Authority in Church管理局在教會

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Analogous things could be affirmed of OT prophets類似的事情可以肯定的加時賽先知

Indeed, it can be argued rather compellingly that the true NT analogue of the OT prophet is not the NT prophet but the NT apostle (in the narrow sense).事實上,可以說相當compellingly ,真正的新台幣模擬的加時賽先知不是先知,但新台幣新台幣使徒(狹義) 。 The apostles enjoy a self - conscious authority as God - chosen custodians of the gospel; and if they prefer to exercise their authority with meekness in an effort to win spiritually minded consensus (eg, 1 Cor. 5:1 - 10; 2 Cor. 10:6; 1 Pet. 5:1 - 4), they are also prepared, if need be, to impose their authority without seeking consensus, and even against the consensus (eg, Acts 5:1 - 11; 1 Cor. 4:18 - 21; 2 Cor. 10:11; 13:2 - 3; 3 John 10). Their authority is especially prominent in their role as interpreters both of the OT Scriptures and of the teachings of Jesus, as well as of his ministry, death, resurrection, and ascension.使徒享受自我-有意識的權威上帝-選擇監護人的福音,如果他們願意行使其權力與溫順,努力贏得精神上志同道合的共識(例如,第1肺心病。5 : 1-1 02肺心病。 10時06分, 1寵物。 5:1 -4 ) ,它們也準備,如果需要,強加他們的權力,不尋求共識,甚至反對的共識(例如,行為5 :1- 11 ;1肺心病。4 : 18 -2 12肺心病。 1 0:11;十三點0 2分- 3;約翰三書10 )。他們的權力是特別突出的作用,口譯兩個加時賽聖經和耶穌的教誨,以及他的省,死亡,復活,並升天。 The church devoted itself to the apostles' teaching (Acts 2:42).教會致力於使徒的教學(使徒2時42分) 。

NT prophets likewise enjoyed wide authority新台幣先知同樣享有廣泛的權力

Some of them may have been itinerant, not restricting their ministrations to one congregation.其中有些人可能已經流動,而不是限制其ministrations一眾。 "Prophecy" in the NT ranges from Spirit - empowered preaching to direct propositional messages from God; but the degree or kind of inspiration and the corresponding authority status of the prophet are limited. “預言”在NT範圍從精神-授權鼓吹直接命題信息來自上帝;但程度或實物的靈感和相應的權威地位的先知是有限的。 It is virtually impossible to conceive of 1 Cor. 14:29 being applied to OT prophets (once their credentials were accepted) or to NT apostles.這幾乎是不可能設想的1肺心病。 14:29適用於加時賽先知(一旦他們接受了全權證書) ,或至新台幣使徒。

Those who seem consistently to enjoy the greatest authority at the level of the local congregation are the elders, almost certainly the same as those also labeled bishops (or overseers) and pastors (Acts 20:17 - 28; cf. Eph. 4:11; 1 Tim. 3:1 - 7; Titus 1:5, 7; 1 Pet. 5:1 - 2).這些誰似乎始終享有最大權力的水平,當地教會的長老,幾乎可以肯定一樣也標示主教(或監察員)和牧師(使徒20:17 -2 8;比照。厄。 4時1 1分1蒂姆。 3:1 -7 ;泰特斯1 :5, 7 ; 1寵物。 5 :1- 2) 。 The first term stems from the synagogue and from village organization; the second reflects genuine oversight and authority; and the third betrays an agrarian background ("pastor" derives from a Latin root meaning "shepherd").第一屆任期內,來自猶太教堂,並從鄉村組織;第二反映真正的監督和權力;和第三背叛一個農業背景( “牧師”來自拉丁美洲根意為“牧羊人” ) 。

