。 Thus, even in the case in which God Saves men apart from the Church, He does so through the Church's graces.因此,即使在本案中上帝保存男子除了教會,他是通過教會的青睞。 They are joined to the Church in spiritual communion, though not in visible and external communion.他們是加入教會共融的精神,但在可見的和外部的共融。 In the expression of theologians, they belong to the soul of the Church, though not to its body.表達的神學家,他們屬於靈魂的教堂,但不是它的機構。 Yet the possibility of salvation apart from visible communion with the Church must not blind us to the loss suffered by those who are thus situated.然而,得救的可能性除了可見的共融與教會絕不能盲目我們遭受的損失是誰,因此位於。 They are cut off from the sacraments God has given as the support of the soul.他們切斷從聖禮上帝給了作為支持的靈魂。 In the ordinary channels of grace, which are ever open to the faithful Catholic, they cannot participate.在正常渠道的寬限期,這是以往任何時候都開放的忠實信奉天主教,他們不能參加。 Countless means of sanctification which the Church offers are denied to them.無數的手段,神聖的教堂被剝奪提供給他們。 It is often urged that this is a stern and narrow doctrine. The reply to this objection is that the doctrine is stern, but only in the sense in which sternness is inseparable from love.人們常常呼籲,這是一個嚴峻的和狹隘的理論。答复這一反對意見是,理論是嚴厲,但只是在意義上的嚴厲是分不開的愛。 It is the same sternness which we find in Christ's words, when he said: "If you believe not that I am he, you shall die in your sin" (John 8:24).這是相同的嚴厲我們認為在基督的話,他說: “如果你不相信我,他,你就死在你的罪孽” (約翰8時24分) 。 The Church is animated with the spirit of Christ; she is filled with the same love for souls, the same desire for their salvation.教會是動畫的精神,基督,她是充滿相同的愛的靈魂,同樣的願望,他們得救。 Since, then, she knows that the way of salvation is through union with her, that in her and in her alone are stored the benefits of the Passion, she must needs be uncompromising and even stern in the assertion of her claims. To fail here would be to fail in the duty entrusted to her by her Lord.自從,然後,她知道的方式是通過拯救工會與她,在她和她單獨存放的好處激情,她必須毫不妥協的需求,甚至在船尾的斷言她的要求。這裡要失敗將失敗的責任託付給她她的上帝。 Even where the message is unwelcome, she must deliver it. It is instructive to observe that this doctrine has been proclaimed at every period of the Church's history.即使郵件是不受歡迎的,她必須兌現。這是有啟發性地看到,這一理論已被宣布在每個時期的教會的歷史。 It is no accretion of a later age.這是沒有堆積物的年齡。 The earliest successors of the Apostles speak as plainly as the medieval theologians, and the medieval theologians are not more emphatic than those of today.最早的繼任者的身份發言使徒顯然是中世紀的神學家,和中世紀的神學家是不是更有力的比今天。 From the first century to the twentieth there is absolute unanimity.從第一世紀至二十有絕對一致。 St. Ignatius of Antioch writes: "Be not deceived, my brethren. If any man followeth one that maketh schism, he doth not inherit the kingdom of God. If any one walketh in strange doctrine, he hath no fellowship with the Passion" (ad Philad., n. 3).聖伊格內修安提阿的寫道: “不要欺騙,我的兄弟。如果任何人followeth一個maketh分裂,他不會繼承doth王國的上帝。如果任何一個walketh奇怪的理論,他沒有獎學金上帝與激情” (廣告Philad 。 ,注3 ) 。 Origen says: "Let no man deceive himself. Outside this house, ie outside the Church, none is saved" (Hom. in Jos., iii, n. 5 in PG, XII, 841).奧利說: “讓任何人欺騙自己。外這所房子,即教會以外,沒有保存” ( Hom.在聖何塞,三,聯合國5個指引,十二, 841 ) 。 St. Cyprian speaks to the same effect: "He cannot have God for his father, who has not the Church for his mother" (De Unit., c. vi).聖塞浦路斯談到相同的效果: “他不能有上帝,他的父親,誰沒有教會他的母親” (德股。角六) 。 The words of the Fourth Ecumenical Council of Lateran (1215) define the doctrine thus in its decree against the Albigenses: "Una est fidelium universalis Ecclesia, extra quam nullus omnino salvatur" (Denzinger, n. 357); and Pius IX employed almost identical language in his Encyclical to the bishops of Italy (10 August, 1863): "Notissimum est catholicum dogma neminem scilicet extra catholicam ecclesiam posse salvari" (Denzinger, n. 1529).的話第四次大公會議的拉特蘭( 1215 )界定的理論從而在其法令對Albigenses : “烏納東方fidelium泛教會,額外的華富nullus omnino salvatur ” ( Denzinger ,注357 ) ;和庇護九僱用幾乎一模一樣語言在他的通諭的主教,意大利( 1863年8月10號) : “ Notissimum東方catholicum教條neminem換句話說額外catholicam ecclesiam波塞salvari ” ( Denzinger ,聯合國1529年) 。

VII.七。 VISIBILITY OF THE CHURCH可見教堂

In asserting that the Church of Christ is visible, we signify, first, that as a society it will at all times be conspicuous and public, and second, that it will ever be recognizable among other bodies as the Church of Christ.在聲稱基督教會是可見的,我們顯示,第一,作為一個社會將在任何時候都必須突出和公眾,第二,它可能永遠也無法辨認的其他機構之間的基督教會。 These two aspects of visibility are termed respectively "material" and "formal" visibility by Catholic theologians.這兩個方面的能見度分別被稱為“材料”和“正式”的能見度由天主教神學。 The material visibility of the Church involves no more than that it must ever be a public, not a private profession; a society manifest to the world, not a body whose members are bound by some secret tie.該材料的知名度,教會不涉及多於以往任何時候都必須是一個公共,而不是一個私人專業;體現一個社會的世界,而不是一個機構,其成員受某些秘密的領帶。 Formal visibility is more than this.正式能見度超過這一點。 It implies that in all ages the true Church of Christ will be easily recognizable for that which it is, viz.這意味著,在建立不分年齡人人共享的真正基督教會將容易識別為它,即。 as the Divine society of the Son of God, the means of salvation offered by God to men; that it possesses certain attributes which so evidently postulate a Divine origin that all who see it must know it comes from God.作為社會的神聖上帝的兒子,手段拯救上帝所提供的男性;它擁有某些屬性如此明顯的假設神聖的原產地,所有誰見它必須知道它來自上帝。 This must, of course, be understood with some necessary qualifications.這當然必須理解一些必要的資格。 The power to recognize the Church for what it is presupposes certain moral dispositions.電力認識到教會的是什麼先決條件一定的道德處分。 Where there is a rooted unwillingness to follow God's will, there may be spiritual blindness to the claims of the Church.凡有紮根不願意遵循天意,可能有失明的精神索賠的教會。 Invincible prejudice or inherited assumptions may produce the same result.無敵偏見或繼承的假設可能會產生同樣的結果。 But in such cases the incapacity to see is due, not to the want of visibility in the Church, but to the blindness of the individual.但是,在這種情況下,喪失工作能力的看到的是因,而不是想要的能見度在教會,但對失明的個人。 The case bears an almost exact analogy to the evidence possessed by the proofs for the existence of God.熊的情況下幾乎完全相似的證據所擁有的證據存在的上帝。 The proofs in themselves are evident: but they may fail to penetrate a mind obscured by prejudice or ill will.在證明自己是顯而易見的:但他們可能無法穿透的心態所掩蓋偏見或惡意。 From the time of the Reformation, Protestant writers either denied the visibility of the Church, or so explained it as to rob it of most of its meaning.從時間的改革,新教作家要么否認的知名度教會,或解釋它作為搶劫它大部分的意義。 After briefly indicating the grounds of the Catholic doctrine, some views prevalent on this subject among Protestant authorities will be noticed.在簡要說明理由的天主教教義,一些流行的看法關於這個問題的新教當局將發現。

It is unnecessary to say more in regard to the material visibility of the Church than has been said in sections III and IV of this article.這是不必要說更多的關於物質的知名度比教會已經表示,在第三節和第四節的文章。 It has been shown there that Christ established His church as an organized society under accredited leaders, and that He commanded its rulers and those who should succeed them to summon all men to secure their eternal salvation by entry into it.它已被證明有基督建立他的教會作為一個有組織的社會認可的領導下,而且他指揮的統治者和那些誰應該接替他們拿出所有的人,以確保其永恆的拯救了進入它。 It is manifest that there is no question here of a secret union of believers: the Church is a worldwide corporation, whose existence is to be forced upon the notice of all, willing or unwilling.這表明,毫無疑問這裡的一個秘密工會的信徒:教會是一個全球性公司,它的存在是強加給所有的通知,願意或不願意。 Formal visibility is secured by those attributes which are usually termed the "notes" of the Church -- her Unity, Sanctity, Catholicity, and Apostolicity (see below).正式能見度擔保的這些屬性通常稱為“注意到”的教會-她的統一,神聖性,普遍性,並A postolicity(見下文) 。 The proof may be illustrated in the case of the first of these.證據表明可能的情況下首次這些。 The unity of the Church stands out as a fact altogether unparalleled in human history.教會合一的立場是一個無與倫比的事實完全在人類歷史。 Her members all over the world are united by the profession of a common faith, by participation in a common worship, and by obedience to a common authority.她的成員在世界各地統一的行業一個共同的信念,通過參與共同崇拜,並服從一個共同的權力。 Differences of class, of nationality, and of race, which seem as though they must be fatal to any form of union, cannot sever this bond.不同的階級,國籍,種族,這似乎好像他們必須是致命的任何形式的聯盟,不能割斷這種聯繫。 It links in one the civilized and the uncivilized, the philosopher and the peasant, the rich and the poor.它連結在一個文明與不文明,哲學家和農民,富國和窮國。 One and all hold the same belief, join in the same religious ceremonies, and acknowledge in the successor of Peter the same supreme ruler.一個和所有持有同樣的信念,加入相同的宗教儀式,並承認在繼承彼得相同的最高統治者。 Nothing but a supernatural power can explain this.只是一種超自然的力量可以解釋這一點。 It is a proof manifest to all minds, even to the simple and the unlettered, that the Church is a Divine society.這是一個明顯的證據向所有頭腦,甚至簡單,胸無點墨,該教會是一個神聖的社會。 Without this formal visibility, the purpose for which the Church was founded would be frustrated. Christ established it to be the means of salvation for all mankind.如果沒有這種正式的知名度,其目的為教會成立將落空。基督設立它的手段拯救全人類。 For this end it is essential that its claims should be authenticated in a manner evident to all; in other words, it must be visible, not merely as other public societies are visible, but as being the society of the Son of God.為此目的,至關重要的是應其要求進行驗證的方式有目共睹的,換句話說,它必須是可見的,而不是僅僅作為其他公共社會可見,但作為社會的上帝之子。

The views taken by Protestants as to the visibility of the Church are various. The rationalist critics naturally reject the whole conception.意見所採取的以新教徒的知名度教會的各種。批評的理性自然拒絕整個概念。 To them the religion preached by Jesus Christ was something purely internal.他們的宗教所宣揚的耶穌基督是純粹的內部的東西。 When the Church as an institution came to be regarded as an indispensable factor in religion, it was a corruption of the primitive message.當教會作為一個機構來被視為一個不可或缺的因素宗教,它是一個反腐敗的原始信息。 (See Harnack, What is Christianity, p.213.) Passages which deal with the Church in her corporate unity are referred by writers of this school to an ideal invisible Church, a mystical communion of souls. (見哈納克,什麼是基督教, p.213 。 )通道處理教會在她的公司被稱為團結作家的這所學校,以一個理想的無形的教會,神秘的共融的靈魂。 Such an interpretation does violence to the sense of the passages. Moreover, no explanation possessing any semblance of probability has yet been given to account for the genesis among the disciples of this remarkable and altogether novel conception of an invisible Church.這樣的解釋並不暴力意義上的通道。此外,沒有任何解釋的外貌有任何的概率尚未考慮到的成因之間的弟子這一顯著的和完全新的概念,一種無形的教會。 It may reasonably be demanded of a professedly critical school that this phenomenon should be explained.它可合理要求的表面臨界學校,這一現象應予以解釋。 Harnack holds that it took the place of Jewish racial unity.哈納克認為,它取代了猶太種族的團結。 But it does not appear why Gentile converts should have felt the need of replacing a feature so entirely proper to the Hebrew religion.但它似乎沒有為什麼詹蒂萊轉換應該認為有必要更換的功能,以便完全恰當的希伯來宗教。

