Asceticism禁慾主義

General Information 一般信息

Asceticism denotes a system of practices that aims at the development of virtue and strength of character through self-denial and mortification.禁慾主義是指一個系統的做法,其目的是發展的美德和力量的性格通過自我否定和屈辱。 It has been an aspect of most religious traditions and of many philosophies, such as Stoicism.這是一個方面,大多數的宗教傳統和許多哲學,如禁慾主義。 Methods of asceticism generally include exercises such as celibacy, fasting, upright posture, periods of silence, performance of unpleasant tasks, and withdrawal from human companionship.禁慾主義的方法一般包括演習,如獨身,空腹,直立的姿勢,時間的沉默,表現不愉快的任務,並從人力伴侶。 It is thought that these practices gradually free a person's spiritual element from the body's demands. Once control has been achieved, a harmony of the whole person is experienced.據認為,這些做法逐步免費一個人的精神要素從身體的要求。一旦控制方面取得了一個和諧的整體是有經驗的人。 Forms of self-mutilation, flagellation, and castration have been used in extreme practices of asceticism.形式自殘,鞭笞,並閹割已用於極端做法的禁慾主義。 Adherents of Jainism in India sometimes even starve themselves to death in striving for sainthood.耆那教信徒在印度有時甚至挨餓致死爭取聖人。 In most religious traditions some persons, individually or in groups, follow an entirely ascetic way of life; they are called ascetics.在大多數宗教傳統的一些人,單獨或群體,採取一種完全禁慾主義的生活方式,他們被稱為腹水。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
Joan A. Range瓊字母a.範圍

Bibliography 目錄
Chadwick, Owen, ed., Western Asceticism (1958; repr. 1979); Colliander, Tito, The Way of Ascetics (1976; repr. 1985); Sheils, WJ, ed., Monks, Hermits, and the Ascetic Tradition (1985).查德威克,歐文,編輯。 ,西方禁慾主義( 1958年; repr 。 1979年) ; Colliander ,鐵托,在修行之路( 1976年; repr 。 1985年) ; Sheils , WJ通訊公司,編輯。 ,僧侶,隱士,和傳統的修道( 1985年) 。


Asceticism禁慾主義

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The word asceticism comes from the Greek askesis which means practice, bodily exercise, and more especially, atheletic training.禁慾主義一詞來自希臘askesis這意味著實踐中,身體運動,更特別是, atheletic培訓。 The early Christians adopted it to signify the practice of the spiritual things, or spiritual exercises performed for the purpose of acquiring the habits of virtue.早期的基督徒通過它意味著實踐的精神外,或精神進行演習,目的是獲取習慣的美德。 At present it is not infrequently employed in an opprobrious sense, to designate the religious practices of oriental fanatics as well as those of the Christian saint, both of whom are by some placed same category.目前,這不是偶爾在一個無恥的意義上講,指定宗教習俗的東方狂熱分子以及那些基督教聖,兩人均是一些放在同一類別。 It is not uncommonly confounded with austerity, even by Catholics, but incorrectly.這不是異常困惑與緊縮,甚至天主教徒,但不正確。 For although the flesh is continuously lusting against the spirit, and repression and self-denial are necessary to control the animal passions, it would be an error to measure a man's virtue by the extent and character of his bodily penances.對於雖然肉不斷欲對精神,壓迫和自我否定是必要的控制動物的激情,這將是一個錯誤,以衡量一個人的美德的範圍和性質身體penances 。 External penances even in the saints, are regarded with suspicion.外部penances即使在聖人,被視為與猜疑。 St. Jerome, whose proneness to austerity makes him an especially valuable authority on this point, thus writes to Celantia:聖杰羅姆,其易受緊縮使他特別寶貴授權在這一點上,從而寫入Celantia :

Be on your guard when you begin to mortify your body by abstinence and fasting, lest you imagine yourself to be perfect and a saint; for perfection does not consist in this virtue.是您的後衛當你開始你的身體腐壞的禁慾和禁食,免得你想像自己是完美的聖人;完美並不在此美德。 It is only a help; a disposition; a means though a fitting one, for the attainment of true perfection.它只是幫助;處分;的手段雖然是恰當的,為實現真正的完美。

Thus asceticism according to the definition of St. Jerome, is an effort to attain true perfection, penance being only an auxiliary virtue thereto.因此,根據禁慾主義的定義,聖杰羅姆,是為了實現真正的完美,懺悔只是一種輔助美德情況。 It should be noted also that the expression "fasting and abstinence" is commonly used in Scripture and by ascetic writers as a generic term for all sorts of penance.還應當指出的表達“空腹和禁慾”是常用的聖經和禁慾主義作家作為一個通用的術語各種懺悔。 Neither should asceticism be identified with mysticism.也不應確定禁慾主義與神秘主義。 For although genuine mysticism can not exist without asceticism, the reverse is not true.對於真正的神秘主義雖然不能存在禁慾主義,相反是不正確的。 One can be an ascetic without being a mystic.一個可以成為一個禁慾主義沒有一個神秘的。 Asceticism is ethical; mysticism, largely intellectual.禁慾主義的道德;神秘主義,主要是智力。 Asceticism has to do with the moral virtues; mysticism is a state of unusual prayer or contemplation.禁慾主義已經跟道德;神秘主義是一個不尋常的默禱或沉思。 They are distinct from each other, though mutually co-operative.他們是有別於對方,但相互合作。 Moreover although asceticism is generally associated with the objectionable features of religion, and is regarded by some as one of them, it may be and is practised by those who affect to be swayed by no religious motives whatever.此外雖然禁慾主義通常是與反感的特點,宗教,有些人認為其中之一,它可能是那些實行誰影響將動搖沒有任何宗教動機。

Natural Asceticism自然禁慾主義

If for personal satisfaction, or self interest, or any other merely human reason, a man aims at the acquisition of the natural virtues, for instance, temperance, patience, chastity, meekness, etc., he is, by the very fact, exercising himself in a certain degree of asceticism.如果個人的滿意度,或自我利益,或任何其他人的理由僅僅是,一個人的目的是獲取自然的優點,例如,戒酒,耐心,貞節,溫順,等等,他是由事實本身,行使自己有某種程度的禁慾主義。 For he has entered upon a struggle with his animal nature; and if he is to achieve any measure of success, his efforts must be continuous and protracted.因為他已進入一個與他的鬥爭,動物性; ,如果他是要實現任何程度的成功,他的努力必須是持續和長期的。 Nor can he exclude the practice of penance.也不能排除他的做法懺悔。 Indeed he will frequently inflict upon himself both bodily and mental pain.事實上,他將經常對自己造成雙方的身體和精神痛苦。 He will not even remain within the bounds of strict necessity.他甚至不會留的範圍內嚴格必要的。 He will punish himself severely, either to atone for failures, or to harden his powers of endurance, or to strengthen himself against furure failures.他將自己嚴厲懲罰,無論是彌補失敗,或強化其權力的耐力,或加強自己對furure失敗。 He will be commonly described as an ascetic, as in fact he is.他將普遍描述為一個苦行僧,事實上他是。 For he is endeavouring to subject the material part of his nature to the spiritual, or in other words, he is striving for natural perfection.他正在努力主體材料的一部分,其本質的精神,換句話說,他是爭取自然完美。 The defect of this kind of asceticism is that, besides being prone to error in the acts it performs and the means it adopts, its motive is imperfect, or bad.缺損的這種禁慾主義的是,除了容易出錯的行為效果和採用的手段,其動機是不完善的,還是壞。 It may be prompted by selfish reasons of utility, pleasure, aetheticism, ostentation, or pride.它可能會提示的自私的原因,用途,很高興, aetheticism ,排場,或驕傲。 It is not to be relied upon for serious efforts and may easily give way under the strain of weariness or temptation.它不是要依靠認真的努力,並可能輕易放棄的方式下,應變的厭學或誘惑。 Finally, it fails to recognize that perfection consists in the acquisition of something more than natural virtue.最後,它沒有認識到,完善包括購置的東西超過自然的美德。

