Humanism以人為本

General Information 一般信息

Humanism, an educational and philosophical outlook that emphasizes the personal worth of the individual and the central importance of human values as opposed to religious belief, developed in Europe during the Renaissance, influenced by the study of ancient Greek and Latin literature and philosophy.以人為本,教育和哲學觀,強調個人價值,個人和中央重視人的價值,而不是宗教信仰,發達國家在歐洲文藝復興時期,影響了研究古代希臘和拉丁文學和哲學。 Humanism thus began as an educational program called the humanities, which inculcated those ancient secular values which were consistent with Christian teachings.人文從而開始作為一個教育計劃要求的人文,這灌輸這些古代的世俗價值觀,也符合基督教教義。 The Renaissance humanists were often devout Christians, but they promoted secular values and a love of pagan antiquity.文藝復興時期的人文主義往往被虔誠的基督徒,但他們提倡世俗的價值觀和愛情的古代異教。

Renaissance Humanism文藝復興時期的人文主義

The founder of Renaissance humanism was Petrarch (1304-74), an Italian poet and man of letters who attempted to apply the values and lessons of antiquity to questions of Christian faith and morals in his own day.的創始人是文藝復興時期的人文主義彼得拉克( 1304至1374年) ,意大利詩人,文學家誰企圖適用的價值和教訓的問題古代的基督教信仰和道德在自己的一天。 By the late 14th century, the term studia humanitatis ("humanistic studies") had come to mean a well-defined cycle of education, including the study of grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry, and moral philosophy, based on Latin authors and classical texts.到了14世紀,任期人文學科( “人文研究” )已經到來意味著一個明確的週期的教育,包括學習語法,修辭,歷史,詩歌,哲學和道德的基礎上,拉丁美洲作家和經典案文。 Key in ensuring the permanence of humanism after Petrarch's initial success was the Florentine chancellor Coluccio Salutati (1331-1406), who wrote many learned treatises and kept up a massive correspondence with his literary contemporaries.在確保重點永恆的人文精神後,彼得拉克的初步成功是佛羅倫薩校長科盧喬薩盧塔蒂( 1331年至1406年) ,誰寫了許多論文和經驗教訓不斷大量信件與他同時代的文學作品。 Salutati, together with his younger follower Leonardo Bruni (1369-1444), used the studia humanitatis as the basis for a life of active service to state and society.薩盧塔蒂,連同他的追隨者列奧納多布魯尼( 1369年至1444年) ,利用人文學科為基礎,生活的積極服務國家和社會。 Bruni in particular created a new definition of Florence's republican traditions, and defended the city in panegyrics and letters.布魯尼特別是創造了一個新的定義,佛羅倫薩的共和傳統,捍衛了城市panegyrics和字母。

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The 14th-century humanists had relied mainly on Latin.在14世紀人文主義的主要依賴於拉丁美洲。 In the early 15th century, however, classical Greek became a major study, providing scholars with a fuller, more accurate knowledge of ancient civilization.早在15世紀,然而,古典希臘成為一個重大的研究中,學者提供了充分,更準確地了解古代文明。 Included were many of the works of Plato, the Homeric epics, the Greek tragedies, and the narratives of Plutarch and Xenophon. Poggio Bracciolini (1380-1459), a chancellor of Florence and papal secretary, discovered important classical texts, studied Roman ruins and inscriptions, and created the study of classical archaeology.包括了許多作品,柏拉圖,荷馬史詩,希臘悲劇,並說明普魯塔克和色諾芬。波焦布拉喬利尼( 1380至1459年) ,一個校長的佛羅倫薩和羅馬教皇秘書,發現重要的經典文本,研究古羅馬廢墟和碑文,並建立了研究古典考古學。 Poggio also criticized the corruption and hypocrisy of his age in biting satire and well-argued dialogues.波焦還批評了腐敗和虛偽,他的年齡在咬諷刺和論據充分的對話。 Lorenzo Valla (c. 1407-57), one of the greatest classical scholars and text editors of his age, proved that the Donation of Constantine, a medieval document that supported papal claims to temporal authority, was a forgery.洛倫索瓦拉(角1407年至1457年) ,最偉大的古典學者和文字編輯器把他的年齡,證明了獻血的君士坦丁,中世紀的文件,支持羅馬教皇聲稱顳權威,是偽造的。

The founding (c. 1450) of the Platonic Academy in Florence by Cosimo de'Medici signaled a shift in humanist values from political and social concerns to speculation about the nature of humankind and the cosmos. Scholars such as Marsilio Ficino and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola used their knowledge of Greek and Hebrew to reconcile Platonic teachings with Jewish mysticism, the Hermetic tradition, and Christian orthodoxy in the search for a philosophia perennia (a philosophy that would be always true).成立(角1450 )的柏拉圖學院在佛羅倫薩的科西莫de'Medici暗示轉向以人為本的價值觀從政治和社會的關注猜測的性質,人類和宇宙。學者如Marsilio菲奇諾和喬瓦微微意大利米蘭多拉用他們的知識,希臘和希伯來語調和柏拉圖教誨與猶太神秘主義的封閉的傳統,與基督教的正統在尋求哲學perennia (一理念,將總是如此) 。

The work of Italian humanists soon spread north of the Alps, finding a receptive audience among English thinkers such as John Colet (c. 1467-1519), who applied the critical methods developed in Italy to the study of the Bible.這項工作的意大利人文主義很快蔓延北部的阿爾卑斯山,找到一個接受英語受眾的思想家之一,如約翰Colet (角1467年至1519年) ,誰的關鍵應用開發方法在意大利的研究聖經。 Desiderius Erasmuy of the Netherlands was the most influential of the Christian humanists. In his Colloquies and Praise of Folly (1509), Erasmus satirized the corruptions of his contemporaries, especially the clergy, in comparison with the teachings of the Bible, early Christianity, and the best of pagan thinkers.伊拉斯Erasmuy荷蘭是最有影響力的基督教人文主義者。 Colloquies在他和讚美的愚蠢( 1509年) ,伊拉斯謨的腐敗諷刺他的同時代人,尤其是神職人員,相對於教導聖經,早期基督教,並最好的異教思想家。 In his Adages (1500 and later editions), he showed the consistency of Christian teachings with ancient pagan wisdom.在他的Adages ( 1500和更高版本) ,他表現的一致性基督教教義與古代異教徒的智慧。 Erasmus devoted most of his energy and learning, however, to establishing sound editions of the sources of the Christian tradition, such as his Greek New Testament (1516) and translations of the Greek and Latin Fathers of the Church.伊拉斯謨專門討論他的大部分能源和學習,然而,建立健全版本的來源基督教傳統,如希臘新約( 1516 )和翻譯希臘和拉丁教父的教會。 Erasmus' friend Thomas More wrote yet another humanist critique of society--Utopia (1516), which attacked the corruptions of power, wealth, and social status.伊拉斯謨'的朋友寫信托馬斯莫爾的又一人文社會批判-烏托邦( 1 516) ,其中攻擊腐敗的權力,財富和社會地位。 By the middle of the 16th century humanism had won wide acceptance as an educational system.由中間的16世紀人文精神贏得廣泛接受的教育體系。

Later Types of Humanism後來類型的人文主義

By the 18th century the word humanism had come to be identified with a purely secular attitude--one that often rejected Christianity altogether.到18世紀人文主義一詞來確定與一個純粹的世俗態度-一個往往拒絕接受基督教完全。 In the 20th century the term has taken on a number of different, often conflicting, meanings.在20世紀的任期已經採取了一些不同的,往往相互衝突的含義。 In the works of the pragmatist philosopher Ferdinand Schiller (1864-1937) humanism is seen as that philosophical understanding which stems from human activity.在工程的實用主義哲學家費迪南德席勒( 1864年至1937年)的人文主義被看作是哲學的理解源自人類活動。 Irving Babbitt used the word to describe a program of reaction against romanticism and naturalism in literature.歐文巴比特用這個詞來描述一個程序的反應對浪漫主義和自然主義文學。 Jean Paul Sartre developed a scientific humanism preaching human worth based on Marxist theory, and the Roman Catholic Jacques Maritain tried to formulate a new Christian humanism based on the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas.薩特制定了科學的人文主義宣揚人的價值為基礎的馬克思主義理論,和羅馬天主教雅克馬里丹試圖制定新的基督教人文精神的基礎上的哲學多瑪斯。 The American Humanist Association, which grew out of the Unitarian movement, holds that human beings can satisfy religious needs from within, discarding the concept of God as inconsistent with advanced thought and human freedom.美國人文協會,前身是統一行動,認為人類能夠滿足宗教需要從內,丟棄的概念,上帝不符合先進的思想和人的自由。 In recent years, fundamentalist Christian groups in the United States have declared their opposition to "secular humanism," an antireligious ideology that they believe pervades American society, including the major churches, and that they blame for its moral failings.近年來,原教旨主義的基督教團體在美國已宣布他們反對“世俗人文主義, ”一個antireligious思想,他們認為美國社會普遍存在,包括主要的教會,他們指責其道義上的失誤。