The doctrine of the older Protestant writers is that there are two Churches, a visible and an invisible.該學說的老年人新教作家的是,有兩個教會,一個有形及無形的。 This is the view of such standard Anglican divines as Barrow, Field, and Jeremy Taylor (see eg Barrow, Unity of Church, Works, 1830, VII, 628).這是鑑於這樣的標準作為英國聖公會divines巴羅場,和傑里泰勒(見如巴羅,統一教會,工程, 1830年,第七章, 628 ) 。 Those who thus explain visibility urge that the essential and vital element of membership in Christ lies in an inner union with Him; that this is necessarily invisible, and those who possess it constitute an invisible Church. Those who are united to Him externally alone have, they maintain, no part in His grace.因此,這些解釋誰能見度敦促必不可少的重要組成部分成員在基督在於內在工會與他,這一定是看不見的,和那些誰擁有它構成一種無形的教會。那些誰團結一致他僅外部,他們堅持,沒有參加他的恩典。 Thus, when He promised to His Church the gift of indefectibility, declaring that the gates of hell should never prevail against it, the promise must be understood of the invisible, not of the visible Church.因此,當他答應給他的教會的禮物indefectibility ,宣布了地獄之門絕不應該戰勝它,承諾必須理解的無形的,而不是有形教會。 In regard to this theory, which is still tolerably prevalent, it is to be said that Christ's promises were made to the Church as a corporate body, as constituting a society. As thus understood, they were made to the visible Church, not to an invisible and unknown body.關於這個理論,這仍是相當普遍的,應該說,基督的許諾了教會作為一個整體的機構,構成一個社會。正如從而理解,他們提出了有形教會,而不是無形的和未知的機構。 Indeed for this distinction between a visible and an invisible Church there is no Scriptural warrant.事實上這之間的區別明顯,一種無形的教會沒有聖經令。 Even though many of her children prove unfaithful, yet all that Christ said in regard to the Church is realized in her as a corporate body.即使許多孩子證明不忠,但所有基督說,關於教會是實現她作為一個法人團體。 Nor does the unfaithfulness of these professing Catholics cut them off altogether from membership in Christ.也沒有異心這些信奉天主教會削減它們趕走完全由會員國在基督。 They are His in virtue of their baptism.他們是他在憑藉其洗禮。 The character then received still stamps them as His.然後,其性質仍然收到郵票作為他的。 Though dry and withered branches they are not altogether broken off from the true Vine (Bellarmine, Dc Ecciesiâ, III, ix, 13).雖然乾旱和枯樹枝他們沒有完全斷絕從真正的葡萄(貝拉明特區Ecciesiâ ,三,九,十三) 。 The Anglican High Church writers explicitly teach the visibility of the Church.英國聖公會高教會作家明確教的知名度教會。 They restrict themselves, however, to the consideration of material visibility (cf. Palmer, Treatise on the Church, Part I, C. iii).他們限制自己,但是,考慮材料的能見度(參見帕爾默,傷寒論教會,第一部分,角三) 。

The doctrine of the visibility in no way excludes from the Church those who have already attained to bliss.該學說的知名度絕不排除教會這些誰已經達到,以幸福。 These are united with the members of the Church Militant in one communion of saints.這些都是聯合國的成員,教會在一個好戰的共融的聖人。 They watch her struggles; their prayers are offered on her behalf.他們看她的鬥爭;他們提供祈禱代表她。 Similarly, those who are still in the cleansing fires of purgatory belong to the Church.同樣,那些誰仍然在清洗火煉獄屬於教會。 There are not, as has been said, two Churches; there is but one Church, and of it all the souls of the just, whether in heaven, on earth, or in purgatory, are members (Catech. Rom., I, x, 6).有沒有,因為一直說,兩個教會;只有一個教會,以及它所有的靈魂的正義,無論是在天堂,在地球上,或在煉獄的成員( Catech.光盤。 ,我則6 ) 。 But it is to the Church only in so far as militant here below -- to the Church among men -- that the property of visibility belongs.但是,教會只有在迄今為止的武裝分子在這裡下文-教會之間的男子-該財產屬於可見。

VIII.八。 THE PRINCIPLE OF AUTHORITY原則的權威

Whatever authority is exercised in the Church, is exercised in virtue of the commission of Christ.無論行使權力的教會,行使的是憑藉該委員會的基督。 He is the one Prophet, Who has given to the world the revelation of truth, and by His spirit preserves in the Church the faith once delivered to the saints.他是一個先知,是誰給了向世界揭露真相,並保留他的精神在教會的信仰一旦交付給聖人。 He is the one Priest, ever pleading on behalf of the Church the sacrifice of Calvary.他是一個牧師,不斷懇求代表教會犧牲各各他。 And He is the one King -- the chief Shepherd (1 Peter 5:4) -- Who rules and guides, through His Providence, His Church's course.他是一個國王-首席謝潑德(彼得前書5點0 4) -誰的規則和指南,通過他的普羅維登斯,他的教會的課程。 Yet He wills to exercise His power through earthly representatives.然而,他的意志行使權力,通過人間的代表。 He chose the Twelve, and charged them in His name to teach the nations (Matthew 28:19), to offer sacrifice (Luke 22:19), to govern His flock (Matthew 18:18; John 21:17).他選擇了12個,並指控他們在他的名字教的國家(馬太28:19 ) ,向犧牲(路22:19 ) ,管理他的羊群(馬太18:18 ;約翰21:17 ) 。 They, as seen above, used the authority committed to them while they lived; and before their death, they took measures for the perpetuation of this principle of government in the Church.他們,如上所述,利用權力向他們承諾,而他們生活和死亡之前,他們採取的措施,以維持這一原則的政府在教會。 From that day to this, the hierarchy thus established has claimed and has exercised this threefold office.從這一天到這一點,因此,設立等級要求,並已行使這一三重辦公室。 Thus the prophecies of the Old Testament have been fulfilled which foretold that to those who should be appointed to rule the Messianic kingdom it should be granted to participate in the Messias' office of prophet, priest, and king.因此,預言舊約已經履行的預言,這些誰應該被任命為規則的彌賽亞王國應當准予參加弭賽亞辦公室的先知,祭司,和國王。 (See II above.) (見上文第二節。 )

The authority established in the Church holds its commission from above, not from below.該機構成立於教會舉行上述佣金,而不是從下面。 The pope and the bishops exercise their power as the successors of the men who were chosen by Christ in person.教皇和主教們行使他們的權力作為接班人的男子是誰選擇的基督的人。 They are not, as the Presbyterian theory of Church government teaches, the delegates of the flock; their warrant is received from the Shepherd, not from the sheep.他們不會,因為長老教會理論講授政府,代表的一群,他們的手令收到的牧人,而不是從羊。 The view that ecclesiastical authority is ministerial only, and derived by delegation from the faithful, was expressly condemned by Pius VI (1794) in his Constitution "Auctorem Fidei" (qv); and on the renovation of the error by certain recent Modernist writers, Pius X reiterated the condemnation in the Encyclical on the errors of the Modernists.認為教會的權力只部長級會議,並導出了代表團的教友,明確譴責庇護六( 1794 )在其憲法“ Auctorem信” ( qv ) ;和翻新的某些錯誤最近的現代派作家,皮烏斯X重申譴責在通諭上的錯誤現代派。 In this sense the government of the Church is not democratic.在這個意義上,政府的教會不是民主。 This indeed is involved in the very nature of the Church as a supernatural society, leading men to a supernatural end.這的確是參與本身的性質教會作為一個超自然的社會,導致男子超自然的結束。 No man is capable of wielding authority for such a purpose, unless power is communicated to him from a Divine source.沒有人能夠行使的權力這樣一個目的,除非力量傳達給他從一個神聖的來源。 The case is altogether different where civil society is concerned.此案是完全不同的地方民間社會的關注。 There the end is not supernatural: it is the temporal well-being of the citizens.年底有沒有超自然的:它是顳福祉的公民。 It cannot then be said that a special endowment is required to render any class of men capable of filling the place of rulers and of guides.它不能那麼說,一個特別需要天賦,使任何一類的男人能填補的地方統治者和指南。 Hence the Church approves equally all forms of civil government which are consonant with the principle of justice. The power exercised by the Church through sacrifice and sacrament (potestas ordinis) lies outside the present subject.因此,同樣會核准一切形式的文官政府是符合公正原則。權力行使的教會通過犧牲和聖( potestas ordinis )不在本主題。 It is proposed briefly to consider here the nature of the Church's authority in her office (1) of teaching (potestas magisterii) and (2) of government (potestas jurisdictionis).建議簡單地認為這裡的性質,教會的權威在她的辦公室( 1 )教學( potestas magisterii )和( 2 )政府( potestas jurisdictionis ) 。

(1) Infallibility ( 1 )犯錯誤

As the Divinely appointed teacher of revealed truth, the Church is infallible. This gift of inerrancy is guaranteed to it by the words of Christ, in which He promised that His Spirit would abide with it forever to guide it unto all truth (John 14:16; 16:13).作為神任命的老師發現真理,教會是萬無一失的。這個禮物inerrancy保證它的基督的話,他在信中承諾,他的精神將遵守它永遠指導你們所有的真理(約翰14 : 16 ; 16:13 ) 。 It is implied also in other passages of Scripture, and asserted by the unanimous testimony of the Fathers.這也意味著在其他段落經文,並斷言的證詞一致的父親。 The scope of this infallibility is to preserve the deposit of faith revealed to man by Christ and His Apostles (see INFALLIBILITY.) The Church teaches expressly that it is the guardian only of the revelation, that it can teach nothing which it has not received.在此範圍內絕對是維護存款的信念的人透露,由基督和他的使徒(見犯錯誤。 )教會教導明確,這是唯一的監護人的啟示,這沒有什麼可以教它沒有收到。 The Vatican Council declares: "The Holy Ghost was not promised to the successors of Peter, in order that through His revelation they might manifest new doctrine: but that through His assistance they might religiously guard, and faithfully expound the revelation handed down by the Apostles, or the deposit of the faith" (Conc. Vat., Sess. IV, cap. liv).梵蒂岡理事會宣布: “在聖靈不答應的繼承人彼得,以便通過他的啟示,他們可能表現新的理論:但通過他的援助,他們可能宗教後衛,並忠實地闡述了啟示下來的使徒或存款的信仰“ ( Conc.增值稅。 , Sess 。四,帽。 LIV )號決議。 The obligation of the natural moral law constitutes part of this revelation.義務的自然道德的法律構成的一部分的啟示。 The authority of that law is again and again insisted on by Christ and His Apostles.權威的法律是一次又一次地堅持基督和他的門徒。 The Church therefore is infallible in matters both of faith and morals.因此,教會是萬無一失的事項均在信仰和道德。 Moreover, theologians are agreed that the gift of infallibility in regard to the deposit must, by necessary consequence, carry with it infallibility as to certain matters intimately related to the Faith.此外,神學家都同意的禮物犯錯誤方面的存款,必須通過必要的後果,與它進行犯錯誤某些事項密切相關的信仰。 There are questions bearing so nearly on the preservation of the Faith that, could the Church err in these, her infallibility would not suffice to guard the flock from false doctrine.有這樣的問題幾乎同時對維護信仰,教會可以在這些犯錯誤,她絕對是不夠的看守羊群從虛假的理論。 Such, for instance, is the decision whether a given book does or does not contain teaching condemned as heretical.這種舉例來說,決定是否某一本書或不包含教學譴責為異端邪說。 (See DOGMATIC FACTS.) (見教條的事實。 )

It is needless to point out that if the Christian Faith is indeed a revealed doctrine, which men must believe under pain of eternal loss, the gift of infallibility was necessary to the Church.這是不必要指出,如果基督教信仰確實是一個發現的一種學說,認為男人必須根據疼痛的永恆的損失,禮物絕對是必要的教會。 Could she err at all, she might err in any point.可她犯錯誤時,她可能會犯錯的任何一點。 The flock would have no guarantee of the truth of any doctrine. The condition of those bodies which at the time of the Reformation forsook the Church affords us an object-lesson in point.鴨群不會有任何保證真理的任何學說。條件這些機構的時候,放棄改革,教會我們提供了一次對象教訓了這一點。 Divided into various sections and parties, they are the scene of never-ending disputes; and by the nature of the case they are cut off from all hope of attaining to certainty.分為各個章節和政黨,他們是現場無休止的糾紛;和性質的情況下,他們被切斷所有希望實現以確定性。 In regard also to the moral law, the need of an infallible guide is hardly less imperative.至於還的道德法律,需要一個可靠的指導幾乎不到勢在必行。 Though on a few broad principles there may be some consensus of opinion as to what is right and what is wrong, yet, in the application of these principles to concrete facts, it is impossible to obtain agreement.雖然在幾個大原則可能有一些協商一致的意見,什麼是正確的,什麼是錯的,然而,在適用這些原則,以具體的事實,這是不可能取得協議。 On matters of such practical moment as are, for instance, the questions of private property, marriage, and liberty, the most divergent views are defended by thinkers of great ability.對這類問題的實際時刻是,舉例來說,問題的私有財產,婚姻,自由,最不同的意見辯護的偉大思想家的能力。 Amid all this questioning the unerring voice of the Church gives confidence to her children that they are following the right course, and have not been led astray by some specious fallacy.由於這一切質疑無誤的聲音會給予信心,她的孩子們,他們正沿著正確的道路,並沒有誤入歧途的一些似是而非的謬論。 The various modes in which the Church exercises this gift, and the prerogatives of the Holy See in regard to infallibility, will be found discussed in the article dealing with that subject.在各種方式在該教會演習的禮物,和特權羅馬教廷方面犯錯誤,將發現討論的文章處理這個問題。

