Arabs阿拉伯人

General Information 一般信息

The term Arabs refers to the peoples who speak Arabic as their native language.阿拉伯人的長期指的是人民誰講阿拉伯語為母語。 A Semitic people like the Jews (see Semites), Arabs form the bulk of the population of Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. In addition, there are about 1.7 million Palestinian Arabs living under Israeli rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, territories occupied by Israel during the 1967 Arab-Israeli War (see Arab-Israeli Wars), and more than 700,000 Arab citizens of Israel.阿閃人喜歡的猶太人(見閃米特人) ,阿拉伯人形式的大部分人口的阿爾及利亞,巴林,埃及,伊拉克,約旦,科威特,黎巴嫩,利比亞,摩洛哥,阿曼,卡塔爾,沙特阿拉伯,蘇丹,敘利亞,突尼斯,阿拉伯聯合酋長國和也門。此外,還有約170萬巴勒斯坦阿拉伯人生活在以色列在約旦河西岸和加沙地帶被以色列佔領的領土在1967年中東戰爭(見阿拉伯以色列戰爭) ,以及超過70.00萬阿拉伯以色列公民。

Estimates of the total Arab population of the countries above range from 175 to 200 million.估計總人口的阿拉伯國家的上述範圍從175至200萬美元。 The great majority of Arabs are Muslims, but there are significant numbers of Christian Arabs in Egypt (see Coptic Church), Lebanon, and Syria and among Palestinians.絕大多數的阿拉伯人是穆斯林,但也有相當數量的基督教在埃及的阿拉伯人(見科普特教堂) ,黎巴嫩,敘利亞和巴勒斯坦人之間。 In geographical terms the Arab world includes North Africa and most of the Middle East (excluding Turkey, Israel, and Iran), a region that has been a center of civilization and crossroads of trade since prehistoric times.在地理條件,阿拉伯世界包括北非和大部分中東(不包括土耳其,以色列和伊朗) ,這一地區已成為中心的文明和貿易的十字路口自史前時代。

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Arab History阿拉伯歷史

References to Arabs as nomads and camel herders of northern Arabia appear in Assyrian inscriptions of the 9th century BC.參考阿拉伯人和駱駝的牧民牧民沙特阿拉伯北部出現在亞述人題字的公元前9世紀。 The name was subsequently applied to all inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula. From time to time Arab kingdoms arose on the fringes of the desert, including the Nabataeans at Petra in southern Jordan in the 2d century BC and Palmyra in central Syria in the 3d century AD, but no great Arab empire emerged until Islam appeared in the 7th century AD.的名稱,後來適用於所有居民的阿拉伯半島。不時出現的阿拉伯王國的邊緣沙漠,包括Nabataeans在佩特拉在約旦南部在公元前2世紀和中部巴爾米拉敘利亞在公元三世紀,但沒有偉大的阿拉伯帝國的出現,直到伊斯蘭教出現在公元7世紀。

Although a majority of Muslims today are not Arabs, the religion was born in the Arabian Peninsula and Arabic is its mother tongue. Mecca, a place of religious pilgrimage for tribes of western Arabia and a trading center on the route between southern Arabia and the urban civilizations of the eastern Mediterranean and Iraq, was the birthplace of the prophet of Islam, Muhammad Ibn Abdullah (c.570-632 AD); the Muslim calendar begins with his flight to Medina in 622 because it marked the founding of a separate Muslim community. By the time of Muhammad's death, Mecca and nearly all the tribes of the peninsula had accepted Islam.雖然大多數穆斯林今天不是阿拉伯人,宗教出生在阿拉伯半島和阿拉伯語是其母語。麥加,一個地方的宗教朝聖為部落的西部和阿拉伯貿易中心之間的航線南部和阿拉伯城市文明的地中海東部和伊拉克的,是的誕生地伊斯蘭教先知穆罕默德伊本阿卜杜拉( c.570 - 632 AD )的;穆斯林日曆開始他的飛行梅迪納在622 ,因為它標誌著成立一個獨立的穆斯林社區。通過的時間穆罕默德的死刑,麥加和幾乎所有的部落半島接受了伊斯蘭教。 A century later the lands of Islam, under Arab leadership, stretched from Spain in the west across North Africa and most of the modern Middle East into Central Asia and northern India.一個世紀後的土地,伊斯蘭教,阿拉伯領導下,從西班牙伸展在西部地區跨越北非和最現代中東成為中亞和印度北部。