Benjamin G. Kohl本傑明灣科爾

Bibliography: Bullock, Alan, The Humanist Tradition in the West (1985); Garin, Eugenio, Italian Humanism (1966); Kohl, Benjamin G., and Witt, Ronald G., eds., The Earthly Republic: Italian Humanists on Government and Society (1978); Kristeller, Paul O., Renaissance Thought and Its Sources (1979); Nash, Paul, Models of Man (1968); Trinkaus, Charles, The Scope of Renaissance Humanism (1983).參考書目:布洛克,阿蘭,人文主義傳統在西方( 1985年) ;加林,歐亨尼奧,意大利人( 1966年) ;科爾,本傑明灣,和維特,羅納德灣合編。 ,在地球共和國:意大利人文主義政府與社會( 1978年) ;克里斯特勒,保羅著,文藝復興時期的思想及其來源( 1979年) ;納什,保羅,模型的人( 1968年) ;特林,查爾斯的範圍,文藝復興時期的人文主義( 1983年) 。


Christian Humanism基督教人文

General Information 一般信息

The Roman Catholic Jacques Maritain tried to formulate a new Christian humanism based on the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas. The American Humanist Association, which grew out of the Unitarian movement, holds that human beings can satisfy religious needs from within, discarding the concept of God as inconsistent with advanced thought and human freedom. In recent years, fundamentalist Christian groups in the United States have declared their opposition to "secular humanism," an antireligious ideology that they believe pervades American society, including the major churches, and that they blame for its moral failings.羅馬天主教雅克馬里丹試圖制定新的基督教人文精神的基礎上的哲學多瑪斯。美國人文協會,前身是統一行動, 認為人類能夠滿足宗教需要從內,丟棄的概念作為上帝不符合先進的思想和人的自由。近年來,原教旨主義的基督教團體在美國已宣布他們反對“世俗人文主義, ”一個antireligious思想,他們認為美國社會普遍存在,包括主要的教會,他們指責其道義上的失誤。


Christian Humanism基督教人文

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The view that individuals and their culture have value in the Christian life.認為個人和他們的文化價值在基督徒的生活。 Justin Martyr appears to have been the first to offer a formulation of Christianity that included an acceptance of classical achievements as he stated in the Apology (1.46) that Christ the Word had put culture under his control.賈斯汀烈士似乎已經率先制定提供了基督教,其中包括接受古典的成就,他指出道歉( 1.46 )基督的Word把文化在其控制下。 Such an approach, he believed, would restrain believers from leading vulgar lives while at the same time keeping them from attaching more importance to human culture than to the truths of the faith.這種做法,他認為,將限制信徒領先的庸俗生活,同時使他們從重視更加重視人類文化的比對真理的信仰。

During the Middle Ages little attention was paid to humanism, but with the beginning of the Renaissance there was a revival of that perspective.在中世紀很少注意人文,但與年初文藝復興時期有一個復甦的觀點。 Renaissance humanism was both an outlook and a method. It has been described as "man's discovery of himself and the world." The worth of earthly existence for its own sake was accepted, and the otherworldliness of medieval Christianity was disparaged. Humanists believed that the pursuit of secular life was not only proper but even meritorious.文藝復興時期的人文主義既是世界觀和方法。它被稱為“人的發現自己和世界。 ”的價值人間存在本身被接受,並otherworldliness中世紀基督教的詆毀。人文主義認為,追求世俗的生活不僅是正確的,但即使功勳。

Closely allied to the new view of worldly life was a devotion to nature and its beauty as part of a broadened religious outlook.密切相關的新觀點世俗生活是一個奉獻的性質和它的美的一部分,擴大宗教觀。 Yet Renaissance humanism must be viewed from another vantage point. Those involved in the movement were devoted to the studia humanitatis, or the liberal arts, including history, literary criticism, grammar, poetry, philology, and rhetoric.然而,文藝復興時期的人文主義必須被視為從另一個角度。那些參與運動的專門學科人文,或文科,包括歷史,文學批評,文法,詩歌,哲學,以及言論。 These subjects were taught from classical texts of the Greco - Roman period and were intended to help students understand and deal with other people.這些受試者教授從古典文本的希臘-羅馬時代和旨在幫助學生認識和對待其他人。 In addition, the humanists valued ancient artifacts and manuscripts and tried to revive classical life styles.此外,人文主義價值古代文物和手稿,並試圖恢復傳統的生活方式。

Many Christians, including Savonarola and Zwingli, reacted against the more secular approach of humanism; but others such as John Colet, Thomas More, and Erasmus felt that great benefits would come from the revival of classicism and the development of historical criticism.許多基督徒,包括薩沃納羅拉和茨溫利,反應更對世俗人文主義的辦法,但其他如約翰Colet ,托馬斯莫爾和伊拉斯謨認為,巨大的利益將來自古典復興和發展的歷史批評。 It has been pointed out that even John Calvin reveals the influence of humanism.有人指出,即使約翰凱爾文揭示了人文主義的影響。 The new Renaissance philological tools were helpful in studying the Bible, and the ancient view of man held the promise for better government and greater social justice.新文藝復興時期的語文工具,有助於研究聖經和古代人認為舉行的承諾,更好地政府和更大的社會正義。 A wedding of the ethical and social concern of the Renaissance with the introspective force of Christianity held the possibility for church renewal in the minds of many sixteenth century scholars.婚禮的道德和社會關注的文藝復興與反省力的基督教的可能性舉行了教堂重建的頭腦中許多16世紀的學者。 Christian humanist teaching was kept alive by many Anglicans, by the moderates in the Church of Scotland, by certain German pietists, and through the philosophy of Kant.基督教人文教學,是維持生命的許多聖公會,由溫和派在教會的蘇格蘭,德國的某些虔誠主義者,並通過對康德哲學。 It continues in the twentieth century among such writers as Jacques Maritain and Hans Kung.它繼續在二十世紀等作家之間的雅克馬里丹和漢斯昆。

Those who believe that the Christian revelation has a humanistic emphasis point to the fact that man was made in the image of God, that Jesus Christ became man through the incarnation, and that the worth of the individual is a consistent theme in the teaching of Jesus.這些誰認為,基督教的啟示了人文強調指出這樣一個事實,即男子在形象的上帝,耶穌基督成為人的化身,而價值的個人是一貫的主題教學中的耶穌。 Indeed, when asked to give a summary of the life that pleases God, Christ advised his listeners to "love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind" and to "love your neighbor as yourself" (Matt. 22:37, 39).事實上,當問及摘要的生活,隨心所欲的上帝,基督告知他的聽眾,以“愛主你的上帝用你的心,並與所有你的靈魂,並與所有您的想法”和“愛你的鄰居作為自己“ (瑪特泰22:37 , 39 ) 。

Christian humanists acknowledge the contributions of other forms of humanism, such as the classical variety that discovered the value of human liberty, and the Marxists, who realize that man has been estranged from the good life because he is dispossessed of property and subordinated to material and economic forces.基督教人文主義承認的貢獻,其他形式的人文主義,如古典的各種發現的價值,人類的自由,以及馬克思主義者,誰認識到,男子已被疏遠的美好生活,因為他是一無所有的財產和服從於物質和經濟力量。 However, they caution that these other forms can degenerate into excessive individualism or savage collectivism because they operate without God.然而,他們也警告說,這些其他形式可以演變成過度的個人主義或集體主義野蠻操作,因為他們沒有上帝。 The Christian humanist values culture but confesses that man is fully developed only as he comes into a right relationship with Christ.基督教人文價值的文化,但承認人是全面發展不僅因為他進入的權利與基督的關係。 When this happens, a person can begin to experience growth in all areas of life as the new creation of revelation (2 Cor. 5:17; Gal. 6:15).在這種情況下,一個人可以開始增長的經驗在生活的各個領域作為新成立的啟示( 2肺心病。 5時17 ;半乳糖。 6:15 ) 。

RG Clouse的RG克勞斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
L Bouyer, Christian Humanism; Q Breen, John Calvin: A Study in French Humanism; H Kung, On Being a Christian; J Maritain, True Humanism; JI Packer, Knowing Man; G Toffanin, History of Humanism; C Trinkaus, In Our Image and Likeness; W Bouwsma, The Interpretation of Renaissance Humanism. L Bouyer ,基督教人文精神; Q布林,約翰卡爾文:一個研究法國人; H西貢,被一個基督教; J旦,真正的人文精神;季封,知民; G Toffanin ,歷史人文; ç特林,在我們的圖像和肖像; W Bouwsma ,解讀文藝復興時期的人文精神。


Humanism以人為本

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Humanism is the name given to the intellectual, literary, and scientific movement of the fourteenth to the sixteenth centuries, a movement which aimed at basing every branch of learning on the literature and culture of classical antiquity.以人為本的名稱是考慮到智力,文學,科學運動的第十四到第十六世紀,一個運動,其目的是根據每一個學科的文學和文化的古代。