(2) Jurisdiction ( 2 )管轄權

The Church's pastors govern and direct the flock committed to them in virtue of jurisdiction conferred upon them by Christ.教會的牧師和直接管理的羊群致力於憑藉他們的管轄範圍內賦予他們的基督。 The authority of jurisdiction differs essentially from the authority to teach.權威的管轄範圍內基本上是從不同的權威教授。 The two powers are concerned with different objects.這兩個權力所涉及的是不同的物體。 The right to teach is concerned solely with the manifestation of the revealed doctrine; the object of the power of jurisdiction is to establish and enforce such laws and regulations as are necessary to the well-being of the Church.正確的教導感到關切的是完全的體現,顯示理論;的對象的權力管轄範圍是建立和實施這些法律和條例是必要的福祉的教會。 Further, the right of the Church to teach extends to the whole world: The jurisdiction of her rulers extends to her members alone (1 Corinthians 5:12).此外,右邊的教會教延伸到整個世界:在她的管轄範圍內的統治者延伸到她的成員單獨(哥林多前書5時12分) 。 Christ's words to St. Peter, "I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven", distinctly express the gift of jurisdiction.基督的話聖彼得說: “我將讓你的鑰匙的天國” ,明顯表達了禮物的管轄權。 Supreme authority over a body carries with it the right to govern and direct.最高權力機構帶有有權管理和直接的。 The three elements which go to constitute jurisdiction -- legislative power, judicial power, and coercive power -- are, moreover, all implied in Christ's directions to the Apostles (Matthew 18).這三個要素去構成管轄權-立法權,司法權,並強制力-是,此外,所有隱含在基督的指示,以使徒(馬太18 )。 Not merely are they instructed to impose obligations and to settle disputes; but they may even inflict the extremest ecclesiastical penalty -- that of exclusion from membership in Christ.不只是他們的指示強加的義務和解決爭端,但他們甚至可能造成的extremest教會刑罰-即從會員國排斥在基督。

The jurisdiction exercised within the Church is partly of Divine right, and partly determined by ecclesiastical law.管轄範圍內行使部分是教會的神聖權利,部分取決於教會法。 A supreme jurisdiction over the whole Church -- clergy and laity alike -- belongs by Divine appointment to the pope (Conc. Vat, Sess. IV, cap. iii).最高法院的管轄權整個教會-神職人員和信徒-都屬於由神任命為教皇(C o nc.增值稅,S e ss。四,帽。三) 。 The government of the faithful by bishops possessed of ordinary jurisdiction (ie a jurisdiction that is not held by mere delegation, but is exercised in their own name) is likewise of Divine ordinance. But the system by which the Church is territorially divided into dioceses, within each of which a single bishop rules the faithful within that district, is an ecclesiastical arrangement capable of modification.政府的忠實的主教擁有普通管轄權(即管轄權不是僅僅舉行的代表團,但在行使自己的名字)是同樣神聖的條例。制度,但該教會的領土分為教區,在每一個單一的主教規則忠實地在這一地區,是一個教會的安排能夠修改。 The limits of dioceses may be changed by the Holy See.限度教區可能會改變了羅馬教廷。 In England the old pre-Reformation diocesan divisions held good until 1850, though the Catholic hierarchy had become extinct in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.在英格蘭老前改革教區舉行了很好的分歧,直到1850年,儘管天主教層次已成為滅絕的統治女王伊麗莎白二世。 In that year the old divisions were annulled and a new diocesan system established.在這一年的舊司取消和新的教區系統的建立。 Similarly in France, a complete change was introduced after the Revolution.同樣,在法國,徹底改變了後革命。 A bishop may exercise his power on other than a territorial basis.一位主教可以行使他的權力以外的其他領土完整的基礎。 Thus in the East there are different bishops for the faithful belonging to the different rites in communion with the Holy See. Besides bishops, in countries where the ecclesiastical system is fully developed, those of the lower clergy who are parish priests, in the proper sense of the term, have ordinary jurisdiction within their own parishes.因此,在東亞有不同的主教的忠實屬於不同的儀式中與聖座共融。除了主教,在有些國家,教會制度是全面發展,這些較低的神職人員是誰教區神職人員,在適當的意義的任期,有普通管轄權在他們自己的教區。

Internal jurisdiction is that which is exercised in the tribunal of penance.內部管轄的是,這是行使法庭的懺悔。 It differs from the external jurisdiction of which we have been speaking in that its object is the welfare of the individual penitent, while the object of external jurisdiction is the welfare of the Church as a corporate body.它不同於外部管轄範圍之內我們一直在講,其目的是福利的個人懺悔,而對象的外部管轄的福利會作為一個法人團體。 To exercise this internal jurisdiction, the power of orders is an essential condition: none but a priest can absolve.行使這一內部管轄權,權力的命令是一個必不可少的條件:無一名神父,但可以免除。 But the power of orders itself is insufficient.但是,權力的命令本身是不夠的。 The minister of the sacrament must receive jurisdiction from one competent to bestow it.部長聖禮必須接受管轄範圍內從一個主管賦予它。 Hence a priest cannot hear confessions in any locality unless he has received faculties from the ordinary of the place.因此,牧師無法聽到的供詞在任何地方,除非他收到了學院從普通的地方。 On the other hand, for the exercise of external jurisdiction the power of orders is not necessary.另一方面,為行使管轄權的外部力量的訂單是沒有必要的。 A bishop, duly appointed to a see, but not yet consecrated, is invested with external jurisdiction over his diocese as soon as he has exhibited his letters of appointment to the chapter.一位主教,正式任命為見,但尚未神聖的,是與外部的投資,他管轄教區盡快表現出他的信被任命為一章。

IX.九。 MEMBERS OF THE CHURCH成員教會

The foregoing account of the Church and of the principle of authority by which it is governed enables us to determine who are members of the Church and who are not.上述帳戶的教會和原則的權力,它是制約使我們能夠確定誰是成員的教會,誰不是。 The membership of which we speak, is incorporation in the visible body of Christ.的成員,我們說話,是納入可見基督的奧體。 It has already been noted (VI) that a member of the Church may have forfeited the grace of God.已經指出(六)的一個成員可能會被沒收的恩典的上帝。 In this case he is a withered branch of the true Vine; but he has not been finally broken off from it.在這種情況下他是一個枯萎分行的真實藤蔓,但他沒有被最終打破脫離它。 He still belongs to Christ.他仍然屬於基督。 Three conditions are requisite for a man to be a member of the Church.三個條件是必要的一名男子將一名成員教會。

In the first place, he must profess the true Faith, and have received the Sacrament of Baptism.首先,他必須信奉真正的信仰,並已收到了聖洗禮。 The essential necessity of this condition is apparent from the fact that the Church is the kingdom of truth, the society of those who accept the revelation of the Son of God.基本的必要性,這種情況很明顯的事實是,教會是真理的王國,社會的人誰接受啟示的神的兒子。 Every member of the Church must accept the whole revelation, either explicitly or implicitly, by profession of all that the Church teaches.每一個成員都必須接受教會的整個啟示,無論是明示或暗示,由專業的所有,教會教導。 He who refuses to receive it, or who, having received it, falls away, thereby excludes himself from the kingdom (Titus, iii, 10 sq.).他誰拒絕接收,或誰,收到了它,跌倒了,從而排除了他從英國(泰特斯,三, 10平方米) 。 The Sacrament of Baptism is rightly regarded as part of this condition.在聖洗禮視為理所當然的一部分,這一條件。 By it those who profess the Faith are formally adopted as children of God (Ephesians 1:13), and an habitual faith is among the gifts bestowed in it.它是誰信奉的信仰被正式通過,成為兒童的神(以弗所書1:13 ) ,和一個慣常信仰之間的禮物賦予它。 Christ expressly connects the two, declaring that "he who believeth and is baptized shall be saved" (Mark 16:16; cf. Matthew 28:19). It is further necessary to acknowledge the authority of the Church and of her appointed rulers.基督明確地連接兩個,聲稱“誰信和受洗應保存” (馬克16:16 ;比照。馬修28:19 ) 。還必須承認的權威,教會和她的任命統治者。 Those who reject the jurisdiction established by Christ are no longer members of His kingdom.這些誰反對設立的管轄範圍由基督不再是成員的他的王國。 Thus St. Ignatius lays it down in his letter to the Church of Smyrna: Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be; even as where Jesus may be there is the universal Church" (ad Smyrn., n. 8). In regard to this condition, the ultimate touchstone is to be found in communion with the Holy See. On Peter Christ founded his Church. Those who are not joined to that foundation cannot form part of the house of God.因此,聖伊格內修奠定它在他的信中對教會的士麥那:地點主教應出現,讓那裡的人民,甚至當耶穌可能是有普世教會“ (廣告Smyrn 。 ,注8 ) 。對於這種情況下,最終的試金石,是發現與聖座共融。基督論彼得創辦了教會。誰是那些沒有加入這個基礎不能組成部分房子的上帝。

The third condition lies in the canonical right to communion with the Church. In virtue of its coercive power the Church has authority to excommunicate notorious sinners.第三個條件是典型的權利與共融的教會。在憑藉其強制力,教會有權破門臭名昭著的罪人。 It may inflict this punishment not merely on the ground of heresy or schism, but for other grave offences.這可能造成這種處罰不只是在地面上的異端邪說或分裂,但對其他嚴重罪行。 Thus St. Paul pronounces sentence of excommunication on the incest Corinthian (1 Corinthians 5:3).因此,聖保羅宣布一句罰的亂倫科林斯(哥林多前書五點03分) 。 This penalty is no mere external severance from the rights of common worship.這一刑罰並非僅僅是從外部遣散的權利的共同崇拜。 It is a severance from the body of Christ, undoing to this extent the work of baptism, and placing the excommunicated man in the condition of the heathen and the publican". It casts him out of God's kingdom; and the Apostle speaks of it as "delivering him over to Satan" (1 Corinthians 5:5; 1 Timothy 1:20).這是一個遣散來自基督的奧體,解開這個範圍內工作的洗禮,並把人逐出教會的條件異教徒和酒館。 “它給他的上帝的王國;和使徒談到這“他提供給撒旦” (哥林多前書五點05分;提摩太前書1:20 ) 。

Regarding each of these conditions, however, certain distinctions must be drawn.關於這些條件,然而,某些區別必須提請。

Many baptized heretics have been educated in their erroneous beliefs.許多洗禮異端教育已在其錯誤的信仰。 Their case is altogether different from that of those who have voluntarily renounced the Faith.他們的情況是完全不同的人誰自願放棄信仰。 They accept what they believe to be the Divine revelation.他們接受了他們認為是神聖的啟示。 Such as these belong to the Church in desire, for they are at heart anxious to fulfill God's will in their regard.這些屬於教會的願望,因為他們是心急於完成天意在這方面。 In virtue of their baptism and good will, they may be in a state of grace.在憑藉其洗禮和良好意願,他們可能會在一個國家的寬限期。 They belong to the soul of the Church, though they are not united to the visible body.它們屬於靈魂的教會,但他們不團結起來,可見機構。 As such they are members of the Church internally, though not externally.這樣,他們的成員,教會內部,雖然不是外部。 Even in regard to those who have themselves fallen away from the Faith, a difference must be made between open and notorious heretics on the one hand, and secret heretics on the other.即使在這些方面有自己誰下降遠離信仰,不同必須作出之間的開放和臭名昭著的異端,一方面,和秘密異端的問題。 Open and notorious heresy severs from the visible Church.公開賽和臭名昭著的邪教服務器從有形教會。 The majority of theologians agree with BeIlarrrne (de Ecclesiâ, III, c. x), as against Francisco Suárez, that secret heresy has not this effect.大多數的神學家同意BeIlarrrne (德教會,三,角x )的,而弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯,即秘密異端沒有這種效果。

In regard to schism the same distinction must be drawn.對於同樣的分裂必須區分。 A secret repudiation of the Church's authority does not sever the sinner from the Church.不可否認的秘密教會的權威並沒有斷絕罪人的教會。 The Church recognizes the schismatic as a member, entitled to her communion, until by open and notorious rebellion he rejects her authority.教會認識到,作為一個分裂的成員,有權她的共融,直到開放和臭名昭著的叛亂他拒絕她的權威。

Excommunicated persons are either excommunicati tolerati (ie those who are still tolerated) or excommunicati vitandi (ie those to be shunned).逐出教會的人要么excommunicati tolerati (即誰仍然容忍)或excommunicati vitandi (即必須迴避) 。 Many theologians hold that those whom the Church still tolerates are not wholly cut off from her membership, and that it is only those whom she has branded as "to be shunned" who are cut off from God's kingdom (see Murray, De Eccles., Disp. i, sect. viii, n. 118).許多神學家認為,這些人仍然會容忍是不是完全切斷從她的成員,這只是那些人,她的品牌是“要避開”誰是切斷來自上帝的王國(見穆雷,德埃克爾斯。 ,位移。一, A節。八,注118 ) 。 (See EXCOMMUNICATION.) (見罰。 )