Christian Asceticism基督教禁慾主義

It is prompted by the desire to do the will of God, any personal element of self-satisfaction which enters the motive vitiating it more or less.這是提示的願望做上帝的意志,任何個人因素,自我滿足進入的動機損害它或多或少。 Its object is the subordination of the lower appetites to the dictates of right reason and the law of God, with the continued and necessary cultivation of the virtues which the Creator intended man to possess.其對象是從屬地位較低的胃口的支配權的理由和法律的上帝,繼續和必要的種植美德的造物主打算擁有人。 Absolutely speaking, the will of God in this matter is discoverable by human reason, but it is explicitly laid down for us in the Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, which furnishes a complete code of ethical conduct.絕對地講,上帝的意志在這個問題上是人類發現的原因,但它明確規定了我們在十誡,或十誡,它提供了一個完整的道德行為守則。 Some of these commandments are positive; others, negative.這些誡命是積極的;他人,消極的。 The negative precepts, "thou shalt not kill", "thou shalt not commit adultery", etc., imply the repression of the lower appetites, and consequently call for penance and mortification; but they intend also, and effect, the cultivation of the virtues which are opposed to the things forbidden.消極戒律, “你應該不殺” , “你應該不會犯下通姦”等等,意味著鎮壓降低食慾,因此呼籲懺悔和屈辱,但他們還打算和效果,種植美德是反對的東西被禁止的。 They develop meekness, gentleness, self-control, patience, continence, chastity, justice, honesty, brotherly love, which are positive in their character, magnanimity, liberality, etc.; while the first three which are positive in their character, "thou shall adore thy God", etc., bring into vigorous and constant exercise the virtues of faith, hope, charity, religion, reverence and prayer.他們制定溫順,溫柔,自我控制,耐心,節制,純潔,公正,誠實,友愛,這是積極的性格,寬宏大量,慷慨等;而前三個是積極的性格, “你應崇拜你的上帝“等,把充滿活力和不斷行使美德的信念,希望,慈善,宗教,崇敬和祈禱。 Finally the fourth insists on obedience, respect for authority, observance of law, filial piety, and the like.最後的第四堅持服從,尊重權威,遵守法律,孝道等。 Such were the virtues practised by the mass of the people of God under the Old Law, and this may be considered as the first step in true asceticism.這種美德是實行大規模人民的上帝下的舊的法律,這可被視為第一步,真正的禁慾主義。 For apart from the many instances of exalted holiness among the ancient Hebrews, the lives of the faithful followers of the Law, that is the main body of the ordinary people must have been such as the Law enjoined and although their moral elevation might not be designated as asceticism in the present restricted and distorted meaning of the term, yet it probably appeared to the pagan world of those times very much as exalted virtue does to the world today.對於除了許多崇高的神聖的古代希伯來人,生活的忠實追隨者的法律,這是主體的老百姓必須已如法責成儘管他們的道德海拔可能不會指定作為禁慾主義在目前的限制和扭曲一詞的含義,但它可能出現的異教世界的時候非常的崇高美德並於當今世界。 Even the works of penance to which they were subjected in the many fasts and abstinences, as well as the requirements of their ceremonial observances were much more severe than those imposed up the Christians who succeeded them.即使是作品的懺悔,給他們所遭受的許多齋戒和abstinences ,並要求其禮儀紀念活動更為嚴重高於實行的基督徒他們誰成功。

In the New Dispensation the binding force of the Commandments continued, but the practice of virtue took on another aspect, in as much as the dominant motive presented to man for the service of God was not fear, but love, though fear was no means eliminated.在新配方的約束力的戒律繼續進行,但實踐上憑藉了另一個方面,在多佔主導地位的動機提出男子天主服務的是不要害怕,但愛情,但沒有任何恐懼的手段消除。 God was to be the Lord indeed, but He was at the same time the Father and men were His children.上帝是上帝確實,但他在同一時間父親和他的男性兒童。 Again, because of this sonship the love of one's neighbour ascended to higher plane.同樣,因為這個sonship的愛一個人的鄰居登上更高的飛機。 The "neighbour" of the Jew was one of the chosen people, and even of him rigorous justice was to be exacted; it was an eye for an eye and tooth for a tooth.的“鄰居”的猶太人是一個選擇的人,甚至他的嚴格的司法是要付出;這是一個以眼還眼,並以牙還牙。 In the Christian dispensation the neighbour is not only one of the true faith, but the schismatic, the outcast, and the pagan.在基督教統治的鄰國不僅是一個真正的信仰,但分裂的棄兒,和異教徒。 Love is extended even to one's enemies, and we are bidden to pray for, and to do good to them who revile and persecute us.愛是延長甚至一個人的敵人,我們bidden祈禱,並做好他們誰咒罵和迫害我們。 This supernatural love for even the vilest and most repellent representatives of humanity constitutes one of the distinctive marks of Christian asceticism.這超自然的愛,即使最卑鄙和最塗人類的代表構成的一個特殊標誌的基督教禁慾主義。 Moreover, the more extended and luminous revelation of Divine things, coupled with the greater abundance of spiritual assistance conferred chiefly through the instrumentality of the sacraments, make practice of virtue easier and more attractive at the same time more elevated, generous, intense and enduring, while the universality of Christianity lifts the practice of asceticism out of the narrow limitations of being the exclusive privilege of a single race into a common possession of all nations of the earth.此外,更多的擴展和明亮的啟示神聖的東西,再加上更大的豐富的精神援助授予主要是通過媒介的聖禮,使實踐美德更加容易和更加有吸引力,同時更升高,慷慨的,激烈的和持久的,而普遍性的基督教升降機的做法,禁慾主義的狹隘的局限性,目前的專有特權一場單一的比賽納入一個共同擁有的所有國家的地球。 The Acts of the Apostles show the transformation immediately effected among devout Jews who formed the first communities of Christians.該使徒行傳顯示轉型立即生效虔誠的猶太人之間形成了誰第一個社區的基督徒。 That new and elevated form of virtue has remained in the Church ever since.這種新的形式和高架美德一直留在教會至今。

Wherever the Church has been allowed to exert her influence we find virtue of the highest order among her people.只要教會已被允許施加她的影響我們認為憑藉最高的命令她的人。 Even among those whom the world regards as simple and ignorant there are most amazing perceptions of spiritual truths, intense love of God and of all that relates to Him, sometimes remarkable habits of prayer, purity of life both in individuals and in families, heroic patience in submitting to poverty, bodily suffering, and persecution, magnanimity in forgiving injury, tender solicitute for the poor and afflicted, though they themselves may be almost in the same condition; and what most characteristic of all, a complete absence of envy of the rich and powerful and a generally undisturbed contentment and happiness in their own lot; while similar results are achieved among the wealthy and great, though not to the same extent.即使在那些人的世界就這麼簡單和無知是最令人驚訝的認識真理的精神,激烈的上帝的愛和所有涉及他說,有時顯著的習慣,祈禱,純度都生活在個人和家庭中,英勇的耐心在提交給貧困,身體的痛苦,和迫害,在寬容大度損傷,招標solicitute為窮人和折磨,但他們可能是幾乎在同一條件;和最具特色的是,一個完整的沒有羨慕富人和強大的和普遍不受干擾知足和幸福在他們自己的很多,而類似的成果之間的富裕和偉大的,但並不相同的程度。 In a word, there is developed an attitude of soul so much at variance with the principles and methods generally obtaining in the pagan world that, from the beginning, and indeed throughout, under the Old Law, it was commonly described and denounced as folly.總之,有發達的態度靈魂這麼多不同的原則和方法一般中獲得異教徒的世界,從一開始,實際上在整個下,舊的法律,這是常見的描述和譴責的愚蠢行為。 It might be classified as very lofty asceticism if its practice were not so common, and if the conditions of poverty and suffering in which these virtues are most frequently practised were not the result of physical or social necessity.它可能被列為非常崇高的禁慾主義的做法,如果不是那麼常見的,如果條件的貧困和痛苦,這些美德是最常見的做法是不是由於身體或社會的需要。 But even if these conditions are not voluntary, the patient and uncomplaining acceptance of them constitutes a very noble kind of spirituality which easily develops into one of a higher kind and may be designated its third New Law we have not merely the reaffirmation of the precepts of the Old, but also the teachings and example of Christ Who, besides requiring obedience to the Commandments, continually appeals to His followers for proofs of personal affection and a closer imitation of His life than is possible by the mere fulfilment of the Law.但是,即使這些條件不自願的,病人和uncomplaining接受他們構成了一個非常崇高的精神很容易發展成一個較高的種類和可能指定其第三新稅法,我們不只是重申戒律舊,而且還教導和榜樣的基督是誰,除了需要服從戒律,不斷呼籲他的追隨者的證明個人感情和更密切的模仿他的生活可能比僅僅履行的法律。 The motives and the manner of this imitation are laid down in the Gospel, which as the basis taken by ascetical writers for their instructions.其動機和方式的模仿中規定了福音,它的基礎上所採取的ascetical作家為他們的指示。 This imitation of Christ generally proceeds along three main lines, viz.: mortification of the senses, unworldliness, and detachment from family ties.這模仿基督的收益一般沿著三條主線,即。 :屈辱的感覺, unworldliness ,並脫離家庭關係。

