Augustinians奧古斯丁

General Information 一般信息

Augustinians are members of various Roman Catholic religious communities of men and women who follow the Rule of St. Augustine, a code of rules for the monastic life originally drawn up by St. Augustine of Hippo (354-430).奧古斯丁成員的各種羅馬天主教的宗教社區的男性和女性誰遵循規律的聖奧古斯丁,代碼的規則,寺院的生活原來擬定的聖奧古斯丁的河馬( 354-430 ) 。 The two main groups of Augustinians are the Augustinian (Austin) Canons--or Canons Regular of Saint Augustine--dating from the 11th century, and the Augustinian Hermits or Friars, established by Pope Alexander IV in 1256.兩個主要群體的奧古斯丁是奧古斯丁(奧斯汀)規例-或規例行的聖奧古斯丁-歷史可以追溯到11世紀,和奧古斯丁隱士或天主教方濟會,成立由教皇亞歷山大四世在1 2 56年。 The traditional garb of Augustinians is a black tunic, a short cape, and a cowl.傳統的外衣奧古斯丁是一個黑色中山裝,短角,並罩。 Famous Augustinians include Martin Luther, in his early career, and the geneticist Gregor Mendel.著名的奧古斯丁包括馬丁路德,在他早期的職業生涯中,和遺傳學家孟德爾。

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Bibliography 目錄
Lawless, George, Augustine of Hippo and His Monastic Rule (1987).勞里斯,喬治,奧古斯丁的河馬和他的寺院規則( 1987年) 。


Hermits of St. Augustine隱士的聖奧古斯丁

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(Generally called Augustinians and not to be confounded with the Augustinian Canons). (一般稱為奧古斯丁和不該死的同奧古斯丁規) 。

A religious order which in the thirteenth century combined several monastic societies into one, under this name.宗教秩序,在13世紀結合社會若干寺院之一,根據這一名稱。 The order has done much to extend the influence of the Church, to propagate the Faith, and to advance learning.該命令已經做了大量工作,以擴大影響力的教會,宣傳費,並推動學習。

FOUNDATION地基

As is well known, St. Augustine of Hippo, first with some friends and afterwards, as bishop, with his clergy, led a monastic community life.眾所周知,聖奧古斯丁的河馬,首先是與一些朋友和之後,作為主教,他的牧師,率領一個寺院的社區生活。 Vows were not obligatory, but the possession of private property was prohibited.誓言是不是強制性的,但擁有的私人財產是被禁止的。 Their manner of life led others to imitate them.他們的生活造成他人效法他們。 Instructions for their guidance were found in several writings of St. Augustine, especially in "De opere monachorum" (PL, XL, 527), mentioned in the ancient codices regularum of the eighth or ninth century as "The Rule of St. Augustine".說明他們的指導中發現一些著作的聖奧古斯丁,特別是在“德opere monachorum ” (特等,儀, 527 )中提到的古老codices regularum第八或第九世紀的“法治聖奧古斯丁” 。 Epistola ccxi, otherwise cix (PL, XXXIII, 958), contains the early "Augustinian Rule for Nuns"; epistolae ccclv and ccclvi (PL, XXXIX, 1570) "De moribus clericorum".書信集ccxi ,否則捷達夥伴(特等,三十三, 958 ) ,包含了早期“奧古斯丁規則七一” ; epistolae ccclv和ccclvi (特等,第39屆,第1570 ) “德moribus clericorum ” 。 The instructions herein contained formed the basis of the rule which, in accordance with the decree of the Lateran Synod, in 1059, was adopted by canons desiring to practise a common apostolic life (Holstenius, "Codex regularum", II, Rome, 1661, 120). Thence the title "Canons Regular of St. Augustine".此處的指示所載的基礎上形成的規則,根據該法令的拉特蘭會議,在1059年通過了大砲希望從事一個共同的使徒生活( Holstenius , “法典regularum ” ,二,羅馬, 1661年, 120 ) 。然後,題目是“規例行的聖奧古斯丁” 。 Later, many monastic societies and brotherhoods, especially in Italy, adopted the Augustinian Rule, either voluntarily or by command of the pope, without, however, giving up certain peculiarities of life and dress introduced by the founder, or handed down by custom.後來,許多寺院的社會和團,尤其是在意大利,通過了奧古斯丁規則,無論是自願或命令的教皇,但不放棄某些特殊的生活和著裝介紹的創始人,或者下來的習俗。 These differences led to their being confounded with other orders (eg, the Friars Minor) and gave rise to quarrels.這些差異導致他們正在困惑與其他命令(例如,天主教方濟會) ,並引起了爭吵。 To remedy these evils and to ensure harmony and unity amongst the various religious congregations, Pope Alexander IV sought to unite them into one order.為糾正這些弊端,並確保和諧與團結之間的各種宗教團體,教皇亞歷山大四世尋求團結成一個秩序。 For this purpose he commanded that two delegates be sent to Rome from each of the hermit monasteries, to discuss, under the presidency of Cardinal Richard of Santi Angeli, the question of union.為此目的,他指揮的兩名代表向羅馬每個隱士寺院,討論的主持下樞機主教理查德的聖天使的問題,工會。 The first meeting of the delegates took place on the first of March, 1256, and resulted in a union.第一次會議的代表發生在3月1日, 1256年,並導致了工會。 Lanfranc Septala of Milan, Prior of the Bonites, was appointed the first prior-general of the new order.蘭弗朗克Septala的米蘭,之前的Bonites ,被任命為首任前一般的新秩序。 A uniform black habit was adopted, and the staves formerly carried by the Bonites to distinguish them from Friars Minor were dispensed with.統一的黑色習慣獲得通過,並壁前進行的Bonites以區別於天主教方濟會被免除。 The Bull "Licet ecclesiae catholicae", issued on 4 May, 1256 (Bullarium Taurinense, 3rd ed., 635 sq.), ratified these proceedings and may be regaraded as the foundation-charter of the "Ordo Eremitarum S. Augustini"; and furthermore, the pope commanded that all hermit monasteries which had sent no delegates, should conform to the newly drawn up Constitutions.牛市“ Licet教會catholicae ”發表的1256年5月4日( Bullarium Taurinense ,第3版。 , 635平方米) ,批准了這些程序,可能是regaraded為基礎,包機的“秩序Eremitarum南Augustini ” ;和此外,教皇指揮,所有隱士寺院已發出任何的代表,應符合新制定的憲法。

EXTENSION OF THE ORDER延長秩序

The Bull "Licet ecclesiae catholicae" mentions the hermit convents which had been invited to take part in the proceedings at Rome, in 1256, which led to the union.牛市“ Licet教會catholicae ”提到了隱士修道院已應邀參加訴訟在羅馬,在1256年,這導致工會。 "Quaedam [domus] S. Guillelmi, quaedam S. Augustini ordinum, nonnullae autem fratris Joannis Boni, aliquae vero de Fabali, aliae vero de Britinis." “ Quaedam [多莫斯]美國蚯蚓, quaedam南Augustini ordinum , nonnullae autem fratris Joannis希歐波尼, aliquae維羅德Fabali , aliae維羅德Britinis 。 ” - According to this statement, the original branches of the hermits were: (1) The Williamites, founded by St. William of Maleval shortly before his death in 1157. From this congregation sprang two others, the principal houses being at Stabulum Rodis, in the valley of Maleval, and at Fabali on Monte Fabali. -根據這項聲明,原部門的隱士有: ( 1 ) W illiamites,成立由聖威廉M aleval前不久去世的1 157年。從這個教會興起其他兩個主要的房屋處於S tabulumR odis,在山谷Maleval ,並在Fabali對蒙Fabali 。 The mode of life, originally very severe, was mitigated by Pope Gregory IX, under whom the majority of the Williamite monasteries adopted the Rule of St. Benedict.該模式的生活,原本十分嚴重的,是減輕教皇格里高利九,根據其中的多數通過Williamite寺院規則的聖本篤。 When these were required by the Bull "Licet ecclesiae catholicae" to join the new order, they raised objections and obtained a prohibition to exchange the Benedictine Rule for the milder one of the Augustinians.當這些人所需要的公牛“ Licet教會catholicae ”加入新秩序,他們提出了異議,並獲得了禁止匯率本篤規則的溫和之一的奧古斯丁。 (See Guil. De Waha, "Explanatio vitae S. Guillelmi Magni" etc., 1693; "Acta Sanct. Boll.", Feb., II, 450 sqq.; "Kirchenlex.", 2nd ed., XII, 1609 sqq.) (2) Several unspecified houses of the Order of St. Augustine, established chiefly in Italy, and forming separate congregations. (見Guil 。德瓦哈, “ Explanatio簡歷由蚯蚓馬尼”等, 1693 ; “學報Sanct 。棉鈴。 ” , 2月,二, 450 sqq 。 “ Kirchenlex 。 ”第二版。 ,十二, 1609年sqq 。 ) ( 2 )一些不明房屋的命令聖奧古斯丁,建立主要是在意大利,並形成獨立的教會。 To these belong the Hermits of the Holy Trinity in Tuscany, who had already been united into an Augustinian congregation by Pope Innocent IV, in 1243, with Cardinal Richard for a protector, and with indulgences granted to those who visited their churches (in 1244).這些屬於的隱士聖三一在托斯卡納,誰已經團結成為一個奧古斯丁教會的諾森四,在1243年,理查德與樞機主教的保護者,並給予indulgences那些誰訪問了他們的教堂(在1244 ) 。 (3) The Bonites, so called from their founder, Blessed John Buoni, a member of the Buonuomini family, born about 1168 in Mantua. ( 3 ) Bonites ,所謂的從他們的創始人,約翰Buoni有福,一名Buonuomini家庭,約1168年出生在曼圖亞。 He lived a hermit's life at Cesena, and died in his native city in 1249 (Lodi, "Vita e miracoli del b. Giov. Buoni", Mantua, 1591; "Acta SS. Boll.", Oct., IX, 693 sq.).他過著隱士的生活在切塞納,並死在他的城市, 1249 (洛迪, “簡歷é奇蹟刪除灣Giov 。 Buoni ” ,曼圖亞, 1591 ; “學報黨衛軍。棉鈴。 ” , 10月,九, 693平方米。 ) 。 In the year 1256 the Bonites possessed eleven monasteries and gave the first general to the Augustinian Order (see above).在1256年的11 Bonites寺院擁有了第一個一般性的奧古斯丁令(見上文) 。 (4) The Brittinians (Brictinians), so called from their oldest foundation, that of St. Blasius de Brittinis, near Fano, in the district of Ancona. ( 4 ) Brittinians ( Brictinians ) ,所謂的從他們的最古老的基礎,即聖修斯的Brittinis ,靠近諾,在該地區的安科納。 Many congregations, such as the Brothers of Penance of Christ (Saccati, or "Sack-bearers"), the foundations of Durandus of Huesca (Osca), and those of the "Catholic Poor", united with the Bonites.許多教會,如兄弟的懺悔基督( Saccati ,或“袋者” )的基礎Durandus的韋斯卡( Osca ) ,以及那些在“天主教欠佳” ,團結與Bonites 。

The Hermits of St. Augustine spread rapidly, partly because they did not radiate from a single parent monastery, and partly because, after violent conflicts in the previously existing congregations, the active life was finally adopted by the greater number of communities, following the example of the Friars Minor and the Dominicans.在隱士的聖奧古斯丁迅速蔓延,部分原因是他們沒有輻射來自單親寺院,部分是因為,在暴力衝突中,以前存在的聚會,積極的生活終於通過了越來越多的社區,下面的例子在天主教方濟會和多米尼加。 To the Brittinians alone, in 1260, was granted permission to continue following the contemplative life.為了Brittinians ,僅在第1260 ,被准許繼續以下的沉思生活。 A few years after the reorganization of the Augustinian Order, Hermit monasteries sprang up in Germany, France, and Spain.幾年後,重組的奧古斯丁秩序,隱士寺廟興起在德國,法國和西班牙。 Germany soon possessed forty, many of them large and important, such as those at Mainz, Würzburg, Worms, Nuremberg, Speyer, Strasburg, Ratisbon, all built between 1260 and 1270.德國擁有第四十三很快,其中許多是大型和重要的,如在美茵茨,維爾茨堡,蠕蟲,紐倫堡,斯派爾,斯特拉斯堡, Ratisbon ,所有1260年間建成和1270 。 As early as the year 1299, the German province was divided into four sub-provinces: the Rhenish-Swabian, the Cologne, the Bavarian, and the Saxon.早在1299年,德國全省分為4個分省:在禮賢,施瓦本,科隆,巴伐利亞和薩克森。 At the period of its greates prosperity the order possessed 42 provinces and 2 vicariates numbering 2000 monasteries and about 30,000 members. (Cf. Aug. Lubin, "Orbis Augustinianus sive conventuum O. Erem. SA chorographica et topographica descriptio", Paris, 1659, 1671, 1672.)在其期間greates繁榮的順序擁有42個省份和2 vicariates編號寺廟和2000年約3.0萬成員。 (參見8月盧賓, “奧比斯Augustinianus性conventuum我國Erem 。 chorographica公司等topographica descriptio ” ,巴黎, 1659年, 1671年, 1672年) 。

PRESENT CONDITION OF THE ORDER目前的狀況的命令

Since the sixteenth century the order, owing to many causes, particularly to the Reformation, lost numbers of monasteries.自16世紀的命令,由於多種原因,特別是對改革失去了寺廟的人數。 During the French Revolution the greater part of the 157 monasteries were destroyed, as well as all the monasteries of the Discalced Augustinian Hermits.在法國大革命的更大的一部分, 157名寺廟被摧毀,以及所有寺廟的Discalced奧古斯丁隱士。 The secularization of the religious houses in Germany, Austria, and Italy brought about great losses.在世俗化的宗教房屋在德國,奧地利和意大利帶來了巨大損失。 In 1835, out of a total of 153 in Spain, 105 were suppressed.在1835年,在總共153個在西班牙, 105名壓制。 The Augustinian monasteries in Mexico were suppressed in 1860; in Russia, in 1864; in the Kingdom of Hanover, in 1875.在奧古斯丁修道院遭到壓制墨西哥於1860年,在俄羅斯,於1864年,在英國的漢諾威,於1875年。 The Philippine Islands, however, suffered the heaviest losses, during the disturbances of 1896.菲律賓群島,然而,遭受了嚴重損失,在動盪的1896年。 Hence the Augustinian Order of today has only a tenth of the monasteries which it possessed at the time of its greatest prosperity.因此,奧古斯丁教今天只有十分之一的寺院擁有它時,它最大的繁榮。

Without counting the Discalced Augustinians, the order comprises 19 provinces, 2 commissariates, 2 congregations, and 60 large monasteries (with 6 or more fathers), in all, including residences and mission stations, 275 foundations, with 2050 members (priests, clerical novices, and lay brothers).如果沒有清點Discalced奧古斯丁,該命令包括19個省, 2 commissariates , 2個教區, 60大寺廟( 6或以上的父親) ,在所有人,包括住宅和任務站, 275個基金會,與2050年成員(司鐸,辦事員新手,並奠定兄弟) 。 These provinces, according to the "Catalogus Fratrum O. Erem. S. Augustini" (Rome, 1908) are:--這些省份,按照“目錄Fratrum我國Erem 。南Augustini ” (羅馬, 1908年)是: -

Provincia Romana (Rome), with 13 convents.省大同(羅馬) , 13修道院。

Provincia Picena (north-eastern Italy), with 16 convents.省切納(東北部意大利) , 16修道院。

Provincia Castellae (Spain), with 5 colleges and 2 residences (S. German and Cabo Rojo) in Porto Rico.省Castellae (西班牙) , 5院校和2個住宅(由德國和德爾加杜角羅霍)在波爾圖隊。