X. INDEFECTIBILITY OF THE CHURCH十INDEFECTIBILITY教堂

Among the prerogatives conferred on His Church by Christ is the gift of indefectibility.在特權授予他的教會是基督的禮物indefectibility 。 By this term is signified, not merely that the Church will persist to the end of time, but further, that it will preserve unimpaired its essential characteristics.通過這個詞是標誌,而不是僅僅教會將持續到年底的時間,但進一步的,它會保留,不受影響,其基本特點。 The Church can never undergo any constitutional change which will make it, as a social organism, something different from what it was originally.教會不能接受任何修改憲法這將使我們,作為一個社會有機體,不同的東西從它最初是。 It can never become corrupt in faith or in morals; nor can it ever lose the Apostolic hierarchy, or the sacraments through which Christ communicates grace to men.它絕不能成為腐敗的信仰或道德的需要;也不能永遠失去了使徒等級,或通過這些聖禮傳達基督恩典男子。 The gift of indefectibility is expressly promised to the Church by Christ, in the words in which He declares that the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.的禮物indefectibility明確承諾要教會基督的話來說,他在信中宣布,地獄之門不得戰勝它。 It is manifest that, could the storms which the Church encounters so shake it as to alter its essential characteristics and make it other than Christ intended it to be, the gates of hell, ie the powers of evil, would have prevailed.這是明顯的,可以在風暴教會遇到如此動搖它作為改變其基本特徵,使其以外的其他基督打算將它的地獄之門,即權力的邪惡,將佔上風。 It is clear, too, that could the Church suffer substantial change, it would no longer be an instrument capable of accomplishing the work for which God called it in to being.很明顯,也可以教會遭受重大變化,這將不再是一個工具能夠完成的工作而所謂的上帝在被。 He established it that it might be to all men the school of holiness.他建立了它,它可能是所有男人的學校的聖德。 This it would cease to be if ever it could set up a false and corrupt moral standard.這將不再是如以往任何時候都可以建立一個虛假和腐敗現象的道德標準。 He established it to proclaim His revelation to the world, and charged it to warn all men that unless they accepted that message they must perish everlastingly.他建立了它宣布他的啟示世界,並賦予它以警告所有的人,除非他們接受了這一消息,他們必須滅亡everlastingly 。 Could the Church, in defining the truths of revelation err in the smallest point, such a charge would be impossible.可以教會的,在確定的真理啟示誤差在最小的點,這樣的收費是不可能的。 No body could enforce under such a penalty the acceptance of what might be erroneous.沒有任何機構可以根據這種強制執行處罰的接受也許是錯誤的。 By the hierarchy and the sacraments, Christ, further, made the Church the depositary of the graces of the Passion.由等級和聖禮,基督,進一步提出教會保存的青睞的激情。 Were it to lose either of these, it could no longer dispense to men the treasures of grace.如果失去這兩種,它再也不能免除男子寶藏的寬限期。

The gift of indefectibility plainly does not guarantee each several part of the Church against heresy or apostasy.的禮物indefectibility顯然不能保證每個數的一部分,反對邪教教會或叛教。 The promise is made to the corporate body. Individual Churches may become corrupt in morals, may fall into heresy, may even apostatize.承諾了的法人團體。個別教會可能成為腐敗的道德,可能落入異端,甚至可能apostatize 。 Thus at the time of the Mohammedan conquests, whole populations renounced their faith; and the Church suffered similar losses in the sixteenth century.因此,在當時的伊斯蘭教征服,整個人口放棄自己的信仰;和教會遭受類似損失的16世紀。 But the defection of isolated branches does not alter the character of the main stem.但是,孤立的叛逃分支機構不改變性質的主莖。 The society of Jesus Christ remains endowed with all the prerogatives bestowed on it by its Founder.社會耶穌基督仍然賦予了所有的特權賦予它的創始人。 Only to One particular Church is indefectibility assured, viz.只有一個特別的教會是indefectibility保證,即。 to the See of Rome.向羅馬教廷。 To Peter, and in him to all his successors in the chief pastorate, Christ committed the task of confirming his brethren in the Faith (Luke 22:32); and thus, to the Roman Church, as Cyprian says, "faithlessness cannot gain access" [Ep.彼得,並在他向所有他的繼任首席牧師,基督承諾的任務是確認他的兄弟在信仰(盧克22時32 ) ; ,因此,羅馬教會,因為塞浦路斯說, “ faithlessness無法獲得“ [內啡肽。 lv (lix), ad Cornelium). The various bodies that have left the Church naturally deny its indefectibility. Their plea for separation rests in each case on the supposed fact that the main body of Christians has fallen so far from primitive truth, or from the purity of Christian morals, that the formation of a separate organization is not only desirable but necessary.呂(螺旋) ,廣告Cornelium ) 。各種機構,已經離開了教會自然否認其indefectibility 。他們的認罪分離在於每個案件的事實,理應主體的基督徒已經下降迄今從原始的真理,或從純淨的基督教道德,即形成一個單獨的組織不僅是可取的,而且是必要的。 Those who are called on to defend this plea endeavour in various ways to reconcile it with Christ's promise.誰是這些所謂的捍衛這一認罪努力以各種方式調和它與基督的承諾。 Some, as seen above (VII), have recourse to the hypothesis of an indefectible invisible Church.一些,如上述(七) ,訴諸假設一個indefectible無形的教會。 The Right Rev. Charles Gore of Worcester, who may be regarded as the representative of high-class Anglicanism, prefers a different solution.權牧師查爾斯戈爾的伍斯特市,誰可能被視為代表的高檔Anglicanism ,喜歡不同的解決方案。 In his controversy with Canon Richardson, he adopted the position that while the Church will never fail to teach the whole truth as revealed, yet "errors of addition" may exist universally in its current teaching (see Richardson, Catholic Claims, Appendix). Such an explanation deprives Christ's words of all their meaning.在他的爭議與佳能理查森,他採取的立場,雖然教會將永遠不能教全部真相的揭示,但“錯誤的除了”可能存在的普遍在其目前的教學(見理查森,天主教索賠,附錄) 。這種解釋剝奪了基督的話他們的所有含義。 A Church which at any period might conceivably teach, as of faith, doctrines which form no part of the deposit could never deliver her message to the world as the message of God.該教會在任何時期可能料想會教,因為信仰,理論形式的任何部分存款無法提供的信息,她的世界的訊息的上帝。 Men could reasonably urge in regard to any doctrine that it might be an "error of addition".男人可以合理敦促方面的任何學說,它可能是一個“錯誤的除” 。

It was said above that one part of the Church's gift of indefectibility lies in her preservation from any substantial corruption in the sphere of morals.有人說上面的一個組成部分教會的禮物indefectibility在於她保存的任何重大腐敗領域的道德。 This supposes, not merely that she will always proclaim the perfect standard of morality bequeathed to her by her Founder, but also that in every age the lives of many of her children will be based on that sublime model.這個假設,而不是僅僅說,她將永遠宣布完美的道德標準留給她的她的創始人,而且在每一個時代許多人的生命,她的孩子們就會在此基礎上崇高的模式。 Only a supernatural principle of spiritual life could bring this about.只有超自然的原則,精神生活可以實現這一目標。 Man's natural tendency is downwards.人的自然趨勢是向下的。 The force of every religious movement gradually spends itself; and the followers of great religious reformers tend in time to the level of their environment.這支部隊的每一個宗教運動逐漸花費本身;和追隨者偉大的宗教改革者往往在時間的水平,他們的環境。 According to the laws of unassisted human nature, it should have been thus with the society established by Christ.根據法律,無人人類的本性,它應該已經就此與社會設立的基督。 Yet history shows us that the Catholic Church possesses a power of reform from within, which has no parallel in any other religious organization.然而,歷史告訴我們,天主教會擁有的權力範圍內的改革,沒有平行在任何其他宗教組織。 Again and again she produces saints, men imitating the virtues of Christ in an extraordinary degree, whose influence, spreading far and wide, gives fresh ardour even to those who reach a less heroic standard.一次又一次,她生產的聖人,男子模仿基督的美德以異乎尋常的程度,其影響力,傳播甚廣,讓新鮮熱情甚至達到這些誰不英勇的標準。 Thus, to cite one or two well-known instances out of many that might be given: St. Dominic and St. Francis of Assisi rekindled the love of virtue in the men of the thirteenth century; St. Philip Neri and St. Ignatius Loyola accomplished a like work in the sixteenth century; St. Paul of the Cross and St. Alphonsus Liguori, in the eighteenth.因此,舉一個或兩個眾所周知的事例很多人認為可以考慮:聖道和聖方濟各燃起的愛憑藉在男子13世紀;聖菲利普內裡和聖依納爵羅耀拉完成了工作,像16世紀;聖保祿十字架和聖阿方利顧理,在第十八。 No explanation suffices to account for this phenomenon save the Catholic doctrine that the Church is not a natural but a supernatural society, that the preservation of her moral life depends, not on any laws of human nature, but on the life-giving presence of the Holy Ghost.沒有任何解釋就足以帳戶這一現象拯救天主教教義,教會不是一個自然,而是超自然的社會,維護她的道德生活不是取決於任何法律的人性,但在賦予生命的存在聖靈。 The Catholic and the Protestant principles of reform stand in sharp contrast the one to the other.天主教和新教改革的原則立場形成鮮明對比的是其他。 Catholic reformers have one and all fallen back on the model set before them in the person of Christ and on the power of the Holy Ghost to breathe fresh life into the souls which He has regenerated.天主教改革者有一個和所有回落模型面前一套的人在基督和對權力的聖靈呼吸到新鮮的生活的靈魂,他再生。 Protestant reformers have commenced their work by separation, and by this act have severed themselves from the very principle of life.新教改革者已經開始他們的工作分離,並通過這種行為已經斷絕了自己的原則生活。 No one of course would wish to deny that within the Protestant bodies there have been many men of great virtues.任何人,當然想否認,在新教機構有許多男子的偉大美德。 Yet it is not too much to assert that in every case their virtue has been nourished on what yet remained to them of Catholic belief and practice, and not on anything which they have received from Protestantism as such.然而,它並不過分斷言,在任何情況下憑藉其營養已經沒有什麼是他們的天主教信仰和實踐,而不是什麼,他們已收到這類新教作為。

The Continuity Theory理論的連續性

The doctrine of the Church's indefectibility just considered will place us in a position to estimate, at its true value, the claim of the Anglican Church and of the Episcopalian bodies in other English-speaking countries to be continuous with the ancient pre-Reformation Church of England, in the sense of being part of one and the same society.該學說教會的indefectibility剛剛審議將使我們有能力的估計,其真正的價值,索賠的聖公會和聖公會機構在其他講英語的國家將不斷與古老的前教會的宗教改革英格蘭,在意識的一部分,同一個社會。 The point to be determined here is what constitutes a breach of continuity as regards a society.這一點決定就是在這裡構成違反連續性方面的一個社會。 It may safely be said that the continuity of a society is broken when a radical change in the principles it embodies is introduced.它可以放心地說,連續性的社會被打破時,從根本上改變了它的原則是體現了介紹。 In the case of a Church, such a change in its hierarchical constitution and in its professed faith suffices to make it a different Church from what it was before.如教會,例如改變其等級憲法和在其宣稱的信念足以使它成為一個不同的教會從這是什麼之前。 For the societies we term Churches exist as the embodiment of certain supernatural dogmas and of a Divinely-authorized principle of government.對於我們的社會長期存在的教會體現了某些超自然的教條和神的授權原則的政府。 when, therefore, the truths previously field to be of faith are rejected, and the Principle of government regarded as sacred is repudiated, there is a breach of continuity, and a new Church is formed.當,因此,以前的真理是外地的信仰被拒絕,並原則政府視為神聖的否定,有違反的連續性,和一個新的教會形成。 In this the continuity of a Church differs from the continuity of a nation.在此的連續性不同於教會的連續性,一個國家。 National continuity is independent of forms of government and of beliefs.全國連續性是獨立的政府形式和信念。 A nation is an aggregate of families, and so long as these families constitute a self-sufficing social organism, it remains the same nation, whatever the form of government may be.一個民族是一個總的家庭,只要這些家庭構成了自我sufficing社會有機體,它仍然是同一個國家,無論其形式的政府可能。 The continuity of a Church depends essentially on its government and its beliefs.的連續性教會根本上取決於政府和信念。