There were two great Islamic dynasties of Arab origin, the Umayyads (661-750), centered in Damascus, and the Abbasids(750-1258), whose capital was Baghdad.有兩個偉大的伊斯蘭王朝的阿拉伯裔的伍瑪亞德( 661-750 ) ,集中在大馬士革,與Abbasids ( 750-1258 ) ,其首都巴格達。 Most Umayyad rulers insisted on Arab primacy over non-Arab converts to Islam, while the Abbasid caliphs accepted the principle of Arab and non-Arab equality as Muslims.大多數伍麥耶王朝的統治者堅持阿拉伯優先非阿拉伯皈依伊斯蘭教,而阿巴斯caliphs接受的原則,阿拉伯和非阿拉伯穆斯林的平等。 At its height in the 8th and 9th centuries, the Abbasid caliphate was extraordinarily wealthy, dominating trade routes between Asia and Europe.在其高度在第8和第9世紀以來,阿巴斯哈里發是非常富有,貿易路線主導亞洲和歐洲之間。 Islamic civilization flourished during the Abbasid period even though the political unity of the caliphate often shattered into rival dynasties.伊斯蘭文明在蓬勃發展時期阿巴斯雖然政治統一的政教合一的破滅往往成為對手朝代。 Greek philosophy was translated into Arabic and contributed to the expansion of Arab-Persian Islamic scholarship.希臘哲學是翻譯成阿拉伯文,並有助於擴大阿拉伯波斯伊斯蘭獎學金。 Islamic treatises on medicine, philosophy, and science, including Arabic translations of Plato and Aristotle, greatly influenced Christian thinkers in Europe in the 12th century by way of Muslim Spain.伊斯蘭論文醫學,哲學,科學,包括阿拉伯文翻譯的柏拉圖,亞里士多德,極大地影響基督教思想家在歐洲12世紀的方式穆斯林西班牙。

The power of the Arab Abbasid family declined from the 10th century onward due to internal political and religious rivalries and victories by Christian European Crusaders seeking to recapture territory lost to Islam. The Mongol invasion of the 13th century led to the destruction of the Abbasid caliphate in 1258 and opened the way for the eventual rise of a great Turkish Muslim empire known as the Ottoman Empire.電力阿拉伯阿巴斯的家庭從10世紀起,由於國內的政治和宗教的競爭和勝利的基督教歐洲十字軍試圖奪回失去的領土伊斯蘭教。蒙古人入侵的13世紀造成的破壞在阿巴斯哈里發1258年,並開闢了道路,為最終上升一位偉大的土耳其穆斯林帝國被稱為奧斯曼帝國。 The Ottomans took Constantinople (Istanbul) from the Byzantines in 1453 and had taken control of the Arab Middle East and most of North Africa by the end of the 16th century. Arabs remained subjects of the Ottoman Turks for over 300 years--into the 20th century.奧特曼了君士坦丁堡(伊斯坦布爾)從拜占廷在1453年,並採取了控制阿拉伯中東和大多數北非的16世紀末。阿拉伯人仍然是主體的奧斯曼土耳其人超過300年-到2 0世紀。