In a typical list of qualifications for this office / function (eg, I Tim. 3:1 - 7) we discover that almost every entry is mandated elsewhere of all believers.在一個典型的資格名單該辦公室/功能(例如,我添。 3:1 -7 ) ,我們發現,幾乎每一個項目的任務是在其他地方的所有信徒。 What is distinctive about the elder reduces to two things: (1) He must not be a novice.什麼是獨特的老年人減少到兩件事: ( 1 )他不應該是新手。 Clearly this is a relative term, largely dictated by how recently the church in question came into being, since Paul appoints elders mere months after their conversion in some instances (eg, Acts 14:23).顯然,這是相對而言,在很大程度上取決於如何最近的教堂中的問題應運而生的,因為保羅任命長老僅僅幾個月後,他們的轉換在某些情況下(例如,行為14:23 ) 。 (2) He must be able to teach, which presupposes a growing grasp of the gospel and of the Scriptures and an ability to communicate them well. ( 2 )他必須能夠教,這首先日益把握福音和聖經和溝通能力好。 The other qualifications mentioned (eg, an overseer must not be a woman, must be given to hospitality, etc.) suggest that he must excel in the graces and deportment expected of all believers.其他所述資格(例如,一個監督員絕不能一個女人,必須考慮到招待費等)表明,他必須善於在禮儀和儀態預期的所有信徒。 He who would lead the church must himself be a good reflection of it, not a mere professional.他誰將導致教堂必須自己是一個很好的反映了它,不僅僅是一個職業。

In general, the sphere of responsibility and authority for these bishops - elders - pastors is the local church; there is little compelling evidence for the view that a bishop, for instance, unlike elders, exerted authority over several congregations.一般來說,領域的責任和權力這些主教-長者-牧師是當地教堂;幾乎沒有令人信服的證據表明這樣的觀點,即主教,例如,不同的長者,施加權力的若干教區。 A plurality of elders, if not mandated, appears to have been common, and perhaps the norm.多元化的長者,如果沒有授權,似乎已司空見慣,或許規範。 On the other hand, only "churches"; one reads of churches in Galatia, but of the church in Antioch or Jerusalem or Ephesus.另一方面,只有“教堂” ;一讀加拉太教會,但教會在安提阿或耶路撒冷或以弗所。 Thus it is possible, though not certain, that a single elder may have exercised authority in relation to one house group, a house group that in some cases constituted part of the citywide church, so that the individual elder would nevertheless be one of many in that citywide "church" taken as a whole.因此,它是可能的,但不能肯定,這一個單一的老年人可行使的權力與一組房子,房子組,在某些情況下構成的一部分,全市教堂,使個別老仍然是許多人這一全市“教會”作為一個整體。

The apparent anomalies to this limitation on the sphere of elders can be credibly explained.顯然對這一異常現象的限制領域的長者可以令人信服地解釋。 The writer of 2 John and 3 John labels himself an "elder," even though he is seeking to influence the affairs of other churches; but most likely this particular elder is writing with apostolic prerogatives.作者2約翰和約翰三書標籤自己是“老” ,即使他正試圖影響其他事務的教堂,但最有可能這種特殊老人是書面使徒的特權。 The same is true of Peter when he refers to himself as an elder (1 Pet. 5:1).也是如此彼得當他提到自己作為一個老( 1寵物。 5:1 ) 。 The position of James in Acts 15 is peculiar, but the evidence is being stretched when interpreters conclude that James chaired the proceedings.的立場,詹姆斯在15日的行為是特殊的,但證據正在緊張口譯時,得出這樣的結論詹姆斯主持了訴訟。 The case is laid before the apostles and elders (15:4); "the apostles and elders, with the whole church" (15:22), make the final decisions; and the apostles and elders write the letter (15:23). Peter speaks as an apostle, James as an elder; it is not obvious that either "chaired" the meeting.案件提交給使徒和長老( 15時04分) ; “使徒和長老,整個教堂” ( 15:22 ) ,作出最後的決定;和使徒和長老寫的信( 15:23 ) 。彼得說作為一個使徒,詹姆斯作為一個老年人;它並不明顯,要么“主持”會議。 But even if James did so, the crucial decisions were taken by the apostles, elders, and the church in concert.但是,即使詹姆斯這樣做,關鍵的決定所採取的使徒,長老,和教堂音樂會。