The changes introduced into the English Church at the time of the Reformation were precisely of the character just described.這些變化引入英語教會的時候,正是改革的性質剛才所描述的。 At that period fundamental alterations were made in its hierarchical constitution and in its dogmatic standards.在此期間基本改變了在其等級憲法和在其教條的標準。 It is not to be determined here which was in the right, the Church of Catholic days or the Reformed Church.它不是要在這裡確定這是正確的,教會的天主教天或歸正教會。 It is sufficient if we show that changes were made vitally affecting the nature of the society.這是足夠的,如果我們表明,改變了至關重要的影響性質的社會。 It is notorious that from the days of Augustine to those of Warham, every archbishop of Canterbury recognized the pope as the supreme source of ecclesiastical jurisdiction.這是臭名昭著的,從天的奧古斯丁那些Warham ,每坎特伯雷大主教承認教皇為最高來源,教會管轄範圍之內。 The archbishops themselves could not exercise jurisdiction within their province until they had received papal confirmation.該大主教本身不能行使管轄權的省份,直到他們收到了教皇的確認。 Further, the popes were accustomed to send to England legates a latere, who, in virtue of their legatine authority, whatever their personal status in the hierarchy, possessed a jurisdiction superior to that of the local bishops.此外,教皇習慣於向英格蘭legates 1 latere ,誰在憑藉其legatine權威,不論其個人地位的階層,擁有管轄權優於當地的主教。 Appeals ran from every ecclesiastical court in England to the pope, and his decision was recognized by all as final. The pope, too, exercised the right of excommunication in regard to the members of the English Church.上訴然從每個教會法院在英格蘭的教皇,他的決定是大家公認的最後。教皇,也行使的權利罰方面成員的英文教會。 This supreme authority was, moreover, regarded by all as belonging to the pope by Divine right, and not in virtue of merely human institution.這是最高權威,而且把所有屬於教皇的神聖權利,而不是僅僅憑藉人的機構。 When, therefore, this power of jurisdiction was transferred to the king, the alteration touched the constitutive principles of the body and was fundamental in its character.當,因此,這種權力的管轄權移交給了國王,改建觸及構成原則的機構,其基本特徵。 Similarly, in regard to matters of faith, the changes were revolutionary.同樣,在關於問題的誠意,這些變化是革命性的。 It will be sufficient to note that a new rule of faith was introduced, Scripture alone being substituted for Scripture and Tradition; that several books were expunged from the Canon of Scripture; that five out of the seven sacraments were repudiated; and that the sacrifices of Masses were declared to be "blasphemous fables and dangerous deceits".這將是足夠地注意到,新規則的信仰介紹,僅聖經被替換的聖經和傳統,這幾本書被刪除從佳能的聖經,這五個七個聖禮被否定; ,而犧牲群眾被宣布為“褻瀆神靈的寓言和危險deceits ” 。 It is indeed sometimes said that the official formularies of Anglicanism are capable of a Catholic sense, if given a "non-natural" interpretation.這的確是有時說,官方formularies的Anglicanism能夠天主教意義上說,如果給予“非天然”的解釋。 This argument can, however, carry no weight.這種說法不過,可以攜帶任何重量。 In estimating the character of a society, we must judge, not by the strained sense which some individuals may attach to its formularies, but by the sense they were intended to bear.在估計性質的社會,我們必須判斷,而不是緊張的感覺有些人可能重視其formularies ,但它們的意義是為了承擔。 Judged by this criterion, none can dispute that these innovations were such as to constitute a fundamental change in the dogmatic standpoint of the Church of England.判斷這個標準,沒有任何可以爭端,這些革新,如構成了根本性的改變教條的立場英格蘭教會。

XI.十一。 UNIVERSALITY OF THE CHURCH普遍性的教堂

The Church of Christ has from the first claimed to transcend all those national differences which divide men.基督教會從第一次聲稱要超越所有這些國家的差異鴻溝男子。 In it, the Apostle asserts, "there is neither Gentile nor Jew . . . Barbarian nor Scythian" (Colossians 3:11).在這份備忘錄中,使徒斷言: “那裡既不是詹蒂萊也不猶太人。 。 。野蠻人,也沒有西徐亞人” (歌羅西書3時11分) 。 Men of every race are one in it; they form a single brotherhood in the Kingdom of God.男子每場比賽是在它形成一個單一的兄弟情誼王國的上帝。 In the pagan world, religion and nationality had been coterminous.在異教徒的世界,宗教和國籍已coterminous 。 The boundaries of the State were the boundaries of the faith which the State professed.的界限國的邊界信仰該國宣稱的。 Even the Jewish Dispensation was limited to a special race.即使是猶太人配藥僅限於一個特殊的比賽。 Previous to the Christian revelation the idea of a religion adapted to all peoples was foreign to the conceptions of men.前基督教啟示的想法宗教適應各族人民是外國的觀念的男人。 It is one of the essential features of the Church that she should be a single, worldwide society embracing all races.這是一個重要的特點,教會,她應該是一個單一的,全球社會包括所有的比賽。 In it, and in it alone, is the brotherhood of man realized.在這份備忘錄中,並在孤軍奮戰,是兄弟情誼的人實現。 All national barriers, no less than all differences of class, disappear in the City of God.所有國家的障礙,不得少於所有不同的階級,消失在城市的上帝。 It is not to be understood that the Church disregards the ties which bind men to their country, or undervalues the virtue of patriotism.這是不理解的是,教會無視紐帶男子自己的國家,或低估了愛國主義的美德。 The division of men into different nations enters into the scheme of Providence.該司的男子到不同的國家進入該計劃的普羅維登斯。 To each nation has been assigned a special task to accomplish in the working out of God's purposes. A man owes a duty to his nation no less than to his family.每個國家都被分配一個特別工作小組來完成的工作了上帝的目的。一個人欠的義務他的國家不低於他的家人。 One who omits this duty has failed in a primary moral obligation.一個誰忽略了這項義務未能在小學道德義務。 Moreover, each nation has its own character, and its own special gifts.此外,每個國家都有自己的特點,和它自己的特殊禮物。 It will usually be found that a man attains to high virtue, not by neglecting these gifts, but by embodying the best and noblest ideals of his own people.它通常會發現,一個人達到高美德,而不是忽視這些禮物,而是體現了最好和最崇高的理想,他自己的人民。

For these reasons the Church consecrates the spirit of nationality.由於這些原因,教會尊崇的精神國籍。 Yet it transcends it, for it binds together the various nationalities in a single brotherhood.然而,它超越了它,因為它結合在一起各民族在一個單一的兄弟情誼。 More than this, it purifies, develops, and perfects national character, just as it purifies and perfects the character of each individual. Often indeed it has been accused of exercising an anti patriotic influence.以上這一點,淨化,開發和完善民族性格,正如它淨化和完善性質的每一個人。往往確實已經被告行使反愛國主義的影響。 But it will invariably be found that it has incurred this reproach by opposing and rebuking what was base in the national aspirations, not by thwarting what was heroic or just.但這將不可避免地發現,它已引起這個責備反對和譴責所基地的民族願望,而不是由挫敗什麼是英雄還是公正的。 As the Church perfects the nation, so reciprocally does each nation add something of its own to the glory of the Church.作為教會完善的國家,所以不相互每個國家增加一些自己的榮耀的教會。 It brings its own type of sanctity, its national virtues, and thus contributes to "the fullness of Christ" something which no other race could give.它使自己的類型的神聖性,其國家的美德,從而有助於“的豐滿的基督”的東西沒有其他比賽可以。 Such are the relations of the Church to what is termed nationality.這些都是關係的教會所謂的國籍。 The external unity of the one society is the visible embodiment of the doctrine of the brotherhood of man.外部團結的社會是一個有形體現了理論兄弟情誼的人。 The sin of schism, the Fathers tell us, lies in this, that by it the law of love to our neighbour is implicitly rejected.的罪惡的分裂,父親告訴我們,在這一謊言,即由法律的熱愛我們的鄰國是含蓄地拒絕。 "Nec hæretici pertinent ad Ecclesiam Catholicam, qæ diligit Deum; nec schismatici quoniam diligit proximum" (Neither do heretics belong to the Catholic church, for she loves God; nor do schismatics, for she loves her neighbour -- Augustine, De Fide et Symbolo, ch. x, in PL, XL, 193). “壞死hæretici相關廣告Ecclesiam Catholicam , qæ diligit Deum ; NEC公司schismatici quoniam diligit proximum ” (也不異端屬於天主教,因為她愛上帝也不schismatics ,因為她愛她的鄰居-奧古斯丁,德等S ymbolo善意,膽固醇。設在特等,儀, 193 ) 。 It is of importance to insist on this point.這是具有重要意義,堅持了這一點。 For it is sometimes urged that the organized unity of Catholicism may be adapted to the Latin races but is ill-suited to the Teutonic spirit.它有時是敦促該組織統一的天主教可以適應比賽,但拉丁美洲是不適合的日爾曼精神。 To say this is to say that an essential characteristic of this Christian revelation is ill-suited to one of the great races of the world.如果說這是說,一個重要特點是基督教的啟示是不適合的一大賽事的世界。

The union of different nations in one society is contrary to the natural inclinations of fallen humanity.工會不同的國家在一個社會是違背自然的傾向人類的下降。 It must ever struggle against the impulses of national pride, the desire for complete independence, the dislike of external control.它必須不斷的鬥爭衝動的民族自豪感,渴望獨立自主,完全的不喜歡的外部控制。 Hence history provides various cases in which these passions have obtained the upper hand, the bond of unity has been broken, and "National Churches" have been formed.因此,歷史提供了各種案件中,這些激情已經獲得了上風,債券的團結已被打破,以及“全國基督教協進會”已經成立。 In every such case the so-called National Church has found to its cost that, in severing its connection with the Holy See, it has lost its one protector against the encroachments of the secular Government.在每個這種情況下,所謂的全國教會發現,其成本,在切斷其與羅馬教廷,它已經失去了一個保護者對侵占的世俗政府。 The Greek Church under the Byzantine Empire, the autocephalous Russian Church today, have been mere pawns in the hands of the civil authority.希臘教會下的拜占庭帝國,俄羅斯的獨立的教會的今天,已不僅僅是兵手中的民間權威。 The history of the Anglican Church presents the same features.歷史的英國聖公會提出了相同的功能。 There is but one institution which is able to resist the pressure of secular powers -- the See of Peter, which was set in the Church for this purpose by Christ, that it might afford a principle of stability and security to every part.只有一個機構能夠抵禦世俗的壓力,權力-在見彼得,這是一套在教會為此基督,它可能負擔的原則,穩定和安全的每一個部分。 The papacy is above all nationalities. It is the servant of no particular State; and hence it has strength to resist the forces that would make the religion of Christ subservient to secular ends. Those Churches alone have retained their vitality which have kept their union with the See of Peter.教宗首先是各民族。這是僕人沒有特定的國家; ,因此它的力量抗拒的力量,將使基督宗教屈從於世俗的目的。單靠這些基督教協進會保留它們的活力有保持與工會該見的彼得。 The branches which have been broken from that stem have withered.該分行已被打破由幹已經枯萎。

The Branch Theory該處理論

In the course of the nineteenth century, the principle of National Churches was strenuously defended by the High Church Anglican divines under the name of the "Branch theory".在十九世紀,的原則,全國基督教協進會是艱苦的辯護高級divines聖公會教堂的名義下的“科論” 。 According to this view, each National Church when fully constituted under its own episcopate is independent of external control.根據這一觀點,每個國家會完全組成時,根據自己的主教是獨立的外部控制。 It possesses plenary authority as to its internal discipline, and may not merely reform itself as regards ritual and ceremonial usages, but may correct obvious abuses in matters of doctrine.它擁有絕對權力,以它的內部紀律,並可能不僅僅是自身改革方面的禮儀和禮儀習慣,但可正確的明顯侵犯問題的理論。 It is justified in doing this even if the step involve a breach of communion with the rest of Christendom; for, in this case, the blame attaches not to the Church which undertakes the work of reformation, but to those which, on this score, reject it from communion.這是有理由這樣做,即使一步涉及違反共融與其他基督教因為在這種情況下,高度的責任而不是教會的工作進行改革,但那些對這個成績,拒絕從共融。 It still remains a "branch" of the Catholic Church as it was before.這仍然是一個“分支”的天主教教會,因為前。 At the present day the Anglican, Roman Catholic, and Greek Churches are each of them a branch of the Universal Church.在當今的英國聖公會,羅馬天主教,基督教和希臘都是他們的一個分支普世教會。 None of them has an exclusive right to term itself the Catholic Church.但他們有一個專屬權利,詞本身的天主教會。 The defenders of the theory recognize, indeed, that this divided state of the church is abnormal.捍衛者的理論認識,事實上,這一分裂狀態的教堂是不正常。 They admit that the Fathers never contemplated the possibility of a church thus severed into parts.他們承認,父親從來沒有設想的可能性,從而斷絕了教堂到部分。 But they assert that circumstances such as those which led to this abnormal state of things never presented themselves during the early centuries of ecclesiastical history.但是,他們斷言,這種情況下那些導致這種不正常狀態的事情提出了自己從來沒有在早期教會百年的歷史。

The position is open to fatal objections.的立場是開放的,以致命的反對。

It is an entirely novel theory as to the constitution of the Church, which is rejected alike by the Catholic and the Greek Churches.這是一個完全新的理論作為憲法的教會,這是同樣的拒絕天主教和希臘教會。 Neither of these admit the existence of the so-called branches of the Church.這些都承認存在所謂的分支機構的教會。 The Greek schismatics, no less than the Catholics, affirm that they, and they only, constitute the Church.希臘schismatics ,不得低於天主教徒,申明他們,他們只,構成了教會。 Further, the theory is rejected by the majority of the Anglican body. It is the tenet of but one school, though that a distinguished one.此外,該理論是拒絕了大多數英國聖公會的機構。這是原則,但一所學校,雖然一位傑出的一個。 It Is almost a reductio ad absurdum when we are asked to believe that a single school in a particular sect is the sole depositary of the true theory of the Church.這幾乎是一個歸謬法當我們問認為,一個單一的學校在某一節是唯一保存的真正理論的教會。