Provincia Hollandica, with 6 convents.省Hollandica , 6修道院。

Provincia Belgica, with 3 convents.省比利時, 3修道院。

Provincia Umbriae, with 9 convents.省Umbriae , 9修道院。

Provincia Bavarico-Germanica et Polonica, with 7 convents in Bavaria, 1 in Prussia, and 1 in Austrian Galicia.省Bavarico ,德國等Polonica , 7修道院在德國巴伐利亞州, 1個在普魯士和奧地利1加利西亞。

Provincia Bohemiae, with 7 convents in Bohemia.省Bohemiae , 7修道院的波西米亞。

Commissariatus Neapolitanus, with 2 convents. Commissariatus Neapolitanus , 2修道院。

Commissariatus Siculus, with 8 convents in Sicily. Commissariatus Siculus , 8修道院在西西里島。

Provincia Etruriae, with 5 convents.省Etruriae , 5修道院。

Provincia Hiberniae, with 12 convents in Ireland (Dublin, Galway, Cork, Limerick, Drogheda, Callan, Dungarvan, New Ross, Fethard, Ballyhaunis, Clonmines, and Orlagh), 3 in England (Hoxton, West Kensington, and Hythe), 3 in Australia (Echuca, Rochester, and Kyabram), and 1 in Italy (St. Patrick's, Rome).省Hiberniae , 12修道院在愛爾蘭(都柏林,戈爾韋,科克,利默里克,德羅伊達,卡倫,鄧加文,新羅斯, Fethard , Ballyhaunis , Clonmines ,並Orlagh ) , 3名在英格蘭( Hoxton ,西肯辛頓,並海斯) , 3在澳大利亞(伊丘卡,羅切斯特,並Kyabram ) ,和1名意大利(聖帕特里克,羅馬) 。

Provincia Liguriae, with 5 convents.省Liguriae , 5修道院。

Provincia Michoacanensis (Mexico), with 10 convents, 16 vicariates or parishes, and 1 chaplaincy.省Michoacanensis (墨西哥) , 10修道院, 16 vicariates或教區, 1 chaplaincy 。

Provincia SS.省黨衛軍。 Nominis Jesu Insularum Philippinarum. Nominis耶穌Insularum菲律賓。 This comprises 2 residences at Madrid; the Real Colegio at Valladolid; 4 other residences and 7 convents in other parts of Spain; a procurator's house (domus procurationis) at Rome; 3 convents and 10 parish residences in the Philippines; a procurator's house and 6 mission stations in China; one college and five houses in the Republic of Colombia; 1 convent, 3 colleges, and 3 mission stations in Peru; a procurator's house and 16 other houses (including 1 diocesan seminary) in Brazil; 5 colleges, 1 school, and 4 other houses in Argentina.這包括2名住宅在馬德里的皇馬律師在巴利亞多利德; 4個其他住宅和7修道院其他地區的西班牙;檢察官的家(多莫斯procurationis )在羅馬3修道院和10個區的住宅在菲律賓;檢察官的房子和6任務站中國,一個大學和五所房屋在哥倫比亞共和國; 1修道院, 3個學院, 3個團,在秘魯檢察官的房子和16個其他房屋(包括1個教區神學院)在巴西5學院, 1名學校和其他4家在阿根廷。

Provincia S. Michaelis Quitensis (Ecuador), with 3 convents.省南米氏Quitensis (厄瓜多爾) , 3修道院。

Provincia Mexicana SS.省墨西哥黨衛軍。 Nominis Jesu (Mexico), with 6 convents and 7 vicariates. Nominis耶穌(墨西哥) , 6修道院和7 vicariates 。

Provincia Chilensis (Chile), with 6 convents and 1 house.省智利(智利) , 6修道院和1家。

Provincia Melitensis (Malta), with 3 convents.省桿菌(馬耳他) , 3修道院。

Provincia S. Thomae a Villanova in Statibus Faederatis Americae Septentrionalis (United States of America) comprises, besides the college of Villanova, in Pennsylvania, and that of St. Augustine, at Havana, Cuba, 9 convents and 11 houses.省南Thomae 1維拉諾瓦在Statibus Faederatis Americae蜥(美利堅合眾國)組成,除了維拉諾瓦大學,賓夕法尼亞州,而聖奧古斯丁,在古巴哈瓦那, 9修道院和11家。

Provincia Matritensis SS.省Matritensis黨衛軍。 Cordis Jesu (Spain), with 2 chapels in Madrid, a convent and 2 colleges in the Escorial, 1 college each at Palma (Majorca), Guernica, and Ronda, and a school at Portugalete.科迪斯耶穌(西班牙) , 2教堂在馬德里,修道院和2個院校的埃斯科里亞爾, 1每個大學生在帕爾馬(馬略卡) ,格爾尼卡,和Ronda ,和一所學校在波圖加萊特。

Congregatio S. Joannis ad Carbonariam (Naples), with 4 convents. Congregatio南Joannis廣告Carbonariam (那不勒斯) , 4修道院。

Congregatio S. Mariae de Nemore Siciliae (Sicily), with 2 convents. Congregatio南Mariae德Nemore Siciliae (西西里島) , 2修道院。

The convents of St. Thomas, at Alt Brünn, Moravia, and of Our Lady of Good Counsel, Philadelphia, USA are immediately subject to the general of the Augustinian Order.修道院的聖托馬斯,在備選布呂恩,摩拉維亞和聖母好律師,費城,美國立即受到普遍的奧古斯丁秩序。

The chief house of the order is the International College of St. Monica at Rome, Via S. Uffizio No. 1.首席內部的秩序是國際學院的聖莫尼卡在羅馬,威盛南Uffizio第1號。 It is also the residence of the general of the order (prior generalis) and of the curia generalis.這也是居住的一般命令(前一般)和教廷一般。 Another monastery of the Augustinian Hermits in Rome is that of S. Augustinus de Urbe, established in 1483, near the church of St. Augustine, in which the remains of St. Monica, the mother if St. Augustine, were deposited when they were brought from Ostia in the year 1430.另一個修道院的隱士奧古斯丁在羅馬是由奧古斯丁的Urbe ,成立於1483年,附近的教堂,聖奧古斯丁,其中仍然是聖莫尼卡,母親如果聖奧古斯丁,已存放時,從915帶來的一年1430年。 This, formerly the chief monastery of the order, is now occupied by the Italian Ministry of Marine, and the Augustinian Fathers who serve the church retain only a small portion of their former property.這,以前的主要寺院的秩序,現在是佔領了意大利海軍部,以及父輩誰奧古斯丁教堂服務,只保留一小部分,其前財產。 Another Augustinian convent in Rome is S. Maria de Populo de Urbe.另一個奧古斯丁修道院在羅馬是由瑪麗亞Populo德Urbe 。

In 1331 Pope John XXII had appointed the Augustinian Hermits guardians of the tomb of St. Augustine in the Church of S. Pietro in Ciel d'Oro at Pavia.在1331年教皇約翰二十二已任命奧古斯丁隱士監護人的陵墓在聖奧古斯丁教堂的美國彼得德天空陣線在帕維亞。 They were driven thence in 1700, and fled to Milan.他們推動再在1700年,逃往米蘭。 Their monastery being destroyed in 1799, and the church desecrated, the remains of St. Augustine were taken back to Pavia and placed in its cathedral.他們的寺院被摧毀在1799年,和教會褻瀆,還有聖奧古斯丁被帶回帕維亞和放置在大教堂。 In recent times the church of S. Pietro was restored, and on 7 October, 1900, the body of the saint was removed from the cathedral and replaced in San Pietro--an event commemorated in a poem by Pope Leo XIII.最近教會的S.彼得恢復,並在10月7日1900年,該機構的聖是從大教堂和替換的聖彼得-紀念一個事件中的一首詩由教皇利奧十三。 The Augustinians are again in possession of their old church of S. Pietro.在奧古斯丁再次擁有的舊教堂由彼得。

REFORM MOVEMENTS改革運動

In the fourteenth century, owing to various causes, such as the mitigation of the rule, either by permission of the pope, or through a lessening of fervour, but chiefly in consequence of the Plague and the Great Western Schism, discipline became relaxed in the Augustinian monasteries; hence reformers appeared who were anxious to restore it.在14世紀,由於各種原因,如減輕規則,要么允許教皇,或通過減少熱情,但主要是在後果鼠疫和西部大分裂,紀律中成為輕鬆的奧古斯丁修道院,因此改革者似乎誰急於將它還原。 These reformers were themselves Augustinians and instituted several reformed congregations, each having its own vicar-general (vicarius-generalis), but all under the control of the general of the order.這些改革者本身奧古斯丁,並建立若干改革教會,各有其自己的副主教,一般(蠹,一般) ,但所有的控制之下,一般的秩序。 The most important of these congregations of the "Regular Observants" were those of Illiceto, in the district of Siena, established in 1385, having 12, and subsequently 8, convents; of St. John ad Carbonariam (founded c. 1390), having 14 convents, of which 4 still exist; of Perugia (1491), having 11; the Lombardic Congregation (1430), 56; the Congregation of the Spanish Observance (1430), which since 1505 has comprised all the Castilian monasteries; of Monte Ortono near Padua (1436), having 6 convents; of the Blessed Virgin at Genoa, also called Our Lady of Consolation (c. 1470), 25; of Apulia (c. 1490), 11; the German, or Saxon, Congregation (1493) (see next paragraph); the Congregation of Zampani in Calabria (1507), 40; the Dalmatian Congregation (1510), 6; the Congregation of the Colorites, or of Monte Colorito, Calabria (1600), 11; of Centorbio in Sicily (1590), 18 (at present 2, which form the Congregation of S. Maria de Nemore Siciliae); of the "Little Augustinians" of Bourges, France (c. 1593), 20; of the Spanish, Italian, and French congregations of Discalced, or Barefooted, Augustinians (see below), and the Congregation del Bosco in Sicily established in the year 1818 and having 3 convents.其中最重要的教會的“經常Observants ”是那些Illiceto ,區的錫耶納,成立於1385年,有12個,隨後8 ,修道院;聖約翰廣告Carbonariam ( 1390年成立角) ,有14修道院,其中4個依然存在;的佩魯賈( 1491年) ,有11人;的Lombardic眾( 1430 ) , 56 ;聖座西班牙紀念( 1430 ) ,其中1505年以來已包括所有的卡斯蒂利亞寺廟;蒙Ortono附近的帕多瓦( 1436 ) ,擁有6日修道院;的聖母在熱那亞,也稱為聖母安慰(角1470 ) , 25 ;的阿普利亞(角1490 ) ,第11條;德國,或撒克遜,天主教( 1493 ) (見下段) ;聖座的Zampani在卡拉布里亞( 1507 ) , 40 ;達爾馬提亞眾( 1510 ) , 6 ;聖座的Colorites ,或蒙Colorito ,卡拉布里亞( 1600 ) ,第11條;的Centorbio在西西里( 1590 ) , 18 (目前2 ,形成了教會的S.瑪麗亞德Nemore Siciliae ) ;的“小奧古斯丁”的布爾,法國(角1593 ) , 20 ;的西班牙語,意大利語,法語教會的Discalced ,或赤腳,奧古斯丁(見下文) ,並教會刪除博斯科在西西里成立於1818年和今年有3款修道院。

Among these reformed congregations, besides those of the Barefooted Augustinians, the most important was the German (Saxon) Congregation.在這些改革的教會,除了那些赤腳的奧古斯丁,最重要的是德國(薩克森)眾。 As in Italy, Spain, and France, reforms were begun as early as the fifteenth century in the four German provinces existing since 1299.如同在意大利,西班牙和法國,已開始改革早在15世紀在德國的四個省份現有的自1299年。 Johannes Zachariae, an Augustinian monk of Eschwege, Provincial of the Order from 1419-1427, and professor of theology at the University of Erfurt, began a reform in 1492. Andreas Proles, prior of the Himmelpforten monastery, near Wernigerode, strove to introduce the reforms of Father Heinrich Zolter in as many Augustinian monasteries as possible.約翰內斯Zachariae ,一個和尚奧古斯丁的埃施維格,省政府的命令從1419年至1427年,和神學教授愛爾福特大學,開始了在1492年改革。安德烈Proles ,事先的Himmelpforten寺院附近Wernigerode ,力求引進改革的父親海因里希Zolter在盡可能多的奧古斯丁修道院的。 Proles, aided by Father Simon Lindner of Nuremberg and other zealous Augustinians, worked indefatigably till his death, in 1503, to reform the Saxon monasteries, even calling in the assistance of the secular ruler of the country. Proles ,幫助父親西蒙林德納紐倫堡和其他熱心的奧古斯丁,工作孜孜不倦直到他去世,在1503年,改革撒克遜寺院,甚至呼籲在援助的世俗統治者的國家。 As the result of his efforts, the German, or Saxon, Reformed Congregation, recognized in 1493, comprised nearly all the important convents of the Augustinian Hermits in Germany.由於他的努力,德國,或撒克遜人,歸正教會,承認在1493年,包括幾乎所有重要的修道院的奧古斯丁隱士在德國。 Johann von Staupitz his successor, as vicar of the congregation, followed in his footsteps.約翰馮Staupitz他的繼任者,因為牧師的教會,之後他的腳步。 Staupitz had been prior at Tübingen, then at Munich, and had taken a prominent part in founding the University of Wittenberg in 1502, where he became a professor of theology and the first dean of that faculty. Staupitz事先已在蒂賓根大學,然後在慕尼黑,並已採取了突出的創始參加大學的維滕貝格在1502年,他在那裡成為一個神學教授和院長首先是教師。 He continued to reform the order with the zeal of Proles, as well as in his spirit and with his methods.他繼續以改革的熱情Proles ,以及他的精神和他的方法。 He collected the "Constitutiones fratrum eremitarum S. Aug. ad apostolicorum privilegiorum formam pro Reformatione Alemanniae", which were approved in a chapter held at Nuremberg in 1504.他收集了“ Constitutiones fratrum eremitarum年8月。廣告apostolicorum privilegiorum formam親Reformatione Alemanniae ” ,其中核准了一章,在紐倫堡舉行的1504年。 A printed copy of these is still to be seen in the university library of Jena.印刷複製這些仍是被視為高校圖書館的耶拿。 Supported by the general of the order, Aegidius of Viterbo, he obtained a papal brief (15 March, 1506), granting independence under their own vicar-general to the reformed German congregations and furthermore, 15 December, 1507, a papal Bull commanding the union of the Saxon province with the German Congregation of the Regular Observants.支持一般的秩序, Aegidius的維泰博,他獲得了教皇簡報( 1506年3月一十五日) ,給予獨立的根據自己的副主教向改革和德國教會此外, 1507年十二月十五日,教皇車隊指揮工會撒克遜省與德國教會經常Observants 。 All the Augustinian convents of Northern Germany were, in accordance with this decree, to become parts of the regular observance.所有的奧古斯丁修道院北德國,根據這項法令,成為部分經常遵守。 But when, in 1510, Staupitz commanded all the hermits of the Saxon province to accept the regular observance on pain of being punished as rebels, and to obey him as well as the general of the order, and, on 30 September, published the papal Bull at Wittenberg, seven convents refused to obey, among them that of Erfurt, of which Martin Luther was a member.但是,當在1510年, Staupitz指揮所有的隱士的薩克森省接受經常遵守,否則將受到懲罰的叛亂分子,並服從他以及一般的命令,並於9月30日,公佈了教皇紅牛在維滕貝格,七個修道院拒絕服從,其中的愛爾福特,其中馬丁路德是一個成員。 In fact, Luther seems to have gone to Rome on this occasion as a representative of the rebellious monks.事實上,赫德似乎已前往羅馬在此之際作為一個代表叛逆的僧侶。