Believing that a classical training alone could form a perfect man, the Humanists so called themselves in opposition to the Scholastics, and adopted the term humaniora (the humanities) as signifying the scholarship of the ancients. Though the interval between the classical period and their own days was regarded by the Humanists as barbarous and destructive alike of art and science, Humanism (like every other historical phenomenon) was connected with the past.相信一個經典的訓練本身就可以形成一個完美的人,在所謂的人文主義自己反對Scholastics ,並通過了中期humaniora (人文)為標誌的獎學金古人。雖然之間的間隔古典時期和他們自己的被視為天的人文主義的野蠻和破壞性都對藝術和科學,人文(如所有其他歷史現象)是與過去的。 The use of Latin in the Liturgy of the Church had already prepared Europe for the humanistic movement.使用拉丁語中的聖禮的教會已經準備歐洲的人文運動。 In the Middle Ages, however, classical literature was regarded merely as a means of education; it was known through secondary sources only, and the Church saw in the worldly conception of life that had prevailed among the ancients an allurement to sin.在中世紀,然而,古典文學被視為僅僅作為一種教育手段,這是已知的通過只是次要來源,並教會了在世俗觀念生活中普遍存在古人的誘惑,以罪孽。 On the rise of secularism these views underwent a change, especially in Italy.在崛起的世俗這些意見進行了修改,特別是在意大利。 In that country the body politic had grown powerful, the cities had amassed great wealth, and civic liberty was widespread.在該國的政治體增長有力,城市已積聚大量財富,自由和公民普遍。 Worldly pleasure became a strong factor in life and freer play was given to sensory impulse.世高興地成為一個重要的因素,生命和自由的發揮給予了感官衝動。 The transcendental, unworldly concept of life, which had till then been dominant, now came into conflict with a mundane, human, and naturalistic view, which centred on nature and man.先驗, unworldly概念的生活,到了後來被佔主導地位,現在來到納入衝突與世俗,人力和自然主義的觀點,集中在自然和人為。 These new ideas found their prototypes in antiquity, whose writers cherished and extolled the enjoyment of life, the claims of individuality, literary art and fame, the beauty of nature. Not only ancient Roman culture but also the hitherto neglected Greek culture was taken up by the movement.這些新的想法找到他們的原型在古代,其作者珍惜和讚美的享受生活,索賠的個性,文學藝術和名聲,大自然美景。不僅古羅馬文化,而且迄今被忽視的希臘文化是採取行動該運動。 The new spirit broke away from theology and Church. The principle of free, scientific inquiry gained ground.新的精神脫離神學和教會。原則自由,科學探究上漲。 It was quite natural that the value of the new ideal should be exaggerated while the medieval national culture was undervalued.這是很自然的價值的新的理想應該被誇大,而中世紀的民族文化被低估。

It is customary to begin the history of Humanism with Dante (1265-1321), and Petrarch (1304-74).這是習慣開始的歷史人文與但丁( 1265至1321年) ,並彼得拉克( 1304年至1374年) 。 Of the two Dante, by reason of his poetic sublimity, was undoubtedly the greater; but, as regards Humanism Dante was merely its precursor while Petrarch initiated the movement and led it on to success.兩個但丁,因他詩意的崇高,無疑是更大的,但是,對於人文但丁只是它的前體,而彼得拉克發起的運動,並導致它的成功。 Dante certainly shows traces of the coming change; in his great epic classical and Christian materials are found side by side, while poetic renown, an aim so characteristic of the pagan writers yet so foreign to the Christian ideal, is what he seeks.當然但丁的痕跡表明在未來的變化;在他的偉大史詩古典和基督教的材料,發現並排,而詩意的知名度,目的是使特有的異教徒作家卻又如此的外國基督教的理想,是他要求。 In matters of real importance, however, he takes the Scholastics as his guides. Petrarch, on the other hand, is the first Humanist; he is interested only in the ancients and in poetry.在實際問題的重要性,然而,他採取的Scholastics他的指南。彼得拉克,另一方面,是第一個以人為本;他感興趣的只是古人和詩歌。 He unearths long-lost manuscripts of the classics, and collects ancient medals and coins.他unearths失散多年的手稿的經典,並收集古代獎牌和硬幣。 If Dante ignored the monuments of Rome and regarded its ancient statues as idolatrous images, Petrarch views the Eternal City with the enthusiasm of a Humanist, not with that of a pious Christian.如果忽視了但丁的羅馬古蹟,並認為它的古代雕像的盲目崇拜的圖像,彼得拉克意見的永恆之城與熱情的人文,而不是同一個虔誠的基督徒。 The ancient classics -- especially his lodestars, Virgil and Cicero -- serve not merely to instruct and to charm him; they also incite him to imitation.古代經典-尤其是他l odestars,維吉爾和西塞羅-服務不只是指示和他的魅力,他們還煽動他模仿。 With the philosophers of old he declared virtue and truth to be the highest goal of human endeavour, although in practice he was not always fastidious in cultivating them.隨著舊的哲學家,他宣布美德和真理為最高目標的人的努力,但實際上他並不總是挑剔的培養他們。 However, it was only in his third aim, eloquence, that he rivalled the ancients.然而,這只是在他的第三個目標,雄辯的口才,他不亞於古人。 His ascent of Mont Ventoux marks an epoch in the history of literature.他登上勃朗峰Ventoux標誌著一個劃時代的歷史文獻。 His joy in the beauty of nature, his susceptibility to the influence of landscape, his deep sympathy with, and glorious portrayal of, the charms of the world around him were a break with the traditions of the past.他很高興在美麗的大自然,他的遺傳易感性的影響景觀,他深切的同情,並光榮形象的魅力,周圍的世界他是一個打破傳統的過去。 In 1341 he gained at Rome the much coveted crown of the poet laureate.在1341年,他在羅馬獲得了很多覬覦冠軍的桂冠詩人。 His Latin writings were most highly prized by his contemporaries, who ranked his "Africa" with the "Æneid" of Virgil, but posterity prefers his sweet, melodious sonnets and canzoni.他的著作是拉丁美洲最珍貴的,他的同時代人,誰排他的“非洲”與“埃涅阿斯紀”的維吉爾,但他的後代更喜歡甜,悠揚的十四行詩和canzoni 。 His chief merit was the impulse he gave to the search for the lost treasures of classical antiquity.他的主要優點是衝動他尋找失去的珍寶古代。 His chief disciple and friend, Boccaccio (1313-75), was honoured in his lifetime not for his erotic and lewd, though elegant and clever, "Decameron" (by which, however, posterity remembers him), but for his Latin works which helped to spread Humanism.他的首席弟子和朋友,薄伽丘( 1313至1375年) ,很榮幸在他有生之年,他沒有色情和淫穢,但優雅和聰明, “十日談” (其中,但後人記住他) ,但對於他的拉美作品幫助傳播人文精神。 The classical studies of Petrarch and Boccaccio were shared by Coluccio Salutato (d. 1406), the Florentine chancellor.經典研究拉克和薄伽丘也有同感科盧喬Salutato (草1406 ) ,佛羅倫薩總理。 By introducing the epistolary style of the ancients he brought classical wisdom into the service of the State, and by his tastes and his prominence greatly promoted the cause of literature.通過引入書信體風格的古人,他帶來了經典的智慧變成服務的國家,他的品味和他的突出極大地推動了文學事業。