The claim made by many Anglicans that there is nothing in their position contrary to ecclesiastical and patristic tradition in quite indefensible. Arguments precisely applicable to their case were used by the Fathers against the Donatists.索賠提出的許多聖公會,有沒有在他們的立場違背了教會和教父的傳統,十分站不住腳的。論點恰恰適用於他們的情況下,所使用的父親反對多納徒派。 It is known from the "Apologia" that Cardinal Wiseman's masterly demonstration of this point was one of the chief factors in bringing about the conversion of Newman.據悉,從“縱容”樞機懷斯曼的巧妙展示了這一點是一個主要因素帶來的轉換紐曼。 In the controversy with the Donatists, St. Augustine holds it sufficient for his purpose to argue that those who are separated from the Universal Church cannot be in the right.在爭議與多納徒派,聖奧古斯丁擁有足夠的目的認為,這些誰脫離普世教會不能正確的。 He makes the question one of simple fact.他提出的問題的一個簡單的事實。 Are the Donatists separated from the main body of Christians, or are they not?多納徒派是脫離主體的基督徒,還是不是? If they are, no vindication of their cause can absolve them from the charge of schism.如果是這樣,沒有證明自己的事業可以免除他們的分裂負責。 "Securus judicat orbis terrarum bonos non esse qui se dividunt ab orbe terrarum in quâcunque parte orbis terrarum" (The entire world judges with security that they are not good, who separate themselves from the entire world in whatever part of the entire world -- Augustine, contra epist. Parm., III, c. iv in PL, XLIII, 101). “機SECURUS judicat奧比斯terrarum bonos不存在歸仁本身dividunt從頭奧爾布terrarum在quâcunque方奧比斯terrarum ” (整個世界法官與安全,他們並不好,誰自己單獨從整個世界的一部分,無論對整個世界-奧古斯丁,禁忌epist 。 Parm 。 ,三,四中角特等,四十三, 101 ) 。 St. Augustine's position rests through out on the doctrine he assumes as absolutely indubitable, that Christ's Church must be one, must be visibly one; and that any body that is separated from it is ipso facto shown to be in schism.聖奧古斯丁的立場在於通過對他的理論假設是絕對不容置疑的,即基督的教會必須是一個必須明顯地之一; ,任何機構,分離是事實本身表明,在分裂。

The contention of the Anglican controversialists that the English Church is not separatist since it did not reject the communion of Rome, but Rome rejected it, has of course only the value of a piece of special pleading, and need not be taken as a serious argument.該論點聖公會controversialists ,英文教會不是分裂,因為它沒有拒絕共融的羅馬,但羅馬拒絕,當然只值一塊特殊的請求,並沒有必要作為一個嚴重的論點。 Yet it is interesting to observe that in this too they were anticipated by the Donatists (Contra epist. Petil., II, xxxviii in PL, XLIII, 292).然而,有趣的是觀察,在這一點他們預期的多納徒派(魂斗羅epist 。 Petil 。 ,二,在特等三十八,四十三, 292 ) 。

The consequences of the doctrine constitute a manifest proof of its falsity. The unity of the Catholic Church in every part of the world is, as already seen, the sign of the brotherhood which binds together the children of God. More than this, Christ Himself declared that it would be a proof to all men of His Divine mission.其後果學說構成了明顯的證明了它的謊言。的團結天主教會在世界各地的是,正如已經看到的那樣,簽署了具有約束力兄弟一起兒童的上帝。超過這一點,基督自己宣布,它將是一個證據,所有的人他的神聖使命。 The unity of His flock, an earthly representation of the unity of the Father and the Son, would be sufficient to show that He had come from God (John 17:21).統一的他的羊群,地上代表性的統一,父子,將足以表明,他來自上帝(約翰17:21 ) 。 Contrariwise, this theory, first advanced to justify a state of things having Henry VIII as its author, would make the Christian Church, not a witness to the brotherhood of God's children, but a standing proof that even the Son of God had failed to withstand the spirit of discord amongst men. Contrariwise ,這個理論,第一個先進的理由一個國家的事情了亨利八世及其作者,將使基督教教會,而不是一個親眼目睹了兄弟情誼上帝的孩子,而是一個常設證明,即使是上帝之子未能抵擋精神的男人之間的不和諧。 Were the theory true, so far from the unity of the Church testifying to the Divine mission of Jesus Christ, its severed and broken condition would be a potent argument in the hands of unbelief.是真正的理論,迄今從教會合一的見證神聖的使命,耶穌基督,它斷絕了和破碎的狀況將是一個有力的論據手中的不信教。

XII.十二。 NOTES OF THE CHURCH注意到教堂

By the notes of the Church are meant certain conspicuous characteristics which distinguish it from all other bodies and prove it to be the one society of Jesus Christ.所指出的教會是指某些突出的特點,區別於其他所有機構和證明它是一個社會的耶穌基督。 Some such distinguishing marks it needs must have, if it is, indeed, the sole depositary of the blessings of redemption, the way of salvation offered by God to man.一些這樣的識別標誌,需要必須有,如果它確實是唯一保存的祝福贖回的方式,拯救所提供上帝的人。 A Babel of religious organizations all proclaim themselves to be the Church of Christ.阿通天塔的宗教組織都宣布自己是基督教會。 Their doctrines are contradictory; and precisely in so far as any one of them regards the doctrines which it teaches as of vital moment, it declares those of the rival bodies to be misleading and pernicious.他們的理論是相互矛盾;和準確,只要其中任何一個方面的理論,它教作為重要的時刻,宣布這些競爭對手的機構是誤導的,有害的。 Unless the true Church were endowed with such characteristics as would prove to all men that it, and it alone, had a right to the name, how could the vast majority of mankind distinguish the revelation of God from the inventions of man?除非真正的教會都具備這種特性,將證明所有的人,它,它就有了正確的名稱,怎麼可能絕大多數的人類區分啟示上帝的發明人? If it could not authenticate its claim, it would be impossible for it to warn all men that to reject it was to reject Christ.如果不能驗證它的索賠,就不可能為它警告所有男人的拒絕是拒絕基督。 In discussing the visibility of the Church (VII) it was seen that the Catholic Church points to four such notes -- those namely which were inserted in the Nicene Creed at the Council of Constantinople (AD 381): Unity, Sanctity, Catholicity, and Apostolicity. These, it declares, distinguish it from every other body, and prove that in it alone is to be found the true religion.在討論的知名度教會(七)有人看到,天主教教會點,四個這樣的說明-即那些被列入尼西亞信經安理會在君士坦丁堡(公元3 81) :統一,神聖性,普遍性,並Apostolicity 。這些,它宣布,區別於其他機構,並證明它僅是要找到真正的宗教。 Each of these characteristics forms the subject of a special article in this work.所有這些特點的形式受到特別的文章在這項工作中。 Here, however, will be indicated the sense in which the terms are to he understood.在這裡,然而,將顯示的意義,其中的條件是他的理解。 A brief explanation of their meaning will show how decisive a proof they furnish that the society of Jesus Christ is none other than the Church in communion with the Holy See.簡短地解釋其含義將顯示如何決定性的證明,他們提供的社會耶穌基督無非是教會與聖座共融。

The Protestant reformers endeavoured to assign notes of the Church, such as might lend support to their newly-founded sects.新教改革者力圖轉讓說明會,如可能支持他們新近創立的教派。 Calvin declares that the Church is to be found "where the word of God is preached in its purity, and the sacraments administered according to Christ's ordinance" (Instit., Bk. IV, c. i; cf. Confessio August., art. 4).卡爾文宣布,教會是要找到“在上帝的話,是在宣揚純度和管理聖禮根據基督的條例” ( Instit. ,淺灘。四, C.我;比照。 Confessio 8月。 ,藝術。 4 ) 。 It is manifest that such notes are altogether nugatory.這是明顯的,這種說明是完全無效。 The very reason why notes are required at all is that men may be able to discern the word of God from the words of false prophets, and may know which religious body has a right to term its ceremonies the sacraments of Christ.非常說明原因需要在所有的是,男子可以看出上帝的話,從字的假先知,並可能知道哪個宗教機構有權長期的聖禮儀式的基督。 To say that the Church is to be sought where these two qualities are found cannot help us.如果說,教會要尋求這兩個地方被發現的素質不能幫助我們。 The Anglican Church adopted Calvin's account in its official formulary (Thirty-Nine Articles, art. 17); on the other hand, it retains the use of the Nicene Creed; though a profession of faith in a Church which is One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic, can have little meaning to those who are not in communion with the successor of Peter.聖公會通過卡爾文的帳戶在其官方公式( 39條,藝術。 17 ) ;另一方面,它保留使用的尼西亞信經,雖然職業的信念在教會這是一個,羅馬天主教和使徒,可沒有什麼意義的那些誰不共融的繼任者彼得。

Unity統一

The Church is One because its members;教會是一個,因為它的成員;

Are all united under one government大家都在一個團結政府

All profess the same faith所有信奉同樣的信念

All join in a common worship所有參加一個共同的崇拜

As already noted (XI) Christ Himself declared that the unity of his followers should bear witness to Him.如前所述(十一)基督親自宣布,團結他的追隨者應該見證他。 Discord and separation are the Devil's work on the earth.不和分居是魔鬼的工作地球上。 The unity and brotherhood promised by Christ are to be the visible manifestation on the earth of the Divine union (John 17:21).團結和兄弟情誼所承諾的基督將是明顯的表現地球上的神聖聯盟(約翰17:21 ) 。 St. Paul's teaching on this point is to the same effect.聖保祿教學在這一點上是相同的效果。 He sees in the visible unity of the body of Christ an external sign of the oneness of the Spirit who dwells within it.他認為,在可見的統一基督的奧體的外部標誌一體的精神誰談到內。 There is, he says, "one body and one Spirit" (Ephesians 4:4).因此,他說, “一個機構,一個精神” (以弗所書4時04分) 。 As in any living organism the union of the members in one body is the sign of the one animating principle within, so it is with the Church.正如在任何生物體的工會成員在一具屍體的標誌是一個生動活潑的原則範圍內,因此它是與教會。 If the Church were divided into two or more mutually exclusive bodies, how could she witness to the presence of that Spirit Whose name is Love.如果教會分成兩個或兩個以上相互排斥的機構,怎麼能看到她的存在是精神的名字是愛。 Further, when it is said that the members of the Church are united by the profession of the same faith, we speak of external profession as well as inward acceptance.此外,當有人說,各成員團結教會的專業相同的信念,我們講的外部專業以及抵港接受。 In recent years, much has been said by those outside the Church, about unity of spirit being compatible with differences of creed.近年來,已經說了許多人以外的教會,團結的精神正符合不同的信仰。 Such words are meaningless in reference to a Divine revelation.這樣的話是毫無意義中提到神的啟示。 Christ came from heaven to reveal the truth to man.基督來自天堂揭示真理的人。 If a diversity of creeds could be found in His Church, this could only be because the truth He revealed had been lost in the quagmire of human error.如果一個信仰的多樣性可以找到在他的教會,這只能是真理,因為他發現失去了在泥潭中人為錯誤。 It would signify that His work was frustrated, that His Church was no longer the pillar and ground of the truth.這將意味著他的工作感到失望,他的教會已不再是支柱和地面的真相。 There is, it is plain, but one Church, in which is found the unity we have described -- in the Catholic Church, united under the government of the supreme pontiff, and acknowledging all that he teaches in his capacity as the infallible guide of the Church.因此,它是平原,但一個教會,其中發現的團結,我們所描述的-在天主教教會,團結的政府最高教皇,並確認所有,他任教於身份的可靠指南教會。

Sanctity神聖

When the Church points to sanctity as one of her notes, it is manifest that what is meant is a sanctity of such a kind as excludes the supposition of any natural origin.當教堂的神聖點之一,她注意到,這是明顯的意思是神聖的,例如作為一種假設排除了任何自然來源。 The holiness which marks the Church should correspond to the holiness of its Founder, of the Spirit Who dwells within it, of the graces bestowed upon it. A quality such as this may well serve to distinguish the true Church from counterfeits.神聖這標誌著教會應符合其神聖的創始人,精神是誰居住在它的恩賜賦予它。質量,如這很可能有助於區分真正的教會由偽造的。 It is not without reason that the Church of Rome claims to be holy in this sense.這不是沒有原因,羅馬教會聲稱要在這個神聖的意義。 Her holiness appears in the doctrine which she teaches, in the worship she offers to God, in the fruits which she brings forth.她出現在神聖的理論,她任教,在崇拜她提供了上帝,在水果,她帶來了等等。