In consequence of this appeal to Rome, the consolidation did not take place. Staupitz also continued to favour Luther even after this.因此這一呼籲羅馬,鞏固並沒有發生。 Staupitz還繼續向有利於路德即使在這一點。 They had become acquainted at Erfurt, during a visitation, and Staupitz was responsible for Luther's summons to Wittenberg in 1508; nay, even after 1517 he entertained friendly sentiments for Luther, looking upon his proceedings as being directed only against abuses.他們熟悉在愛爾福特,在探視,並Staupitz負責路德的傳票,要在1508維滕貝格;不僅如此,即使在1517年,他受理的友好情誼路德,尋找他的訴訟作為僅針對不受虐待。 From 1519 on he gradually turned away from Luther.從1519年的他逐漸遠離路德。 Staupitz resigned his office of vicar-general of the German congregations in 1520. Staupitz辭去牧師職務,一般的德國教會在1520年。 Father Wenzel Link, preacher at Nuremberg, former professor and dean of the theological faculty at Wittenberg, who was elected his successor, cast his lot with Luther, whose views were endorsed at a chapter of the Saxon province held in January, 1522, at Wittenberg.父親文策爾環線,傳教士在紐倫堡,前教授和院長的神學教授在維滕貝格,誰當選他的繼任者,投了很多路德的看法是贊同的一章撒克遜省在1月舉行, 1522年,在維滕貝格。 In 1523 Link resigned his office, became a Lutheran preacher at Altenberg, where he introduced the Reformation and married, and went in 1528 as preacher to Nuremberg, where he died in 1547.在1523年辭去鏈接辦公室,成為路德會牧師在阿爾滕貝格,在那裡他介紹了改革和結婚,又在1528年作為牧師紐倫堡,在那裡他死於1547年。 The example of Luther and Link was followed by many Augustinians of the Saxon province, so that their convents were more and more deserted, and that of Erfurt ceased to exist in 1525.的例子路德和鏈接之後,許多奧古斯丁的薩克森省,使他們的修道院被越來越多的遺棄,而愛爾福特不復存在於1525年。 The German houses that remained faithful united with the Lombardic Congregation.德國的房屋,仍然忠實地團結與Lombardic眾。 There were, however, many Augustinians in Germany who by their writings and their sermons opposed the Reformation.然而,有許多奧古斯丁在德國誰他們的著作和他們的說教反對改革。 Among them Bartholomäus Arnoldi of Usingen (d. 1532 at Würzburg), for thirty years professor at Erfurt and one of Luther's teachers, Johannes Hoffmeister (d. 1547), Wolfgang Cappelmair (d. 1531), and Konrad Treger (d. 1542).其中Bartholomäus花的Usingen (草1532年在維爾茨堡) , 30年在愛爾福特教授之一路德的教師,約翰內斯霍夫邁斯特(草1547 ) ,沃爾夫岡Cappelmair (草1531 )和康拉德Treger (草1542 ) 。

THE DISCALCED AUGUSTINIANS奧古斯丁的DISCALCED

(Sometimes called the Barefooted Augustinians, or Augustinian Recollects) More fortunate than that of the German (Saxon) province was the reform of the order begun in Spain in the sixteenth century, which extended thense to Italy and France. (有時被稱為赤腳奧古斯丁,或奧古斯丁回憶)更幸運相比,德國(薩克森)省改革的秩序開始在西班牙16世紀,這thense延長到意大利和法國。 The originator of this reform was Father Thomas of Andrada, afterwards called Thomas of Jesus.發端這一改革是聖父托馬斯安德拉達,隨後托馬斯所謂的耶穌。 Born at Lisbon, in 1529, he entered the Augustinian Order in his fifteenth year.出生於里斯本,在1529年,他進入奧古斯丁在他的命令第十五年。 Although aided in his efforts at reform by the Cardinal Infante Henry of Portugal, and his teacher, Louis of Montoya, his plans were impeded at first by the hesitation of his brethren, then by his captivity among the Moors (1578), on the occasion of the crusade of the youthful King Sebastian of Portugal, and lastly by his death in prison which took place on 17 April, 1582.雖然計算機輔助在他的努力在改革的樞機公主葡萄牙的亨利,他的老師,路易斯蒙托亞,他的計劃是在第一次阻礙了他的猶豫的兄弟,然後他圈養的摩爾( 1578 ) ,以紀念在十字軍東征的國王塞巴斯蒂安年輕的葡萄牙,最後他在監獄中死亡發生的1582年4月17號。 The celebrated poet and scholar Fray Luis Ponce de León (d. 1591), of the Augustinian monastery at Salamanca, took up the work of Thomas of Andrada.著名詩人和學者弗賴路易斯龐塞德萊昂(草1591年)的奧古斯丁修道院在薩拉曼卡,拿起工作的托馬斯安德拉達。 Appointed professor of theology at the University of Salamanca in 1561, he undertook the revision of the constitutions of his order and in 1588 Father Díaz, with the support of Philip II, established at Talavera the first monastery of the Spanish Regular Observance.任命神學教授薩拉曼卡大學在1561年,他進行了修改憲法的秩序,並在1588年迪亞斯父親的支持下,菲利普二世,建立塔拉維雅第一寺院西班牙經常遵守。 In a short time many new monasteries of Discalced Augustinians sprang up in Spain and were followed by others in the Spanish colonies.在很短的時間了許多新的寺院的Discalced奧古斯丁跳起來在西班牙和之後,其他在西班牙的殖民地。 In 1606 Philip III sent some Discalced Augustinians to the Philippine Islands where, as early as 1565, Fray Andrés de Urdaneta, the well-known navigator and cosmographer (cf. "La Ciudad de Dios", 1902; "Die katholischen Missionen", 1880, pp. 4 sqq.), had founded the first mission station on the island of Cebú.在1606年腓力三世派遣一些Discalced奧古斯丁的菲律賓群島時,早在1565年,弗賴安德烈斯的烏達內塔,著名的航海家和cosmographer (參見“香格里拉迪奧斯城” , 1902年, “模具katholischen Missionen ” , 1880年,頁。 4 sqq 。 )成立了第一項任務站的宿務島。 In a few years, many mission stations of the Discalced Augustinians sprang up in the principal places on the islands and developed a very successful missionary activity.在未來幾年內,許多任務站的Discalced奧古斯丁興起的主要地方在這些島嶼上,並制定了非常成功的傳教活動。 In 1622 Pope Gregory XV permitted the erection of a separate congregation for the Discalced, with its own vicar-general.在1622年教皇格雷戈里十五允許安裝一個單獨的教會的Discalced ,有自己的副主教,一般。 This congregation comprised four provinces: three in Spain and the Philippine province, to which was later added that of Peru.這教會組成四個省份:三個在西班牙和菲律賓省,到後來補充說,秘魯。 When the Discalced Augustinians in Spain were either put to death or obliged to flee, during the revolution of 1835, they continued to flourish in the Philippines and in South America.當Discalced奧古斯丁在西班牙都已死亡或被迫逃離,在革命, 1835年,他們繼續發展在菲律賓和南美。

In Italy, Father Andrés Díaz introduced the reformed congregations in 1592, the first house being that of Our Lady of the Olives, at Naples, which was soon followed by others at Rome and elsewhere.在意大利,父親安德烈迪亞斯介紹了改革教會在1592年,第一家就是聖母的橄欖,在那不勒斯,這是隨後由他人在羅馬和其他地方。 As early as 1624 Pope Urban VIII permitted the division of the Italian congregations of Barefooted Augustinians into four provinces (later, nine).早在1624年教皇烏爾班八世允許分裂,意大利教會的赤腳奧古斯丁分為四個省(後, 9人) 。 In 1626 a house of this congregation was founded at Prague and another at Vienna, in 1631, of which the celebrated Abraham a Sancta Clara was a member in the eighteenth century.在1626年房子這個教會成立於布拉格和另一個在維也納,在1631年,其中著名的亞伯拉罕一聖塔克拉拉的成員在18世紀。 In France, Fathers François Amet and Matthew of St. Frances, of Villar-Benoit, completed the reform of the order in 1596.在法國,父親弗朗索瓦阿梅特和馬修的聖弗朗西斯的比利亞爾,伯努瓦,已完成改革的順序第1596號。 The French Congregation of Discalced Augustinians comprised three provinces, of which all the houses were destroyed during the French Revolution.法國聖奧古斯丁的Discalced組成3個省份,其中所有的房屋被摧毀在法國大革命。 As the only convent of Calced Augustinian Hermits, St.作為唯一的女修道院的隱士Calced奧古斯丁,聖 Monica, at Nantes, is at present untenanted, there is now not a single Augustinian convent in France.莫尼卡,在南特,目前正虛,現在不是一個單一的奧古斯丁修道院在法國。 The Italian Congregation of Discalced Augustinians in Italy possess seven houses, six in Italy and one in Austria (Schlusselburg, with a parish in the Diocese of Budweiss).意大利天主教的Discalced奧古斯丁在意大利擁有7家, 6個在意大利,一個在奧地利( Schlusselburg ,以堂在教區Budweiss ) 。 The chief house of this congregation is that of St. Nicholas of Tolentino in Rome (Via del Corso 45).首席房子本是教會的聖尼古拉斯的倫蒂諾在羅馬(通過省科索45 ) 。 Including the scattered members of the Spanish congregation in the Philippine Islands and South America, the Discalced Augustinians still number about 600 members.包括分散的成員聚集在西班牙在菲律賓群島和南美洲, Discalced奧古斯丁仍然大約有600名成員。 They are independent of the Augustinian general and are divided into two congregations, under two vicars-general.他們是獨立的奧古斯丁一般分為兩個教區,根據兩個vicars秘書長。

Organization of the Order組織秩序

The Augustinian Hermits, while following the rule known as that of St. Augustine, are also subject to the Constitutions drawn up by Bl.在奧古斯丁隱士,而下面的規則被稱為是聖奧古斯丁,還受到憲法起草了天麻。 Augustinus Novellus (d. 1309), prior general of the order from 1298 to 1300, and by Bl. Clement of Osimo.奧古斯丁諾(草1309年)之前,一般的命令1298年至1300年,以及天麻。克萊門特Osimo 。 The Rule and Constitutions were approved at the general chapter held at Florence in 1287 and at Ratisbon in 1290.該規則並批准了憲法在第二章一般在佛羅倫薩舉行的1287年和1290年在Ratisbon 。 A revision was made at Rome in 1895.修改了在羅馬於1895年。 The Constitutions have frequently been printed: at Rome, in 1581, and, with the commentary of Girolamo Seripando, at Venice, in 1549, and at Rome, in 1553.憲法經常被印刷:在羅馬,在1581年,並與評吉羅拉莫Seripando ,在威尼斯,在1549年,在羅馬,在1553年。 The newly revised Constitutions were published at Rome in 1895, with additions in 1901 and 1907.新修訂的憲法是在羅馬發表於1895年,並增加在1901年和1907年。

The government of the order is as follows: At the head is the prior general (at present, Tomás Rodríguez, a Spaniards), elected every six years by the general chapter.政府的命令如下:在頭前一般(目前,托馬斯羅德里格斯,一個西班牙人) ,選出每六年由一般的篇章。 The prior general is aided by four assistants and a secretary, also elected by the general chapter.以前一般是由四個輔助助手和一名秘書,還選出了由一般的篇章。 These form the Curia Generalitia.這些構成了教廷Generalitia 。 Each province is governed by a provincial, each commissariate by a commissary general, each of the two congregations by a vicar-general, and every monastery by a prior (though the monastery of Alt-Brunn, in Moravia, is under an abbot) and every college by a rector.每個省是由各省,每個commissariate由一個小賣部一般來說,每兩個教區的副主教,一般,每一個修道院的事先(儘管寺院按住Alt -布呂恩,在摩拉維亞,是根據住持)和每個大學的校長。 The members of the order are divided into priests and lay brothers. The Augustinians, like most religious orders, have a cardinal protector (at present, Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro).各成員為了分為神父和奠定的兄弟。的奧古斯丁,最喜歡的宗教命令,有一個基本的保護者(目前,馬里亞諾Rampolla刪除Tindaro ) 。 The choir and outdoor dress of the monks is of black woollen material, with long, wide sleeves, a black leather girdle, and a long pointed cowl reaching to the girdle.該合唱團及戶外服裝的僧侶是黑色毛料材料,長,寬袖子,黑色皮革腰帶,並指出只要達成整流罩的腰帶。 The indoor dress consists of a black habit with scapular.室內服裝由一個黑色的習慣與肩胛骨。 In many monasteries white was formerly the colour of the house garment, also worn in public, in places where there were no Dominicans.在許多寺廟白色原來的顏色房子服裝,還穿在公共場所,在地方有沒有道明。 Shoes and (out of doors) a black hat complete the costume.鞋(出門)黑色帽子完成的服裝。

The Discalced Augustinians have their own constitutions, differing from those of the other Augustinians.奧古斯丁的Discalced有自己的憲法,有別於其他奧古斯丁。 Their fasts are more rigid, and their other ascetic exercises stricter.他們的齋戒是更嚴格的,他們的其他苦行演習嚴格。 They wear sandals, not shoes (and are therefore not strictly discalced).他們穿的涼鞋,而不是鞋(並因此不嚴格discalced ) 。 They never sing a high Mass. As an apparent survival of the hermit life, the Discalced Augustinians practise strict silence and have in every province a house of recollection situated in some retired place, to which monks striving after greater perfection can retire in order to practise severe penance, living only on water, bread, fruits, olive oil, and wine.他們從來不唱高馬薩諸塞州作為一個明顯的生存的隱士生活, Discalced奧古斯丁實行嚴格的沉默,並在每個省的一所房屋坐落在回憶一些退休的地方,因為僧人爭取更大的完美後可以退休,以執業嚴重的懺悔,只有對生活的水,麵包,水果,橄欖油,葡萄酒。

PRIVILEGES OF THE ORDER特權的命令

Privileges were granted to the order almost from its beginning.被授予特權的順序幾乎從一開始。 Alexander IV freed the order from the jurisdiction of the bishops; Innocent VIII, in 1490, granted to the churches of the order indulgences such as can only be gained by making the Stations at Rome; Pius V placed the Augustinians among the mendicant orders and ranked them next to the Carmelites.亞歷山大四世的順序釋放的管轄範圍之內主教;無辜八,在1490年,授予教會的命令,如indulgences只能上漲,使監測站在羅馬;皮烏斯V放在奧古斯丁之間的行乞的訂單和排名他們旁邊的Carmelites 。 Since the end of the thirteenth century the sacristan of the papal palace has always been an Augustinian.自去年底13世紀的教堂的教皇宮殿一直是奧古斯丁。 This privilege was ratified by Pope Alexander VI and granted to the order forever by a Bull issued in 1497.這一特權已批准的教皇亞歷山大六世,並給予為了永遠的公牛在1497年發表的。 The present holder of the office is Guglielmo Pifferi, titular Bishop of Porphyra, rector of the Vatican parish (of which the chapel of St. Paul is the parish church).本持有人的辦公室是古列爾莫Pifferi ,領銜主教紫菜,校長梵蒂岡堂(其中教堂聖保羅是教堂) 。 To his office also belongs the duty of preserving in his oratory a consecrated Host which must be renewed weekly and kept in readiness in case of the pope's illness, when it is the privilege of the papal sacristan to administer the last sacraments to His Holiness.到他的辦公室也屬於有責任維護他的演講一神聖的主機必須重新每週和存放在準備的情況下,教皇的病情時,它的特權教皇的教堂管理的最後聖禮向陛下。 The sacristan must always accompany the pope when he travels, and during a conclave it is he who celebrates Mass and administers the sacraments.該教堂必須始終伴隨教皇當他旅行,並在秘密會議這是他誰慶祝質量和管理聖禮。 He lives in the Vatican with a sub-sacristan and three lay brothers of the order (cf. Rocca, "Chronhistoria de Apostolico Sacrario", Rome, 1605).他住在梵蒂岡的一個分教堂和三個兄弟打下的命令(參見羅卡, “ Chronhistoria德Apostolico Sacrario ” ,羅馬, 1605年) 。 The Augustinian Hermits always fill one of the chairs of the Sapienza University, and one of the consultorships in the Congregation of Rites.在奧古斯丁隱士總是填補之一主席的Sapienza大學,其中一個consultorships在教會的禮儀。