It is here especially that asceticism comes in for censure on the part of its opponents.正是在這裡尤其是禁慾主義是在對訓斥的一部分,它的對手。 Mortification, unworldliness, and detachment are particularly obnoxious to them.屈辱, unworldliness ,並脫離尤其令人憎惡他們。 But in answer to their objection it will be sufficient to note that condemnations of such practices or aspirations must fall on Holy Scripture also, for it gives a distinct warrant for all three.但是,在回答他們的反對,將足以注意到,譴責這種做法或願望必須落在聖經也為它提供一個獨特的令所有三個。 Thus we have, as regards mortification, the words of St. Paul, who says: "I chastise my body and bring it into subjection: lest perhaps when I have preached to others I myself should be castaway" (1 Corinthians 9:27); while Our Lord Himself says: "He that taketh not up his cross, and followeth Me, is not worthy of Me" (Matthew 10:38). Commending unworldliness, we have: "My kingdom is not of this world" (John 18:36); approving detachment, there is the text, not to cite others: "if any man come to Me and hate not his father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be My disciple" (Luke 14:26).因此,我們,至於屈辱中,聖保羅,誰說: “我責備我的身體並使其服從:以免也許當我向他人宣揚我應該廢棄物” (哥林多前書9點27分)而我們的上帝說: “他是taketh他不交叉,且followeth我,是不是值得我” (馬太10:38 ) 。讚揚unworldliness ,我們已: “我的王國是這個世界” (約翰18:36 ) ;審批支隊,有文字,而不是引用他人: “如果任何人來找我和仇恨的不是他的父親,母親,妻子,子女,兄弟姐妹,是啊,和他自己的生活還,他不能被我的門徒“ (路14:26 ) 。 It is scarcely necessary to note however, that the word "hate" is not to be taken in its strict sense, but only as indicating a greater love for God than for all things together.這是幾乎沒有必要指出然而,這個詞“仇恨”不是將要採取的嚴格意義上的,但只是顯示出更大的愛上帝比所有的東西在一起。 Such is the general scheme of this higher order of asceticism.這是總體方案的高階的禁慾主義。

The character of this asceticism is determined by its motive.這個獨特的禁慾主義是取決於它的動機。 In the first place a man may serve God in such a way that he is willing to make any sacrifice rather than commit a grievous sin.首先,一個人可上帝以這樣一種方式,他願意作出任何犧牲,而不是一種嚴重的罪過。 This disposition of soul, which is the lowest in the spiritual life, is necessary for salvation.這種處置的靈魂,這是最低的精神生活,是必要的救助。 Again, he may be willing to make such sacrifices rather than offend God by venial sin.再次,他可能願意作出這種犧牲,而不是得罪上帝venial罪孽。 Lastly he may, when this no question of sin at all, be eager to do whatever will make his life harmonize with that of Christ.最後,他可能會,當這毫無疑問,在所有罪過,渴望做將使他的生活協調與基督。 It is this last motive which the highest kind of asceticism adopts.正是這種動機而去年最高的一種苦行採用。 These three stages are called by St. Ignatius "the three degrees of humility", for the reason that they are the three steps in the elimination of self, and consequently three great advances towards union with God, who enters the soul in proportion as self is expelled.這三個階段是所謂的聖伊格內修“三程度謙虛” ,理由是他們的3個步驟消除自我,因此,三個偉大的進展工會與上帝,誰進入靈魂的比例作為自我被驅逐。 It is the spiritual state of St. Paul speaks when he says: "And I live, now not I ; but Christ liveth in me" (Galatians 2:20).這是精神狀態的聖保祿說話時,他說: “和我住,現在不是我,而是基督在我liveth ” (加拉太二時20分) 。 Other ascetic writers describe them as states or conditions of the beginners the proficient and the perfect.其他禁慾主義作家描述這些國家或條件的初學者的熟練和完善。 They are not, however, to be considered chronologically distinct; as if the perfect man had nothing to do with the methods of the beginner, or vice versa.他們不會,但要考慮不同的時間順序; ,猶如完美的人沒有任何與方法的初學者,反之亦然。 "The building of the spiritual edifice", says Scaramelli, "is simultaneous in all its parts. The roof is stretched while the foundations are being laid. "Hence the perfect man, even with his sublime motive of imitation, has always need of the fear of damnation, in order that, as St. Ignatius expresses it, if ever the love of God grows cold, the fear of Hell may rekindle it again. “建設精神文明的大廈” , Scaramelli說, “是同時在其所有部件。屋頂是緊張而基礎正在奠定了基礎。 ”因此,完美的人,即使他的崇高的動機,模仿,始終需要恐懼的詛咒,為了,作為聖伊格內修表示,如果以往任何時候都上帝的愛越來越寒冷,恐懼的地獄可能再次點燃。 On the other hand, the beginner who has broken with mortal sin has already started in his growth to perfect charity.另一方面,初學者誰打破了彌天大罪與已經開始在他的成長,完善慈善機構。 These states are also described as the purgative, illuminative, and unitive ways.這些國家還介紹了作為瀉藥,照明,以及統一的方式。 It is evident that the practice of unworldliness, of detachment from family and other ties, must be or the greatest number not the actual performance of those things, but only the serious disposition or readiness to make such sacrifices, in case God should require them, which, as a matter of fact in their case, He does not.很顯然,實踐unworldliness ,對脫離家庭和其他關係,必須是或不是最多的實際表現這些東西,但只有嚴重的處分或願意作出這種犧牲,如果上帝應要求他們,其中,作為一個事實上的情況下,他沒有。 They are merely affective, and not effective, but none the less they constitute a very sublime kind of spirituality.他們僅僅是情感,而不是有效,但不構成一個非常崇高的一種精神。 Sublime as it is, there are many examples of it in the Church, nor is it the exclusive possession of those who have abandoned the world or are about to do so, but it is the possession also of many whom necessity compels to live in the world, married as well as single, of those who are in the enjoyment of honour and wealth and of responsibility as well as of those who are in opposite conditions.崇高,因為它是有很多的例子在教會,也不是獨家擁有這些誰已經放棄了世界或將要做到這一點,但它也擁有的許多必然迫使人生活在世界上,已婚,以及單一的,這些是誰在享受榮譽和財富的責任以及對這些誰在對面的條件。 They cannot effectively realize their desires or aspirations but their affections take that direction.他們不能有效地實現自己的願望或理想,但他們的感情是否朝著這個方向努力。 Thus there are multitudes of men and women who though living in the world are not of it, who have no liking or taste for worldly display, though often compelled by their position, social or otherwise, to assume it, who avoid worldly advancement or honour not out of pusillanimity, but out of unconcern, or contempt, or knowledge of its danger; who, with opportunities for pleasure, practise penance, sometimes of the most rigorous character who would willingly, if it were possible, give up their lives to works of charity or devotion, who love the poor and dispense alms to the extent of, and even beyond, their means, who have strong attraction for prayer, and who withdraw from the world when it is possible for the meditation of divine things; who frequent the sacraments assiduously; who are the soul of every undertaking for the good of their fellow -men and the glory of God; and whose dominant preoccupation in the advancement of the interest of God and the Church.因此有眾多的男人和女人誰雖然生活在世界上不是,誰不喜歡或喜歡世俗顯示,儘管常常強迫自己的立場,社會或其他方式,承擔,誰避免世俗的提高或榮譽沒有了膽怯,而是漠不關心,或蔑視,或了解其危險,誰,有機會很高興,實行懺悔,有時最嚴格的性格誰願意,如果有可能,放棄自己的生命工程慈善或奉獻,愛誰是窮人和免除施捨的程度,甚至超越,他們的手段,誰具有很強吸引力的祈禱,誰退出世界時,是有可能的冥想神聖的東西,誰頻繁刻苦的聖禮;誰是靈魂,是每一個事業的好他們的同胞男子和榮耀上帝; ,其主要關注在提高的利益,上帝和教會。 Bishops and priests especially enter into this category.主教和神父特別是進入這一類。 Even the poor and humble, who, having nothing to give, yet would give if they had any possessions, may be classed among such servants of Christ.即使是窮人和謙卑,誰,有沒有給,但將使如果他們有任何物品,可以被歸類在這些公務員的基督。