The men of the revival were soon followed by a generation of itinerant teachers and their scholars.該男子很快復甦之後,新一代的巡迴教師和學者。 Grammarians and rhetoricians journeyed from city to city, and spread the enthusiasm for antiquity to ever-widening circles; students travelled from place to place to become acquainted with the niceties of an author's style and his interpretation.文法學家和rhetoricians journeyed從城市和傳播古代的熱情,以不斷擴大的圈子;學生前往地點熟悉細節的作者的風格和他的解釋。 Petrarch lived to see Giovanni di Conversino set out on his journey as itinerant professor.彼得拉克活著看到喬萬尼迪Conversino闡述他的旅程作為巡迴教授。 From Ravenna came Giovanni Malpaghini, gifted with a marvellous memory and a burning zeal for the new studies, though more skilled in imparting inherited and acquired knowledge than in the elaboration of original thought.來自Ravenna來到喬瓦尼Malpaghini ,天才與神奇的記憶和燃燒的熱情為新的研究,但更多的技能傳授繼承和獲得的知識比原來擬定的思想。 In another way the soul of literary research was Poggio (1380-1459), a papal secretary and later Florentine chancellor.以另一種方式的靈魂,文學研究是波焦( 1380年至1459年) ,教皇秘書,後來佛羅倫薩總理。 During the sessions of the Council of Constance (1414-18) he ransacked the monasteries and institutions of the neighbourhood, made valuable discoveries, and "saved many works" from the "cells" (ergastula).會議期間理事會的康斯坦茨( 1414年至1418年) ,他洗劫了寺廟和機構的地區,提出了寶貴的發現,和“挽救了許多人的作品”從“細胞” ( ergastula ) 。 He found and transcribed Quintilian with his own hand, had the first copies made of Lucretius, Silius Italicus, and Ammianus Marcellinus, and, probably, he discovered the first books of the "Annals" of Tacitus.他發現和轉錄Quintilian自己的手,有第一次的副本了路克勒丟思, Silius Italicus ,並Ammianus利努斯,並可能,他發現的第一本書的“春秋”的塔西圖。 About 1430 practically all the Latin works now known had been collected, and scholars could devote themselves to the revision of the text.約14時30幾乎所有的拉美目前已知的作品已收集了,學者可以把自己的修訂案文。 But the real source of classic beauty was Greek literature.但真正的來源,是典型的美希文獻。 Italians had already gone to Greece to study the language, and since 1396 Manuel Chrysoloras, the first teacher of Greek in the West, was busily engaged at Florence and elsewhere.意大利已到希臘來研究語言,自1396年曼努埃爾Chrysoloras ,首先教師希臘在西方,是忙於在佛羅倫薩和其他地方。 His example was followed by others.他的榜樣隨後其他人。 In Greece also, a zealous search was instituted for literary remains, and in 1423 Aurispa brought two hundred and thirty-eight volumes to Italy.在希臘也,一個熱心的搜尋提起的文學依然存在,並在1423 Aurispa帶來了238卷到意大利。 The most diligent collector of inscriptions, coins, gems, and medals was the merchant Ciriaco of Ancona.最勤奮的題詞收藏家,錢幣,寶石,和獎牌是商家Ciriaco安科納。 Among those present from Greece at the Council of Florence were Archbishop (afterwards Cardinal) Bessarion, who presented to Venice his valuable collection of nine hundred volumes, also Gemistos Plethon, the celebrated teacher of Platonic philosophy, who subsequently relapsed into paganism.其中來自希臘目前在安理會的佛羅倫薩被大主教(事後紅衣主教)貝薩利昂,誰到威尼斯提出了寶貴的收集900卷,還Gemistos Plethon ,慶祝教師的柏拉圖哲學,誰後來到異教復發。 The capture of Constantinople by the Turks (1453) drove the learned Greeks, George of Trebizond, Theodorus Gaza, Constantine Lascaris, etc., into Italy.捕捉君士坦丁堡的土耳其人( 1453 )將希臘人的經驗教訓,喬治的特拉比松,西奧多加沙地帶,君士坦丁Lascaris等,到意大利。 One of the most successful critics and editors of the classics was Lorenzo Valla (1407-57). He pointed out the defects in the Vulgate, and declared the Donation of Constantine a fable.其中最成功的評論家和編輯的經典是洛倫索瓦拉( 1407年至1457年) 。他指出,缺陷武加大譯本,並宣布捐贈君士坦丁一個寓言。 Despite his vehement attacks on the papacy, Nicholas V brought him to Rome.儘管他的強烈攻擊教皇尼古拉V帶他到羅馬。 Within a short period, the new studies claimed a still wider circle of votaries.在短期內,新的研究聲稱仍然廣泛循環votaries 。

The princely houses were generous in their support of the movement.王國房屋被慷慨的支持行動。 Under the Medici, Cosimo (1429-64) and Lorenzo the Magnificent (1469-92), Florence was pre-eminently the seat of the new learning.根據奇,科西莫( 1429年至1464年)和洛倫佐的壯麗( 1469年至1492年) ,佛羅倫薩是前突出的所在地新的學習。 Its worthy statesman Mannetti, a man of great culture, piety, and purity, was an excellent Greek and Latin scholar, and a brilliant orator.其值得Mannetti政治家,一位偉大的文化,虔誠,和純潔性,是一個極好的希臘和拉丁學者,和燦爛的演說者。 The Camaldolese monk Ambrogio Traversari was also a profound scholar, especially versed in Greek; he possessed a magnificent collection of the Greek authors, and was one of the first monks of modern times to learn Hebrew.該Camaldolese和尚安布羅焦Traversari也是一個深刻的學者,特別是精通希臘;他擁有一個宏偉收集的希臘作家,並是第一個僧侶的現代學習希伯來文。 Marsuppini (Carlo Aretino), renowned and beloved as professor and municipal chancellor, quoted from the Latin and Greek authors with such facility that his readiness was a source of wonder, even to an age sated with constant citation. Marsuppini (蒙特卡洛阿雷蒂諾) ,和敬愛的知名教授和市政施羅德援引來自拉丁美洲和希臘作者等設施,他願意是一個來源不知道,甚至年齡飽食經常引用。 Although in matters of religion Marsuppini was a notorious heathen, Nicholas V sought to attract him to Rome to translate Homer.雖然在宗教事務Marsuppini是一個臭名昭著的異教徒,尼古拉V設法吸引他來羅馬翻譯荷馬。 Among his contemporaries, Leonardo Bruni, a pupil of Chrysoloras, enjoyed great fame as a Greek scholar and a unique reputation for his political and literary activity. He was, moreover, the author of a history of Florence.在他的同時代人,列奧納多布魯尼,學生的Chrysoloras ,享有巨大的聲譽作為一個希臘學者和獨特的聲譽,他的政治和文學活動。他,此外,作者的歷史的佛羅倫薩。 Niccolo Niccoli was also a citizen of Florence; a patron of learning, he assisted and instructed young men, dispatched agents to collect ancient manuscripts and remains, and amassed a collection of eight hundred codices (valued at six thousand gold gulden), which on his death were, through the mediation of Cosimo, donated to the monastery of San Marco, to form a public library, and are today one of the most valued possessions of the Laurentiana Library at Florence.尼克洛尼科利也是一個公民的佛羅倫薩;贊助的學習,他協助,並指示青年男子,派遣特工以收集古代手稿和仍然存在,並積累了收集800 codices (價值6000金頓) ,這對他的死亡,通過調解科西莫,捐贈給寺院聖馬可廣場,以形成一個公共圖書館,是今天的一個最有價值的財產的Laurentiana圖書館在佛羅倫薩。 The aforesaid Poggio, a versatile and influential writer, also resided for a long time at Florence, published a history of that city, and ridiculed the clergy and nobility in his witty, libellous "Facetiæ".上述波焦,靈活的和有影響力的作家,也居住了很長一段時間在佛羅倫薩,出版了一本歷史的城市,並嘲笑神職人員和貴族在他的詼諧,誹謗性“滑稽” 。 He was distinguished for his extensive classical learning, translated some of the Greek authors (eg Lucian, Diodorus Siculus, Xenophon), appended scholarly and clever notes, collected inscriptions, busts, and medals, and wrote a valuable description of the ruins of Rome.他是傑出的古典廣泛的學習,翻譯一些希臘作家(如盧西安,狄奧Siculus ,色諾芬) ,附加學術和聰明指出,收集碑文,雕像,和獎牌,並撰寫了寶貴的描述羅馬廢墟。 His success in seeking and unearthing manuscripts has already been mentioned.他的成功在尋求和出土的手稿已經提到。 Plethon, also mentioned above, taught Platonic philosophy at Florence. Plethon ,也如上所述,柏拉圖的哲學教授在佛羅倫薩。