The work of the Augustinians includes teaching, scientific study, the cure of souls, and missions.工作的奧古斯丁包括教學,科研研究,治愈心靈,和使命。 The history of education makes frequent mention of Augustinians who distinguished themselves particularly as professors of philosophy and theology at the great universities of Salamanca, Coimbra, Alcalá, Padua, Pisa, Naples, Oxford, Paris, Vienna, Prague, Würzburg, Erfurt, Heidelberg, Wittenberg, etc. Others taught successfully in the schools of the order.歷史教育經常提到奧古斯丁誰特別傑出教授的哲學和神學的偉大的薩拉曼卡大學,科英布拉,阿卡拉,帕多瓦,比薩,那不勒斯,牛津,巴黎,維也納,布拉格,維爾茨堡,愛爾福特,海德堡,維滕貝格等其他教授成功地在學校的秩序。 The order also controlled a number of secondary schools, colleges, etc. In 1685 the Bishop of Würzburg, Johann Gottfried II, of Guttenberg, confided to the care of the Augustinians the parish and the gymnasium of Munnerstadt in Lower Franconia (Bavaria), a charge which they still retain.該命令還控制了一些中學,大學等在1685年的主教維爾茨堡,約翰戈特弗里德二,對古登伯格,吐露照顧的奧古斯丁教區和健身房的Munnerstadt下弗蘭克尼(巴伐利亞州) ,一個這些收費仍然保留。 Connected with the monastery of St. Michael in that place is a monastic school, while the seminary directed by the Augustinians forms another convent, that of St. Joseph.與修道院的聖邁克爾在該地方是一個修道院學校,而神指示的奧古斯丁修道院另一形式,即聖約瑟夫。 From 1698 to 1805 there existed an Augustinian gymnasium at Bedburg in the district of Cologne.從1698至1805年存在著奧古斯丁體育館在貝德堡區的科隆。 The order also possesses altogether fifteen colleges, academies, and seminaries in Italy, Spain, and America.該命令還擁有總共15個學院,院校,和神學院在意大利,西班牙和美國。 The chief institutions of this kind in Spain are that at Valladolid and that in the Escorial.負責機構這種在西班牙的巴利亞多利德,在和,在埃斯科里亞爾。 As a pedagogical writer, we may mention the general of the order Aegidius of Colonna, also called Aegidius Romanus, who died Archbishop of Bourges in 1316.作為教學的作家,我們可能會提到的一般秩序Aegidius的科隆納,也稱為Aegidius羅馬,誰喪生布爾大主教在1316年。 Aegidius was the preceptor of the French king, Philip IV, the Fair, at whose request he wrote the work "De regimine Principum". Aegidius是導師的法國國王菲利普四,公平,在所提出的要求他寫的工作“德regimine Principum ” 。 (An extract from this book "on the care of parents for the education of their children" will be found in the "Bibliothek der katholischen Padagogik", Freiburg, 1904.) Jacques Barthélemy de Buillon, a French Augustinian exiled by the Revolution, fled to Munich and began the education of deaf and dumb children. (摘自本書“的照料父母的教育,他們的孩子”將找到的“圖書館之katholischen教育學” ,弗賴堡, 1904年) 。雅克巴泰勒米的Buillon ,法國奧古斯丁流亡的革命,逃離慕尼黑,並開始教育的聾啞兒童。 Aegidius of Colonna was a disciple of St. Thomas Aquinas, and founded the school of theology known as the Augustinian, which was divided into an earlier and a later. Aegidius的科隆納是一個弟子多瑪斯,並成立了學校的神學被稱為奧古斯丁,其中分為早期和以後的。 Among the representatives of the earlier Augustinian school (or Aegidians), we may mention besides Aegidius himself (Doctor fundatissimus) Thomas of Strasburg (d. 1357), and Gregory of Rimini (d. 1358), both generals of the order, and Augustine Gibbon, professor at Würzburg (d. 1676).代表中較早奧古斯丁學校(或Aegidians ) ,我們可能會提到自己除了Aegidius (醫生fundatissimus )托馬斯斯特拉斯堡(草1357年)和格里高利的裡米尼(草1358年) ,這兩個將軍的命令,和奧古斯丁吉本教授在維爾茨堡(草1676 ) 。 The later Augustinian school of theology is represented by Cardinal Henry Noris (d. 1704), Fred.後來奧古斯丁的神學學校是由紅衣主教亨利諾里斯(草1704 ) ,弗雷德。 Nicholas Gavardi (d. 1715), Fulgentius Bellelli (d. 1742), Petrus Manso (d. after 1729), Joannes Laurentius Berti (d. 1766), and Michelangelo Marcelli (d. 1804).尼古拉Gavardi (草1715 ) , Fulgentius Bellelli (草1742 ) ,彼曼索( d.在1729年) ,約翰Laurentius福格茨(草1766年) ,和米開朗基羅Marcelli (草1804年) 。 The following were notable theologians: James of Viterbo (Giacomo di Capoccio), Archbishop of Benevento and Naples (d. 1308), called Doctor speculativus; Alexander a S. Elpideo (also called Fassitelli or A. de Marchina) (d. 1326), Bioshop of Melfi; Augustinus Triumphus (d. 1328); Bartholomew of Urbino (also called de Carusis) (d. 1350), Bishop of Urbino; Henry of Friemar (d. 1354); Blessed Herman of Schildesche (Schildis, near Bielefeld) (d. 1357), called Doctor Germanus and Magnus legista; Giacomo Caraccioli (d. 1357); Simon Baringuedus (d. after 1373); Johann Klenkok (Klenke) (d. 1374), author of the "Decadicon", an attack upon the "Sachsenspiegel"; Johannes Zachariae (d. 1428), known for his controversy with John Hus at the Council of Constance and for his "Oratio de necessitate reformationis"; Paulus (Nicolettus) de Venetiis (d. 1429); Giovanni Dati (d. 1471); Ambrose of Cora (Corianus, Coriolanus) (d. 1485), general of the order after 1476; Thomas Pencket (d. 1487); Aegidius of Viterbo (d. 1532); Cosmas Damian Hortulanus (Hortola) (d. 1568); Caspar Casal (d. 1587), Bishop of Coimbra; Pedro Aragon (d. 1595); Giovanni Battista Arrighi (d. 1607); Gregorio Nuñez Coronel (d. 1620); Aegidius a Praesentatione Fonseca (d. 1626); Luigi Alberti (d. 1628); Basilius Pontius (d. 1629); Ludovicus Angelicus Aprosius (d. 1681); Nikolaus Gircken (d. 1717).以下是顯著的神學:詹姆斯的維泰博(賈科莫娣Capoccio ) ,大主教貝內文托和那不勒斯(草1308年) ,要求醫生speculativus ;亞歷山大一南Elpideo (也稱為Fassitelli或爾希斯托德貝Marchina ) (草1326 ) , Bioshop的梅爾菲;奧古斯丁Triumphus (草1328 ) ;巴塞洛繆烏爾比諾(也稱為德Carusis ) (草1350年) ,烏爾比諾主教;亨利Friemar (草1354 ) ;有福赫爾曼的Schildesche ( Schildis ,近比勒費爾德) (草1357年) ,要求醫生Germanus和馬格努斯legista ;賈科莫Caraccioli (草1357 ) ;西蒙Baringuedus ( d.在1373號決議) ;約翰Klenkok ( Klenke ) (草1374年) ,作者的“ Decadicon ” ,一個攻擊的“ Sachsenspiegel ” ;約翰內斯Zachariae (草1428年) ,眾所周知,他的爭議與約翰胡斯在安理會的康斯和他的“ Oratio的需要reformationis ” ;保盧斯( Nicolettus )由Venetiis (草1429 ) ;喬瓦尼Dati (草1471 ) ;劉漢銓的科拉( Corianus ,科里奧蘭斯) (草1485年) ,一般的命令後, 1476 ;托馬斯Pencket (草1487 ) ; Aegidius的維泰博(草1532 ) ;科斯馬斯達米安Hortulanus ( Hortola ) (草1568 ) ;卡斯帕卡薩爾(草1587 ) ,科英布拉主教;佩德羅阿拉貢(草1595 ) ;喬瓦尼巴蒂斯塔阿瑞吉(草1607年) ;格雷戈里奧奧努涅斯科羅內爾(草1620年) ; Aegidius 1 Praesentatione豐塞卡( d. 1626年) ;路易吉阿爾貝蒂(草1628 ) ;烏斯彼拉多(草1629 ) ; Ludovicus Angelicus Aprosius (草1681 ) ;尼古拉Gircken (草1717 ) 。 Giovanni Michele Cavalieri (d. 1757) was a rubricist of note.喬瓦尼米歇爾卡瓦列裡(草1757 )是一個rubricist的說明。 Father Angelo Rocca, papal sacristan and titular Bishop of Tagaste (d. 1620), known for his luturgical and archaeological researches, was the founder of the Angelica Library (Bibliotheca Angelica), which was called after him and is now the public library of the Augustinians in Rome. Many Augustinians have written ascetic works and sermons.父親安傑洛羅卡,教皇的教堂和主教領銜塔加斯特(草1620年) ,眾所周知,他luturgical和考古研究,是創始人當歸圖書館(藏書當歸) ,這是所謂的後,他和現在的公共圖書館奧古斯丁在羅馬舉行。許多奧古斯丁寫禁慾工程和說教。 In the department of historical research the following are worthy of mention: Onofrio Panvini (d. 1568); Joachim Brulius (d. after 1652), who wrote a history of the colonization and Christianizing of Peru (Antwerp, 1615), also a history of China; Enrique Florez (d. 1773), called "the first historian of Spain", author of "Espana Sagrada"; and, lastly, Manuel Risco (d. 1801), author of a history of printing in Spain.在該部歷史研究以下是值得一提:弗里歐Panvini (草1568 ) ;約阿希姆Brulius ( d.在1652年) ,誰寫了歷史上的殖民統治和Christianizing秘魯(安特衛普, 1615年) ,也是一個歷史的中國;恩里克弗洛雷斯(草1773 ) ,所謂的“第一西班牙歷史學家”的作者, “西班牙聖” ;最後,曼努埃爾總體(草1801年) ,作者的歷史印刷在西班牙。

To the missionaries of the order we owe many valuable contributions in linguistics.以傳教士的命令,我們欠了許多寶貴的貢獻語言學。 Father Melchor de Vargas composed, in 1576, a cathechism in the Mexican Otomi language; Father Diego Basalenque (d. 1651) and Miguel de Guevara compiled works in the languages of the savage Matlaltzinkas of Mexico; Father Manuel Perez translated the Roman Cathechism into Aztec in 1723.父親梅爾喬的巴爾加斯組成,在1576年,一個cathechism在墨西哥Otomi語言;父親聖地亞哥Basalenque (草1651 )和米格爾德格瓦拉彙編作品的語言野蠻Matlaltzinkas墨西哥;父親曼努埃爾佩雷斯翻譯羅馬Cathechism到阿茲特克在1723年。 Others have made researches in the languages of the Philippine Islands, such as Father Diego Bergano and, in more recent times, José Sequi (d. 1844), a prominent missionary of the order, who baptized 30,000 persons.另一些研究中取得的語文菲律賓群島,如父聖地亞哥Bergano ,並在最近時間,若Sequi (草1844年) ,著名的傳教士的命令,誰洗禮30000人。 Many wrote grammars and compiled dictionaries.許多寫語法和詞典編纂。 Father Herrera wrote a poetical life of Jesus in the Tagalog language in 1639.埃雷拉的父親寫了生活的詩意耶穌在他加祿語的語言1639 。 Fathers Martin de Hereda and Hieronymus penetrated into the interior of China in 1577, to study Chinese literature with the intention of bringing it into Europe.馬丁的父親和海歐納莫斯Hereda滲透到內部的中國在1577年,研究中國文學的意圖,把它融入歐洲。 Father Antonius Aug. Georgius (d. 1797) composed the "Alphabetum Tibetanum" for the use of missionaries.父親安東尼8月Georgius (草1797 )組成的“ Alphabetum Tibetanum ”的使用傳教士。 Father Agostino Ciasca (d. 1902), titular Archbishop of Larissa and cardinal, a prominent member of the order in recent times, established a special faculty for Oriental languages at the Roman Seminary, published an Arabic translation of Tatian's "Diatessaron" and wrote "Bibliorum Fragmenta Copto-Sahidica".父親阿戈斯蒂諾Ciasca (草1902年) ,名義上的拉里薩大主教和樞機主教,一個重要成員的秩序,近年來,設立了一個專門的教師為東方語言學院的羅馬出版的阿拉伯文翻譯塔蒂安的“ Diatessaron ” ,並寫道: “ Bibliorum Fragmenta Copto - Sahidica “ 。 Father Dionysius of Borgo San Sepolcro (d. 1342), Bishop of Monopoli in Lower Italy, is the author of a commentary on the "Factorum et dictorum memorabilium libri IX" of Valerius Maximus, and was also much esteemed for his talents as poet, philosopher, and orator.狄奧尼修斯的父親博爾戈聖Sepolcro (草1342年) ,主教Monopoli下意大利,是作者的評注“ Factorum等dictorum memorabilium書九”的瓦列裡烏斯馬克西穆斯,也更尊敬他的才能的詩人,哲學家和演說家。 The missionaries of the order have also given us valuable descriptive works on foreign countries and peoples.傳教士的命令也給我們提供了寶貴的描述性工程對外國國家和人民。 In this class of writing Cipriano Navarro's important work on "The Inhabitants of the Philippines" and a monumental work in six volumes entitled "La Flora de Filipinas" (Madrid, 1877--), are valuable contributions to literature and learning.在這一級別的書面西普里亞諾納瓦羅的重要工作“的居民菲律賓”和一項艱鉅的工作在6卷,題為“香格里拉動植物的菲律賓” (馬德里, 1877年-) ,是寶貴的貢獻文學和學習。 Manuel Blanco, Ignacio Mercado, Antonio Llanos, Andrés Naves, and Celestino Fernandez are also worthy of mention.曼努埃爾布蘭科,伊格納西奧梅爾卡多,安東尼奧西利亞,安德烈斯Naves ,並塞萊斯蒂諾費爾南德斯也值得一提的。 Fathers Angelo Perez and Cecilio Guemes published in 1905 a work in four volumes entitled "La Imprenta de Manila".父親安傑洛佩雷斯和塞西Guemes刊登在1905年中的工作四卷題為“香格里拉Imprenta馬尼拉” 。