That this asceticism is not only attainable but attained by laymen serves to bring out the truth which is sometimes lost sight of, viz., that the practice of perfection is not restricted to the religious state.這種禁慾主義不僅是可以實現的,但實現的外行人服務,使事實真相有時是忽略了,即。 ,這種做法的完善不僅限於宗教的狀態。 In fact, though one may live in the state of perfection, that is, be a member of a religious order, he may be surpassed in perfection by a layman in the world.事實上,儘管人們可以生活在完美的狀態,也就是說,成為其成員的宗教秩序,他可能會超越完美的一個門外漢在世界上。 But to reduce these sublime dispositions to actual practice, to make them not only affective but effective to realize what Christ meant when, after having told the multitude on the Mount of the blessedness of poverty of spirit, He said to the Apostles, "Blessed are you who are poor", and to reproduce also the other virtues of Christ and the Apostles, the Church has established a life of actual poverty, chastity, and obedience.但是,為了減少這些崇高的處置權,以實際做法,使他們不僅情感而有效的實現意味著什麼時,基督之後,告訴眾多山上的blessedness貧困的精神,他說的使徒, “有福你們誰是窮人“ ,並重現還有其他優點,基督和使徒,教會已建立了一個生活中的實際貧窮,貞潔,服從。 For that purpose, it has founded religious orders, thus enabling those who are desirous and able to practise this higher order of asceticism, to do so with greater facility and in greater security.為此,它已成立宗教命令,從而使那些誰是希望並能夠實行這種高階的禁慾主義,這樣做更大的設施和在更大的安全。

Monastic or Religious Asceticism寺院或宗教禁慾主義

The establishment of religious orders was not the result of any sudden or mandatory legislation by the Church.設立宗教命令沒有結果的任何突然或強制性法規的教會。 On the contrary, the germs of religious life were implanted in it by Christ Himself from the very beginning.與此相反,細菌的宗教生活中植入它的基督自己從一開始。 For in the Gospel we have repeated invitations to follow the evangelical counsels.在福音,我們一再邀請遵循律師的福音。 Hence in the first days of the Church, we find that particular kind of asceticism widely practised which later developed into the form adopted by the Religious Orders. In the "History of the Roman Breviary" by Batiffol (tr. Bayley), 15, we read: "In proportion as the Church in extending itself had grown colder, there had taken place within its bosom a drawing together of those souls which were possessed of the greatest zeal and fervour. These consisted of men and women, alike, living in the world without severing themselves from the ties and obligations of ordinary life, yet binding themselves by private vow or public profession to live in chastity all their life, to fast all the week, to spend their days in prayer. They were called in Syria Monazonites and Parthenae, ascetics and virgins. They formed, as it were, a third order, a confraternity. In the first half of the fourth century, we find these associations of ascetics and virgins established in all the great Churches of the East, at Alexandria, Jerusalem, Antioch, Edessa."因此,在第一天的教會,我們發現,特定類型的禁慾主義盛行後來發展成的形式通過的宗教命令。在“歷史的羅馬祈禱”的Batiffol (編輯部貝利) , 15 ,我們改為: “在比例教會在擴大本身的增長寒冷,但發生在其胸前繪圖在一起的靈魂是擁有最大的熱情和熱情。這些包括男人和女人,都生活在世界上沒有切斷自己的關係和義務的正常生活,但約束力自己的私人誓言或公共職業生活在貞節其所有生命,所有的快速本週,終日祈禱。他們呼籲敘利亞和Monazonites Parthenae ,腹水和處女。他們成立,因為它是一個三階,一個confraternity 。上半年的第四世紀的時候,我們發現這些協會的修行和處女成立於一切偉大的教會東,在亞歷山德里亞耶路撒冷,安提阿,埃德薩。 “ Men like Athanasius, Clement of Alexandria, John Chrysostom, and others wrote and legislated for them.男子喜歡他那修,克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,金口,和其他寫道和立法為他們。 They had a special place in the church services and it is noteworthy also that at Antioch "the ascetics there formed the main body of the Nicene or orthodox party".他們有一個特殊的地方在教會中的服務和值得一提的是也,在安提阿“的形成有修行的主體尼西亞或正統的黨” 。 But "dating from the reign of Theodosius and the time when Catholicism became the social religion of the world, comes the movement when a deep cleavage in religious society manifested itself. These ascetics and virgins, who, till now, have mingled with the common body of the faithful, abandon the world and go forth into the wilderness. The Church of the multitude is no longer a sufficiently holy city for these pure ones; they go forth to build in the desert the Jerusalem which they crave."但是, “約會的統治狄奧和時候天主教成為社會的宗教世界,是運動時,深刻分裂的宗教社會表現出來。這些修行和處女,誰,到現在,已經交織在一起的共同機構的教友,放棄世界去了到荒野。教堂眾多已不再是一個充分聖城這些純粹的;他們去提出建立在沙漠中的耶路撒冷,他們渴望。 “ (Cf. Duchesne, Christian Worship.) (參見杜申,基督教崇拜。 )

The time when these foundations began is said by Batiffol to be "when Catholicism became the social religion".何時開始這些基金會是由Batiffol說是“時,天主教會成為社會的宗教” 。 Previous to that, with their pagan surroundings, such establishments would have been out of the question.以往的是,他們的異教徒的環境,這些場所將是不可能的。 The instinct for monastic institutions was there, but its realization was delayed. Those who enter a religious order take the three vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, which are considered here only in as much as they differentiate a particular kind of asceticism from other forms.的本能寺院機構,但其實現被推遲。那些誰輸入一個宗教秩序採取的三個誓言貧窮,貞潔,服從,認為這是只有在這裡盡可能區分某一特定類型的苦行從其他形式。 They are called substantial vows because they are the basis of a permanent and fixed condition or state of life, and affect, modify, determine, and direct the whole attitude of one who is bound by them in his relations to the world and to God.他們被稱為大量的誓言,因為他們的基礎上長期,固定的條件或狀態的生活,並影響,修改,確定和直接的整個態度,是一個誰約束的關係,在他的世界和上帝。 They constitute a mode of existence which has no other purpose than that some of these penitents may have the attainment of the highest spiritual perfection.它們構成一種模式的存在並沒有比其他用途,其中一些penitents可能實現的最高精神完美。 Being perpetual, they ensure permanence in practice of virtue and prevent it from being intermittent and sporadic; being an absolute, free, (irrevocable), and complete surrender of the most precious possessions of man, their fulfilment creates a spirituality, or a species of asceticism, of the most heroic character.作為永久的,他們確保在實踐中永恆的美德和防止它被間歇性和零星;是一個絕對的,免費的, (不可撤銷) ,並完成移交最寶貴的財產的人,他們的實現創造了靈性,或種禁慾主義,最英勇的性質。 Indeed it is inconceivable what more one can offer to God, or how these virtues of poverty, chastity, and obedience can be exercised in a higher degree.事實上,是不可想像的是更多的人可以向上帝,或如何將這些美德的貧窮,貞潔,服從可以行使的程度更高。 That the observance of these vows is a reproduction of the manner of life of Christ and the Apostles, and has, as a consequence, given countless saints to the Church, is a sufficient answer to the accusation that the obligations they impose are degrading, inhuman, and cruel, a reproach often urged against them.這遵守這些誓言是一個複製的方式生活,基督和使徒,並,因此,給予無數聖人的教堂,是一個足夠的答案,指責他們所承擔的義務強加的人格,不人道,和其他殘忍,一個責備往往對他們的要求。

While concurring in the practice of the same fundamental virtues, the religious bodies are differentiate from one another by the particular object which prompted their separate formation, namely, some need of the Church, some new movement which had to be combated, some spiritual or corporal aid that had to be brought to mankind, etc. From this there resulted that besides the observance of the three main virtues of poverty, chastity, and obedience some special virtue is cultivated by each.雖然同意在實踐中相同的基本美德,宗教機構的區分彼此的特定對象促使各自形成,即一些需要的教會,一些新的運動,就必須打擊,一些精神或肉體援助,就必須給人類帶來等從這一存在導致,除了遵守三個主要優點貧窮,貞潔,服從一些特殊的美德是每個耕地。 Thus the beginning of Christianity, when labour was considered a badge of slavery, the great, the learned, the noble, as well as the humble, the ignorant, and the poor, filled the deserts of Egypt and suppoted themselves by manual labour, their withdrawal from the world being also a protest against the corruption of paganism.因此,基督教開始時,勞動被認為是一個標誌的奴役,偉大的經驗,崇高的,以及謙卑,無知和貧困,填補了沙漠的埃及和suppoted自己的手工勞動,他們的從目前世界上還抗議腐敗的異教。 After the destruction of the Roman Empire the Benedictines taught the barbarians agriculture, the arts, letters, architecture, etc., while inculcating the virtues of Christianity; the poverty of the Fransciscans was a condemation of the luxury and extravagance of the age in which they originated; the need of protecting the faithful from heresy gave rise to the Order of Preachers; rebellion against authority and defection from the Pope called for special emphasis on obedience and loyalty to Holy See by the Society of Jesus, the defence the Holy Land created the Military Orders; redemption of captives, the care of the sick and poor, education, missionary work, etc. all called into existence an immense variety of congregations, whose energies were directed along one special line of good works, with the consequent development to an unusual degree of the virtues which were needed to attain that special end.在銷毀羅馬帝國的本篤教野蠻人農業,藝術,文學,建築等,同時灌輸的優點基督教;的貧困Fransciscans是一個condemation的豪華和奢侈的年齡,他們在起源;的需要保護的邪教信徒引起秩序的傳教士;反抗權威和叛逃從教皇呼籲特別強調服從和忠誠的羅馬教廷耶穌會,捍衛聖地創造了軍事命令;贖回俘虜,照顧病人和窮人,教育,宣教工作等方面的所有要求存在一個巨大的各種各樣的聚會,他們的精力是針對沿一個特殊的線的優秀作品,並由此發展到一個不尋常程度的優點是需要為實現這一特殊的目的。 Meantime, the rules, covering every detail and every moment of their daily lives, called for the practice of all the other virtues.與此同時,規則,其中包括每一個細節和每一個時刻,他們的日常生活,要求的做法,所有其他美德。

