Apostle使徒

General Information 一般信息

In the Bible, apostle is a title conferred on one sent with a message.在聖經中,使徒是一個標題賦予一個發送郵件。 The term is applied primarily to the original Twelve called by Jesus to accompany him during his ministry (Matt. 10:2-4; Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:13-16).任期主要適用於原來的12個所謂的耶穌陪他在省(瑪特泰10:2-4 ;馬克3:16-19 ;盧克6:13-16 ) 。 In the Gospels, other followers are called disciples.在福音,其他的追隨者被稱為弟子。 The title was gradually extended to others such as Paul and Barnabas (Acts 14:14; Rom. 9:1, 11:13); when this occurred, the Twelve were distinguished from all the apostles, as in 1 Corinthians 15:5-7.標題逐步擴大到其他如保羅和巴拿巴(使徒14:14 ;光盤。 9:1 , 11:13 ) ;時發生,其中12人是有別於所有的使徒,在哥林多前書15點05分- 7 。

Most of the Twelve were from the laboring class, with the exception of Matthew, a tax collector.大多數的12名來自勞動階級,除馬修,一個稅務員。 None was from the religious sector of Jewish society.沒有人從宗教部門的猶太社會。 Peter, James (the Greater), and John formed an inner circle closest to Jesus; Judas Iscariot betrayed him, and Matthias was selected to replace Judas (Acts 1:16). The others were Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, James (the Lesser), Simon, and Thaddeus (Jude).彼得,詹姆斯(大) ,和約翰形成了一個內圈最接近耶穌,猶大出賣了他,並馬蒂亞斯被選中,以取代猶大(使徒1時16分) 。其他人安德魯,菲利普,巴塞洛繆,托馬斯,詹姆斯(小) ,西蒙,以及撒迪厄斯(洛) 。

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Bibliography 目錄
Brownrigg, R., The Twelve Apostles (1974); Guthrie, D., The Apostles (1974); Huxhold, HN, Twelve Who Followed (1987); Ruffin, CB, The Twelve (1984).布朗,河,十二門徒( 1974年) ;格思裡, D. ,使徒( 1974年) ; Huxhold酶, 12名追隨( 1987年) ;魯芬, CB認證,十二( 1984年) 。


Apostle, Apostleship使徒, Apostleship

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The biblical use of "apostle" is almost entirely confined to the NT, where it occurs seventy-nine times: ten in the Gospels, twenty-eight in Acts, thirty-eight in the epistles, and three in the Apocalypse.聖經中使用的“門徒”幾乎完全限於新台幣,在那裡發生的79次: 10的福音, 2008年的法案, 38中的書信,並在3個啟示。 Our English word is a transliteration of the Greek apostolos, which is derived from apostellein, to send.我們的英文單詞是音譯希臘東正教,這是來自apostellein ,發送。 Whereas several words for send are used in the NT, expressing such ideas as dispatch, release, or dismiss, apostellein emphasizes the elements of commission, authority of and responsibility to the sender.雖然有幾種字派所用新台幣,並表示這種想法的派遣,釋放,或駁回, apostellein強調的內容委員會,權力和責任給發件人。 So an apostle is properly one sent on a definite mission, in which he acts with full authority on behalf of the sender and is accountable to him.因此,一個適當的倡導者之一是發出一個明確的任務,他的行為具有充分權力的名義發送,並負責給他。

The noun occurs only once in the LXX.名詞只有一次發生在LXX 。 When the wife of Jeroboam came to Ahijah seeking information about the health of her son, the prophet answered, "I am sent unto thee with heavy tidings" (I Kings 14:6).當耶羅波安的妻子來到Ahijah尋求有關健康的兒子,先知回答說, “我告訴你發出的沉重的消息” (我國王14點06分) 。 Here apostolos renders the Hebrew saluah, which became a somewhat technical term in Judaism.在這裡卡克拉使希伯來saluah ,這成為一些技術術語的猶太教。 A saluah could be one who led the synagogue congregation in worship and thus represented it, or a representative of the Sanhedrin sent on official business.阿saluah可能是誰領導聚集在猶太教堂崇拜,從而代表,或代表公會發出公務。 The priesthood was included under this term also, and a few outstanding personalities of OT story who acted strikingly on God's behalf.鐸被列入這個詞也和一些傑出人物的故事誰加時賽採取行動突出對上帝的名義。 But in no case did the saluah operate beyond the confines of the Jewish community.但是,在任何情況下,沒有saluah經營超出了猶太社區。 So there is no anticipation in the Saluah of the missionary emphasis associated with the NT apostolos.所以沒有預期中的Saluah傳教的重點與新台幣阿波斯托洛斯。