Bessarion was another panegyrist of Plato, who now began to displace Aristotle; this, together with the influx of Greek scholars, led to the foundation of the Platonic academy which included among its members all the more prominent citizens.貝薩利昂是另一個panegyrist柏拉圖,誰現在開始,以取代亞里士多德; ,加上湧入希臘學者,導致基礎的柏拉圖學院,其中包括其成員之間的所有更加突出的公民。 Marsilio Ficino (d. 1499), a Platonic philosopher in the full sense of the term, was one of its members, and by his works and letters exerted an extraordinary influence on his contemporaries. Marsilio菲奇諾(草1499年) ,一個哲學家柏拉圖在充分意義上的,是其成員之一,以及他的作品和信件產生了非凡的影響,他的同時代人。 Along with his other literary labours he undertook the gigantic task of translating the writings of Plato into elegant Latin, and accomplished it successfully.隨著他的其他文學的勞動,他承擔了艱鉅的任務翻譯的著作柏拉圖到優雅的拉丁美洲,並成功地完成它。 Cristoforo Landino, a pupil of Marsuppini, without sharing his religious ideas, taught rhetoric and poetry at Florence and was also a statesman.克里斯托弗蘭迪諾,一個學生Marsuppini ,沒有分享他的宗教思想,學習修辭,詩歌在佛羅倫薩,也是一位政治家。 His commentary on Dante, in which he gives the most detailed explanation of the allegorical meaning of the great poet, is of lasting value.他評但丁,他在信中給出了最詳細的解釋,寓言意義的偉大的詩人,是持久的價值。 Under Lorenzo de' Medici, the most important man of letters in Florence was Angelo Poliziano (d. 1494), first the tutor of the Medici princes and subsequently a professor and a versatile writer.根據洛倫佐美第奇,最重要的騷人墨客在佛羅倫薩是安傑洛Poliziano (草1494 ) ,第一次導師的奇王子和後來一名教授和一名多才多藝的作家。 He was pre-eminently a philologist, and gave scholarly translations and commentaries on the classical authors, devoting special attention to Homer and Horace.他是前一philologist突出,給學術翻譯和評注的古典作家,特別重視荷馬和霍勒斯。 He was, however, surpassed by the youthful and celebrated Count Pico della Mirandola (1462-94), who, to use Poliziano's phrase, "was eloquent and virtuous, a hero rather than a man".然而,他超越了青春和慶祝伯爵微微意大利米蘭多拉( 1462年至1494年) ,誰利用Poliziano的話說, “是雄辯和良性,一個英雄,而不是一個人” 。 He noticed the relations between Hellenism and Judaism, studied the Cabbala, combated astrology, and composed an immortal work on the dignity of man.他注意到之間的關係希臘和猶太教,研究了Cabbala ,打擊占星術,並組成一個不朽的工作,人的尊嚴。 An active literary movement was also fostered by the Visconti and the Sforza in Milan, where the vain and unprincipled Filelfo (1398-1481) resided; by the Gonzaga in Mantua, where the noble Vittorino da Feltre (d. 1446) conducted his excellent school; by the kings of Naples; by the Este in Ferrara, who enjoyed the services of Guarino, after Vittorino the most celebrated educationist of Italian Humanism; by Duke Federigo of Urbino, and even by the profligate Malatesta in Rimini.活躍的文學運動也促進了維斯康蒂和斯福扎在米蘭,在徒勞的和無原則的Filelfo ( 1398年至1481年)居住;的貢扎加在曼圖亞,那裡的崇高比托里諾達費爾特雷(草1446 )進行了出色的學校;的那不勒斯國王;的埃斯特在費拉拉,誰享受服務的瓜里諾後,比托里諾最著名的教育家的意大利人文;由杜克Federigo烏爾比諾,甚至由揮霍馬拉泰斯塔在裡米尼。 Humanism was also favoured by the popes. Nicholas V (1447-55) sought by the erection of buildings and the collection of books to restore the glory of Rome.人文精神是也贊成由教皇。尼古拉五( 1447年至1455年)所尋求豎立建築物和藏書恢復的光榮羅馬。 The ablest intellects of Italy were attracted to the city; to Nicholas mankind and learning are indebted for the foundation of the Vatican Library, which in the number and value of its manuscripts (particularly Greek) surpassed all others.知識分子的能幹意大利被吸引到城市;向尼古拉人類和學習的負債為基礎的梵蒂岡圖書館,它在數量和價值的手稿(特別是希臘文)超過了所有其他人。 The pope encouraged, especially, translations from the Greek, and with important results, although no one won the prize of ten thousand gulden offered for a complete translation of Homer.教宗鼓勵,尤其是翻譯的希臘,以及重要的成果,雖然沒有人獲得獎金10000頓提供了一個完整的翻譯荷馬。

Pius II (1458-64) was a Humanist himself and had won fame as poet, orator, interpreter of antiquity, jurist, and statesman; after his election, however, he did not fulfil all the expectations of his earlier associates, although he showed himself in various ways a patron of literature and art.皮烏斯二( 1458年至1464年)是一個人文本人,並贏得了聲望的詩人,演說家,詮釋古代,法學家和政治家,他當選後,但他並不滿足所有的期望,他早些時候的同夥,但他發現他以各種方式贊助文學和藝術。 Sixtus IV (1471-84) re-established the Vatican Library, neglected by his predecessors, and appointed Platina librarian.西斯四( 1471年至1484年)重新設立了梵蒂岡圖書館,忽略了他的前任,並任命普拉提納圖書管理員。 "Here reigns an incredible freedom of thought", was Filelfo's description of the Roman Academy of Pomponio Leto (d. 1498), an institute which was the boldest champion of antiquity in the capital of Christendom. “在這裡普遍存在令人難以置信的思想自由” ,是Filelfo的描述羅馬科學院Pomponio勒托(草1498年) ,一個研究所這是大膽的冠軍古老的首都基督教。 Under Leo X (1513-21) Humanism and art enjoyed a second golden age. Of the illustrious circle of literati which surrounded him may be mentioned Pietro Bembo (d. 1547) -- famous as a writer of prose and poetry, as a Latin and Italian author, as philologist and historian, and yet, in spite of his high ecclesiastical rank, a true worldling.在里奧十世( 1513年至1521年)的人文和藝術享受第二個黃金時代。其中傑出的文人圈的包圍了他可能會提到彼得本博(草1547 ) -作為一個著名作家的散文和詩歌,作為拉美和意大利的作者,作為philologist和歷史學家,然而,儘管他的教會的排名,一個真正的俗人。 To the same group belonged Jacopo Sadoleto, also versed in the various branches of Latin and Italian culture.同一組屬於雅格布Sadoleto ,還精通各部門拉丁美洲和意大利的文化。 The chief merit of Italian Humanism, as indeed of Humanism in general, was that it opened up the real sources of ancient culture and drew from these, as a subject of study for its own sake, the classic literature which till then had been used in a merely fragmentary way.主要優點是意大利人,作為人文精神確實一般,是它開闢了真正來源的古代文化,並提請這些,作為一個課題研究本身,經典文獻然後到中使用了只是一個殘缺不全的方式。 Philological and scientific criticism was inaugurated, and historical research advanced.語言學和科學的批評成立,和歷史研究先進的。 The uncouth Latin of the Scholastics and the monastic writers was replaced by classic elegance.拉丁美洲的粗魯的Scholastics和僧侶作家取代了古雅。 More influential still, but not to good effect, were the religious and moral views of pagan antiquity.更有影響力仍在,但沒有很好的效果,是宗教和道德的看法古代異教。 Christianity and its ethical system suffered a serious shock. Moral relations, especially marriage, became the subject of ribald jest.基督教和它的道德體系受到嚴重衝擊。德育關係,尤其是婚姻,成為主題的查爾斯開玩笑。 In their private lives many Humanists were deficient in moral sense, while the morals of the upper classes degenerated into a pitiable excess of unrestrained individualism.在他們的私人生活的許多人文主義是缺乏道德感,而道德的上層階級淪落為一種可憐超過無節制的個人主義。 A political expression of the humanistic spirit is "The Prince" (Il Principe) of Niccolo Machiavelli (d. 1527), the gospel of brute force, of contempt for all morality, and of cynical selfishness.政治表達的人文精神是“王子” (金正日聖多美和普林西比)的尼克洛馬基雅弗利(草1527 ) ,福音的蠻力,蔑視一切道德,和玩世不恭的自私。

The pillaging of Rome in 1527 gave the death-blow to Italian Humanism, the serious political and ecclesiastical complications that ensued prevented its recovery.掠奪羅馬在1527年使死亡打擊,意大利人,在嚴重的政治和宗教的複雜性隨之阻止其恢復。 "Barbarian Germany" had long since become its heir, but here Humanism never penetrated so deeply. “野蠻人德國”早已成為其繼承人,但這裡的人從來沒有如此深刻侵入。 The religious and moral earnestness of the Germans kept them from going too far in their devotion to antiquity, beauty, and the pleasures of sense, and gave the humanistic movement in Germany a practical and educational character.在宗教和道德認真的德國人讓他們去太遠的奉獻精神,以古老,美麗,快樂和意義,並給出了人文運動在德國的實際和教育的特點。 The real directors of the German movement were upright scholars and professors.真正的導演的德國人直立運動的學者和教授。 Only Celtes and a few others are reminiscent of Italian Humanism.只有Celtes和其他一些使人聯想起意大利人。 School and university reform was the chief aim and the chief service of German Humanism.學校和大學改革的主要目標和主要服務的德國人。 Although German interest in ancient literature began under Charles IV (1347-78), the spread of Humanism in German countries dates from the fifteenth century.雖然德國的興趣始於古代文學根據查理四世( 1347年至1378年) ,傳播的人文精神在德國國家追溯到15世紀。 Æneas Sylvius Piccolomini, afterwards Pius II, was the apostle of the new movement at the court of Frederick III (1440-93).埃涅阿斯導水管皮科洛米尼,事後皮烏斯二,是使徒的新運動在法院的弗雷德里克三世( 1440年至1493年) 。 The renowned scholar Nicholas of Cusa (d. 1464) was versed in the classics, while his friend Georg Peuerbach studied in Italy and subsequently lectured on the ancient poets at Vienna.著名學者尼古拉斯的庫薩(草1464 )是精通經典,而他的朋友喬治潑厄爾巴赫研究在意大利和隨後講授古代詩人在維也納舉行。 Johann Müller of Königsberg (Regiomontanus), a pupil of Peuerbach's, was familiar with Greek, but was chiefly renowned as an astronomer and mathematician.德國穆勒康尼斯堡(雷格蒙塔努斯) ,一個學生潑厄爾巴赫的,是熟悉的希臘,但主要是作為一個著名的天文學家和數學家。 Though Germany could not boast of as many powerful patrons of learning as Italy, the new movement did not lack supporters.德國雖然不能吹噓因為許多顧客強大的學習意大利,新的運動並不缺乏支持者。 The Emperor Maximilian I, Elector Philip of the Palatinate, and his chancellor, Johann von Dalberg (later Bishop of Worms), Duke Eberhard of Würtemberg, Elector Frederick the Wise, Duke George of Saxony, Elector Joachim I of Brandenburg, and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz were all supporters of Humanism.皇帝馬克西米連一世,選菲利普的普法,他的校長,約翰馮Dalberg (後來主教百戰天虫) ,杜克大學的符騰堡迪普,弗雷德里選智者,杜克大學喬治薩克森州,選民約阿希姆一勃蘭登堡,並大主教阿爾布雷希特的茨都是以人為本的支持者。