In some of the orders the rules make no mention of corporal penance at all, leaving that to individual devotion; in others great austerity is prescribed but excess is provided against both by the fact the rules have been subjected to pontifical approval and because superiors can grant exceptions.在一些訂單的規則作出沒有提及體罰在所有懺悔,讓這對個人的奉獻;在其他國家是偉大的緊縮明,但過剩的是對雙方提供的事實的規則受到了教皇的批准,因為上級可以授予例外。 That such penitential practices produce morbid and gloomy characters is absurd to those who know the lightheartedness that prevails in strict religious communities; that they are injurious to health and abbreviate life cannot be seriously maintained in view the remarkable longevity noted among the members of very austere orders.這種做法產生悔罪病態的和暗淡的字符是荒謬的那些誰知道lightheartedness中普遍存在嚴格的宗教社區,他們對健康有害的生活和縮寫不能保持在認真查看了顯著長壽注意到各成員之間的非常簡樸的訂單。 It is true the lives of the saints we meet with some very extraordinary and apparently extravagant mortifications; but in the first place, what is extraordinary, extravagant, and severe in one generation may not be so in another which is ruder and more inured to hardship.這是真正的生命聖人,我們與一些非常特別,顯然奢侈mortifications ,但擺在首位,是非凡的,奢華,和嚴重的在一代人可能不那麼另一個是粗魯和更習慣於困難。 Again, they are not proposed for imitation, nor that the biographer was not exaggerating, or describing as continual what was only occasional; and on the other hand it is not forbidden to suppose that some of the penitents may have been prompted by the Spirit of God to make themselves atoning victims for the sins of others. Besides it must not be forgotten that these practices went hand to hand with the cultivation of the sublimest virtues, that they were for the most part performed in secret, and in no case for ostentation and display.同樣,他們不建議模仿,也不該傳記不誇大,或者不斷地描述為是只偶爾;另一方面它不是禁止猜想,一些penitents可能已提示精神上帝使自己的受害者贖罪的罪過他人。除了我們絕不能忘記,這些做法去手中的種植sublimest美德,他們大部分是在秘密進行,並且在任何情況下,排場並顯示。 But even if there was abuse, the Church is not responsible for the aberrations of individuals, nor does her teaching become wrong if misunderstood or misapplied, as might have been done inadvertently or unconsciously, even by the holiest of her children, in the exaggerated use of corporal penance.但是,即使有虐待,教會是不負責畸變的個人,也沒有她的教學成為錯誤的,如果被誤解或誤用,因為可能已經完成或不自覺地疏忽,即使是最神聖的孩子,在誇大使用體罰懺悔。 The virtue of prudence is a part of asceticism.的美德是審慎的一部分,禁慾主義。 The reformation or abolition of certain orders because of corruption only emphasizes the truth that monastic asceticism means an organized effort to attain perfection.改造或廢除某些命令,因為腐敗不僅強調了真理,僧侶禁慾主義是指一個有組織的努力實現完美。 If that purpose is kept in view, the order continues to exist; if it ceases to be ascetic in its life, it is abolished.如果目的是保存認為,為了繼續存在,如果它不再是在其苦修的生活,這是廢除。

A common accusation against religious asceticism is that it is synonymous with idleness.一個共同的指控宗教修煉是,它是同義詞,無所事事。 Such a charge ignores all past and contemporary history.這樣的收費忽略所有過去和當代的歷史。 It was the ascetic monks who virtually created our present civilizations by teaching the barbarian tribes the value and dignity of manual labour; by training them in the mechanical arts, in agriculture, in architecture, etc.; by reclaiming swamps and forests, and forming industrial centres from which great cities developed, not to speak of the institutions of learning which they everywhere established. Omitting the especially prominent instances now before the world, namely the vast amount of industry and toil implied in the establishment, organization, management, and support of tens of thousands of asylums, hospitals, refuges, and schools in civilized lands by men and women who are wearing themselves out in labouring for the good of humanity, there are hundreds of thousands of men and women bound by vows and practising religious asceticism who, without any compensation to themselves except the supernatural one of sacrificing themselves for others, are at the present moment labouring among savage tribes all over the world, teaching them to build houses, till their fields, work at trades, care for their families while at the same time imparting to them human learning in the drudgery of schools, and leading them in the way of salvation.這是誰苦修僧人幾乎創造我們目前的文明教學蠻族的價值和尊嚴的體力勞動;通過培訓他們在機械藝術,在農業,建築等;的開墾濕地和森林,形成工業該中心由發達國家最偉大的城市,而不是說話的學府,他們都成立。省略特別突出的情況現在在世界面前,即大量的工業和辛勞隱含在設立,組織,管理和支持數以萬計的asylums ,醫院,避難所,學校在文明的土地由男性和女性誰是穿在自己的勞動為人類的福利,有成千上萬的男人和女人的約束,發誓和執業宗教修煉誰,沒有任何補償給自己以外的超自然的一個犧牲自己為他人,是當前勞動野蠻部落之間在世界各地,教他們建造房屋,直到他們的領域,行業的工作,照顧他們的家庭,而在同時向他們傳授人類學習的辛苦勞作的學校,並帶領他們的方式拯救。 Idleness and asceticism are absolutely incompatible with each other, and the monastic institution where idleness prevails has already lost its asceticism and, if not swept away by some special upheaval, will be abolished by ecclesiastical legislation.無所事事和禁慾主義是絕對不符合對方,和寺院機構普遍存在的懶散已經失去了它的禁慾主義,如果沒有沖走了一些特殊的動盪,將是廢除了宗教立法。 The precept which St. Paul laid down for ordinary Christians has always been a fundamental principle of genuine asceticism: "If any man will not work, neither let him eat" (2 Thessalonians 3:10).其中的戒律聖保祿放下普通基督徒一直是基本原則,真正的苦行: “如果任何人不會工作,既不讓他吃” (帖撒羅尼迦後書3:10 ) 。 But, as a matter of fact, the Church has seldom had to resort to such a drastic measure as destruction.但是,事實上,教會很少不得不求助於這種激烈的措施,銷毀。 She has easily reformed the religious orders which, while giving her many of her most learned men and illustrious saints, have been ever a source of pride because of the stupendous work they have achieved, not only for the honour of God and the advancement of the Church, but in uplifting; humanity leading it in the ways of virtue and holiness, and establishing institutions of benevolence and charity for every species of human suffering and sorrow.她輕鬆地改革了宗教命令,而讓她的許多經驗教訓她最傑出的男子和聖人,已以往任何時候都感到驕傲,因為巨大的工作,他們取得的成就,不僅是為了紀念上帝和提高教會,但在隆升;人類在領先的方式美德和神聖,建立機構的仁愛和慈善為每物種的人的痛苦和悲傷。