The Arab world of today is the product of Ottoman decline, European colonialism, and Arab demands for freedom from European occupation. At the beginning of World War I all of North Africa was under French (Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco), Italian (Libya), or British (Egypt) domination.阿拉伯世界的今天,產品的奧斯曼帝國衰退,歐洲殖民主義,並要求阿拉伯自由來自歐洲的佔領。初第一次世界大戰所有的北非根據法國(阿爾及利亞,突尼斯,摩洛哥) ,意大利(利比亞) ,或英國(埃及)統治。 After World War I the League of Nations divided the Arab lands that had remained Ottoman during the war between Britain and France, with the understanding that each power would encourage the development of the peoples of the region toward self-rule.第一次世界大戰之後,我是聯盟的分裂阿拉伯土地上一直保持在奧斯曼帝國之間的戰爭,英國和法國的理解,每一個權力將鼓勵發展本地區各國人民對自我的規則。 Iraq and Palestine (including part of what is now Jordan) went to Britain, and Syria and Lebanon to France.伊拉克和巴勒斯坦(包括一部分現在的約旦)前往英國,與敘利亞和黎巴嫩的法國。 Britain had suggested to Arab leaders during the war that Palestine would be included in areas to be given Arab self-determination, but British officials then promised the region to the Zionist movement, which called for a Jewish state there. The Arab lands gained their independence in stages after World War II, sometimes, as in Algeria, after long and bitter struggles.英國曾建議向阿拉伯國家領導人在戰爭期間,巴勒斯坦將包括在地區得到阿拉伯國家的自決,但英國官員則允諾該地區的猶太复國主義運動,即要求一個猶太國家存在。阿拉伯土地上獲得了獨立在階段第二次世界大戰後,有時,如在阿爾及利亞,經過長期艱苦卓絕的鬥爭。 Much of Palestine became the state of Israel in May 1948, setting the stage for the Arab-Israeli conflict, in which five wars have occurred (1948-49, 1956, 1967, 1973, and 1982), and contributing to the rise of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), which gained prominence after the humiliating Arab losses in the 1967 war.許多巴勒斯坦成為以色列國在1948年5月,並為阿以衝突,其中5個已發生戰爭( 1948至49年, 1956年, 1967年, 1973年, 1982年) ,並促進崛起巴勒斯坦解放組織(巴解) ,其中突出的屈辱後,阿拉伯國家的損失在1967年戰爭中。

People and Economy人民和經濟

Arabs have traditionally been considered nomads, epitomized by the Bedouin of Arabia.阿拉伯人一向被認為是游牧民族,體現了阿拉伯的貝都因人。 Stereotypical portrayals of Arabs today use the image of the nomad or tribal sheikh, usually with prejudicial intent.刻板形象的阿拉伯人今天使用的形象游牧民族或部落酋長,通常與偏見的意圖。 In fact, it is difficult to generalize about Arabs in terms of appearance or way of life.事實上,這是很難概括的阿拉伯人而言,外觀或生活方式。 Bedouin are less than 10 percent of the total Arab population.貝都因人不到百分之十的阿拉伯人口總數。 Most Arab societies are heavily urbanized, particularly the oil-rich states of the Arabian Peninsula.阿拉伯社會最嚴重城市化,特別是石油資源豐富的國家阿拉伯半島。

This reversal of the stereotype of the desert Arab owes much to the fact that there is little if any agriculture in such societies.這逆轉定型的阿拉伯沙漠很大程度上歸功於這一事實,即幾乎沒有任何農業在這樣的社會。 Major peasant populations are found in countries such as Egypt, Syria, Algeria, and Iraq, where there is water for irrigation, but even there generalizations are difficult.農民人口主要分佈在國家,如埃及,敘利亞,阿爾及利亞,伊拉克,在那裡,灌溉用水,但即使有概括是困難的。 All these nations have heavy urban concentrations; Cairo, for example, has a population of 14 million and is still expanding.所有這些國家都沉重的城市集中;開羅,例如,擁有人口1400萬,目前仍在擴大。 As a whole, then, Arab society today is more heavily urban than rural, as a result of major political, economic, and social changes that have occurred in the last century. In addition, there are important variations in political and religious outlooks among Arabs.作為一個整體,那麼,阿拉伯社會的今天,更嚴重的城市高於農村,由於重大的政治,經濟和社會發生的變化在過去的20世紀。此外,有一些重要的變化在政治和宗教觀念之間的阿拉伯人。