Among the citizens, too, the movement met with favour and encouragement.公民之間的,也轉移了贊成和鼓勵。 In Nuremberg it was supported by the above-mentioned Regiomontanus, the historians, Hartmann Schedel and Sigmund Meisterlein, and also by Willibald Pirkheimer (1470-1528), who had been educated in Italy, and was an indefatigable worker in the antiquarian and historical field.在紐倫堡是支持上述雷格蒙塔努斯,歷史學家,哈特曼Schedel和西格蒙德Meisterlein ,而且也Willibald Pirkheimer ( 1470年至1528年) ,誰教育已在意大利,是一個不知疲倦的工作者在文物和歷史領域。 His sister, Charitas, the gentle nun, united with true piety a cultivated intellect.他的妹妹, Charitas ,溫和的修女,團結與真正的孝道一個耕地的智慧。 Konrad Peutinger (1465-1547), town clerk of Augsburg, devoted his leisure to the service of the arts and sciences, by collecting inscriptions and ancient remains and publishing, or having published by others, the sources of German history.康拉德Peutinger ( 1465年至1547年) ,鎮書記奧格斯堡,他專門向休閒服務的藝術和科學,通過收集銘文和古代的遺跡和出版,或出版的其他來源的德國歷史。 The map of Ancient Rome, named after him "Tabula Peutingeriana", was bequeathed to him by its discoverer, Conrad Celtes, but was not published until after his death. Strasburg was the earliest German stronghold of humanistic ideas.該地圖的古羅馬,他的名字命名的“維Peutingeriana ” ,是他留給其發現者,康拉德Celtes ,但沒有發表,直到去世後。斯特拉斯堡是德國最早的據點人文思想。 Jacob Wimpheling (d. 1528), a champion of German sentiment and nationality, and Sebastian Brant were the chief representatives of the movement, and attained a wide reputation owing to their quarrel with Murner, who had published a paper in opposition to Wimpheling's "Germania", and owing to the controversy concerning the Immaculate Conception.雅各布Wimpheling (草1528 ) ,冠軍的德國信心和國籍,是布蘭特塞瓦斯蒂安的主要代表的運動,並取得了廣泛的聲譽由於其與Murner爭吵,誰發表了一份文件,反對Wimpheling的“日耳曼“ ,由於爭議涉及聖母無染原罪堂。 As in Italy so in Germany learned societies sprang up, such as the "Donaugesellschaft" (Danubiana) in Vienna -- the most prominent member of which, Johann Spiessheimer (Cuspinian, 1473-1529), distinguished himself as an editor and an historian -- and the "Rheinische Gesellschaft" (Rhenana), under the above-mentioned Johann von Dalberg.正如在意大利這樣的教訓在德國社會中興起,如“ Donaugesellschaft ” ( Danubiana )在維也納-最突出的成員,其中約翰S piessheimer( C uspinian, 1 473年至1 529年) ,尊敬他認為自己是一個編輯和歷史學家- -與“德國萊茵” ( R henana) ,根據上述約翰馮D alberg。 Closely associated with the latter was Abbot Johannes Trithemius (1462-1516), a man of universal attainments.密切聯繫後者是艾博特約翰內斯Trithemius ( 1462年至1516年) ,一名男子普遍造詣。 The life of these two chief societies was Conrad Celtes, the fearless and unwearying apostle and itinerant preacher of Humanism, a man of the most varied talents -- a philosopher, mathematician, historian, publisher of classical and medieval writings, and a clever Latin poet, who celebrated in ardent verse his ever changing lady-loves and led a life of worldly indulgence. Into the universities, too, the representatives of the "languages and belles-lettres" soon found their way.生命的這兩個主要的社會是康拉德Celtes ,無畏和unwearying倡導者和巡迴佈道者的人文,一個男人的最多樣的人才-一個哲學家,數學家,歷史學家,出版商和中世紀古典著作,以及一個聰明拉丁美洲詩人,誰在慶祝他的殷切詩句不斷變化的老太太,喜歡和領導生活的世俗的嗜好。進入大學,也代表了“語言和belles -文學”很快就發現他們的方式。 In Basle, which, in 1474, had appointed a professor of the liberal arts and poetry, the movement was represented chiefly by Heinrich Glareanus (1488-1563), celebrated as geographer and musician.在巴塞爾,在1474年,任命了一名教授,文科和詩歌,該運動的代表主要由海因里希Glareanus ( 1488年至1563年) ,慶祝地理學家和音樂家。 The best known Humanist of Tübingen was the poet Heinrich Bebel (1472-1518), an ardent patriot and an enthusiastic admirer of style and eloquence.其中最有名的蒂賓根大學人文是詩人海因里希倍倍爾( 1472年至1518年) ,一個熱忱的愛國者和熱情崇拜者的風格和口才。 His most widely-known work is the obscene "Facetiæ".他的知名度最高的工作是淫褻“滑稽” 。 Agricola (d. 1485), in the opinion of Erasmus a perfect stylist and Latinist, taught at Heidelberg.阿格里科拉(草1485 )認為,伊拉斯謨一個完美的設計師和Latinist ,任教於海德堡。 The inaugurator of Humanism in Mainz was the prolific author, Dietrich Gresemund (1477-1512). The movement secured official recognition at the university in 1502 under Elector Berthold, and found in Joannes Rhagius Æsticampianus its most influential supporter.該inaugurator的人文美茵茨是多產作家,迪特里希Gresemund ( 1477年至1512年) 。擔保的運動正式承認的大學在1502年選貝特霍爾德下,發現在約翰Rhagius Æsticampianus其最有影響力的支持者。 In the itinerant poet Peter Luder, Erfurt had in 1460 one of the earliest representatives of Humanism, and in Jodokus Trutfetter (1460-1519), the teacher of Luther, a diligent writer and conscientious professor of theology and philosophy.在巡迴彼得Luder詩人,在愛爾福特1460之一,最早的人文精神的代表,並在Jodokus Trutfetter ( 1460至1519年) ,教師的路德,一個勤奮的作家和良心教授神學和哲學。 The real guide of the youth of Erfurt was, however, Konrad Mutianus Rufus (1471-1526), a canon at Gotha, educated in Italy. A zeal for teaching coupled with a pugnacious temperament, a delight in books but not in their making, religious latitudinarianism, and enthusiasm for the antique were his chief characteristics.真正引導青年的愛爾福特然而,康拉德Mutianus魯弗( 1471年至1526年) ,佳能在哥達,受過良好教育的在意大利。阿熱情的教學再加上好鬥的氣質,一個愉快的書籍,但不是在他們的決策,宗教latitudinarianism ,和熱情的古董是他的主要特點。 The satirist Crotus Rubianus Euricius Cordus, the witty epigrammatist, and the elegant poet and merry companion, Eobanus Hessus, belonged also to the Erfurt circle.該諷刺作家Crotus Rubianus Euricius Cordus , epigrammatist的機智和優雅的詩人和快樂的同伴, Eobanus Hessus ,屬於還愛爾福特循環。

In Leipzig also, the first traces of humanistic activity date back to the middle of the fifteenth century.在萊比錫也,第一次的痕跡人文活動可以追溯到中間的15世紀。 In 1503, when the Westphalian Hermann von dem Busche settled in the city, Humanism had there a notable representation.在1503年,當威斯特伐利亞赫爾曼馮串聯Busche定居在城市,以人為本已經有一個顯著的代表性。 From 1507 to 1511 Æsticampianus also laboured in Leipzig, but in the former year von dem Busche removed to Cologne.從1507至1511年還辛勤Æsticampianus在萊比錫,但在一年前德國馬克Busche轉移到科隆。 From the beginning (1502) Wittenberg was under humanistic influence.從一開始(第1502 )維滕貝格下的人文影響力。 Many were the collisions between the champions of the old philosophy and theology and "the poets", who adopted a somewhat arrogant attitude.許多人之間的碰撞冠軍的舊哲學和神學和“詩人” ,誰通過了一項有點傲慢的態度。 About 1520 all the German universities had been modernized in the humanistic sense; attendance at the lectures on poetry and oratory was obligatory, Greek chairs were founded, and the scholastic commentaries on Aristotle were replaced by new translations.關於1520年所有的德國大學已經在現代化的人文意識;出席講座的詩歌和演講是強制性的,希臘成立了椅子,並學年評亞里士多德改為新的翻譯。 The most influential of the humanistic schools were, that of Schlettstadt under the Westphalian Ludwig Dringenberg (d. 1477), the teacher of Wimpheling, that of Deventer under Alexander Hegius (1433-98), the teacher of Erasmus of Rotterdam, Hermann von dem Busche, and Murmellius, and that of Münster, which underwent humanistic reformation in 1500 under the provost Rudolf von Langen (1438-1519), and which under the co-rector, Joannes Murmellius (1480-1517), the author of numerous and widely-adopted textbooks, attracted pupils from such distant parts as Pomerania and Silesia.最有影響力的人文學校,即Schlettstadt根據威斯特伐利亞路德維希Dringenberg (草1477 ) ,教師的Wimpheling ,即根據亞歷山大芬特爾Hegius ( 1433年至1498年) ,教師的鹿特丹伊拉斯謨,赫爾曼馮串聯Busche ,並Murmellius ,而明斯特,經歷人文改革在1500下的教務長魯道夫馮根( 1438年至1519年) ,並根據共同校長,約翰Murmellius ( 1480年至1517年) ,作者眾多和廣泛通過的教科書,引起學生從遙遠的地方,例如作為波美拉尼亞和西里西亞。 Good academic institutions also existed in Nuremberg, Augsburg, Strasburg, Basle, etc.良好的學術機構也存在著在紐倫堡,奧格斯堡,斯特拉斯堡,巴塞爾等