In apparent contradiction with the assertion that the highest expression of asceticism is to be found in monastic life is the fact that monasticism not only exists in the pagan religions of India, but is associated with great moral depravity.在明顯的矛盾與斷言的最高表達禁慾主義是在寺院生活的事實是,修道不僅存在於異教的宗教,印度,但與偉大的道德墮落。 Attempts have been made to show that these Hindu institutions are merely travesties of Christian monasteries, probably those of the old Nestorians, or the result of primitive Christian traditions.曾經表明,這些印度教機構只是travesties基督教寺廟,很可能是舊的Nestorians ,或由於原始的基督教傳統。 But neither of these suppositions can be accepted.但這兩種假設可以接受。 For, although, doubtless, Indian monasticism in the course of ages borrowed some of its practices from Nestorianism, the fact is that it existed before the Coming of Christ.為,但毫無疑問,印度的修道過程中的年齡借它的一些做法,景教,但事實是,它以前存在的到來基督。 The explanation of it is that it is nothing else than the outcome of the natural religious instinct of man to withdraw from the world for meditation, prayer, and spiritual improvement instances of which might be cited among the ancient Greeks and Hebrews, and among ourselves in the Brook Farm and other American experiments.的解釋是,這是比任何其他的結果自然宗教本能的人退出世界的冥想,祈禱,和精神的改善情況可能會引的古希臘人和猶太人,並在我們中間小溪農場和其他美國實驗。 But they were merely imitations or the promptings of a natural instinct, it only goes to show, in the first place, that monastic seclusion is not unnatural to man; and secondly, that some Divinely constituted authority is new to guide this natural propensity and to prevent it from falling into those extravagances to which religious enthusiasm is prone.但是,他們只是模仿或promptings的本能,這只能表明,擺在首位,這寺院隱居不是自然對人類;其次,一些神聖的權力構成是新來指導這一自然傾向,並防止它落入這些extravagances的宗教熱情很容易。 In other words, there must be an acknowledged and absolute spiritual power to legislate for it along the lines of truth and virtue, to censure and condemn and punish what is wrong in individuals and associations; a power able to determine infallibly what is morally right and wrong.換言之,必須有一個認識和絕對精神的立法權力為它大致真理和美德,譴責和譴責和懲罰什麼是錯的個人和協會;的權力能夠確定infallibly什麼是道義上的權利和錯誤的。 The Catholic church alone claims that power.天主教單獨索賠的權力。 It has always recognized the ascetic instinct in man, has approved associations for the cultivation of religious perfection, has laid down minute rules for their guidance, has always exercised the strictest surveillance over them, and has never hesitated to abolish them when they were intended.始終認識到苦行本能的人,已批准協會種植的宗教完善,已制定了規則分鐘為他們的指導下,一直實行最嚴格的監督他們,從來沒有猶豫,廢除他們又打算。 Moreover, as genuine asceticism does not rest satisfied with natural, but aims at supernatural, perfection, and as the supernatural in the New Dispensation is in the guardianship of the Catholic Church, under its guidance alone is asceticism secure.此外,作為真正的禁慾主義並不感到滿意,其餘的自然,但目的是超自然,完善,並作為超自然的新配方是在監護天主教教會,在其指導下僅是禁慾主義的安全。

Jewish Asceticism猶太禁慾主義

Besides the ordinary observers of the Old Law, we have the great Hebrew saints and prophets whose deeds are recorded in the Holy Bible.除了普通的觀察員的舊的法律,我們有偉大的希伯來文聖人和先知的事蹟記錄在聖經。 They were ascetics who practised the loftiest virtue, who were adorned with remarkable spiritual gifts, and consecrated themselves to the service of God and their fellow-men.他們是誰修行實行最崇高的美德,誰是飾有顯著的精神禮物,並奉獻自己的服務上帝和自己的同類人。 As to the Schools of the Prophets, whatever they may have been, it is admitted that one of the objects intended was the practice of virtue, and in that respect they may be regarded as schools of asceticism.至於學校的先知,無論他們可能已經,這是承認一個物體的打算是實踐的美德,在這方面,他們可能會被視為學校的禁慾主義。 The Nazarites were men who consecrated themselves by a perpetual or temporary vow to abstain all the days of their Nazariteship, that is, during their separation from the rest of the people, from the use of wine and all other intoxicating drink, from vinegar formed from wine or strong drink, from any liquor of grapes, from grapes dried or fresh, and indeed from the use of anything produced from the vine.該Nazarites誰是男子自己的神聖永久的或臨時的誓言投棄權票的日子裡所有的Nazariteship ,就是在其離職其餘的人,從使用的葡萄酒和其他所有醉人飲料,從醋形成葡萄酒或強大的飲料,從任何酒的葡萄,葡萄乾燥或新鮮的,而且確實從使用什麼生產的葡萄。 Other observances which were of obligation, such as letting the hair grow, avoiding defilement, etc., were ceremonial rather than ascetic.其他紀念活動,這是義務,如讓頭髮生長,避免污辱等,是禮儀,而不是禁慾主義。 The Nazarites were exclusively men, and there is said to be no instance in the Old Testamant of a female Nazarite.該Nazarites完全是男性,有說是沒有例如,在舊Testamant女Nazarite 。 They were a class of persons "holy to the Lord" in a special sense, and made their vow of abstinence an example of self-denial and moderation and a protest against the indulgent habits of the Chanaanites which were invading the people of Israel.他們是一類人“神聖的上帝”的特殊意義,並提出他們立誓禁慾的一個例子自我否定和節制和抗議放縱的習慣,其中Chanaanites入侵以色列人民。 Samson and Samuel were consecrated by their mothers to this kind of life.參孫和Samuel了神聖的母親這樣的生活。 It is not certain that they lived apart in distinct communities; like the Sons of the Prophets, though there is an instance of three hundred of them being found together at the same time.這是不能肯定,他們分開居住在不同的社區;如父子的預言,但有一個實例, 300人一起被發現在同一時間。

The Rechabites該Rechabites

The Rechabites, whom, however, Josephus does not mention, appear to have been a normal tribe, distinguished chiefly by their abstinence from wine, though it is not certain that other intoxicants were forbidden, or that such abstinence was prompted by motives of penance.該Rechabites ,其中然而,約瑟夫沒有提及,似乎已經是一個正常的部落,尊敬他們主要從葡萄酒禁慾,但不能肯定其他intoxicants被禁止,或者說這種禁慾是由於動機的懺悔。 It may have been merely to prevent the culture of the vine in order to keep them in their normadic state, the better to escape corruption from their Chanaanitish neighbours.它可能已被僅僅是為了防止文化的藤蔓,以便使他們normadic狀態,更好地逃脫腐敗從他們Chanaanitish鄰國的關係。 There were also Essenes who lived a communal life, possessed no individual property, affected an extreme simplicity in diet and dress, and lived apart from great cities to preserve themselves from contamination.也有愛色尼誰住一個社區的生活,擁有任何個人財產,受影響的一個極端簡單的飲食和衣服,和生活之外最偉大的城市維護自己免受污染。 Some of them abjured marriage.其中一些人放棄婚姻。 They devoted themselves to the sick, and for that purpose made a special study of the curative qualities of herbs and boasted of possessing medical recipes handed down from Solomon.他們致力於病人,並為此作出了特別研究的療效素質的草藥和吹噓擁有醫療配方交給從所羅門群島。 Hence their name, Essenes, or Healers.因此,他們的名字,愛色尼,或醫士。 Finally come the Pharisees, who were the Puritans of the Old law, but whose virtues and austerities we know to have been often only pretence, although there were, doubtless, among them some who were in earnest in the practice of virtue.最後來的法利賽,誰是清教徒的老法,但其優點和austerities我們知道已經往往只是幌子,雖然有,毫無疑問,其中有些誰是認真的實踐中的美德。 St. Paul describes himself as a Pharisee of the Pharisees.聖保祿形容自己作為一個法利賽人的法利賽人。 Outside of Judea, there were said to be a certain number of Jews, men and women, living on the shores of Lake Mareotis, near Alexandria, who mingled their own religious observances with those of the Egyptians, and who lived a life of voluntary poverty, chastity, labour, solitude, and prayer.以外的朱迪亞,有說是一些猶太人,男人和女人,生活在湖畔Mareotis ,靠近亞歷山德里亞,誰混自己的宗教紀念活動與埃及人,誰住的生活,自願貧困,貞節,勞工,孤獨,和祈禱。 They were called Therapeutae, which, like Essenes, means Healers.他們被稱為Therapeutae ,其中,像愛色尼,這意味著醫士。 Rappoport, in his "History of Egypt" (XI. 29), says that a certain class of the Egyptian priesthood led a similar kind of life. Rappoport ,在他的“埃及史” ( XI. 29日)表示,一定階級的埃及神職人員導致類似的生活。 We know of the Therapeutae only from Philo.我們知道的Therapeutae只能從斐洛。 How true his descriptions are not be determined.如何真正說明他無法確定。