Deacons may trace the origin of their office / function to the appointment of the seven (Acts 6), but this is uncertain.執事可追查來源,他們的辦公室/職務任命的7個(使徒6 ) ,但這是不確定的。 When lists of qualifications are presented elsewhere (eg, 1 Tim. 3:8 - 13), stress is laid (as in the case of elders) on features which signify spiritual maturity; but in this instance teaching is not required.當名單的資格提出了其他地方(例如,第1蒂姆。三點08 -1 3) ,強調的是規定的(如長者)的特點,精神成熟的標誌,但在這個例子中的教學並不是必需的。 Deacons were responsible to serve the church in a variety of subsidiary roles, but enjoyed no church - recognized teaching authority akin to that of elders.執事負責服務的教堂中的各種附屬的角色,但沒有得到教會-公認的教學權威類似的長者。

Patterns of Authority模式管理局

The more difficult question is how these two offices / functions, viz., elders / pastors / overseers and deacons, relate their authority to the authority of the local church or to some broader grouping of churches.更困難的問題是如何這兩個辦事處/職能,即。 ,長者/牧師/監督員和執事,涉及其權力的權威,當地教堂或一些更廣泛的集團的教堂。 Historically one of three avenues has been followed, with many variations.歷史上三個渠道一直遵循,有許多變化。

Congregationalism公理

tends to place the ultimate choices in the hands of the entire congregation.往往把最終的選擇手中的整個禮拜堂。 In part this stance is a reaction against the interposition of a priestly class between God and man; the priesthood of all believers (1 Pet. 2:9) is central.這部分的立場是對的反應干預的祭司階級之間的上帝和人類的神職人員的所有信徒( 1寵物。二點09 )是中央。 Churches decide alongside the apostles and elders (Acts 15:22); churches are responsible to protect themselves against false teachers (Galatians; 2 Cor. 10 - 13; 2 John); churches become the final court of appeal (Matt. 18:17); and even when the apostle Paul wants some discipline to be exercised, he appeals to the entire local church in solemn assembly (1 Cor. 5:4).基督教協進會決定宗徒一起和長老(使徒15:22 ) ;教會有責任保護自己免受虛假的教師(加拉太2肺心病。 10 -1 3;約翰二書) ;教堂成為最終上訴法院(瑪特泰1 8:17 ) ; ,甚至當使徒保羅希望一些紀律行使,他呼籲整個地方教會在莊嚴的集會( 1肺心病。五點04分) 。

Episcopacy主教

labels its chief ministers bishops and lesser ones presbyters (or priests) and deacons.標籤其首席部長主教和較低的長老(或神職人員)和執事。 Some within this camp see the function of the bishops as heir to the apostles; others point to the intermediate roles of Timothy and Titus as portrayed in the Pastoral Epistles, men who had power themselves to appoint elders (Titus 1:5), as had the apostles in the churches they founded (Acts 14:23). Certainly the threefold ministry was defended as early as Ignatius (c. 110 AD), without, apparently, a traumatic debate reflecting change.一些在這個難民營看到的功能主教的繼承人使徒;其他點的中間作用,霍震霆和提圖斯作為描繪的田園書信,男人誰有權任命自己的長者(泰特斯1:5 ) ,如使徒的教會,他們成立(使徒14:23 ) 。當然,三倍部辯護儘早伊格內修(角公元110 ) ,而顯然,一個創傷性的辯論反映出的變化。

Presbyterianism長老

points out that presbyters in the NT occupy the most important place after the apostles; and in any location the plurality of presbyters (or elders) seems to argue for a committee or college of presbyters who exercised general oversight over the congregation in the area (1 Thess. 5:12 - 13; Heb. 13:17).指出,長老在NT佔據最重要的位置後,使徒和在任何地點多元化長老(或長者)似乎主張建立一個委員會或學院的長老誰行使監督一般聚集在該地區( 1洛尼基。 5點12 -1 3;河北。 1 3:17) 。