A number of mathematicians, astronomers, and musicians are also found among the members of the order, but it was the great scientist Johann Gregor Mendel, abbot of the monastery of St. Thomas at Alt-Brunn in Moravia (d. 1884) who shed glory on the Augustinian Order in recent times.一些數學家,天文學家和音樂家也發現各成員之間的秩序,但它是偉大的科學家約翰孟德爾,住持的修道院聖托馬斯在按住Alt -布呂恩在摩拉維亞(草1884年)誰跌光榮的奧古斯丁訂購最近倍。 He was the discoverer of the Mendelian laws of heredity and hybridization (see under EVOLUTION; and GREGOR MENDEL).他是發現者的孟德爾遺傳規律和雜交(見演化;和孟德爾) 。 The value set upon learning and science by the Augustinian monks is proved by the care given to their libraries and by the establishment of their own printing-press in their convent at Nuremberg, in 1479, as well as by the numerous learned men produced by the order and still contributing valuable additions to knowledge.設定值後的學習和科學的奧古斯丁修士證明了照顧給他們的圖書館,並建立自己的印刷媒體在其修道院在紐倫堡,在1479年,以及無數的經驗教訓男人所產生的為了和寶貴的貢獻仍然增加知識。 Father Tomás Cámaro y Castro (d. 1904), Bishop of Salamanca, founded a scientific periodical, "La Ciudad de Dios", formerly entitled "Revista Agustiniana", and published by the Augustinians at Madrid since 1881.父親托馬斯卡瑪洛y卡斯特羅(草1904年) ,薩拉曼卡主教,創立了科學期刊, “香格里拉迪奧斯城” ,原題為“雜誌Agustiniana ” ,並出版了奧古斯丁在馬德里自1881年。 In Spain the order possesses besides several meteorological stations, the observatory of the Escorial.在西班牙,除了以擁有幾個氣象觀測站,天文台的埃斯科里亞爾。 Among the Augustinian writers of the present time should be mentioned: Zacarías Martínez Nuñez, a celebrated Spanish orator and master of natural science; Honorato del Val, author of a great work on dogma; Aurelio Palmieri, one of the best authorities on the Russian language, literature, and church history.在奧古斯丁的作家現在應該提到:扎卡里亞斯奧努涅斯馬丁內斯,西班牙著名的演說家和掌握自然科學;奧諾拉托山谷省的作者,一個偉大工作的教條;奧雷利奧帕爾米耶,一個最佳當局對俄語,文學,和教會的歷史。

The Augustinian Order has devoted itself from its beginning, with great zeal to the cure of souls.在奧古斯丁秩序致力於從一開始就以極大的熱忱,在治愈的靈魂。 Only those engaged in teaching and inmates of the houses of recollection, among the Discalced, are exempt from the obligation to this duty, to follow which the order, though retaining its name Hermits, exchanged the contemplative life for the active.只有那些從事教學和犯人的房屋的回憶,在Discalced ,可免除這一義務的責任,按照該命令,但保留其名稱隱士,交換了沉思生活的活躍。 Seeing the good done by the Friars Minor and the Dominicans, they wished to share in the harvest, undertaking to preach and instruct the people.看到好的方面所做的天主教方濟會和多米尼加人,他們希望分享收穫,進行宣講,並指示人。 Augustinians became the confessors and advisers of popes, princes, and rulers.奧古斯丁成為confessors和顧問教皇,王子,和統治者。 Many became bishops, several cardinals, exercising these offices for the good of the Church and the honour of their order.許多人成為主教,幾個樞機主教,行使這些辦事處的良好的教會和榮譽的秩序。 At present the order has a cardinal, Sebastiano Martinelli (formerly Apostolic delegate for the United States), several bishops--Guglielmo Pifferi (see above); Stephen Reville, Bishop of Sandhurst in Australia; Arsenio Campo y Monasterio, Bishop of Nueva Cáceres in the Philippine Islands; Giovanni Camilleri, Bishop of Gozzo; José López de Mendoza y Garcia, Bishop of Pampeluna, Spain; Giuseppe Capecci, Bishop of Alessandria in Italy; Francisco Xavier Valdés y Noriega, Bishop of Salamanca; William A. Jones, Bishop of Porto Rico; the Vicars Luis Perez of Northern Hu-nan (China) and Dominic Murray, Cooktown, Australia; the Prefect Apostolic (Paulino Díaz Alonso) of San León de Amazonas--and, finally, two mitred abbots.目前,為了有一個基數,塞巴斯馬蒂內利(原宗座代表美國) ,一些主教-古列爾莫P ifferi(見上文) ;斯蒂芬雷維爾,桑赫斯特主教在澳大利亞;阿塞尼奧坎普y修道院,主教在新卡塞雷斯菲律賓群島;喬瓦尼卡米萊主教Gozzo ;何塞洛佩斯德門多薩y加西亞,主教Pampeluna ,西班牙;朱塞佩Capecci ,主教在意大利亞歷山德里亞;弗朗西斯澤維爾巴爾德斯y諾列加,薩拉曼卡主教;威廉A瓊斯,主教波爾圖隊的路易斯佩雷斯Vicars北胡楠(中國)和多米尼克墨累,庫克敦,澳大利亞;使徒的省長(保迪亞斯阿隆索)的聖萊昂的亞馬孫-最後,兩個m itreda bbots。

The order has produced many saints, for example, Sts.該命令產生了許多聖人,例如街。 Nicholas of Tolentino (d. 1305), John of Sahagún (a Sancto Facundo) (d. 1479), and Thomas of Villanova (d. 1555).尼古拉斯的倫蒂諾(草1305 ) ,約翰哈岡(一Sancto昆) (草1479 )和托馬斯的維拉諾瓦(草1555 ) 。 Stefano Bellesini (d. 1840), the Augustinian parish priest of Genazzano, in the Roman province, was beatified by Pius X, 27 December, 1904.斯特凡諾Bellesini (草1840年)中,奧古斯丁教區牧師的Genazzano ,在羅馬省,是福的庇護十, 1904年12月二十七日。 The process for the beatification of seven Augustinians, among them the papal sacristan Bartolommeo Menochio (d. 1827), is under consideration.的過程宣福7奧古斯丁,其中包括羅馬教皇教堂Bartolommeo Menochio (草1827年) ,正在審議之中。

As to the devotional practices specially connected with the Augustinian Order, and which it has striven to propagate, we may mention the veneration of the Blessed Virgin under the title of "Mother of Good Counsel", whose miraculous picture is to be seen in the Augustinian church at Genazzano in the Roman province.至於特別虔誠的做法與奧古斯丁秩序,它一直在努力宣傳,我們可能會提到崇拜的聖母的標題下的“媽媽的好律師” ,其神奇的圖片是被視為在奧古斯丁教堂Genazzano在羅馬省。 This devotion has spread to other churches and countries, and confraternities have been formed to cultivate it.這種奉獻精神已蔓延到其他教會和國家, confraternities已經形成,培養它。 Several periodicals dedicated to the honour of Our Lady of Good Counsel are published in Italy, Spain, and Germany by the Augustinians (cf. Meschler on the history of the miraculous picture of Genazzano in "Stimmen aus Maria-Laach", LXVII, 482 sqq.).一些期刊,致力於榮幸聖母良好的法律顧問,現刊載於意大利,西班牙,和德國的奧古斯丁(參見Meschler歷史上的神奇圖片Genazzano在“ Stimmen澳大利亞瑪麗亞Laach ” , LXVII , 482 sqq 。 ) 。 Besides this devotion the order fosters the Archconfraternity of Our Lady of Consolation, a so-called girdle confraternity, the members of which wear a blessed girdle of black leather in honour of Sts.除了奉獻的秩序促進Archconfraternity聖母安慰,所謂的腰帶confraternity ,其成員穿的祝福帶黑色真皮紀念街。 Augustine, Monica, and Nicholas of Tolentino, recite daily thirteen Our Fathers and Hail Marys and the Salve Regina, fast strictly on the eve of the feast of St. Augustine, and receive Holy Communion on the feasts of the three above-named saints.奧古斯丁,莫妮卡和尼古拉斯的托倫蒂諾,每天13朗誦父輩和冰雹瑪麗和寬慰里賈納,快速嚴格的前夕,節日的聖奧古斯丁,並接受聖餐的節日的上述三個名為聖人。 This confraternity was founded by Pope Eugene IV at S. Giacomo, Bologna, in 1439, made an archconfraternity by Gregory XIII, in 1575, aggregated to the Augustinian Order, and favoured with indulgences.這confraternity是由教皇尤金四在美國賈科莫,博洛尼亞,在1439年,作出了archconfraternity的格里高利十三,在1575年,累計向奧古斯丁秩序,並主張與indulgences 。 The Augustinians, with the approbation of Pope Leo XIII, also encourage the devotion of the Scapular of Our Lady of Good Counsel and the propagation of the Third Order of St. Augustine for the laity, as well as the veneration of St. Augustine and his mother St. Monica, in order to instil the Augustinian spirit of prayer and self-sacrifice into their parishioners.在奧古斯丁與讚許教皇利奧十三世,還鼓勵奉獻的肩胛骨聖母好律師和繁殖的三階的聖奧古斯丁的俗人,以及崇拜的聖奧古斯丁和他的聖莫尼卡的母親,為了灌輸奧古斯丁祈禱的精神和自我犧牲精神納入其教友。

The Augustinians hold an honourable place in the history of foreign missions. Before the middle of the fourteenth century, Father Nikolaus Teschel (d. 1371), auxiliary Bishop of Ratisbon, where he died, with some brethren preached the Gospel in Africa.在奧古斯丁舉行體面的地方歷史的外國使團。中葉之前的14世紀,父親尼古拉Teschel (草1371年) ,輔助主教Ratisbon ,他在那裡去世,與一些兄弟宣揚福音在非洲。 In 1533, after the subjugation of Mexico by Cortez, some Augustinians, sent by St. Thomas of Villanova, accomplished great missionary work in that country.在1533年後,征服墨西哥的科爾特斯,一些奧古斯丁,發出的聖托馬斯的維拉諾瓦,成就偉大的傳教士在該國的工作。 Monasteries sprang up in the principal places and became the centers of Christianity, art, and civilization.寺廟興起的主要場所,成為中心的基督教,藝術和文明。 The Patio (Cloister) of the former monastery of St. Augustine, now the post office, at Querétaro, is one of the most beautiful examples of stone-carving in America.天井(迴廊)前修道院的聖奧古斯丁,現在郵局,在克雷塔羅,是一個最美麗的例子,石頭雕刻在美國。 The Augustinian monasteries in Mexico are today either deserted or occupied by a few fathers only; some even only by one.奧古斯丁修道院的墨西哥今天或者遺棄或佔領的幾個父親只;有的甚至只有一個。 The Provincia Michoacanensis (see above, Present Condition) at present has about 55 members, while the Provincia Mexicana has 31, most of whom are priests.在省Michoacanensis (見上文,現狀)目前擁有約55個成員,而省墨西哥有31個,其中大部分是神職人員。 Augustinian missionaries extended their labours to South America (Colombia, Venezuela, Peru) with great success.奧古斯丁傳教士延長其勞動南美洲(哥倫比亞,委內瑞拉,秘魯)的巨大成功。 Political events in these countries prevented the order from prospering and hindered the success of its undertakings, so that in course of time the monasteries became deserted. Late events in the Philippine Islands, however, have permitted the Augustinians to return to their former churches and monasteries and even to found new ones. In the Republic of Colombia, 26 members of the Philippine province are employed, including 6 at the residence of Santa Fe de Bogota, 8 in the college at Facatativa, and 12 at other stations.政治事件在這些國家阻止該命令從繁榮和阻礙了成功的事業,因此,在隨著時間的推移,該寺院成為空無一人。逾期事件在菲律賓群島,然而,允許奧古斯丁返回原教堂和修道院甚至發現新的問題。共和國哥倫比亞, 26名菲律賓省就業,其中包括6日在官邸聖菲波哥大, 8日在該學院在Facatativa ,並在其他12個車站。 In Peru 49 members of the same province are employed: 14 priests and 2 lay brothers belonging to the convent at Lima; 12 priests to the college in the same city; 6 in each of the two seminaries at Cuzco and Ayacucho.在秘魯49個成員在同一省就業: 14神職人員和2奠定兄弟屬於修道院在利馬12神職人員的學院在同一城市; 6日在這兩個學院在庫斯科和阿亞庫喬。 In the Prefecture Apostolic of San León de Amazonas, at the mission stations of Peba, Río Tigre, and Leticia in the territory of the Iquito Indians there are 9 priests.在縣使徒聖萊昂的亞馬孫,在特派團站Peba ,里奧提格雷和萊蒂西亞在其境內的Iquito印第安人有9個牧師。 In June, 1904, Father Bernardo Calle, the lay brother, Miguel Vilajoli, and more than 70 Christians, were murdered at the recently erected mission station, Huabico, in Upper Maranon and the station itself was destroyed.今年6月, 1904年,父親貝爾納多列,在奠定兄弟,米格爾Vilajoli ,以及70多個基督徒被謀殺在最近豎立任務站, Huabico ,在上馬拉尼翁和車站本身被摧毀。 The Augustinian settlements in Brazil also belong to the Philippine province.定居點的奧古斯丁在巴西也屬於菲省。 In the procuration house at S. Paulo (Rua Apeninos 6) and in the college at Brotas there are 4 Augustinians each; in the diocesan seminary at S. José de Manaos, 6; and in the other settlements, 27 priests--in all, 42 members of the order, including one lay brother.在拉客的房子聖保羅(街Apeninos 6 )和在學院布羅塔斯有4奧古斯丁每個;在教區神學院在美國聖何塞德Manaos , 6 ;和其他定居點, 27祭司-在所有, 42名成員的命令,其中包括奠定弟弟。 In Argentina, there are 25 priests and two lay brothers in the six colleges and schools of the order.在阿根廷,有25名神父和兩名業外人士兄弟六個學院和學校的秩序。 In Ecuador, which forms a province by itself, there are 21 members of the order; 9 priests and 7 lay brothers in the monastery at Quito; 3 priests in the convent at Latagun and 2 in that at Guayaquil.在厄瓜多爾,形成一個省本身,有21名成員的秩序; 9日神職人員和7奠定兄弟在基多修道院; 3神職人員的修道院在Latagun和2 ,在瓜亞基爾。 The province of Chile has 56 members, including 18 lay brothers; 11 at Santiago, 4 at La Serena, 5 at Concepción, 22 at Talca, 8 at San Fernando, 4 at Melipilla, and 2 in the residence at Picazo. The province of the United States of America is very large, as the Augustinians driven out of many European countries in 1848 sought refuge in that republic. This province now numbers 200 members.省,智利有56個成員,其中包括18名兄弟奠定基礎; 11日在聖地亞哥, 4拉塞雷納, 5日在康塞普西翁, 22日在塔爾卡, 8日在聖費爾南多, 4 Melipilla , 2個在居住Picazo 。省美利堅合眾國是非常大的,因為奧古斯丁趕出許多歐洲國家在1848年尋求避難的共和國。現在這個省的200個成員人數。 The largest convent is at Villanova, Pa.; it is also the novitiate for North America, and among the 117 religious occupying the convent 21 are priests (see above, Present Condition).最大的修道院是維拉諾瓦大學,賓夕法尼亞州;這也是初學者的北美和117之間的宗教佔領修道院21祭司(見上文,現狀) 。 The other convents contain 60 members, of whom 5 are lay brothers.其他修道院包含60名成員組成,其中5奠定兄弟。 To the province of the United States belongs also St. Augustine's College at Havana, Cuba, where there are 5 priests and 3 lay brothers.該省美國也屬於聖奧古斯丁學院在古巴哈瓦那,那裡有5個牧師和3個兄弟奠定基礎。