Heretical Asceticism邪教禁慾主義

In the second century of the Church appear the Encratites, or The Austere.在第二世紀的教會出現Encratites ,或嚴峻。 They were a section of the heretical Gnostics, chiefly Syrians, who, because of their erroneous views about matter, withdrew from all contact with the world, and denounced marriage as impure.他們的一節邪教Gnostics ,主要是敘利亞人,誰,因為他們錯誤的看法問題,退出所有接觸世界,並譴責婚姻不純。 About the same period came the Montanists, who forbade second marriage, enjoined rigorous fasts, insisted on the perpetual exclusion from the Church of those who had ever committed grievous sin, stigmatized flight in time of persecution as reprehensible, protested that virgins should be always veiled, reprobated paintings, statuary, military service, theatres, and all worldly sciences.大約同一時期出現了Montanists ,誰禁止第二次婚姻,責成嚴格的齋戒,堅持長期被排除在教會的人誰曾經犯下嚴重罪惡,恥辱飛行時間的迫害,譴責,抗議說,處女應該總是掩飾, reprobated繪畫,雕塑,兵役,劇院,和所有世俗的科學。 In the third century the Manichaeans held marriage to be unlawful and refrained from wine, meat, milk, and eggs; all of which did not deter them from the grossest immorality.在第三個世紀舉行的Manichaeans婚姻是非法的和不酒,肉,牛奶,雞蛋;所有這一切都沒有阻止他們最嚴重的不道德行為。 The Flagellants were a sect that began about 1260.該Flagellants節是一個開始的約1260 。 They journeyed from place to place in Italy, Austria, Bohemia, Bavaria, and Poland, scourging themselves to blood, ostensibly to excite the populace to contrition for their sins, but they were soon prohibited by the ecclesiastical authorities.他們journeyed地點在意大利,奧地利,捷克,德國,波蘭, scourging自己的血液,表面上是為了激發民眾懺悔的罪過,但他們很快禁止的教會當局。 They appeared again in the fourteenth century, in Hungary, Germany, and England.他們再次出現在14世紀,匈牙利,德國和英格蘭。 Pope Clement VI issued a Bull against them in 1349, and the Inquisition pursued them with such vigour that they disappeared altogether.教皇克萊門特六發表了一份對他們的車隊在1349年,並探討他們追求這種活力,他們完全消失。 They were bitter enemies of the Church.他們是仇敵的教會。 The Cathari of the twelfth century were, as their name implies, Puritans.該Cathari的12世紀,正如其名稱意味著,清教徒。 Though teaching the doctrines of the Manichæans, they affected to live a purer life than the rest of the Church.雖然教學理論Manichæans ,他們受影響的生活純潔的生活比其他的教會。 Chief among them were the Waldenses, or "Poor Men of Lyons", who accepted evangelical poverty and then defied the Pope, who suppressed them.其中主要是Waldenses ,或“可憐的男子里昂” ,誰接受福音貧窮,然後不顧教皇,誰壓制他們。 Although Protestantism has been incessant in its denunciations of asceticism, it is amazing to note how many extreme instances of it the history of Protestantism furnishes.雖然基督教一直不斷地在其譴責禁慾主義,這是驚人的,以說明有多少極端的情況下它的歷史新教提供。 The Puritans of England and New England, with their despotic and cruel laws which imposed all sorts of restrictions not only upon themselves, but upon others, are examples of misguided ascetics.清教徒的英格蘭隊和新英格蘭,他們的專制和殘酷的法律強加的種種限制,不僅取決於本身,而是對別人,是錯誤的例子修行。 The early Methodists, with their denunciations of all amusements, dancing, theatres, card-playing, Sunday enjoyments, etc., were ascetics.早期衛理公會,他們譴責所有娛樂,舞蹈,劇院,卡玩,週日享受等,是修行。 The numberless Socialistic colonies and settlements which have sprung up in all countries are illustrations of the same spirit.社會主義的無數殖民地和定居點,湧現出在所有國家都說明了同樣的精神。

Pagan Asceticism蒲甘禁慾主義

Among the Greeks, we have the school, or quasi-community of Pythagoras, whose object was to extirpate the passions, but it was philosophic rather than religious in its character and may be places in the category of Natural Asceticism.在希臘人,我們的學校,或準社會的畢達哥拉斯,其目的是消滅的激情,但它是哲學而不是宗教在其性質和可能是地方的一類自然禁慾主義。

Brahminical Asceticism Brahminical禁慾主義

It is frequently contended that an asceticism exists among the Brahmins of India which in some respects is equal, if not superior, to that of Christianity.這是經常爭辯說,一個禁慾主義之間存在著婆羅門的印度在某些方面是平等的,如果不是上級,到基督教。 It inculcates the virtues of truthfulness, honesty, self-control, obedience, temperance, alms-giving, care of the sick, meekness, forgiveness of injuries, returning good for evil, etc. It forbids suicide, abortion, perjury, slander, drunkenness, gluttony, usury, hypocrisy, slothfulness, and cruelty to animals. Ten vows bind the Brahmin to the practice of some ot these virtues.它的優點灌輸的真實性,誠實,自我控制,服從,戒酒,施捨給予,照顧病人,溫順,寬恕人受傷,返回好邪惡等,禁止自殺,墮胎,偽證罪,誹謗,酗酒,暴食,高利貸,虛偽, slothfulness ,以及虐待動物。十大誓言約束婆羅門的做法,一些加時賽這些美德。 Its practice of penance is extraordinary.其做法是非凡的懺悔。 Besides what is left to personal initiative, the Laws of Manu decree that: the Brahmin should roll himself on the ground or stand during the day tip-toe or alternately stand and sit.除了留下什麼是個人倡議,馬努法律法令指出:婆羅門應該推出自己在地面上或站立在白天舉報或腳趾輪流站坐。 In summer let him expose himself to the heat of five fires, during the rainy season, let him live under the open sky; and in winter be dressed in wet clothes, thus great increasing the rigour of his austerities." Protracted fasts of the most fantastic character are also enjoined. In all this, there is no asceticism. These suicidal penances, apart from their wickedness and absurdity, are based on a misconception of the purpose of mortification. They are not supposed to atone for sin or to acquire merit, but are prompt by the idea that the greater the austerity the greater the holiness, and that besides hastening absorption in the divinity they will help the penitent to obtain such a mastery over his body as to make it invisible at will, to float in the air, or pass with lighting speed from place to place. Being believers in metempsychosis, they regard these sufferings as a means of avoiding the punishment of new births under the form of other creatures. Their pantheism destroys the very essential idea of virtue, for there can be no virtue, as there can be no vice, where one is a part of the deity. Again, the belief that there is no reality outside of Brahma prevents the use or abuse of creatures from having any influence on the righteous or unrighteous condition of the soul. Finally, as the end of existence is absorption into Brahma, with its attendant loss of personality and its adoption of an unconscious existence for all future time, it holds out no inducement to the practice of virtue. The whole system is based on pride. The Brahmin is superior to all mankind, and contact with another caste than his own, especially the poor and humble, is pollution. It makes marriage obligatory, but compels the wife to adore the husband no matter how cruel he is, permitting him to reject her at will; it encourages poly- gamy, approves of the harem, and authorizes the burning of widows in the suttees which the Bntish Goverment has not yet succeeded in preventing. It abhors manual labour and compels the practice of mendicancy and idleness, and it has done nothing for the physical betterment of the human race, as the condition of India for many centuries clearly shows. Its spiritual results are no better. Its liturgy is made up of the most disgusting, childish, and cruel superstitions, and its contradictory combinations of pantheism, materialism, and idealism have developed a system of cruel divinities worse than those of pagan antiquity. It is consequently not real asceticism.在夏天讓他暴露自己的熱量五個火災,在雨季期間,讓他生活在開放的天空;和在冬天是穿著濕衣服,從而極大增加了嚴格的austerities 。 “曠日持久的齋戒最美妙性質也責成。在所有這一切,沒有禁慾主義。 penances這些自殺的,除了他們的邪惡和荒謬的,是基於一種誤解的目的屈辱。他們不應該彌補罪過或獲取優點,但迅速的想法,即更大的緊縮更大的聖潔,而且除了加快吸收的神,他們將幫助懺悔獲得這樣一個掌握了他的身體,使之在將無形的,浮動在空氣中,或傳球,照明高速地點。作為信徒的輪迴,他們把這些痛苦的一種手段避免懲罰的新產下的形式,其他動物。及其泛神論摧毀了非常重要思想美德,為有沒有美德,作為不可能有副,其中一個是部分的神。同樣,認為不存在現實以外的梵禁止使用或濫用動物有任何影響的正義或不義的條件的靈魂。最後,作為年底存在吸收到梵,隨之而來的喪失人格和其通過一項無意識的存在,今後所有的時間,它所擁有的任何誘因的做法美德。整個系統是基於驕傲。的婆羅門優於全人類的事業,並與其他種姓比他自己的,特別是窮人和謙遜,是污染。它使婚姻強制性的,但迫使妻子喜歡丈夫無論多麼殘忍,他是,允許他拒絕她的意願;它鼓勵多gamy ,核准的后宮,並授權焚燒寡婦在suttees其中Bntish政府還沒有成功地阻止。它憎惡的體力勞動和強迫行乞的做法和無所事事,它沒有做任何事情的人身改善人的種族,作為條件,印度的許多世紀清楚地表明。及其精神的結果也不好。及其禮儀是由最令人厭惡的,幼稚的,和殘酷的迷信,其矛盾組合的泛神論,唯物論與唯心論制定了系統的殘忍神不如那些古代異教。因而它是不是真正的禁慾主義。