The doctrine of the Church is summed up in the imitation of Jesus Christ.該理論的總結會是在模仿耶穌。 This imitation expresses itself in good works, in self-sacrifice, in love of suffering, and especially in the practice of the three evangelical counsels of perfection -- voluntary poverty, chastity, and obedience.這種模仿表示自己的優秀作品,在自我犧牲精神,在愛的痛苦,特別是在實踐中的三個福音律師完美-自願貧窮,貞潔,服從。 The ideal which the Church proposes to us is a Divine ideal.理想的教會建議我們是一個神聖的理想。 The sects which have severed themselves from the Church have either neglected or repudiated some part of the Church's teaching in this regard.該教派已斷絕了自己的教會要么忽視或否定部分教會的教學在這方面。 The Reformers of the sixteenth century went so far as to deny the value of good works altogether.改革者的16世紀,竟然否認的價值的優秀作品了。 Though their followers have for the most part let fall this anti-Christian doctrine, yet to this day the self-surrender of the religious state is regarded by Protestants as folly.雖然他們的追隨者大部分是屬於這讓反基督教教義,但是這一天的自我投降的宗教國家看作是新教徒的蠢事。

The holiness of the Church's worship is recognized even by the world outside the Church.在聖潔的教會的崇拜甚至是公認的世界以外的教會。 In the solemn renewal of the Sacrifice of Calvary there lies a mysterious power, which all are forced to own.在莊嚴的續期犧牲髑髏在於有一個神秘的力量,這一切都是被迫的。 Even enemies of the Church realize the sanctity of the Mass.即使敵人的教會認識的神聖馬薩諸塞州

Fruits of holiness are not, indeed, found in the lives of all the Church's children.果不聖潔,事實上,發現生活中的所有教會的兒童。 Man's will is free, and though God gives grace, many who have been united to the Church by baptism make little use of the gift.人的意志是免費的,但上帝給的寬限期,許多誰已聯合教會的洗禮很少使用的禮物。 But at all times of the Church's history there have been many who have risen to sublime heights of self-sacrifice, of love to man, and of love to God.但是,在任何時候都教會的歷史有很多誰已經上升到崇高的高度自我犧牲,熱愛人類和上帝的愛。 It is only in the Catholic Church that is found that type of character which we recognize in the saints -- in men such as St. Francis Xavier, St. Vincent de Paul, and many others.只有在天主教即發現這種類型的特點,我們認識到在聖人-男子如聖芳濟,聖文森特德保羅,以及其他許多人。 Outside the Church men do not look for such holiness.教堂內外的男人不看這種神聖。 Moreover, the saints, and indeed every other member of the Church who has attained to any degree of piety, have been ever ready to acknowledge that they owe whatever is good in them to the grace the Church bestows.此外,聖人,實際上所有其他成員的教會誰已經達到任何程度的孝道,已以往任何時候都願意承認自己欠什麼是好的,他們的恩典教會推崇。

Catholicity天主教

Christ founded the Church for the salvation of the human race.耶穌教會創辦的拯救人類。 He established it that it might preserve His revelation, and dispense His grace to all nations. Hence it was necessary that it should be found in every land, proclaiming His message to all men, and communicating to them the means of grace.他建立了它,它可能保存他的啟示,並免去他的恩典於所有國家。因此,有必要,它應該在每一塊土地上,宣布他的訊息給所有男人,他們溝通的手段的寬限期。 To this end He laid on the Apostles the Injunction to "go, and teach all nations".為此,他把對使徒的禁令“走出去,並教所有國家。 ” There is, notoriously, but one religious body which fulfills this command, and which can therefore lay any claim to the note of Catholicity.目前,眾所周知的,而是一個宗教機構,它滿足了這個命令,並因此可以打下任何索賠的說明普遍性。 The Church which owns the Roman pontiff as its supreme head extends its ministrations over the whole world.教會擁有羅馬教皇為最高元首擴大其ministrations整個世界。 It owns its obligation to preach the Gospel to all peoples.它擁有履行其義務宣講福音所有人民。 No other Church attempts this task, or can use the title of Catholic with any appearance of justification.沒有任何其他教會的企圖這一任務,或可以使用的標題天主教與任何外觀的理由。 The Greek Church is at the present day a mere local schism. None of the Protestant bodies has ever pretended to a universal mission.希臘教會是在目前每天只有當地的分裂。無新教機構都假裝一個普遍的使命。 They claim no right to convert to their beliefs the Christianized nations of Europe. Even in regard to the heathen, for nearly two hundred years missionary enterprise was unknown among Protestant bodies.他們聲稱沒有權利轉化為自己的信念的Christianized歐洲國家。即使在關於異教徒,近二百年的傳教士企業之間是未知的新教機構。 In the nineteenth century, it is true, many of them displayed no little zeal for the conversion of the heathen, and contributed large sums of money for this purpose.在19世紀,這是事實,許多人表現出的熱情不小的轉換的異教徒,並促成了大量資金用於這一目的。 But the results achieved were so inadequate as to justify the conclusion that the blessing of God did not rest upon the enterprise.但是,所取得的成果是如此不足為理由的結論是上帝的祝福沒有其他的企業。 (See CATHOLIC MISSIONS; MISSIONS; PROTESTANT.) (見天主教任務;任務;新教) 。

Apostolicity

The Apostolicity of the Church consists in its identity with the body which Christ established on the foundation of the Apostles, and which He commissioned to carry on His work.該Apostolicity教會包括在其身份的機構,建立基督的基礎上,使徒,並委託他繼續進行他的工作。 No other body save this is the Church of Christ.沒有任何其他機構保存這是基督教會。 The true Church must be Apostolic in doctrine and Apostolic in mission.真正的教會使徒必須在理論和使徒的使命。 Since, however, it has already been shown that the gift of infallibility was promised to the Church, it follows that where there is Apostolicity of mission, there will also be Apostolicity of doctrine.但是,由於它已經表明,對犯錯誤的禮物答應教會,因此,那裡Apostolicity的使命,也將Apostolicity的理論。 Apostolicity of mission consists in the power of Holy orders and the power of jurisdiction derived by legitimate transmission from the Apostles. Apostolicity組成的特派團的力量,命令和羅馬的權力管轄範圍內得出的合法傳輸的使徒。 Any religious organization whose ministers do not possess these two powers is not accredited to preach the Gospel of Christ.任何宗教組織,其部長不具備這兩個權力是不認可的宣揚基督福音。 For "how shall they preach", asks the Apostle, "unless they be sent?"對於“應如何鼓吹” ,要求使徒, “除非他們被? ” (Romans 10:15). (羅馬書10:15 ) 。 It is Apostolicity of mission which is reckoned as a note of the Church.這是Apostolicity的任務是作為一個不可忽視注意到教會。 No historical fact can be more clear than that Apostolicity, if it is found anywhere, is found in the Catholic Church.沒有歷史事實可以更清楚地比Apostolicity ,如果發現任何地方,被發現在該教會。 In it there is the power of Holy orders received by Apostolic succession.在它存在的力量,羅馬教廷收到的訂單使徒繼承。 In it, too, there is Apostolicity of jurisdiction; for history shows us that the Roman bishop is the successor of Peter, and as such the centre of jurisdiction.在這份備忘錄中,也有Apostolicity管轄權;的歷史告訴我們,羅馬主教是彼得的繼任者,因此,中心的管轄範圍之內。 Those prelates who are united to the Roman See receive their jurisdiction from the pope, who alone can bestow it. No other Church is Apostolic.這些主教誰是團結的羅馬教廷收到其管轄範圍內的教宗,誰就可以賦予它。沒有其他教會的使徒。 The Greek church, it is true, claims to possess this property on the strength of its valid succession of bishops.希臘教會,這是真的,聲稱擁有這些財產的力量其有效的繼承主教。 But, by rejecting the authority of the Holy See, it severed itself from the Apostolic College, and thereby forfeited all jurisdiction.但是,反對權威的教廷,它斷絕了自己從使徒學院,從而沒收所有管轄範圍之內。 Anglicans make a similar claim. But even if they possessed valid orders, jurisdiction would be wanting to them no less than to the Greeks.聖公會作出類似的要求。不過,即使他們擁有有效的訂單,管轄權將要他們不得少於的希臘人。

XIII.十三。 THE CHURCH, A PERFECT SOCIETY教堂,一個完美的社會

The Church has been considered as a society which aims at a spiritual end, but which yet is a visible polity, like the secular polities among which it exists. It is, further, a "perfect society".教會一直被視為一個社會,其目的是一種精神結束,但尚未是一個明顯的政體一樣,世俗政體其中它的存在。是,進一步,一個“完美的社會。 ” The meaning of this expression, "a perfect society", should be clearly understood, for this characteristic justifies, even on grounds of pure reason, that independence of secular control which the Church has always claimed.的意義表達, “一個完美的社會” ,應清楚了解,為證明這一特點,即使在純粹的理由的理由,即獨立的世俗控制的教會一直聲稱。 A society may be defined as a number of men who unite in a manner more or less permanent in order, by their combined efforts, to attain a common good.一個社會可以被定義為一些男人誰團結的方式或多或少常任理事國,以便通過他們的共同努力,以實現共同利益。 Association of this kind is a necessary condition of civilization. An isolated individual can achieve but little.協會的這種是一個必要條件的文明。一個孤立的個人可以實現,但很少。 He can scarcely provide himself with necessary sustenance; much less can he find the means of developing his higher mental and moral gifts.他幾乎可以提供自己所需的生活資料,更可以找到他的手段發展他的更高的精神和道德的禮物。 As civilization progresses, men enter into various societies for the attainment of various ends.隨著文明的進步,男子進入各個社會為實現各種目的。 These organizations are perfect or imperfect societies.這些組織是完美的或不完善的社會。 For a society to be perfect, two conditions are necessary:對於一個社會是完美的,兩個條件是必要的:

The end which it proposes to itself must not be purely subordinate to the end of some other society.最終該建議本身不能純粹服從年底一些其他的社會。 For example, the cavalry of an army is an organized association of men; but the end for which this association exists is entirely subordinate to the good of the whole army.舉例來說,騎兵的軍隊是一個有組織的男子協會;但最終為這個協會存在完全是服從於好的全軍。 Apart from the success of the whole army, there can properly speaking be no such thing as the success of the lesser association.除了成功的全軍,就不可能正確地講是沒有什麼成功的小關聯。 Similarly, the good of the whole army is subordinate to the welfare of the State.同樣,良好的全軍服從的福利國家。

The society in question must be independent of other societies in regard to the attainment of its end.社會的問題必須是獨立的其它社會就實現其目標。 Mercantile societies, no matter how great their wealth and power, are imperfect; for they depend on the authority of the State for permission to exist.商品社會,無論多麼偉大的財富和權力,是不完善的;因為他們依賴於國家的權力允許存在。 So, too, a single family is an imperfect society.同樣,一個家庭是一個不完美的社會。 It cannot attain its end -- the well-being of its members -- in isolation from other families.它不能達到其目的-福祉的成員-孤立於其他家庭。 Civilized life requires that many families should cooperate to form a State.文明生活要求,許多家庭應進行合作,組成一個國家。

There are two societies which are perfect -- the Church and the State.有兩種社會是完美的-教會和國家。 The end of the State is the temporal welfare of the community.結束該國的時間社區福利。 It seeks to realize the conditions which are requisite in order that its members may be able to attain temporal felicity.它要求實現的條件是必要的,以便其成員可以實現時間幸福。 It protects the rights, and furthers the interests of the individuals and the groups of individuals which belong to it.它保護的權利,並進一步的利益,個人和個人團體屬於它。 All other societies which aim in any manner at temporal good are necessarily imperfect. Either they exist ultimately for the good of the State itself; or, if their aim is the private advantage of some of its members, the State must grant them authorization, and protect them in the exercise of their various functions. Should they prove dangerous to it, it justly dissolves them.所有其他社會目的以任何方式在時間上有一定良好的不完善。要么他們最終存在的良好的國家本身;或者,如果他們的目的是謀取私利的一些成員,國家必須給予授權,並保護他們在行使其各項職能。如果他們證明危險的,它理所當然溶解它們。 The Church also possesses the conditions requisite for a perfect society.教會還擁有必要的條件為一個完美的社會。 That its end is not subordinate to that of any other society is manifest: for it aims at the spiritual welfare, the eternal felicity, of man.其目的是不隸屬於任何其他社會體現:它的目的是福利的精神,永遠幸福的人。 This is the highest end a society can have; it is certainly not an end subordinate to the temporal felicity aimed at by the State.這是最高端的一個社會可以有,這是肯定不會結束服從顳幸福,旨在由國家負擔。 Moreover, the Church is not dependent on the permission of the State in the attaining of its end.此外,教會是不依賴於許可的國家在實現其目標。 Its right to exist is derived not from the permission of the State, but from the command of God.其生存權,推導出不准許從該國,而是來自上帝的命令。 Its right to preach the Gospel, to administer the sacraments, to exercise jurisdiction over its subjects, is not conditional on the authorization of the civil Government.它有權宣講福音,管理聖禮,行使管轄權,其科目,沒有條件的授權民間政府。 It has received from Christ Himself the great commission to teach all nations.它已收到來自基督自己的偉大委員會教所有國家。 To the command of the civil Government that they should desist from preaching, the Apostles replied simply that they ought to obey God rather than men (Acts 5:29).命令的民間政府,他們應停止說教,使徒回答簡單,他們應該服從上帝而不是男人(使徒五點29分) 。 Some measure of temporal goods is, indeed, necessary to the Church to enable it to carry out the work entrusted to it.某種程度的顳商品,實際上是要教會,使它能夠完成這項工作委託給它。 The State cannot justly prohibit it from receiving this from the benefactions of the faithful.國家不能公正禁止從收到此從benefactions的忠誠。 Those whose duty it is to achieve a certain end have a right to possess the means necessary to accomplish their task.那些責任是為實現某種目的有權利擁有必要的手段來完成其任務。