The greatest missionary activity of the Augustinian Order has been displayed in the Philippine Islands, and the first missionaries to visit these islands were Augustinians.最大的傳教活動的奧古斯丁訂單已顯示在菲律賓群島,第一傳教士訪問這些島嶼被奧古斯丁。 When Magalhaes discovered the Philippines (16 March, 1521) and took possession of them in the name of the King of Spain, he was accompanied by the chaplain of the fleet, who preached the Gospel to the inhabitants, baptizing Kings Colambu and Siagu and 800 natives of Mindanao and Cebú, on Low Sunday, 7 April, 1521.當馬加良斯發現了菲律賓( 1521年三月16日) ,並佔有了他們的名字西班牙國王,他是伴隨著牧師的車隊,誰宣揚福音的居民中,國王隊洗禮Colambu和Siagu和800土生土長的棉蘭老島和宿霧,低星期日, 1521年4月7號。 The good seed, however, was soon almost destroyed; Magalhaes was killed in a fight with natives on the little island of Mactan on 27 April and the seed sown by the first Spanish missionaries all but perished; nor were those missionaries brought from Mexico in 1543 by Ruy López Villalobos more successful, for they were obliged to return to Europe by way of Goa, having gained very little hold on the islanders.良好的種子,但很快就幾乎摧毀;馬加良被打死的鬥爭與本地人的小麥丹島4月27日播下的種子的第一次西班牙傳教士所有,但滅亡,也不是那些傳教士從墨西哥帶來的1543由Ruy洛佩斯比利更成功,因為他們不得不回到歐洲的方式果阿,獲得了很少舉行的島民。 Under the Adelantado Legaspi who in 1565 established the sovereignty of Spain in the Philippines and selected Manila as the capital in 1571, Father Andrés de Urdaneta and 4 other Augustinians landed at Cebú in 1565, and at once began a very successful apostolate.根據Adelantado黎牙實比誰在1565年成立的主權,西班牙在菲律賓的馬尼拉和選定的首都在1571年,父親安德烈的烏達內塔和其他4奧古斯丁降落在宿務於1565年,在一次開始了一個非常成功的牧靈工作。 The first houses of the Augustinians were established at Cebú, in 1565, and at Manila, in 1571.首先房屋的奧古斯丁建立在宿務,在1565年,在馬尼拉,在1571年。 In 1575, under the leadership of Father Alfonso Gutierez, twenty-four Spanish Augustinians landed in the islands and, with the provincials Diego de Herrera and Martin de Rado, worked very successfully, at first as wandering preachers.在1575年的領導下,阿方Gutierez神父, 2004年西班牙奧古斯丁降落在該群島,並在聖地亞哥德provincials埃雷拉和馬丁的拉多,工作非常成功,首先因為流浪傳教士。 The Franciscans first appeared in the Philippines in 1577 and were warmly welcomed by the Augustinians.方濟會第一次出現在菲律賓1577年,並熱烈歡迎奧古斯丁。 Soon they were joined by Dominicans and Jesuits.不久,他們也加入了多米尼加和耶穌。 Sent by Philip III, the first Barefooted Augustinians landed in 1606.菲利普發出的第三,第一次赤腳奧古斯丁降落在1606 。 All these orders shared in the labours and difficulties of the missions.所有這些訂單中的共同勞動和困難的任務。 Protected by Spain, they prospered, and their missionary efforts became more and more successful.受西班牙,它們的繁榮,其傳教的努力變得更加成功。 In 1773 the Jesuits, however, were obliged to give up their missions in consequence of the suppression of the Society. The religious orders have suffered much persecution in the Philippines in recent times, especially the Augustinians.在1773年的耶穌,然而,不得不放棄自己的任務的後果,抑制社會。宗教訂單遭受迫害,許多在菲律賓最近時期,特別是奧古斯丁。 In 1897 the Calced Augustinians, numbering 319 out of 644 religious then in the Philippine province, had charge of 225 parishes, with 2,377,743 souls; the Discalced (Recollects), numbering about 220, with 233 parishes and 1,175,156 souls; the Augustinians of the Philippine province numbered in all 522, counting those in the convents at Manila, Cavite, San Sebastian, and Cebú, those at the large model farm at Imus, and those in Spain at the colleges of Monteagudo, Marcilla, and San Millan de la Cogulla. Besides the numerous parishes served by the Calced Augustinians, they possessed several educational institutions: a superior and intermediate school at Vigan (Villa Fernandina) with 209 students, an orphanage and trade school at Tambohn near Manila, with 145 orphans, etc. In consequence of the disturbances, the schools and missions were deserted; six fathers were killed and about 200 imprisoned and sometimes harshly treated.在1897年的Calced奧古斯丁,編號319的644名宗教然後在菲省,已收取的225堂,與2377743的靈魂;的Discalced (回憶) ,為數約220 ,與233個教區和1175156的靈魂;的奧古斯丁菲律賓該省編號為522的一切,那些指望在修道院在馬尼拉,甲米,聖塞巴斯蒂安,以及宿務,那些在大型示範農場危害,以及那些在西班牙的院校蒙特阿古, Marcilla ,聖密德拉魯阿Cogulla 。除了眾多教區服務的Calced奧古斯丁,他們擁有一些教育機構:上級和中級學校的維甘(別墅Fernandina )的209個學生,一所孤兒院和貿易Tambohn學校附近的馬尼拉,與145名孤兒,等後果動亂,學校和任務被遺棄;六個父親被打死,大約200名被監禁的,有時甚至嚴厲的對待。 Those who escaped unmolested fled to the principal house at Manila, to Macao, to Han-kou, to South America, or to Mexico.這些誰逃脫unmolested逃到房子主要在馬尼拉,澳門,韓口,南美洲,或到墨西哥。 Up to the beginning of 1900, 46 Calced and 120 Discalced Augustinians had been imprisoned.截至1900年年初, 46歲Calced和120 Discalced奧古斯丁被監禁。 Upon their release, they returned to the few monasteries still left them in the islands or set out for Spain, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Argentina and China.當他們釋放,他們返回後的幾個寺廟仍然讓他們在各島嶼或設置了西班牙,哥倫比亞,秘魯,巴西,阿根廷和中國。 The province of the United States sent some members to supply the vacancies in the Philippines.廣東省對美國發出的一些成員供應的空缺在菲律賓。 The monastery of St. Paul, at Manila, now has 24 priests and 6 lay brothers; that at Cebú, 5 members of the order, that at Iloilo, on the island of Panay, 11 priests and 2 lay brothers, while in the 10 residences there are 20 fathers; so that at the present time there are only 68 Calced Augustinians in the islands.寺院聖保羅,在馬尼拉,現在已經有24祭司和6奠定兄弟; ,在宿務, 5名成員的命令,在伊洛伊洛,島上的帕奈, 11神職人員和2奠定兄弟,而在10住宅有20個父親,因此,目前只有68 Calced奧古斯丁的島嶼。 In all, the Provincia Ss.在所有的省試。 Nominis Jesu Insularum Philippinarum, including theological students and the comparatively small number of lay brothers, has 600 members: 359 in Spain, 185 of whom are priests; 68 in the Philippines; 29 in China; 26 in Colombia; 49 in Peru; 42 in Brazil; 27 in Argentina. Nominis耶穌Insularum Philippinarum ,包括神學學生和相對較小的數目奠定兄弟,有600名成員組成: 359在西班牙, 185人是神父; 68在菲律賓; 29日在中國; 26日在哥倫比亞,秘魯49 ; 42巴西27日在阿根廷。

The Augustinian missions in the Philippines have provided missionaries for the East since their first establishment.特派團的奧古斯丁在菲律賓提供了傳教士東以來的首次設立。 In 1603 some of them penetrated into Japan, where several were martyred, and in 1653 others entered China, where, in 1701, the order had six missionary stations. 1603年,其中一些人進入日本,有幾個被殺害,並在1653年進入中國等,其中,在1701號決議,該命令有6個傳教站。 At present the order possesses the mission of Northern Hu-nan, China, where there are 24 members, 2 of whom are natives; 6 in the district of Yo-chou; 6 in the district of Ch'ang-te; 9 in the district of Li-chu; three other religious are also labouring in other districts-all under the vicar Apostolic, Mgr.目前,為了擁有的使命胡北南中國,那裡有24名成員組成,其中2名是本地人, 6區的喲洲6區的長德; 9區的李初;三個其他宗教也勞動在其他地區都下聖座副主教主教。 Perez.佩雷斯。 The mission comprises about 3000 baptized Christians and 3500 catechumens in a population of 11 millions of heathens.訪問團由約3000受洗基督徒和慕道3500人口中11數以百萬計的異教徒。 In 1891 there were only 219 Christians and 11 catechumens, as well as 29 schools, with 420 children and 750 orphans.在1891年只有219名基督教徒和11名慕道者,以及29所學校, 420名兒童和750名孤兒。 There are, moreover, two priests at the mission house at Han-kou and two at the procuration house at Shang-hai (Yang-tsze-poo Road, 10).目前,此外,兩名牧師團在韓家口和兩個拉客的房子尚海(楊tsze ,池道, 10條) 。 The missionary history of Persia also mentions the Augustinians.傳教歷史的波斯還提到奧古斯丁。 Towards the close of the sixteenth century, Alexio de Menezes, Count of Cantanheda (d. 1617), a member of the order, appointed Archbishop of Goa in 1595, and of Braga in 1612, Primate of the East Indies, and several times Viceroy of India, sent several Augustinians as missionaries to Persia while he himself laboured for the reunion of the Thomas Christians, especially at the Synod of Diamper, in 1599, and for the conversion of the Mohammedans and the heathens of Malabar.對關閉的16世紀, Alexio德梅內澤斯,伯爵Cantanheda (草1617 ) ,成員的命令,任命大主教的果阿在1595年和1612年布拉加,靈長類動物的東印度,並多次總督印度派出了幾個奧古斯丁作為傳教士波斯,而他自己辛勤的團聚的托馬斯基督徒,特別是在主教會議Diamper ,在1599年,並轉換伊斯蘭教和異教徒的馬拉巴爾。 (Govea, "Jornada do Arcebispo de Goa Dom Alexio de Menezes", Coimbra, 1606; also, "Histoire Orient. de grans progres de l'eglise Romaine en la reduction des anciens chrestiens dit de St. Thomas" translated from the Spanish of Franc. Munoz by JB de Glen, Brussels, 1609; Joa. a S. Facundo Raulin, "Historia ecclesiae malabaricae", Rome, 1745.) (戈韋亞, “每日報做Arcebispo的果阿教堂Alexio德梅內塞斯” ,科英布拉, 1606 ;同時, “東方歷史。 grans進步的法國教堂途中拉羅曼減少古代chrestiens您的德聖托馬斯”翻譯從西班牙的法郎。穆尼奧斯日益德峽谷,布魯塞爾, 1609年; Joa 。 1號昆Raulin , “ malabaricae教會史” ,羅馬, 1745年) 。

The Augustinians also established missions in Oceanica and Australia.在奧古斯丁還設立特派團Oceanica和澳大利亞。 Here the Spanish Discalced Augustinians took over the missions founded by Spanish and German Jesuits in the Ladrones, which now number 7 stations, with about 10,000 souls, on Guam and about 2500 on each of the German islands of Saipan, Rota, and Tinian.在這裡,西班牙Discalced奧古斯丁接管任務創辦的西班牙語和德語中的耶穌Ladrones ,現在7號站,大約有10000靈魂,在關島,大約每2500年的德國島嶼塞班島,羅塔和天寧島。 The mission on the German islands was separated from the Diocese of Cebú on 1 October, 1906, and made a prefecture Apostolic on 18 June, 1907, with Saipan as its seat of administration, and the mission is now in charge of the German Capuchins.訪問團在德國島嶼脫離教區宿務10月1日, 1906年,並提出了使徒縣6月18日, 1907年,與塞班島作為其所在地的政府和現在的任務是負責德國Capuchins 。 In Australia the Calced Augustinians are established in the ecclesiastical Province of Melbourne and in the Vicariate Apostolic of Cooktown, Queensland, where there are at present twelve priests of the Irish province under Monsignor James D. Murray.在澳大利亞的Calced奧古斯丁都建立了教會省的墨爾本和宗座代牧區的庫克敦,昆士蘭州,在那裡目前有12牧師的愛爾蘭大主教根據省詹姆斯沃爾芬森穆雷。 Three monasteries, each with two priests, in other parts of Australia also belong to this province.三寺廟,每兩名牧師,其他地區的澳大利亞也屬於這個省。 The order has furnished some prominent bishops to Australia, among them, James Alipius Gould.該命令提供了一些著名的主教澳大利亞,其中,詹姆斯古爾德Alipius 。 The Irish Augustinian college of St. Patrick at Rome, built in 1884 by Father Patrick Glynn, OSA, is the training college for the Augustinian missions.愛爾蘭奧古斯丁學院聖帕特里克在羅馬,建於1884年由父親帕特里克格林,傑出學校獎勵計劃,是培訓學院的奧古斯丁任務。 The present rector is Reginald Maurice McGrath.本校長雷莫里斯麥格拉思。

AUGUSTINIAN NUNS奧古斯丁修女

These regard as their first foundation the monastery of nuns for which St. Augustine wrote the rules of life in his Epistola ccxi (alias cix) in 423.這些方面作為其第一基礎寺院的僧尼為聖奧古斯丁寫道條生命在他的書信集ccxi (化名捷達夥伴)的423 。 It is certain that this epistle was called the Rule of St. Augustine for nuns at an early date, and has been followed as the rule of life in many female monasteries since the eleventh century.可以肯定的是,本書信被稱為法治的聖奧古斯丁的尼姑早日舉行,並一直遵循的規則作為生活中許多女性寺院自11世紀。 These monasteries were not consolidated in 1256, like the religious communities of Augustinian monks.這些寺廟沒有在1256年合併,如宗教社區的奧古斯丁僧侶。 Each convent was independent and was not subject to the general of the order.每個修道院是獨立的,並沒有受到普遍的秩序。 This led to differences in rule, dress, and mode of life.這就導致了不同的規則,服裝,模式和生活方式。 Only since the fifteenth century have certain Augustinian Hermits reformed a number of Augustinian nunneries, become their spiritual directors, and induced them to adopt the Constitution of their order.只有自15世紀具有一定的奧古斯丁隱士改革的若干奧古斯丁nunneries ,成為他們的精神董事,並誘導它們通過憲法的秩序。 Henceforth, therefore, we meet with female members of the Order of Hermits of St. Augustine in Italy, France, Spain, Belgium, and later in Germany, where, however, many were suppressed during the Reformation, or by the secularizing law of 1803.從今以後,因此,我們與女性成員的命令隱士的聖奧古斯丁在意大利,法國,西班牙,比利時,後來在德國,然而,許多人在鎮壓改革,或由世俗法的1803年。 In the other countries many nunneries were closed in consequence of the Revolution.在其他國家的許多nunneries被關閉的後果是革命。 The still existing houses, except Cascia, Renteria (Diocese of Vittoria), Eibar (Diocese of Vittoria), and Cracow, are now under the jurisdiction of the bishop of the diocese.在房屋仍然存在,但Cascia ,蘭特利亞(維多利亞教區) , Eibar (教區維多利亞)和克拉科夫,現管轄下的主教教區。 Many convents are celebrated for the saints whom they produced, such as Montefalco in Central Italy, the home of Blessed Clara of the Cross (Clara of Montefalco, d. 1308), and Cascia, near Perugia, where St. Rita died in 1457.許多修道院慶祝的聖人他們生產的,如Montefalco在意大利中部,家有福克拉拉十字(克拉拉的Montefalco , d. 1308 ) ,以及Cascia ,佩魯賈附近,在聖麗塔死於1457年。 In the suppressed convent of Agnetenberg near Dulmen, in Westphalia, lived Anne Catherine Emmerich celebrated for her visions.在修道院的壓制Agnetenberg附近Dulmen ,在威斯特伐利亞,生活安妮凱瑟琳默里克慶祝她的理想。