Christ as Apostle基督使徒

In Heb.在河北。 3:1 Jesus is called "the apostle...of our confession," in conscious contrast to Moses, to whom Judaism ascribed the term saluah. 3:1耶穌是所謂的“使徒...我們的招供, ”在有意識的對比摩西,向誰猶太教為其任期saluah 。 Jesus spoke more directly from God than Moses was able to do.耶穌以更直接來自上帝比摩西是能夠做到。 Repeatedly he made the claim of being sent by the Father.他一再提出的要求被父親。 When he declared that he was sending his chosen disciples into the world even as the Father had sent him, our Lord was bestowing on apostleship its highest dignity (John 17:18).當他宣布,他將派遣他的弟子選擇融入世界甚至在父親送他,是我們的上帝賜予的apostleship最高的尊嚴(約17:18 ) 。

The Twelve as Apostles作為十二使徒

These men are most often called disciples in the Gospels, for their primary function during Christ's ministry was to be with him and learn of him.這些人往往是所謂的弟子中的福音,因為他們的主要職能在基督的部將同他和他的學習。 But they are also called apostles because Jesus imparted to them his authority to preach and to cast out demons (Mark 3:14-15; 6:30).但是,他們也被稱為耶穌的使者,因為他們傳授給他的權力,以傳教和投出的惡魔(馬克3:14-15 ; 6:30 ) 。 Just because this activity was limited while Jesus was with them, the term "apostle" is rarely used.正因為這種活動是有限的,而耶穌與他們而言, “門徒”是很少有人使用。 After Pentecost this situation was changed.在聖靈降臨節,這種情況改變了。

The number twelve recalls the twelve tribes of Israel, but the basis of leadership is no longer tribal, but personal and spiritual. Evidently the college of apostles was regarded as fixed in number, for Jesus spoke of twelve thrones in the coming age (Matt. 19:28; cf. Rev. 21:14).人數12回顧十二個部族,以色列,但根據領導不再是部落,但個人和精神。很顯然,對大學生的使徒被視為固定的數量,對耶穌說一二王位在今後的年齡(瑪特泰19:28 ;比照。牧師21時14分) 。 Judas was replaced by Matthias (Acts 1), but after that no effort was made to select men to succeed those who were taken by death (Acts 12:2).猶大改為馬蒂亞斯(使徒1 ) ,但之後沒有作出努力選擇男性,以接替誰採取了死刑(使徒12:2 ) 。

Apostles receive first mention in the lists of spiritual gifts (I Cor. 12:28; Eph. 4:11).使徒第一次提到收到名單中的精神禮物(我肺心病。 12:28 ;厄。 4時11分) 。 Since these gifts are bestowed by the risen Christ through the Spirit, it is probable that at the beginning of the apostolic age these men who had been appointed by Jesus and trained by him were now regarded as possessing a second investiture to mark the new and permanent phase of their work for which the earlier phase had been a preparation.由於這些禮物是賦予了復活的基督的精神,很可能開始的時候,使徒時代這些人誰已被任命為耶穌和訓練,現在他被視為擁有第二investiture以慶祝新的常任理事國階段的工作,其中較早階段已準備。 They became the foundation of the church in a sense secondary only to that of Christ himself (Eph. 2:20).他們成為基礎的教堂在一定意義上中學不僅是基督自己(以弗所書二時20分) 。