Buddhist Asceticism佛教禁慾主義

The ascetical practices of the Buddhists are monastic in their character, the devotees living in communities, whereas the Brahmins are mostly solitaries, though admitting pupils.該ascetical的做法是佛教寺院的特點,信徒生活在社區,而婆羅門大多是solitaries ,但承認學生。 The moral codes of both sects resemble each other in some respects.道德守則教派都彼此相似在某些方面。 For the Buddhists, there are five great duties: not to kill any living creature, not to steal, not to act unchastely, not to lie, not to drink intoxicating liquor.對於佛教徒,有5個偉大的職責:不要殺死任何生物,而不是偷竊,不採取行動unchastely ,而不是謊言,不要飲用烈酒。 The eight-fold path of virtues is: right beliefs, right aspiration, right speech, right conduct, right means of livelihood, right endeavour, right memory, right meditation.在8倍道路的美德是:正確的信念,正確的理想,正確的講話,正確的行為,有權謀生手段,正確的努力,正確的記憶體,權冥想。 The cultivation of meekness, both internal and external, is expressedly inculcated.種植溫順,內部和外部,是expressedly灌輸。 In the monasteries, confession of faults, but only of external ones, is practised, and great importance is attached to meditation.在寺院,坦白的故障,但只是外部因素,是實行,極大重視冥想。 Their penances are comparatively moderate.他們penances相對溫和。 Nevertheless, in spite of its glorification of virtue, this manner of life can not be regarded as asceticism.然而,儘管它頌揚的美德,這種方式的生活不能被視為禁慾主義。 While holding its indifferent to the pantheism and other errors of Brahmanism, it ignores God entirely, and is atheistic or agnostic, admitting no dependence on the Divinity and acknowledging no obligation of worship, obedience, love, gratitude, belief; consequently, eliminating all virtue.雖然舉行了漠不關心的泛神論和其他錯誤的婆羅門教,它完全無視上帝,是無神論或不可知,承認不依賴於神,並承認沒有義務的崇拜,服從,愛,感激之情,信仰,因此,消除一切美德。 Its avoidance of sin is purely utilitarian viz., to escape its consequences.其撤銷的罪孽純粹是功利的,即。 ,逃避其後果。 Its ultimate end is extinction in Nirvana, thus having no inducement to virtue, while it accords the lower state of Swarga, with its sensual delights, to those who were helpful to the Buddhas.其最終目的是在涅磐滅絕,因此沒有任何誘因的美德,而給予較低的狀態Swarga ,其感官愉悅,對那些有利於誰的佛像。 Like its predecessor, its idea of ultimate extinction is an extension of the Brahminist absorption and leads logically to suicide.其前任一樣,它的想法,最終滅絕是一個延長Brahminist吸收,並導致邏輯上自殺。 It holds marriage in abhorrence, and suppresses all legitimate desires forbidding all recreation, music, movie, scientific pursuits, etc. Industrial occupations are regarded with contempt, and the ideal state is beggary and idleness.它認為婚姻深惡痛絕,並抑制一切合法的願望,禁止一切娛樂,音樂,電影,科學的追求,工業等職業被視為蔑視和理想的狀態是乞討和無所事事。 Although insisting upon celibacy as the proper state of man, it tolerates polygamy and divorce.雖然堅持獨身作為適當的國家的人,它容忍一夫多妻制和離婚。 It speaks most complacently of Buddha's many hundred wives, before his conversion; lauds the extensive seraglio of Bimbissasa, its most distinguished royal convert, without hinting at its being any derogation from the standard of conduct of a Buddhist layman, while "the official head of Southern Buddhism at the present day, the King of Siam, exercises without scruple the privilege of maintaining a harem" (Aiken).它講最沾沾自喜的佛像的許多百年的妻子,他的轉換;讚揚了廣泛的閨房的Bimbissasa ,其最傑出的王室轉換,沒有暗示它是任何偏離標準的行為佛教門外漢,而“官方負責人南方佛教在本日,暹羅國王,演習無顧忌的特權維持后宮“ (艾肯) 。 It did not abolish the caste system except in the monasteries.它沒有廢除種姓制度除了在寺廟。 Finally, "in the spread of this religion to other lands it adopted the idolatrous and obscene worship of Nepal; gave its sanction to the degrading shamanistic worship of Thibet, and is overlaid with the superstitions peculiar to China, Mongolia and Thibet."最後, “傳播這一宗教的其他土地通過了盲目崇拜和淫穢崇拜尼泊爾;給予制裁的有辱人格的薩滿教崇拜的西藏,是覆蓋與迷信特有的中國,蒙古和西藏。 ” It is an abuse of terms to describe the practices of such a creed as asceticism. In conclusion, it may be said the difference between false and true asceticism is this: false asceticism starts out with a wrong idea of the nature of man, of the world, of God; it proposes to follow human reason, but soon falls into folly and become fanatical, and sometimes insane in its methods and projects.這是一個濫用的術語來描述的做法,這樣一個信條作為禁慾主義。總之,可以說區別虛假和真正的禁慾主義是這樣的:虛假的苦行開始了一個錯誤的概念,性質的人,在世界上,上帝;它建議按照人類理性,但很快落入愚蠢,並成為狂熱,有時甚至精神錯亂的方法和項目。 With an exaggerated idea of the rights and powers of the individual, it rebels against all spiritual control and, usurping a greater authority than the Church has ever claimed, leads its dupes into the widest extravagances.一個誇張的想法,權利和權力的個人,但反政府武裝對所有的精神控制,並攫取更大的權力比以往任何時候都教會聲稱,導致其重複到最廣泛的extravagances 。 Its history is one of disturbance, disorder and anarchy, and is barren of results in the acquisition of truth or the uplifting of the individual and it works of benevolence or intellectual progress; and in some instances it has been the instrument of the most deplorable moral degradation.它的歷史是一個動亂,混亂和無政府狀態,是貧瘠的結果在採集的真理,或令人振奮的個人和它的作品善或智力進步,在某些情況下它一直是手段,最可悲的道德退化。 True asceticism, on the contrary, is guided by right reason, assisted by the light of revelation; it comprehends clearly the true nature of man, his destiny, and his obligations.真正的禁慾主義,恰恰相反,是正確引導理由的協助下,根據啟示,它清楚地理解的真正性質的人,自己的命運,他的義務。 Knowing that he has not been created in a merely natural condition, but elevated to a supernatural state, it seeks to illumine his mind and strengthen his will by supernatural grace.我們知道,他沒有被創建的只是一個自然條件,但提升到一個超自然的狀態,它試圖暉映他心裡並加強他的意願,超自然的寬限期。 Aware that he has to control his lower passions and withstand the assaults of the evil spirit and seductions of the world, it not only permits, but enjoins, the practice of penance, while by the virtue of prudence which it inculcates, it prevents excess.意識到他必須控制自己的情緒和降低承受的攻擊邪惡的精神和誘惑的世界,它不僅允許,而且責成,這種做法的懺悔,而由憑藉它謹慎灌輸,它可以防止過量。 Instead of withdrawing him from his fellow men and inducing moroseness and pride, it bestows on him joy and humility, inspires him with the greatest love for humanity, and cultivate that spirit of self-sacrifice which has, by its works of benevolence and charity, conferred countless benefits on the humance race.相反撤回他從他的同胞和誘導壞脾氣和驕傲,它賦予他的喜悅和謙遜,激發了他最大的愛人類,培養這種精神的自我犧牲了,其作品的仁愛和慈善,賦予了無數的好處, humance比賽。 In a word, asceticism is nothing else than an enlightened method adopted in the observance of the law of God through all the various degrees of service, from the obedience of the ordinary believer to the absorbing devotion of the greatest saint, guiding each in accordance with the measure of grace imparted by the Spirit of Light and Truth.總之,禁慾主義是沒有別的比一個開明的方法通過在遵守法律的上帝通過各種程度的服務,從服從的普通信徒的吸收奉獻最大的聖,指導每個依照該措施的寬限期傳授的精神光與真理。

Publication information Written by TJ Campbell.出版信息書面由TJ坎貝爾。 Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.轉錄由約瑟夫托馬斯。天主教百科全書,體積一發布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat , 1907年三月一日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

See also:另見:
Ascetical Theology Ascetical神學


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在