Mention should also be made of the monastery of the Augustinians called delle Vergini, at Venice, founded in 1177 by Alexander III after his reconciliation with Frederick Barbarossa, whose daughter Julia, with twelve girls of noble birth, entered the monastery and became first abbess.還應該提到的修道院奧古斯丁所謂的阿爾Vergini ,在威尼斯,始建於1177年由亞歷山大三世後,他的和解與弗雷德里克巴巴羅薩,他的女兒朱莉亞,與12女孩的崇高出生,進入寺院,並成為第一個住持。 Doge Sebastiano Zani, who had endowed the institution, was appointed patron, with the privilege of approving the election of the abbess before the granting of the papal confirmation.總督塞巴斯扎尼,誰賦予這個機構,被任命為靠山,並有幸批准的選舉之前,住持給予教皇確認。 On the French occupation in the eighteenth century the religious went to America, where they devoted themselves to the work of teaching and the care of the sick.法國佔領18世紀的宗教到美國,在那裡他們投身工作的教學和照顧病人。 Later they established monasteries in Italy and in 1817 in Paris.後來他們建立了寺院在意大利和1817年在巴黎舉行。 Towards the end of the sixteenth century communities of female Discalced Augustinians appeared in Spain.去年底的16世紀社區的女性Discalced奧古斯丁出現在西班牙。 The first convent, that of the Visitation, was founded at Madrid, in 1589, by Prudencia Grillo, a lady of noble birth, and received its Constitution from Father Alfonso of Orozco.第一修道院,即探望,成立於馬德里, 1589年,由Prudencia格里洛,一個崇高的夫人出生,並收到了憲法之父方的羅斯科。 Juan de Ribera, Archbishop of Valencia (d. 1611), founded a second Discalced Augustinian congregation at Alcoy, in 1597.胡安德裡貝拉,大主教瓦倫西亞(草1611年) ,成立了第二Discalced奧古斯丁聚集在Alcoy ,在1597年。 It soon had houses in different parts of Spain, and in 1663 was established at Lisbon by Queen Louise of Portugal.不久房子了不同地區的西班牙,並在1663年成立了在里斯本舉行的女王路易絲葡萄牙。 In addition to the Rule of St. Augustine these religious observed the exercises of the Reformed Carmelites of St. Teresa.除了規律的聖奧古斯丁這些宗教觀察演習的改革Carmelites的聖德肋撒。 In the convent at Cybar, Mariana Manzanedo of St.在修道院在Cybar ,馬里亞納Manzanedo聖 Joseph instituted a reform which led to the establishment of a third, that of the female Augustinian Recollects.約瑟夫制定了改革導致建立一個第三,女性奧古斯丁回憶。 The statutes, drawn up by Father Antinólez, and later confirmed by Paul V, bound the sisters to the strictest interpretation of the rules of poverty and obedience, and a rigorous penitential discipline.該法規,起草了父親Antinólez ,後來證實了保五約束修女的嚴格解釋規則的貧困和服從,並有一套嚴格的悔罪紀律。 All three reforms spread in Spain and Portugal, but not in other countries.所有這三個改革蔓延西班牙和葡萄牙,而不是在其他國家。 A congregation of Augustinian nuns under the title "Sisters of St. Ignatius" was introduced into the Philippines and South America by the Discalced Augustinian Hermits.教會修女的奧古斯丁的標題下, “姐妹的聖伊格內修”引入菲律賓和南美的Discalced奧古斯丁隱士。 They worked zealously in aid of the missions, schools, and orphanages in the island, and founded the colleges of Our Lady of Consolation and of St. Anne at Manila, and houses at Neuva Segovia, Cebú, and Mandaloya on the Pasig, where they have done much for the education of girls.他們的工作熱情援助的任務,學校和孤兒院中的島嶼,並成立了學院聖母慰藉和聖安妮在馬尼拉,並在房屋Neuva塞戈維亞,宿霧,並Mandaloya的帕西格,他們在那裡做了大量的女童教育。

Publication information Written by Max Heimbucher.出版信息撰稿最高Heimbucher 。 Transcribed by Rosa Maria Wiemann.轉錄的薔薇瑪麗亞Wiemann 。 Dedicated to St. Augustine and to all Augustinians The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.專用於聖奧古斯丁和所有奧古斯丁的天主教百科全書,體積七。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat , 1910年6月1號。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

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On the Hagiology of the Order.-- Staibanus de Taranta, Tempio Eremitano dei Santi e Beati dell' ordine Agostiniano (Naples, 1608); Torelli, Ristretto (Bologna, 1647); Joa.論Hagiology秩序.-- Staibanus德塔蘭塔,廟Eremitano代聖é Beati戴爾'秩序Agostiniano (那不勒斯,第1608 ) ;托雷利, Ristretto (博洛尼亞, 1647年) ; Joa 。 Navii Eremus Augustiniana (Louvain, 1658); Maigretius, Martyrologium Augustinianum (Antwerp, 1625); Hormannseder, Heiliges Augustinerjahr (Vienna, 1733); De Wouter, Saintes de l'ordre de St-Augustin (Tournai). Navii Eremus Augustiniana (魯汶, 1658 ) ; Maigretius , Martyrologium Augustinianum (安特衛普, 1625年) ; Hormannseder , Heiliges Augustinerjahr (維也納, 1733 ) ;德Wouter ,散特市治安隊聖奧古斯丁(圖爾奈) 。

On Augustinian Writers.-- Elsius, Encomiasticon Augustinianum (Brussels, 1654); Curtius, Virorum illustrium ...論奧古斯丁作家.-- Elsius , Encomiasticon Augustinianum (布魯塞爾, 1654 ) ;庫爾提烏斯, Virorum illustrium ... elogia (Antwerp, 1636, 1658); Gratianus, Anastasis Augustiniana (Antwerp, 1613), continued by Loy (Antwerp, 1636); Arpe, Pantheon Augustinianum (Genoa, 1709); Ossinger, Bibliotheca Augustiniana historica, critica et chronologica (Ingolstadt and Munich, 1776); Moral, Catalogo de escritores Agustinos Espanoles, Portugueses y Americanos in La Ciudad de Dios, XXXIV sqq. elogia (安特衛普, 1636年, 1658年) ; Gratianus , Anastasis Augustiniana (安特衛普, 1613年) ,繼續由洛伊(安特衛普, 1636年) ; Arpe ,先賢祠Augustinianum (熱那亞, 1709 ) ; Ossinger ,書目Augustiniana historica ,評論等chronologica (因戈爾施塔特和慕尼黑, 1776年) ;道德,下載目錄作家Agustinos Espanoles ,葡萄牙在美洲y香格里拉城迪奧斯,三十四sqq 。

On Augustinian Missions.-- Calancha, Cronica moralizada de la orden de San Agustin en el Peru (Barcelona, 1638); Baldani, Vita del fra Diego Ortiz, protomartire nel regno di Peru, martirizzato l'a.論奧古斯丁代表團.-- Calancha ,紀事moralizada德拉魯阿順序聖奧古斯丁稅金秘魯(巴塞羅那, 1638 ) ; Baldani ,簡歷刪除法蘭克福機場圣迭戈奧爾蒂斯, protomartire道regno娣秘魯, martirizzato近一個。 1571 (Genoa, 1645); Brulius, Historiae Peruanae O. Erem. 1571 (熱那亞, 1645 ) ; Brulius , Historiae Peruanae我國Erem 。 S. Aug. (Antwerp, 1651--); The Philippine Islands 1493-1898 (Cleveland, 1903--); Gaspar de S. Agustin, Conquista de las islas Filipinas (Madrid, 1698), continued by Díaz (Valladolid, 1890); Mozo, Noticia de los triumphos ...美國8月。 (安特衛普, 1651 -) ;菲律賓群島1 493年至1 898年(克里夫蘭騎士, 1 903年- );加斯帕爾由南卡里尼,孔基斯塔梅德拉斯菲律賓群島(馬德里,1 6 98年) ,繼續由迪亞斯(巴利亞多利德,1 8 90 ) ; Mozo , Noticia德洛斯triumphos ... de la Orden de San Ag.德拉魯阿勳章聖銀。 en las misiones en las islas Filipinas y en imperio de la China (Madrid, 1763); Memoria acerca de las Misiones de los PP.恩拉斯米西奧內斯途中拉斯y菲律賓群島途中帝國德拉魯阿中國(馬德里, 1763年) ;回憶簡介梅德拉斯米西奧德洛斯聚丙烯。 Agustinos Calzados (Madrid, 1892); Los Frailes Filipinos (Madrid, 1898); Documentos Interesantes acerca de la secularizacion y amovilidad de los Curas Regulares de Filipinas (Madrid, 1897); Francisco del Carmen, Catalogo de los religiosos Agustinos Recoletos de la Provincia de San Nicolas de Tolentino de Filipinas desde 1606 hasta nuestros dias (Madrid, 1906). Agustinos Calzados (馬德里, 1892年) ;洛斯弗賴菲律賓(馬德里, 1898年) ;文檔Interesantes簡介德拉魯阿secularizacion y amovilidad德洛斯Curas Regulares由菲律賓(馬德里, 1897年) ;舊金山卡門,下載目錄德洛斯religiosos Agustinos Recoletos德拉魯阿省聖尼古拉斯的托倫蒂諾德菲律賓desde 1606直到nuestros迪亞斯(馬德里, 1906年) 。


Rule of Saint Augustine法治的聖奧古斯丁

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The title, Rule of Saint Augustine, has been applied to each of the following documents:標題,規則的聖奧古斯丁,已適用於每個下列文件:

Letter 211 addressed to a community of women; 211個信給社區的婦女;

Sermons 355 and 356 entitled "De vitâ et moribus clericorum suorum";布道355和356 ,題為“德生活等moribus clericorum suorum ” ;

a portion of the Rule drawn up for clerks or Consortia monachorum;部分的規則制定了文員或聯營monachorum ;

a Rule known as Regula secunda; and規則被稱為雷塞康達;和

another Rule called: "De vitâ eremiticâ ad sororem liber."另一個規則要求: “德生活eremiticâ廣告sororem書。 ”

The last is a treatise on eremitical life by Blessed Ælred, Abbot of Rievaulx, England, who died in 1166 and as the two preceding rules are of unknown authorship, it follows that none but Letter 211 and Sermons 355 and 356 were written by St. Augustine.最後是一個論文eremitical生活的祝福Ælred ,艾博特的Rievaulx ,英格蘭,誰死在1166年和前兩個規則是作者不為人知,因此,沒有211 ,但信和布道355和356寫的街奧古斯丁。 Letter 211 is addressed to nuns in a monastery that had been governed by the sister of St. Augustine, and in which his cousin and niece lived. 211信是給修女在修道院已經由妹妹的聖奧古斯丁,並在他的表姐和外甥女生活。 His object in writing it was merely to quiet troubles, incident to the nomination of a new superior, and meanwhile he took occasion to expatiate upon some of the virtues and practices essential to the religious life.他的對象以書面形式它只是安靜的麻煩,事故提名一個新的優勢,同時,他藉此機會闡述的一些美德和做法必不可少的宗教生活。 He dwells upon charity, poverty, obedience, detachment from the world, the apportionment of labour, the mutual duties of superiors and inferiors, fraternal charity, prayer in common, fasting and abstinence proportionate to the strength of the individual, care of the sick, silence, reading during meals, etc. In his two sermons "De vitâ et moribus clericorum suorum" Augustine seeks to dispel the suspicions harboured by the faithful of Hippo against the clergy leading a monastic life with him in his episcopal residence.他談到慈善事業時,貧窮,服從,脫離世界,分攤的勞動,相互職責的上級和低人一等,兄弟般的慈善事業,在共同祈禱,齋戒和禁慾相稱的力量,個人,照顧病人,沉默,讀期間用餐,等他的兩個布道“德生活等moribus clericorum suorum ”奧古斯丁旨在消除猜疑窩藏忠實的河馬對神職人員領導一個寺院的生活與他的主教官邸。 The perusal of these sermons discloses the fact that the bishop and his priests observed strict poverty and conformed to the example of the Apostles and early Christians by using their money in common.在細讀這些說教披露這一事實的主教和他的牧師嚴格遵守貧困和符合的例子,使徒和早期基督徒用他們的錢共同點。 This was called the Apostolic Rule.這被稱為使徒規則。 St. Augustine, however, dilated upon the religious life and its obligations on other occasions.聖奧古斯丁然而,擴張型心肌病的宗教生活和義務在其他場合。

Aurelius, Bishop of Carthage, was greatly disturbed by the conduct of monks who indulged in idleness under pretext of contemplation, and at his request St. Augustine published a treatise entitled "De opere monarchorum" wherein he proves by the authority of the Bible the example of the Apostles, and even the exigencies of life, that the monk is obliged to devote himself to serious labour.奧里利厄斯,迦太基主教,感到十分不安的行為僧侶誰沉迷於無所事事藉口下沉思,並在他的要求聖奧古斯丁發表了論文,題為“德opere monarchorum ” ,其中他證明了權威的聖經的例子使徒的,甚至是迫切需要的生活,這和尚有義務投身勞工嚴重。 In several of his letters and sermons is found a useful complement to his teaching on the monastic life and duties it imposes.在他的幾個字母和說教,發現一個有益的補充他的教學的僧侶生活,它規定的職責。 These are easy of access to Benedictine edition, where the accompanying table may be consulted under the words: monachi, monachae, monasterism, monastica vita, sanctimoniales.這些都是很容易獲得本篤版,在所附的表格,可根據關鍵詞: monachi , monachae , monasterism , monastica生活, sanctimoniales 。

The letter written by St. Augustine to the nuns at Hippo (423), for the purpose of restoring harmony in their community, deals with the reform of certain phases of monasticism as it is understood by him.信中所寫的聖奧古斯丁的修女在河馬( 423 ) ,目的是恢復和諧的社會,涉及改革的某些階段的修道因為它是理解他。 This document, to be sure, contains no such clear, minute prescriptions as are found in the Benedictine Rule, because no complete rule was ever written prior to the time of St. Benedict; nevertheless, the Bishop of Hippo is a law-giver and his letter if to be read weekly, that the nuns may guard against or repent any infringement of it.這個文件,可以肯定的是,載有沒有這樣的明確,作為處方分鐘被發現在本篤規則,因為沒有完整的規則是以往任何時候都寫之前,聖本篤,但是,主教河馬是法律賦予和他的信,如果要改為每週一次,該尼姑可能防止或懺悔,任何侵犯它。 He considers poverty the foundation of the religious life, but attaches no less importance to fraternal charity, which consists in living in peace and concord. The superior, in particular, is recommended to practise this virtue although not, of course, to the extreme of omitting to chastise the guilty.他認為貧窮的基礎宗教生活,但重視不重視兄弟的慈善機構,其中包括生活在和平與和諧。卓越,尤其是建議實行這一美德雖然沒有,當然,極端的不讓懲罰有罪的。 However, St. Augustine leaves her free to determine the nature and duration of the punishment imposed, in some cases it being her privilege even to expel nuns that have become incorrigible.然而,聖奧古斯丁離開了自由決定的性質和期限的刑罰,在某些情況下,她有幸被驅逐甚至修女已經成為不可救藥的。