In the midst of such diversity the two basic elements uniting most Arabs are the Arabic language and Islam.處於這種多樣性的兩個基本要素團結大多數阿拉伯人是阿拉伯語和伊斯蘭教。 Though spoken Arabic differs from country to country, the written language forms a cultural basis for all Arabs.雖然講阿拉伯語因國而異,書面語言形式的文化基礎,所有的阿拉伯人。 Islam does the same for many, with Arabic being the language of the Koran, the revealed word of God delivered through the prophet Muhammad.伊斯蘭教不相同的對許多人來說,正在與阿拉伯語言的古蘭經,顯示字的上帝通過先知穆罕默德。 Most Arabs are Sunni Muslims (see Sunnites). A minority are Shiites.大多數阿拉伯人是遜尼派穆斯林(見遜尼派) 。少數是什葉派穆斯林。 The division of Islam into two main branches is the result of a dispute over succession to the caliphate that goes back to the 7th century and has led to certain doctrinal differences between the two branches.該部門對伊斯蘭教分為兩個主要分支是由於爭執繼承哈里發是可以追溯到公元7世紀,並導致某些理論兩國間的分歧分支機構。 The major Shiite country is non-Arab Iran, but there are large numbers of Shiites in Iraq (where they form a majority) and in Lebanon (where Shiites are now the biggest single religious group).主要的什葉派穆斯林國家的非阿拉伯國家伊朗,但有大量的什葉派在伊拉克(他們組成一個多數)和黎巴嫩(其中什葉派現在是最大的單一宗教團體) 。 Shiite tensions are due partly to Iranian efforts to promote Shiite Islam in the aftermath of the 1979 revolution that brought Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini to power and partly to the fact that Shiites, who form the economic underclass in many Arab nations, feel that they have been discriminated against by the Sunnite majority.伊拉克緊張局勢的部分原因是由於伊朗努力促進伊斯蘭教什葉派後的1979年革命,使霍梅尼掌權和部分這一事實,即什葉派,誰形式的經濟下層許多阿拉伯國家認為,他們受到歧視對由遜尼派多數。

Although traditional tribal life has nearly disappeared, tribal values and identity retain some importance, especially when linked to Islam. Descent from the clan of the prophet Muhammad or from one of the first Arab tribes to accept Islam still carries great prestige.雖然傳統的部落生活已幾乎消失,部落的價值觀和身份保留一些重要的,尤其是在伊斯蘭教聯繫在一起。後裔的部族的先知穆罕默德或從第一個阿拉伯部落接受伊斯蘭教仍然帶有很大的威望。 Many villages and towns contain prominent families with common links to tribal ancestors.許多村莊和城鎮包含突出家庭共同的聯繫,以部落的祖先。 Blood ties contribute to the formation of political factions.血緣關係有助於形成政治派別。 These types of relationships are less prevalent in cities; even there, however, leading families may seek to intermarry their children to preserve traditional bonds, and many urban families retain ties to their villages.這些類型的關係不夠盛行的城市,即使有,但可能會導致家庭通婚尋求他們的子女保存傳統債券,以及許多城市家庭保持聯繫,他們的村莊。