As most frequently practiced, all three of these prevailing patterns raise questions.作為最常見的練習,這三種模式普遍提高的問題。 Presbyterianism has raised an inference from Scripture to the status of principle.長老會已經提出了一個從聖經推理的地位的原則。 Episcopacy makes disjunctions between bishop and elder that cannot be defended from the NT, and therefore appeals to Timothy and Titus as paradigms are futile, not least because their functions are best explained on other lines (and in any case they are not called "bishops" over against some lesser clergy status).主教之間作出disjunctions主教和長老,不能從捍衛新台幣,因此呼籲提摩太和提多的範例是徒勞的,這不僅是因為其職能是最好的解釋,其他線路(和在任何情況下,他們沒有所謂的“主教”在對一些較小的神職人員地位) 。 Congregationalism tends to read principles of democratic majority vote into NT churches.公理往往宣讀民主原則的多數票到新界的教堂。 Ironically, some forms of congregationalism elevate the pastor; once he has been voted in, to near papal authority, in practice if not in theory.諷刺的是,某些形式的公理提升牧師,一旦他已經投了,到附近的羅馬教皇權威,在實踐中如果沒有在理論上。

The problem may lie in the fact that we have too often envisaged church authority flowing in straight lines, whether up or down, instead of recognizing the somewhat more fluid reality of the NT. The normal responsibility for and authority of leadership in the NT rests with the bishops - elders - pastors; but if they are interested in pursuing biblical patterns of leadership, they will be concerned to demonstrate observable growth not only in their gasp of truth but also in their lived discipline (1 Tim. 4:14 - 16).這個問題可能存在於一個事實,即我們常常設想的教會權威流入直線,無論是上漲或下跌,而不是承認有些更流暢的現實新台幣。正常的責任和權力的領導能力在於新台幣主教-長者-牧師;但如果他們有興趣在追求聖經模式的領導下,他們將有關證明看得見的增長不僅在其喘息的真相,而且在他們的生活紀律(1蒂姆。4點1 4 -1 6) 。 They will comprehend that spiritual leadership, far from lording it over others (Matt. 20:25 - 28), is a balanced combination of oversight (1 Tim. 4:11 - 13; 6:17 - 19; Titus 3:9 - 11) and example (1 Tim. 4:12; 6:6 - 11, 17 - 18; 1 Pet. 5:1 - 4) which, far from being antithetical, are mutually reinforcing.他們會理解的精神領導下,遠離lording它比其他(瑪特泰20:25 -2 8日) ,是一個平衡相結合的監督( 1蒂姆。 4時1 1分- 13 ;6點1 7分- 1 9;泰特斯3點0 9 - 11 )和榜樣( 1蒂姆。 4點12分, 6時06 -1 1日, 1 7日- 18日; 1寵物。5 : 1-4 ),其中遠不是對立的,是相輔相成的。 By the same token such leaders prefer not to dictate terms but to lead the church into spiritually minded consensus.同樣這樣的領導人不願口述條款,但導致教堂到精神上的想法一致。

Whereas Christians are encouraged to support and submit to spiritual leadership (eg, Heb. 13:17), such encouragement must not be considered a blank check if churches are responsible for and have the authority to discipline false teachers and to recognize an antecedent commitment not to a pastor but to the truth of the gospel.鑑於基督徒感到鼓舞,支持和服從精神的領導(例如,河北。 13:17 ) ,這種鼓勵絕不能被認為是一張空白支票,如果教會有責任和有權力的紀律虛假的教師,並承認一個先行的承諾,不一個牧師,但真理的福音。 Modern models are not so much wrong as frequently lopsided, favoring a prejudicial selection of the NT data.現代模式沒有這麼多錯誤,經常片面,偏袒一有損選擇新台幣數據。 Similarly, the Ignatian defense of a threefold ministry was not so much a rebellious aberration as an attempt to ground the rising monarchial episcopate in Scripture in order to use it to ward off traveling preachers who were frequently found spreading Gnostic heresy.同樣, Ignatian防禦三倍部與其說是叛逆的畸變是企圖向地面上升君主教的聖經,以便用它來抵禦旅行傳教士誰經常被發現傳播諾斯底異端。