The superior shares the duties of her office with certain members of her community, one of whom has charge of the sick, another of the cellar, another of the wardrobe, while still another is the guardian of the books which she is authorized to distribute among the sisters.該上級股的職責她的辦公室與某些成員的社區,其中一人已收取的病人,另一個酒窖,另一個衣櫃,還有一個則是監護人的書籍,她被授權分銷之間姐妹。 The nuns make their habits which consist of a dress, a cincture and a veil.修女使他們的習慣,其中包括衣服,一個帶和面紗。 Prayer, in common, occupies an important place in their life, being said in the chapel at stated hours and according to the prescribed forms, and comprising hymns, psalms and readings. Certain prayers are simply recited while others, especially indicated, are chanted, but as St. Augustine enters into no minute details, it is to be supposed that each monastery conformed to the liturgy of the diocese in which it is situated.祈禱,是共同的,中佔有重要地位的生命,有人說在教堂時指出小時,並根據訂明的形式,包括讚美詩,詩歌和朗誦。某些祈禱只是背誦,而其他國家,特別指出,是高喊,但隨著聖奧古斯丁進入任何微小的細節,這是必須假定,每個修道院符合禮儀教區它位於。 Those sisters desiring to lead a more contemplative life are allowed to follow special devotions in private.這些姐妹們希望帶領更多的沉思生活可以遵循特殊的私人devotions 。 The section of the rule that applies to eating, although severe in some respects, is by no means observance and the Bishop of Hippo tempers it most discreetly.本節的規則,適用於吃,但嚴重的在某些方面,絕不是尊重和主教河馬脾氣最謹慎的。 Fasting and abstinence are recommended only in proportion to the physical strength of the individual, and when the saint speaks of obligatory fasting he specifies such as are unable to wait the evening or ninth hour meal may eat at noon.空腹和禁慾是只建議中所佔的比例體力的個人,當聖談到強制性空腹他指定,如不能等到晚上或第九屆小時吃飯可以在中午吃。 The nuns partake of very frugal fare and, in all probability, abstain from meat.修女參與非常儉樸的車費,並在所有的概率,避免肉類。 However, the sick and infirm are objects of the most tender care and solicitude, and certain concessions are made in favour of those who, before entering religion, leds life of luxury.然而,病人和體弱的物體的最投標照顧和關懷,以及某些讓步,是有利於那些誰之前,進入宗教,發光二極管壽命奢求。 During meals some instructive matter to be read aloud to the nuns. Although the Rule of St. Augustine contains but few precepts, it dwells at great length upon religious virtues and the ascetic life, this being characteristic of all primitive rules.在一些啟發吃飯問題必須朗讀的修女。雖然規則的聖奧古斯丁包含但很少戒律,它談到了很長時間對宗教的美德和苦行生活,這是所有的特點原始規則。 In his sermons 355 and 356 the saint discourses on the monastic observance of the vow of poverty.在他的布道355和356的聖論述的僧侶遵守誓言貧困。 Before making their profession the nuns divest themselves of all their goods, their monasteries being resposible for supplying their wants, and whatever they may earn or receive is turned over to a commom fund, the monasteries having right of possession.之前他們的職業修女剝離自己所有的貨物,其寺廟負責提供他們的希望,不管他們可以賺取或接收移交的通用基金,寺廟有擁有權。

In his treatise, "De opere monarchorum", he inculcates the necessity of labour, without, however, sujecting it to any rule, the gaining of one's livelihood rendering it indispensable.在他的論文“德opere monarchorum ” ,他灌輸的必要性勞動,但不sujecting它的任何規則,獲得一個人的生計使其不可缺少的。 Monks of couse, devoted to the ecclesiastical ministry observe, ipso facto, the precept of labour, from which observance the infirm are legitimately dispensed.僧侶的couse ,專門教部的觀察,事實上,在戒律的勞動,從遵守體弱者合法免除。 These, then, are the most important monastic prescriptions found in the rule of and writings of St. Augustine.這些,那麼,是最重要的修道院中發現的處方規則和著作的聖奧古斯丁。

MONASTIC LIFE OF ST.寺院生活的ST 。 AUGUSTINE奧古斯丁

Augustine was a monk; this fact stands out unmistakably in the reading of his life and works.奧古斯丁是一個和尚;這一事實無誤地站在了在讀他的生平和作品。 Although a priest and bishop, he knew how to combine the practices of the religious life with the duties of his office, and his episcopal house in Hippo was for himself and some of his clergy, a veritable monastery. Several of his friends and disciples elevated to the episcopacy imitated his example, among them Alypius at Tagaste, Possidius at Calama, Profuturus and Fortunatus at Cirta Evodius at Uzalis, and Boniface at Carthage.雖然神父和主教,他知道如何結合的做法與宗教生活的職責,他的辦公室,和他的主教家中河馬是為自己和他的一些神職人員,名副其實的寺院。幾個他的朋友和弟子高架在主教模仿他的榜樣,其中包括在塔加斯特Alypius , Possidius在卡拉馬, Profuturus和福圖納圖斯在Cirta Evodius在Uzalis ,並博尼法斯在迦太基。 There were still other monks who were priests and who exercised the ministry outside of the episcopal cities.還有其他僧侶誰是牧師,誰行使省內外的主教城市。 All monks did not live in these episcopal monasteries; the majority were laymen whose communities, although under the authority of the bishops, were entirety distinct from those of the clergy.所有的僧侶沒有生活在這些主教寺廟;大部分是外行人的社區,但根據權威的主教,是完全有別於神職人員。 There were religious who lived in complete isolation, belonging to no community and having no legitimate superiors; indeed, some wandered aimlessly about, at the risk of giving disedification by their vagabondage.有宗教誰住在完全孤立,屬於沒有社會和沒有合法的上級,事實上,一些有關漫無目的地遊蕩,在可能使disedification其vagabondage 。 The fanatics known as Circumcelliones were recruited from the ranks of these wandering monks, St. Augustine often censured their way of living.狂熱分子稱為Circumcelliones被招募的行列,這些流浪僧侶,聖奧古斯丁經常指責他們的生活水平。

The religious life of the Bishop of Hippo was, for a long time, a matter of dispute between the Canons Regular and the Hermits of St. Augustine, each of these two families claiming him exclusiely as its own.宗教生活的河馬主教是,很長一段時間,問題之間的爭端規經常和隱士的聖奧古斯丁,這兩個家庭exclusiely聲稱他作為自己的。 It was not so much the establishing of an historical fact as the settling of a claim of precedence that caused the trouble, and as both sides could not in the right, the quarrel would have continued indefinitely had not the Pope Sixtus IV put an end by his Bull "Summum Silentium" (1484).這不是這麼多設立一個歷史事實作為解決索賠位次,造成麻煩,因為雙方不能正確的,爭吵會繼續下去已不是西斯四結束了他的公牛“ Summum Silentium ” ( 1484年) 。 The silence was imposed, however, was not perpetual, and the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were resumed between the Canons and the Hermits but all to no avail.沉默實行,但不是永久的,以及17和18世紀得到恢復之間的規和隱士,但都無濟於事。 Pierre de Saint-Trond, Prior of the Canons Regular of St. Martin of Louvain, tells the story of these quarrels in the Preface to his "Examen Testamenti S. Augustini" (Louvain, 1564).皮埃爾德聖特龍,事先的規規律聖馬丁魯汶,講述了這些爭吵在他的序“考試Testamenti南Augustini ” (盧, 1564 ) 。 Gabriel Pennot, Nicolas Desnos and Le Large uphold the thesis of the Canons; Gandolfo, Lupus, Giles of the Presentation, and Noris sustain that of the Hermits.加布里埃爾Pennot ,尼古拉Desnos和樂大堅持論文的規例;甘多爾福堡,紅斑狼瘡,賈爾斯的介紹,並保持這種諾里斯的隱士。 The Bollandists withhold their opinion.扣留的Bollandists他們的意見。 St. Augustine followed the monastic or religious life as it was known to his contemporaries and neither he nor they even thought of establishing among those who had embraced it any distinction whatever as to congregations or orders.聖奧古斯丁修道院後或宗教生活,因為它被稱為他的同時代人,並沒有他也沒有想到,他們甚至建立在這些誰接受了它無論任何區別,以教會或命令。 This idea was conceived in a subsequent epoch, hence St. Augustine cannot be said to have belonged to any particular order.這種想法是設想在隨後的時代,因此,聖奧古斯丁不能說屬於任何特定的順序。 He made laws for the monks and nuns of Roman Africa, it is true, and he helped to increase their numbers, while they, in turn, revered him as their father, but they cannot be classed as members of any special monastic family.他在法律的僧侶和尼姑的羅馬非洲,這是真的,他有助於增加其數量,而它們反過來,崇敬他為他們的父親,但他們不能被歸類為成員的任何特殊的僧侶家庭。

ST.意法半導體。 AUGUSTINE'S INFLUENCE ON MONACHISM奧古斯丁的影響MONACHISM

When we consider Augustine's great prestige, it is easy to understand why his writings should have so influenced the development of Western monachism.當我們考慮奧古斯丁的崇高威望,這是容易理解為什麼他的作品應該有這樣的影響西部開發的monachism 。 His Letter 211 was read and re-read by St. Benedict, who borrowed several important texts from it for insertion in his own rule.他信211閱讀並重新讀取由聖本篤,誰借來的幾個重要文本插入它自己的規則。 St. Benedict's chapter on the labour of monks is manifestly inspired by the treatise "De opere monachorum", that has done so much towards furnishing an accurate statement of the doctrine commonly accepted in religious orders.聖本篤的一章是關於勞動力的僧侶顯然是靈感的論文“德opere monachorum ” ,即做了大量工作方面提供準確的聲明,普遍接受的原則,在宗教命令。 The teaching concerning religious poverty is clearly formulated in the sermons "De vitâ et moribus clericoreun suorum" and the authorship of these two works is sufficient to earn for the Bishop of Hippo the title of Patriarch of monks and religious.教學有關宗教貧困是明確制定的說教“德生活等moribus clericoreun suorum ”和作者這兩個工程是獲得足夠的主教河馬的標題宗僧侶和宗教。 The influence of Augustine, however, was nowhere stronger than in southern Gaul in the fifth and sixth centuries.的影響,奧古斯丁,但是,沒有比在南部高盧在第五和第六世紀。 Lérins and the monks of that school were familiar with Augustine's monastic writings, which, together with those of Cassianus, were the mine from which the principal elements of their rules were drawn. Lérins和僧侶的學校都熟悉奧古斯丁修道院的著作,其中,連同那些Cassianus ,是從礦山的主要內容,其規則制定。 St. Caesarius, Archbishop of Arles, the great organizer of religious life in that section chose a some of the most interesting articles of his rule for monks from St. Augustine, and in his rule for nuns quoted at length from Letter 211.聖Caesarius大主教阿爾勒,偉大的組織者,宗教生活在這一節中選擇了一些最有趣的文章,他的規則僧侶從聖奧古斯丁,並在他統治的修女報長度的信211 。 Sts. Augustine and Caesarius were animated by the same spirit which passed from the Archbishop of Arles to St. Aurelian, one of his successors, and, like him, a monastic Iawgiver.街。奧古斯丁和Caesarius了動畫由同一精神,通過從阿爾勒大主教聖Aurelian之一,他的繼任者,以及像他一樣,一個寺院Iawgiver 。 Augustine's influence also extended to women's monasteries in Gaul, where the Rule of Caesarius was adopted either wholly or in part, as, for example, at Sainte-Croix of Poitiers, Juxamontier of Besançon, and Chamalières near Clermont.奧古斯丁的影響還擴展到婦女在高盧寺廟,那裡的規則通過Caesarius全部或部分,例如,在聖克羅伊的普瓦捷, Juxamontier的貝桑松,並Chamalières克萊蒙附近。

But it was not always enough merely to adopt the teachings of Augustine and to quote him; the author of the regula Tarnatensis (an unknown monastery in the Rhone valley) introduced into his work the entire text of the letter addressed to the nuns, having previously adapted it to a community of men by making slight modifications.但它並非總是足夠的僅僅是通過奧古斯丁的教義,並引用他的話;的作者調節Tarnatensis (未知寺院羅納河谷)介紹了他的工作納入整個案文的信給修女,曾經它適應了社會的男性,使稍作修改。 This adaptation was surely made in other monasteries in the sixth or seventh centuries, and in his "Codex regularum" St. Benedict of Aniane published a text similarly modified.這無疑是適應了在其他寺廟中的第六或第七世紀,並在他的“法典regularum ”聖本篤的Aniane發表了類似的修改案文。

For want of exact information we cannot say in which monasteries this was done, and whether they were numerous.由於缺乏準確的信息,我們不能說在寺院這樣做,以及他們是否有許多。 Letter 211, which has thus become the Rule of St.信211 ,它因此成為法治的街 Augustine, certainly constituted a part of the collections known under the general name of "Rules of the Fathers" and used by the founders of monasteries as a basis for the practices of the religious life.奧古斯丁,當然構成的一部分,稱為集合根據一般稱為“規則的父親”和使用的創始寺廟,以此為基礎的做法宗教生活。 It does not seem to have been adopted by the regular communities of canons or of clerks which began to be organized in the eighth and ninth centuries.它似乎並不已通過經常社區大砲或辦事員開始將舉辦第八屆和第九屆世紀。 The rule given them by St. Chrodegang, Bishop of Metz (742-766), is almost entirely drawn from that of St. Benedict, and no more decided traces of Augustinian influence are to be found in it than in the decisions of the Council of Aachen (817), which may be considered the real constitutions of the canons Regular.該規則賦予Chrodegang聖主教梅斯( 742-766 ) ,幾乎完全是取自的聖本篤,沒有更多的決定痕跡奧古斯丁的影響都在,這比在安理會的決定亞琛( 817 ) ,這可被視為真正的憲法中經常大砲。 For this influence we must await the foundation of the clerical or canonical communities established in the eleventh century for the effective counteracting of simony and clerical concubinage.對於這種影響,我們必須等待的基礎文書或典型社區成立於11世紀,以便有效地打擊了西摩尼和辦事員妾。

The Council of Lateran (1059) and another council held at Rome four years later approved for the members of the clergy the strict community life of the Apostolic Age, such as the Bishop of Hippo had caused to be practised in his episcopal house and had taught in his two sermons heretofore cited.安理會的拉特蘭( 1059 ) ,另一理事會在羅馬舉行,四年後批准的神職人員,嚴格社會生活的使徒時代,如主教河馬造成了實行主教在他的房子,並教在他的兩個說教在此引用。 The first communities of canons adopted these sermons as their basis of organization.第一炮社區通過這些說教為基礎的組織。 This reform movement spread rapidly throughout Latin Europe and brought about the foundation of the regular chapters so numerous and prosperous during the Middle Ages.這一改革運動迅速蔓延整個歐洲和拉丁美洲帶來的基礎,經常章如此之多和繁榮在中世紀。 Monasteries of women or of canonesses were formed on the same plan, but not according to the rules laid down in the sermons "De vitâ et moribus clericorum."寺院的婦女或canonesses就成立了同樣的計劃,而不是根據規則中規定的說教“德生活等moribus clericorum 。 ” The letter to virgins was adopted almost immediately and became the rule of the canons and canonesses; hence it was the religious code of the Premonstratensians, of the houses of Canons Regular, and of canonesses either gathered into congregations or isolated, of the Friars Preachers, of the Trinitarians and of the Order of Mercy, both for the redemption of captives, of hospitaller communities, both men and women, dedicated to the care of the sick in the hospitals of the Middle Ages, and of some military orders.信處女獲得通過幾乎立即成為統治的大砲和canonesses ,因此它是宗教的代碼Premonstratensians ,房屋的規經常和canonesses要么聚集到教會或孤立的,在天主教方濟會傳教士,的Trinitarians和秩序的慈悲,無論是贖回俘虜的hospitaller社區,不論男女,專門照顧病人在醫院的中世紀,和一些軍事命令。

Publication information Written by JM Besse.出版信息撰稿JM貝塞。 Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.轉錄由約瑟夫托馬斯。天主教百科全書,第二卷。 Published 1907. 1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, 1907. Nihil Obstat , 1907年。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約


Also, see:此外,見:
Saint Augustine 聖奧古斯丁

Religious Orders 宗教訂單
Franciscans
Jesuits 耶穌
Benedictines
Trappists Trappists
Cistercians
Dominicans 多米尼加
Carmelites Carmelites
Discalced Carmelites Discalced Carmelites
Christian Brothers 基督教兄弟
Marist Brothers 聖母兄弟會

Monasticism
Nuns 修女
Friars 修士
Convent 修道院
Ministry
Major Orders 大訂單
Holy Orders 羅馬訂單

Also, see links to 600+ Augustine full Manuscripts:此外,見鏈接到600 +奧古斯丁充分手稿:
../txv/earlyche.htm ../txv/earlyche.htm
../txv/earlychf.htm ../txv/earlychf.htm
../txv/earlychg.htm ../txv/earlychg.htm
../txv/earlychh.htm ../txv/earlychh.htm
../txv/earlychi.htm ../txv/earlychi.htm
../txv/earlychj.htm ../txv/earlychj.htm
../txv/earlychk.htm ../txv/earlychk.htm
../txv/earlychl.htm ../txv/earlychl.htm
../txv/earlychm.htm ../txv/earlychm.htm
../txv/earlychn.htm ../txv/earlychn.htm


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