Nevertheless, the importance of kinship has been weakened by the rapid expansion of urban society, by modern educational systems, and by the creation of centralized governments whose bureaucracies are often the major source of employment for university graduates.然而,親屬關係的重要性已經削弱了迅速擴張的城市社會,現代教育體系,並通過建立集中政府的官僚機構,往往是主要來源,就業的大學畢業生。 Many educated young people choose spouses from among fellow classmates, a development that reflects especially the expansion of educational and professional opportunities for women.許多受過教育的青年人選擇配偶之間的同學,發展,反映特別是擴大教育和職業婦女的機會。 It is not uncommon for young people to become engaged and then wait a year or two to marry because they cannot find or afford suitable housing immediately.這是不尋常的年輕人成為從事然後等待一年或兩年結婚,因為他們無法找到或負擔不起合適的住房立即。 In the past the bride would have become part of the husband's family's household, a custom still followed in many villages.在過去的新娘將成為丈夫的家庭的家庭,一個自定義仍然遵循的許多村莊。

This rapid pace of urbanization and social change has been encouraged by economic constraints found in many Arab societies.這種快速的城市化和社會變革一直鼓勵經濟拮据發現在許多阿拉伯社會。 Except for oil, there are few natural resources to be exploited for industrial development.除了石油,幾乎沒有天然資源加以利用的工業發展。 Agricultural productivity is generally high in Arab countries, but productive land is scarce in some regions because of the lack of water, and droughts and rising demand have increased the possibility of conflicts over water resources shared by neighboring countries.農業生產力通常是高在阿拉伯國家,但肥沃的土地是稀缺在一些地區,由於缺乏水,乾旱和不斷增長的需求有所增加衝突的可能性水資源共享的周邊國家。 Fewer opportunities in agriculture, coupled with social modernization, have caused young people to flock to major cities seeking education and employment.很少有機會在農業,再加上社會的現代化,造成了年輕人湧向各大城市尋求教育和就業。 This has placed serious strains on governmental abilities to respond to social needs.這使遭受嚴重的壓力,政府的能力應付社會需求。

This process has been exacerbated by another factor--the rapid rate of population growth in many Arab countries.這一過程加劇了另一個因素-迅速的人口增長率在許多阿拉伯國家。 Most have a rate of increase near 3 percent annually, as compared to rates of growth in Western Europe of under 1 percent.大多數人的速度增加近百分之三,每年相比,增長率在西歐的不足百分之一。 These growth rates reflect the impact of modern medicine and social services that have lessened infant mortality.這些增長反映了影響現代醫學和社會服務,降低嬰兒死亡率。 The tendency to smaller families found in Western urban societies has not occurred because of the prevalence of traditional attitudes favoring large families, particularly among the poor and in areas where tribal values prevail.這種傾向較小的家庭中發現西方城市社會並沒有發生,因為普遍存在的傳統觀念,有利於多子女家庭,特別是窮人和地區的部落數值為準。 Oman has a growth rate approaching 5 percent, and even a rate of 2.3 percent for Egypt means that nearly 1.4 million Egyptians are born every year in a country where agricultural land comprises only 12 percent of the total land area, forcing further urban congestion and the need to import more food to maintain subsistence levels.阿曼增長率接近百分之五,甚至率百分之二點三埃及意味著近140萬埃及人每年出生在一個國家的農業用地僅百分之十二的土地總面積,迫使進一步城市擁擠和需要進口更多的糧食以維持生計的水平。 This inability to feed the population from indigenous resources leads to increased indebtedness and a diversion of funds from development.這種無法餵飽人口從本地的資源導致增加負債和挪用資金發展。