Spheres of Authority領域的權力

The spheres in which ecclesistical authority (however such authority is to be manifested) operates are primarily three.該領域的權威ecclesistical (但是這種權力是體現)經營主要是三個。 First, the early Christian churches exercised discipline, which ranged all the way from private and thoughtful admonition (eg, Gal. 6:1) to excommunication (a severe social pressure when the entire church was cooperating) and even the handing over of a person to Satan (eg, 1 Cor. 5:5; cf. Matt. 16:19; 18:18).首先,早期基督教教會行使紀律,其中包括所有的方式從私人和深思熟慮的告誡(例如,半乳糖。 6:1 ) ,以罰(一嚴重的社會壓力時,整個教堂合作) ,甚至交出一個人以撒旦(例如,第1肺心病。 5點05分;比照。馬特。 16:19 ; 18:18 ) 。 Calvin was not wrong to identify church discipline as the third distinguishing mark of the NT church.卡爾文是沒有錯,確定教會的紀律作為第三個顯著標誌新台幣教堂。 Second, they enjoyed responsibility for and authority over a substantial range of questions affecting internal order, eg, arrangement for collection of monies for relief of the poor (2 Cor. 8 - 9) or the administration of the Lord's Supper (1 Cor. 11:20 - 26).其次,他們享有的責任和權力大量一系列的問題,影響到國內秩序,例如,安排收集款項用於救濟窮人( 2肺心病。 8 -9 )或行政上帝的晚餐( 1肺心病。 1 1日: 20 -2 6) 。 Third, churches had some responsibility and authority in the selection of deacons and elders and delegates (eg, Acts 6:3 - 6; 15:22; I Cor. 16:3).第三,教會了一些責任和權力在挑選執事和長老和代表(如行為的6點03 -6 ; 1 5:22,我肺心病。十六點0 3分) 。

In no case were decisions established by mere majority approval; nor were these spheres of authority the exclusive prerogatives of the entire congregation.在任何情況下,決定成立了由單純多數批准;也不是這些領域的權力的專有權利整個禮拜堂。 Apostles appointed elders, and Timothy had hands laid on him both by the apostle Paul and by the presbytery (2 Tim. 1:6; 1 Tim. 4:14).使徒任命的長者,和霍震霆手中奠定了他的兩個使徒保羅和長老( 2添。 1:6 ; 1蒂姆。 4時14 ) 。 This need not mean such appointment was made without close consultation with the church; but if the authority granted Titus is significant (Titus 1:5), it appears that oversight, especially in the case of fledgling churches, was exercised first by the apostles and then by their appointees.這並不意味著這種任命是不密切磋商與教會;但如果授權泰特斯重要的是(泰特斯1:5 ) ,但似乎監督,特別是在新興的教堂,第一次行使了使徒和然後由他們任命。

In sum, there is dynamic tension among the constituent parts of the church as far as the authority of each is concerned.總之,是動態的張力之間的組成部分教堂盡可能的權威,每一個關注。 Two boundaries, to say the least, are fixed: (1) the church is not at liberty to ignore or countermand or contravene the authority of the gospel itself, now at last inscripturated, without sooner or later calling into question its own status as church.兩個界限,至少可以說是固定的: ( 1 )教堂是不是在自由忽視或取消或違反權威的福音本身,現在終於inscripturated ,但遲早會質疑自己的地位,教會。 (2) The church of the NT does not expect its authority to be administered directly to the surrounding world, but to be felt through the transformed and redemptive lives of its members. ( 2 )教會新台幣並不指望它的權力來管理直接向周圍的世界,但感受到通過轉化和拯救生命的成員。

DA Carson多巴胺卡森
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
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