Pope Leo XIII summed up this doctrine in his Encyclical "Immortale Dei" (1 November, 1885) on the Christian constitution of States: "The Church", he says, "is distinguished and differs from civil society; and, what is of highest moment, it is a society chartered as of right divine, perfect in its nature and its title to possess in itself and by itself through the will and loving kindness of its Founder, all needful provision for its maintenance and action. And just as the end at which the Church aims is by far the noblest of ends, so is its authority the most excellent of all authority, nor can it be looked on as inferior to the civil power, or in any manner dependent upon it."教皇利奧十三世概括了這一理論在他的通諭“ Immortale羔羊” ( 1885年11月1號)對基督教憲法規定: “教會” ,他說, “是尊敬和不同於民間社會,以及什麼是最高目前,它是一個社會包機作為神聖的權利,完善其性質和其擁有所有權本身和通過本身的意志和慈愛的創始人,提供一切必要的維修和行動。就像結束在教會的目的是迄今為止最崇高的目的,因此它的權威是最優秀的一切權力,也不能袖手旁觀劣於民間力量,或以任何方式依賴於它。 “ It is to be observed that though the end at which the Church aims is higher than that of the State, the latter is not, as a society, subordinate to the Church.應該指出,雖然年底在教會的目標是高於國家,後者則不是,作為一個社會,服從教會。 The two societies belong to different orders.這兩個社會中屬於不同的命令。 The temporal felicity at which the State aims is not essentially dependent on the spiritual good which the Church seeks. Material prosperity and a high degree of civilization may be found where the Church does not exist.幸福的時間在該國的目的不是主要依靠良好的精神該教會要求。物質繁榮和高度的文明可能會發現那裡的教會是不存在的。 Each society is Supreme in its own order.每一個社會是最高法院在自己的秩序。 At the same time each contributes greatly to the advantage of the other.同時每個大大有助於的優勢,其他。 The church cannot appeal to men who have not some rudiments of civilization, and whose savage mode of life renders moral development impossible.教會不能上訴的男子誰沒有一些雛形的文明,其野蠻的生活模式使道德發展是不可能的。 Hence, though her function is not to civilize but to save souls, yet when she is called on to deal with savage races, she commences by seeking to communicate the elements of civilization to them.因此,儘管她的職能是不是文明,而是拯救靈魂,然而當她被要求處理野蠻的比賽,她開始尋求溝通的內容對他們的文明。 On the other hand, the State needs the Supernatural sanctions and spiritual motives which the Church impresses on its members.另一方面,國家需要超自然的制裁和精神動機教會的印象其成員。 A civil order without these is insecurely based.民事秩序,沒有這些是不安全的。

It has often been objected that the doctrine of the Church's independence in regard to the State would render civil government impossible.人們常常反對,認為該理論的教會的獨立性方面,國家將給予文官政府是不可能的。 Such a theory, it is urged, creates a State within a State; and from this, there must inevitably result a conflict of authorities each Claiming supreme dominion over the same subjects.這樣一種理論,它是敦促建立一個國中之國,並從這一點出發,就必須不可避免地導致衝突的每一個聲稱當局最高統治權相同的科目。 Such was the argument of the Gallican Regalists.這種說法是對高盧聖Regalists 。 The writers of this school, consequently, would not admit the claim of the Church to be a perfect society.作者的這所學校,因此,不承認索賠的教會是一個完美的社會。 They maintained that any jurisdiction which it might exercise was entirely dependent on the permission of the civil power.他們堅持認為,任何管轄權它可能演習是完全依賴於許可的民間力量。 The difficulty, however, is rather apparent than real.的困難,但是,是相當明顯的現實。 The scope of the two authorities is different, the one belonging to what is temporal, the other to what is spiritual.的範圍,這兩個主管機關是不同的,一個屬於是什麼時間,其他的是精神。 Even when the jurisdiction of the Church involves the use of temporal means and affects temporal interests, it does not detract from the due authority of the State.即使在管轄範圍內的教堂涉及使用時間的手段和影響時空的利益,它不偏離由於國家權力。 If difficulties arise, they arise, not by the necessity of the case, but from some extrinsic reason.如果出現困難,他們出現的,而不是必須的情況,但是從一些外在原因。 In the course of history, occasions have doubtless arisen, when ecclesiastical authorities have grasped at power which by right belonged to the State, and, more often still, when the State has endeavoured to arrogate to itself spiritual jurisdiction.在歷史過程中,多次出現無疑時,教會當局在掌握權力的權利屬於國家,以及更經常的是,當國家一直努力僭取的精神管轄範圍之內。 This, however, does not show the system to be at fault, but merely that human perversity can abuse it.然而,這並不表明,該系統的故障,而只是人類變態可以濫用。 So far, indeed, is it from being true that the Church's claims render government impossible, that the contrary is the case.到目前為止,確實是它被誠然,教會的索賠使政府不可能的,這是相反的情況。 By determining the just limits of liberty of conscience, they are a defence to the State.根據剛剛確定的限制自由的良心,他們是國防的國家。 Where the authority of the Church is not recognized, any enthusiast may elevate the vagaries of his own caprice into a Divine command, and may claim to reject the authority of the civil ruler on the plea that he must obey God and not man.凡權威的教會是不承認,任何發燒友可能會提高變幻無常自己的任性成一個神聖的命令,並可以要求拒絕權威的民間統治者的認罪,他必須服從上帝而不是人。 The history of John of Leyden and of many another self-styled prophet will afford examples in point.歷史上的約翰雷登和許多其他自封先知將提供這方面的例子。 The Church bids her members see in the civil power "the minister of God", and never justifies disobedience, except in those rare cases when the State openly violates the natural or the revealed law.教會成員的出價她看到民間力量“部長上帝” ,從來沒有理由不服從命令,除非在極少數情況下這些國家時,公然違反了自然的或法律的發現。 (See CIVIL ALLEGIANCE.) (見公民效忠。 )

Publication information Written by GH Joyce.出版信息撰稿生長激素喬伊斯。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯學者波特。 Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III.專門為無玷聖心的祝福聖母天主教百科全書,第三卷。 Published 1908. 1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. Nihil Obstat , 08年11月一日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

Among the writings of the Fathers, the following are the principal works which bear on the doctrine of the Church: ST.在寫作的父親,以下是主要承擔工程的理論,教會:意法半導體。 IRENÆUS, Adv.愛任紐,腺病毒。 Hereses in PG, VII; TERTULLIAN, De Prescriptionibus in PL, II; ST. Hereses的指引,七;良,德Prescriptionibus在特等,二;秘。 CYPRIAN, De Unitate Ecclesie in PL, IV; ST.塞浦路斯,德Unitate Ecclesie在特等,四;秘。 OPTATUS, De Schismate Donatistarum in PL, XI; ST. OPTATUS ,德Schismate Donatistarum在特等,十一;秘。 AUGUSTINE, Contra Donatistas, Contra Epistolas Parmeniani, Contra Litteras Petiliani in PL, XLIII; ST.奧古斯丁,魂斗羅Donatistas ,魂斗羅Epistolas Parmeniani ,魂斗羅Litteras Petiliani在特等,四十三;秘。 VINCENT OF LÉRINS, Commonitorium in PL, L. -- Of the theologians who in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries defended the Catholic Church against the Reformers may be mentioned: STAPLETON, Principiorum Fidei Doctrinalium Demonstratio (1574; Paris, 1620); BELLARMINE, Disputationes de Controversiis Fidei (1576; Prague, 1721); SUAREZ, Defensio Fidea Catholicoe adversus Anglicanoe Sectoe Errores (1613; Paris, 1859).文森特的LÉRINS , Commonitorium的特等,研究-的神學誰在1 6和1 7世紀捍衛天主教反對改革者可能會提到:特普爾頓, P rincipiorum信D octrinaliumD emonstratio( 1 574,巴黎, 1 620年) ;貝拉明, D isputationes Controversiis信德( 1576 ;布拉格, 1721 ) ;蘇亞雷斯, Defensio Fidea Catholicoe adversus Anglicanoe Sectoe Errores ( 1613 ,巴黎, 1859年) 。 -- Among more recent writers: MURRAY, De Ecclesiâ (Dublin, 1866); FRANZLIN, De Ecclesiâ (Rome, 1887); PALMIERI, De Romano Pontifice (Prato, 1891); DÖLLINGER, The First Age of the Church (tr. London, 1866); SCHANZ, A Christian Apology (tr. Dublin, 1892). -在最近的作者:穆雷,德教會(都柏林, 1 866年) ; F RANZLIN,德教會(羅馬, 1 887年) ;帕爾米耶,德普羅迪P ontifice(普拉托, 1 891年) ;多林格,第一時代的教堂(倫敦編輯部, 1866年) ;坎茲,基督教的道歉(編輯部都柏林, 1892年) 。 -- -

The following English works may also be noticed: WISEMAM, Lectures on the Church; NEWMAN, Development Of Christian Doctrine; IDEM, Difficulties Of Anglicans; MATHEW, ed., Ecclesia (London, 1907).下面的英文作品也可發現: WISEMAM ,講座教會;紐曼,發展基督教學說;同上,難點聖公會;馬修,編輯。 ,教會(倫敦, 1907年) 。 In special relation to recent rationaIist criticism regarding the primitive Church and its organization, may be noted: BATIFFOL, Etudes d'histoire et de la théologie positive (Paris, 1906); important articles by Mgr.在特殊的關係最近rationaIist批評有關原始教會和組織,可能會注意到: BATIFFOL ,德歷史研究等德拉魯阿積極神學(巴黎, 1906年) ;重要條款的主教。 Batiffol will also he found in the Bulletin de littérature ecclésiastique for 1904, 1905, 1906, and in the Irish Theological Quarterly for 1906 and 1907; DE SMEDT in the Revue des questions historiques (1888, 1891), vols. Batiffol也將他發現在公告的文學ecclésiastique的1904年, 1905年, 1906年,在愛爾蘭的神學季刊1906年和1907年;德國SMEDT在雜誌歷史問題( 1888年, 1891年) ,第一卷和第二卷。 XLIV, CL; BUTLER in The Dublin Review (1893, 1897), vols. CXIII, CXXI.四十四,發光;巴特勒的都柏林審查( 1893年, 1897年) ,第一卷和第二卷。 CXIII , CXXI 。 The following works are by Anglican divines of various schools of thought: PALMER, Treatise on the Church (1842); GORE, Lux Mundi (London, 1890); IDEM, The Church and the Ministry (London, 1889); HORT, The Christian Ecciesia (London, 1897); LIGHTFOOT, the dissertation entitled The Christian Ministry in his Commentary on Epistle to Philippians (London, 1881); GAYFORD in HASTING, Dict.以下工程由英國聖公會divines的各種思想流派:帕爾默,傷寒論教會( 1842年) ;戈爾,盧克斯曼迪(倫敦, 1890年) ;同上,教會和教育部(倫敦, 1889年) ;園藝,基督教Ecciesia (倫敦, 1897年) ;娜萊的論文題為部基督教在他的評書腓利(倫敦, 1881年) ;蓋福德在哈斯丁,快譯通。 of Bible, sv Church.聖經,希沃特教會。 Amongst rationalist critics may be mentioned: HARNACK, History of Dogma (tr. London, 1904); IDEM, What is Christianity?其中理性的批評可能會提到:哈納克,歷史的法則(編輯部倫敦, 1904年) ;同上,什麼是基督教? (tr. London, 1901), and articles in Expositor (1887), vol. (編輯部倫敦, 1901 ) ,和文章Expositor ( 1887年) ,第二卷。 V; HATCH, Organization of the Early Christian Churches (London, 1880); WEISZÄCKER, Apostolic Age (tr. London, 1892); SABATIER, Religions of Authority and the Religion of the Spirit (tr. London, 1906); LOWRIE, The Church and its Organization -- an Interpretation of Rudolf Sohm's 'Kirchenrecht" (London, 1904). With these may be classed: LOISY, L'Evangile et l'Eglise (Paris, 1902).五,孵化,組織的早期基督教會(倫敦, 1880年) ; WEISZÄCKER ,使徒時代(編輯部倫敦, 1892年) ;薩巴蒂爾,宗教機構和宗教精神(編輯部倫敦, 1906年) ; LOWRIE ,該教會和它的組織-解讀魯道夫佐姆的' K irchenrecht“ (倫敦, 1 904年) 。隨著這些可能被歸類:盧瓦西,歐萊雅吉爾徽章等近教堂(巴黎, 1 902年) 。


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