One final element in this equation is the large number of young people in these expanding populations.最後一個因素是這個方程的大批年輕人在這些日益增多的人口。 For example, 48 percent of all Syrians are under 15 years of age, a not unrepresentative statistic suggesting that future problems of unemployment and food shortages will be greater than they are now.例如,百分之四十八的所有敘利亞人是年齡在15歲以下,一個沒有代表性的統計數據表明,未來的失業問題和糧食短缺將大於現在。 These population indices suggest great potential for social unrest, and the failure of many secular Arab regimes to fulfill their promises of economic prosperity and national strength have contributed to the increasing adherence to Islam by young people in some Arab societies.這些人口指標顯示巨大潛力的社會動亂,以及失敗的許多阿拉伯國家的世俗制度,以履行其承諾的經濟繁榮和綜合國力作出了貢獻越來越遵守伊斯蘭教的年輕人在一些阿拉伯社會。 Among the young, in particular, Arab inability to regain the territories lost in the 1967 war with Israel led to questioning of the secular ideologies that had dominated regional politics during the post-World War II era, while a growing gap between rich and poor and the spread of education increased demands for greater participation in largely undemocratic political systems.在年輕人中間,尤其是阿拉伯國家不能恢復失去的領土在1967年與以色列的戰爭使訊問世俗的意識形態主導了區域政治在第二次世界大戰後的時代,而越來越多的貧富差距和普及教育需求增加更大的參與在很大程度上不民主的政治制度。

Modern Politics and Social Issues現代政治和社會問題

The men who led the Arab independence movements after World War I were usually secularists.男子誰領導的阿拉伯獨立運動第二次世界大戰後我通常世俗。 Although many of them, such as Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser, were Pan-Arab nationalists who advocated the creation of a single Arab nation, they believed it essential that their countries adopt many aspects of Western civilization, such as secular laws, parliamentary government, and the like.雖然許多人,如埃及的納賽爾,是泛阿拉伯民族主義誰主張建立一個單一的阿拉伯國家,他們認為有必要,他們的國家採取許多方面的西方文明,如世俗的法律,議會政府,並等等。 These views challenged the primacy of Islam in everyday life.這些意見的首要挑戰伊斯蘭教在日常生活中。 Islamic law (Sharia) makes no distinction between religious and temporal power.伊斯蘭法(伊斯蘭教)沒有區分宗教和顳權力。 Muslims believe that all law derives from the Koran, and that God's word must therefore apply to all aspects of life.穆斯林認為,所有法律源於古蘭經,而且上帝的因此,必須一詞適用於生活的各個方面。 The gradual relegation of Islam to the realm of personal status, a process that began during the period of Western dominance, continued as Arab nations gained independence under nationalist leaders who believed that Islam lacked answers to the problems confronting modern society and national development.逐步降級的伊斯蘭教領域的個人地位,這一進程始於期間,西部的優勢,繼續為阿拉伯國家獲得獨立,民族主義的領導人認為,誰沒有答案伊斯蘭教所面臨的問題現代社會和國家的發展。

Many devout Arab Muslims disagreed.許多虔誠的阿拉伯穆斯林不同意。 The Muslim Brotherhood, for example, was formed in Egypt as early as 1929 to meet the needs of Egyptians uprooted by modern economic and cultural inroads into traditional Egyptian life.穆斯林兄弟會,例如,成立於埃及早在1929年,以滿足埃及人背井離鄉的現代經濟和文化的大舉進入埃及的傳統生活。 A central tenet of all such Muslim groups is the belief that Western economic and social values cannot restore past Arab greatness and that Muslim societies must be based on principles derived from their own roots.中央宗旨所有這些穆斯林團體的信念,即西方的經濟和社會價值觀念不能恢復過去的輝煌,阿拉伯,穆斯林社會必須根據原則來源於自己的根。 Beyond this, such groups often differ on the type of society they envisage and how to achieve it.除此之外,這些群體往往有不同類型的社會,他們設想,以及如何實現這一目標。 Some organizations advocate the violent overthrow of existing regimes; others spread their views by peaceful means. The call to Islam has special appeal to those who are the victims rather than the beneficiaries of modernization.有些組織主張以暴力推翻現有的制度;他人傳播他們的意見通過和平手段。呼籲伊斯蘭教具有特殊的呼籲那些誰是受害者,而不是受益人的現代化。 Many others who have rejected membership in such groups have returned to the private religious duties of Islam, such as praying five times daily, fasting during the holy month of Ramadan, and making a pilgrimage to Mecca.還有許多人誰也拒絕加入這些團體已經回到私人的宗教伊斯蘭教的職責,如祈禱每天5次,空腹時的齋月,並作出了麥加朝聖。