The humanistic movement reached its zenith during the first two decades of the sixteenth century in Reuchlin, Erasmus, and Hutten.人文運動達到了頂峰在頭20年在16世紀Reuchlin ,伊拉斯謨和胡騰。 Johann Reuchlin (1455-1522), the "phoenix of Germany", was skilled in all the branches of knowledge that were then cultivated.約翰Reuchlin ( 1455年至1522年)中, “德國鳳凰” ,是技術熟練的所有分支機構的知識,然後種植。 Primarily a jurist, an expert in Greek, a first-rate authority on Roman authors, an historian, and a poet, he nevertheless attained his chief renown through his philosophical and Hebrew works -- especially through his "Rudimenta Hebraica" (grammar and lexicon) -- in the composition of which he secured the assistance of Jewish scholars.主要是法學家,一位專家在希臘,一流的權威的羅馬作家,歷史學家和詩人,但他實現他的首席通過他的著名哲學和希伯來文的作品-尤其是通過他的“ R udimentaH ebraica” (語法和詞彙) -組成的,他擔保的協助下,猶太學者。 His model was Pico della Mirandola, the "wise count, the most learned of our age".他的模型,微微意大利米蘭多拉的“明智的數量,最了解我們的時代” 。 He studied the esoteric doctrine of the Cabbala, but lost himself in the maze of its abstruse problems, and, after having become, in academic retirement, the pride and glory of his nation, was suddenly forced by a peculiar incident into European notoriety.他認真研究了深奧的理論Cabbala ,但失去了自己的迷宮其深奧的問題,之後,成為在學術退休,感到自豪和光榮,他的國家,突然被強迫特殊事件融入歐洲聲名狼藉。 This occurrence has been not unjustly termed the culminating point of Humanism. Johann Pfefferkorn, a baptized Jew, had declared the Talmud a deliberate insult to Christianity, and had procured from the emperor a mandate suppressing Hebrew works.這發生已不是不公正稱為高潮的人文。 Pfefferkorn約翰的洗禮的猶太人,已宣布的塔木德蓄意侮辱基督教,並購置了從皇帝的任務壓制希伯來文作品。 Asked for his opinion, Reuchlin on scientific and legal grounds expressed his personal disapprobation of this action.當被問及他的意見, Reuchlin科學和法律依據表示,他個人不贊成這一行動。 Enraged at this opposition, Pfefferkorn, in his "Handspiegel", attacked Reuchlin, in reply to which the latter composed the "Augenspiegel".在這激怒反對, Pfefferkorn ,在他的“ Handspiegel ” ,攻擊Reuchlin在回答後者組成的“ Augenspiegel ” 。 The theologians of Cologne, particularly Hochstraten, declared against Reuchlin, who then appealed to Rome.在神學科隆,特別是Hochstraten ,宣布對Reuchlin ,誰然後呼籲羅馬。 The Bishop of Speier, entrusted with the settlement of the strife, declared himself in favour of Reuchlin.主教Speier ,負責解決紛爭,宣布自己贊成Reuchlin 。 Hochstraten, however, now proceeded to Rome; in 1516 a papal mandate postponing the case was issued, but finally in 1520, under the pressure of the Lutheran movement, Reuchlin was condemned to preserve silence on the matter in future and to pay full costs. Hochstraten然而,現在開始到羅馬,在1516年教皇的任務推遲的情況下發出,但最終在1520的壓力下路德運動, Reuchlin譴責保持沉默就這個問題在未來並支付全部費用。

But more important than the lawsuit was the literary warfare that accompanied it.但更重要的訴訟戰的文學伴隨著它。 This strife was a prelude to the Reformation.這是一個動亂的前奏改革。 All Germany was divided into two camps.所有德國被分成兩個陣營。 The Reuchlinists, the "fosterers of the arts and of the study of humanity", the "bright, renowned men" (clari viri), whose approving letters (Epistolæ clarorum virorum) Reuchlin had published in 1514, predominated in numbers and intellect; the Cologne party, styled by their opponents "the obscurantists" (viri obscuri), were more intent on defence than attack.該Reuchlinists的“ fosterers的藝術和研究的人類”的“光明的,著名的男子” ( clari viri ) ,其批准信( Epistolæ clarorum virorum ) Reuchlin已刊登在1514年,主要集中在數量和智慧;的科隆黨,風格由他們的對手“的蒙昧主義” ( viri obscuri ) ,更在國防意圖比攻擊。 The most important document of this literary feud is the classical satire of the Humanists, "The Letters of the Obscurantists" (Epistolæ obscurorum virorum, 1515-17), of which the first part was composed by Crotus Rubianus, the second substantially by Hutten.最重要的文件這是矛盾的文學經典諷刺的人文主義, “書信的蒙昧主義” ( Epistolæ obscurorum virorum , 1515年至1517年) ,其中的第一部分所組成Crotus Rubianus ,第二個大大的胡騰。 Ostensibly these letters were written by various partisans of the Cologne University to Ortwin Gratius, their poet and master, and were couched in barbarous Latin.表面上看這些信件寫各黨派的科隆大學奧爾特溫Gratius ,他們的詩人和掌握,並措辭野蠻拉丁美洲。 They purport to describe the life and doings of the obscurantists, their opinions and doubts, their debaucheries and love affairs.他們自稱來描述生活和做法的蒙昧主義,他們的意見和疑慮,其debaucheries和愛情。 The lack of culture, the obsolete methods of instruction and study, the perverse expenditure of ingenuity, the pedantry of the obscurantists, are mercilessly ridiculed.由於缺乏文化,過時的教學方法和研究,不正當開支的聰明才智,在學究氣的蒙昧主義,正在無情地嘲笑。 Although the pamphlet was dictated by hatred and was full of reckless exaggeration, an inimitable originality and power of caricature secured its success.儘管小冊子,是出於仇恨和充分的魯莽毫不誇張地說,一個獨特的創意和力量的漫畫擔保其成功。 The Humanists regarded the dispute as decided, and sang the "Triumph of Reuchlin".人文主義認為該爭端的決定,並唱起了“勝利Reuchlin ” 。 The latter, however, ever remained a true supporter of the Church and the pope.然而,後者以往任何時候都仍然是一個真正的支持者,教會和教宗。