Muslim organizations see the West as the real threat to Islamic stability.穆斯林組織認為西方的真正威脅伊斯蘭穩定。 Most see Israel as an agent of the West in the Middle East. Even secular Arabs who admire the West and fear reintroduction of a Muslim theocracy nevertheless often feel angered at what they perceive as Western and especially American ignorance of and unconcern for Arab concerns.大多數看到以色列作為代理人的西方在中東。即使世俗的阿拉伯人誰欣賞西方和恐懼重新穆斯林神然而常常感到憤怒什麼他們認為西方,尤其是美國的無知和漠不關心阿拉伯的關注。 The Palestinian uprising (Intifada) launched in December 1987 created new awareness of the problem and contributed to the signing of the 1993 accord between Israel and the PLO.巴勒斯坦起義(起義)發起於1987年12月創造了新的對這個問題的認識,有助於1993年簽署協議以色列和巴解組織之間。

On the other hand, anti-Israeli pronouncements have often served to create a false impression of unity when real agreement was lacking.另一方面,反以色列的言論往往有助於建立一個錯誤的印象時的團結真正的協議是缺乏。 The Arab League, formed in 1945, has been more a forum for Arab infighting than a framework for cooperation.阿拉伯國家聯盟成立於1945年,已經更多的論壇比阿拉伯內部的合作框架。 Arabs genuinely feel common bonds based on language and a shared historical and cultural legacy, but they also identify themselves as Egyptians, Iraqis, and so on.阿拉伯人真正感受到共同的紐帶基礎上的語言和共同的歷史和文化的遺產,但他們也自稱為埃及人,伊拉克人,等等。 Their ideological differences reflect the wide range of governing systems in the Arab world, from socialist regimes to oil-rich monarchies.其意識形態的分歧反映了廣泛的調速系統在阿拉伯世界,從社會主義制度,以石油資源豐富的君主制。

Complicating factors for the region have been the Iran-Iraq War (1980-88), tensions between Iran and the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, regional involvement in Lebanon, and the 1991 Persian Gulf War. As of 1990, more than 60 percent of the proved oil reserves of the globe could be found in the Middle East, particularly in Saudi Arabia, which contains nearly half of the world's reserves.複雜的因素,該地區一直是兩伊戰爭( 1980年至1988年) ,伊朗之間的緊張局勢和阿拉伯國家的波斯灣地區,區域參與在黎巴嫩,並在1991年波斯灣戰爭。截至1990年,百分之六十以上在已探明石油儲量在全球可以找到在中東地區,特別是在沙特阿拉伯,其中載有將近一半的世界儲備。 Oil has been exported from the Arab world since the 1930s, but only with the creation of the Organization pf Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1960 and the Libyan revolution of 1969 did these countries begin to determine oil prices themselves.石油出口已經從阿拉伯世界自20世紀30年代,但只有建立了組織酚醛石油輸出國組織(歐佩克)在1960年和利比亞1969年革命的這些國家也開始以確定石油價格本身。 Although only eight Arab nations are substantial oil producers and OPEC has several non-Arab members, the organization is usually associated with Arab oil; the oil shortages of 1973-74 resulted from Saudi anger at US policy during the 1973 Arab-Israeli War.雖然只有8個阿拉伯國家的大量石油生產國和歐佩克一些非阿拉伯成員,該組織通常與阿拉伯產油國的石油短缺,導致1973-74年從沙特的憤怒美國的政策在1973年阿以戰爭。 Overproduction drove down prices in the 1980s and early 1990s, weakening OPEC's clout and the ability of the oil-producing Arab states to provide aid and jobs for the poorer Arab nations.生產過剩價格下跌將在20世紀80年代和90年代初,削弱了歐佩克的影響力和能力的產油的阿拉伯國家提供援助和就業機會的較窮的阿拉伯國家。 The Arab world is likely to long remain the center of world oil production, however, a fact that contributed to the international response to Iraq's 1990 invasion of Kuwait and to the ongoing efforts to destroy Iraq's nuclear capability.阿拉伯世界很可能長期維持中心的世界石油生產,然而,事實上,有助於國際社會應對伊拉克1990年入侵科威特,並正在不斷作出努力,摧毀伊拉克的核能力。