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1467-1536) was termed the "second eye of Germany".伊拉斯謨的鹿特丹( 1467年至1536年)被稱為“第二只眼睛的德國” 。 Vivacious, acute, and witty, he was the leader and literary oracle of the century, while his name, according to the testimony of a contemporary, had passed into proverb: "Whatever is ingenious, scholarly, and wisely written, is termed erasmic, that is, unerring and perfect."活潑,尖銳性和機智,他是領導者和文學甲骨文的世紀,而他的名字,根據證詞當代,已進入諺語: “不管是獨創性,學術性,並明智地寫,又被稱為erasmic ,也就是說,無誤和完善。 “ His extraordinarily fruitful and versatile literary activity as profound Latinist and incomparable revivalist of Greek, as critic and commentator, as educator, satirist, theologian, and Biblical exegete, it is impossible to dwell upon here (see ERASMUS, DESIDERIUS). Ulrich von Hutten (1488-1523), a Franconian knight, and enthusiastic champion of the liberal sciences, was still better known as politician and agitator.他非常富有成果的和靈活的文學活動,深刻Latinist和無與倫比的復興希臘,作為批評家和評論家,作為教育工作者,諷刺,神學,聖經和exegete ,就不可能在這裡談(見德福,伊拉斯) 。烏爾里希馮胡騰( 1488年至1523年) ,一個Franconian騎士,並熱情冠軍的自由科學,是更好地稱為政治家和攪拌器。 The strengthening of the emperor's power and war against Rome were the chief items of his political programme, which he preached first in Latin and subsequently in German dialogues, poems, and pamphlets.加強皇帝的權力和戰爭的羅馬人的主要項目,他的政治方案,其中第一,他鼓吹在拉丁美洲,後來在德國的對話,詩歌,和小冊子。 The jurists and the Roman Law, the immorality and illiteracy of the clergy, the fatuity of unpractical pedantry, were mercilessly scourged by him, his aim being of course to make himself conspicuous.在法學家和羅馬法,不道德和文盲的神職人員,在愚昧的不切實際學究氣,被無情地scourged他,他的目的當然是使自己突出。 Finally, he enlisted in the service of Luther and celebrated him in his last writings as a "hero of the Word", a prophet and a priest, though Luther always maintained towards him an attitude of reserve.最後,他入伍服務的路德和慶祝他最後的著作是“英雄的Word ” ,先知和一名牧師,但路德始終保持對他的態度儲備。 Hutten's death may be regarded as the end of German Humanism properly speaking.胡騰的死亡可能會被視為結束的德國人為本妥善說話。 A still more serious movement, the Reformation, took its place.更為嚴重的運動,改革了它的位置。 The majority of the Humanists set themselves in opposition to the new movement, though it cannot be denied that they, especially the younger generation under the leadership of Erasmus and Mutianus Rufus, had in many ways paved the way for it.大多數人文主義為自己確立反對新的運動,但不能否認,他們,尤其是年輕一代的領導下,伊拉斯謨和Mutianus魯弗,已在許多方面鋪平了道路它。

The progress of Humanism in other lands may be reviewed more briefly.進步的人文精神在其他土地都可以審查更簡單。 In France the University of Paris exerted a powerful influence.在法國巴黎大學產生了強大的影響力。 By the end of the fourteenth century the students of this institution were already conversant with the ancient authors.到了14世紀的學生該機構已經精通古老的作者。 Nicolas de Clémanges (1360-1434) lectured on Ciceronian rhetoric, but the earliest real Humanist in France was Jean de Montreuil (d. 1418).尼古拉德Clémanges ( 1360年至1434年)講授Ciceronian的言論,但最早的真正的人文主義者在法國是讓德蒙特勒伊(草1418年) 。 In 1455 Gregorio of Città di Castello, who had resided in Greece, was installed in the university to lecture on Greek and rhetoric.在1455格雷戈里奧的心教堂城堡,誰曾居住在希臘,是安裝在大學講授希臘和言論。 Subsequently, there came from Italy scholars and poets -- eg Andreas Joannes Lascaris, Julius Cæsar Scaliger, and Andreas Alciati -- who made France the docile daughter of Italy.後來,有來自意大利的學者和詩人-例如約翰列L ascaris,凱撒凱利格和安德烈A lciati-誰取得法國的溫順的女兒意大利。 Among the leading scholars in France may be mentioned Budé (Budæus), the first Hellenist of his age (1467-1540), the accomplished printers Robert (1503-59) and Henri (1528-98) Estienne (Stephanus), to whom we are indebted for the "Thesaurus linguæ Latinæ" and the "Thesaurus linguæ Græcæ"; Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540-1609), famed for his knowledge of epigraphy, numismatics, and especially of chronology; the philologist Isaac Casaubon (1559-1614), well known for his excellent edition of the classics, and Petrus Ramus (1515-72), a profound student of Greek and medieval philosophy. Classical learning was naturalized in Spain through Queen Isabella (1474-1504). The school system was reorganized, and the universities entered on a new era of intellectual prosperity.在知名學者在法國可能會提到布德(布多伊斯) ,第一次Hellenist他的年齡( 1467至1540年) ,完成打印機的羅伯特( 1503年至1559年)和法國( 1528年至1598年) Estienne ( Stephanus ) ,我們向他有負債的“詞庫linguæ Latinæ ”和“詞庫linguæ Græcæ ” ;約瑟夫賈斯特斯凱利格( 1540年至1609年) ,著名的金石學的知識,錢幣學,特別是年表;的philologist艾薩克卡索邦( 1559年至1614年) ,眾所周知的出色版的經典,彼支( 1515年至1572年) ,一個深刻的學生,希臘和中世紀的哲學。經典學習在西班牙入籍通過伊莎貝拉女王( 1474年至1504年) 。學校制度進行了改組,並大學進入一個新時代的知識繁榮。 Of Spanish scholars Juan Luis Vives (1492-1540) enjoyed a European reputation.西班牙學者胡安路易斯比韋斯( 1492年至1540年)在歐洲享有聲譽。 In England Humanism was received with less favour. Poggio, indeed, passed some time in that country, and young Englishmen, like William Grey, a pupil of Guarino's, later Bishop of Ely and privy councillor in 1454, sought instruction in Italy.在英格蘭人收到少贊成票。波焦,事實上,經過一段時間在該國,年輕的英國人一樣,威廉灰色,學生的瓜里諾的,後來主教伊利和樞密院在1454年,尋求在意大利指示。 But the troubled conditions of English life in the fifteenth century did not favour the new movement.但是,困擾條件的英語生活在十五世紀不贊成新的運動。 In the spread of classical learning William Caxton (1421-91), the first English printer, played an important part.在蔓延的古典學習威廉卡克斯頓( 1421年至1491年) ,第一次英文打印機,發揮了重要作用。 The learned, refined, charitable, and courageous chancellor Thomas More (1478-1535) was in a way an intellectual counterpart of Erasmus, with whom he was on terms of closest intimacy.的經驗教訓,完善,慈善,和勇敢的校長托馬斯莫爾( 1478年至1535年)是一種智力對口的伊拉斯謨,同他是最接近的條款親密。 Of special importance was the foundation of such excellent schools as Eton in 1440, and St. Paul's (London) in 1508.特別重要的是基礎這樣優秀的學校伊頓公學於1440和聖保祿(倫敦)在1508年。 The founder of the latter was the accomplished Dean John Colet (1466-1519); the first rector was William Lilly (1468-1523), who had studied Greek in the Island of Rhodes, and Latin in Italy, and was the pioneer of Greek education in England.的創始人,後者是完成院長約翰Colet ( 1466年至1519年) ;第一任校長是威廉禮來公司( 1468年至1523年) ,誰研究過希臘的羅得島和拉丁美洲在意大利,是希臘先鋒教育在英格蘭。 During the sojourn of Erasmus at Oxford (1497-9) he found kindred hellenistic spirits in William Grocyn and Thomas Linacre, both of whom had been educated in Italy.在逗留的伊拉斯謨在牛津( 1497-9 ) ,他發現類似的古希臘精神Grocyn和威廉托馬斯利納克爾,兩人已在意大利接受教育。 From 1510 to 1513 Erasmus taught Greek at Cambridge.從1510至13年伊拉斯謨教授在劍橋大學希臘。

Publication information Written by Klemens Löffler.出版信息撰稿Klemens Löffler 。 Transcribed by Richard Hemphill. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.轉錄由理查德亨普希爾。天主教百科全書,體積七。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat , 1910年6月1號。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

BURCKHARDT, Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien (Leipzig, 1908), I, II; VOIGT, Die Wiederbelebung des klassischen Altertums (Berlin, 1893), I, II; GEIGER, Renaissance und Humanismus in Italien und Deutschland (Berlin, 1882); PAULSEN, Geschichte des gelehrten Unterrichts, I (Leipzig, 1896); BRANDI, Die Renaissance in Florenz und Rom (Leipzig, 1909); SYMONDS, Renaissance in Italy, IV (London, 1875-81); GEBHART, Les Origines de la Renaissance en Italie (Paris, 1879); LINDNER, Weltgeschichte, IV (Stuttgart and Berlin, 1905); The Cambridge Modern History, I, The Renaissance (Cambridge, 1902).布克哈特,模具之文藝復興時期的文化在意大利(萊比錫, 1908年) ,一,二;福格特,模具Wiederbelebung萬klassischen Altertums (柏林, 1893年) ,一,二;革,文藝復興和Humanismus在意大利和德國(柏林, 1882年) ;保爾森,史gelehrten Unterrichts ,我(萊比錫, 1896年) ;布蘭迪,模具文藝復興Florenz和光盤(萊比錫, 1909年) ;西蒙茲,歐洲文藝復興時期的意大利,四(倫敦, 1875年至1881年) ; GEBHART ,法國起源德拉魯阿文藝復興恩意大利(巴黎, 1879年) ;林德納,世界歷史,四(斯圖加特和柏林, 1905年) ;劍橋近代史,我文藝復興(劍橋, 1902年) 。 On the German Renaissance see JANSSEN, History of the German People since the Middle Ages, tr., I (St. Louis, 1896); and for Italy, SHAHAN, On the Italian Renaissance in The Middle Ages (New York, 1904).在看到德國文藝復興時期的JANSSEN ,歷史的德國人自中世紀,文。 ,我(聖路易斯, 1896年) ;和意大利,沙漢,在意大利文藝復興中世紀(紐約, 1904年) 。


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