Future Prospects展望未來

The Arab world holds potential for both growth and conflict. Some Arab efforts to promote more unified approaches to common problems have been made in recent years, including the formation of the Gulf Cooperation Council (1981) and the Arab Maghrib Union 1989), and the shaky union of the Yemens.阿拉伯世界擁有潛力的經濟增長和衝突。一些阿拉伯國家努力促進更加統一的辦法來共同面臨的問題已經在最近幾年,包括組成的海灣合作委員會( 1981年)和阿拉伯馬格里布聯盟1989年) ,以及搖搖欲墜工會也門。 Efforts to forge Arab unity are strained by competition among Iraq, Syria, and Egypt for leadership of the Arab world, and the varied Arab reactions to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait shattered the myth of such unity. Prospects for regional stability improved somewhat with the ending of the cold war and the signing of the 1993 and 1994 accords between the PLO and Israel, the 1994 accord between Israel and Jordan, and other Arab moves toward peace with Israel.努力建立阿拉伯團結緊張的競爭,伊拉克,敘利亞,埃及和領導的阿拉伯世界,阿拉伯國家的各種反應,伊拉克對科威特的入侵打破了神話,這種團結。展望區域穩定有所改善與終止冷戰結束並簽署了1993年和1994年協定的巴解組織和以色列之間, 1994年的協議以色列和約旦之間,和其他阿拉伯走向與以色列實現和平。 The impact of population growth on development is a crucial factor, as is the emergence in many Arab countries of radical, populist Muslim movements with mass support.影響人口增長對發展是一個至關重要的因素,這是出現在許多阿拉伯國家的激進民粹主義的穆斯林運動與大眾的支持。 Such movements have been kept under uneasy restraint in some nations, as in Jordan, or have been ruthlessly suppressed, as in Algeria.這種運動一直保持克制下不安的一些國家,如約旦,或已殘酷鎮壓,如在阿爾及利亞。 In one Arab nation, Sudan, they have won power.在一個阿拉伯國家,蘇丹,他們已獲得權力。

Charles D. Smith查爾斯史密斯

Bibliography 目錄
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Also, if you are studying Islamic subject, see:此外,如果你在伊斯蘭問題研究,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 古蘭經,古蘭經
Pillars of Faith 信仰支柱
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths 聖訓
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-從圖書的聖訓1布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-從圖書的聖訓2布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-從圖書的聖訓3布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-從圖書的聖訓1 0布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在Taqseer ) -聖訓從圖書2 0布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 西遊記(朝聖) -聖訓從圖書2 6布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 戰鬥的原因阿拉(傑哈德) -聖訓圖書5 2布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 統一性,唯一性安拉( TAWHEED ) -聖訓圖書9 3布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) Shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) Maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) Ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology Mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) Ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) Nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) Zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah Kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) Qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah Ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義艾買
Early Islamic History Outline 早期伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira Hegira
Averroes 阿威羅伊
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela Machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 克爾白,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派穆斯林,什葉派穆斯林
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥地那
Sahih, al-Bukhari Sahih ,布哈里
Sufism 蘇菲主義
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 艾布伯克爾
Abbasids Abbasids
Ayyubids Ayyubids
Umayyads 伍瑪亞德
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) Fatimids (什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀派(什葉派)
Mamelukes Mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks Seljuks
Aisha 阿伊莎
Ali 阿里
Lilith 莉莉絲
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


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