The duties of the apostles were preaching, teaching, and administration.委員會的職責是傳道使徒,教學和管理。 Their preaching rested on their association with Christ and the instruction received from him, and it included their witness to his resurrection (Acts 1:22).他們宣揚他們的休息與基督和教學收到了他,其中包括他們的見證他的復活(使徒1時22分) 。 Their converts passed immediately under their instruction (Acts 2:42), which presumably consisted largely of their recollection of the teaching of Jesus, augmented by revelations of the Spirit (Eph. 3:5).他們立即通過轉換根據其指示(使徒2時42分) ,這大概主要是他們的回憶教學中的耶穌,增加了揭露精神(以弗所書3點05 ) 。 In the area of administration their functions were varied.在行政領域的職能是不同的。 Broadly speaking, they were responsible for the life and welfare of the Christian community.從廣義上講,他們負責的生活和福利的基督教社區。 Undoubtedly they took the lead in worship as the death of Christ was memorialized in the Lord's Supper. They administered the common fund to which believers contributed for the help of needy brethren (Acts 4:37), until this task became burdensome and was shifted to men specially chosen for this responsibility (Acts 6:1-6).毫無疑問,他們率先崇拜的死亡是紀念耶穌在上帝的晚餐。他們管理的共同基金的信徒貢獻的幫助需要幫助的兄弟(使徒4時37分) ,直至完成這項任務過於繁瑣,後來轉移到男子專門選擇這個責任(行為6:1-6 ) 。 Discipline was in their hands (Acts 5:1-11).紀律是在自己手中(使徒5:1-11 ) 。 As the church grew and spread abroad, the apostles devoted more and more attention to the oversight of these scattered groups of believers (Acts 8:14; 9:32).由於教堂增長和傳播國外,使徒專門越來越多的注意,監督這些分散的團體的信徒(使徒8:14 ; 9時32分) 。 At times the gift of the Holy Spirit was mediated through them (Acts 8:15-17).在時代的禮物聖靈是通過這些中介(使徒8:15-17 ) 。 The supernatural powers which they had exercised when the Lord was among them, such as the exorcism of demons and the healing of the sick, continued to be tokens of their divine authority (Acts 5:12; II Cor. 12:12).超自然的權力,他們行使了當上帝是它們之間,如驅魔的惡魔和癒合的病人,繼續他們的令牌神聖的權力(使徒5時12分;二肺心病。 12:12 ) 。 They took the lead in the determination of vexing problems which faced the church, associating the elders with themselves as an expression of democratic procedure (Acts 15:6; cf. 6:3).他們率先在確定傷腦筋的問題,面臨的教堂,聯想的長者本身作為一個表達的民主程序(使徒15時06分;比照。 6時03分) 。

Paul as Apostle如使徒保羅

The distinctive features of Paul's apostleship were direct appointment by Christ (Gal. 1:1) and the allocation of the Gentile world to him as his sphere of labor (Rom. 1:5; Gal. 1:16; 2:8). His apostleship was recognized by the Jerusalem authorities in accordance with his own claim to rank with the original apostles. However, he never asserted membership in the Twelve (I Cor. 15:11), but rather stood on an independent basis.特點保羅apostleship被直接任命的基督( Gal. 1:1 )和分配詹蒂萊世界他作為其職權範圍的勞動(羅馬書1:5 ;半乳糖。 1時16分; 2點08 ) 。他apostleship承認耶路撒冷當局根據自己的等級要求與原來的使徒。然而,他從未主張成員12名(我肺心病。 15:11 ) ,而是站在一個獨立的基礎。 He was able to bear witness to the resurrection because his call came from the risen Christ (I Cor. 9:1; Acts 26:16-18).他能夠見證復活,因為他的呼籲來自復活的基督(我肺心病。 9:1 ;行為26:16-18 ) 。 Paul looked on his apostleship as a demonstration of divine grace and as a call to sacrificial labor rather than an occasion for glorying in the office (I Cor. 15:10).保羅望著他apostleship表現出神聖的恩典和作為一個呼籲犧牲勞動力,而不是一個機會glorying辦公室(我肺心病。 15:10 ) 。

Other Apostles其他使徒

The most natural explanation of Gal.最自然的解釋半乳糖。 1:19 is that Paul is declaring James, the Lord's brother, to be an apostle, agreeable to the recognition James received in the Jerusalem church. 1點19的是,保羅是詹姆斯宣布,上帝的弟弟,是一個倡導者,同意承認收到詹姆斯在耶路撒冷教堂。 In line with this, in I Cor.本著這一精神,在I肺心病。 15:5-8, where James is mentioned, all the other individuals are apostles. 15:5-8 ,在那裡詹姆斯提到,所有其他個人的使徒。 Barnabas (along with Paul) is called an apostle (Acts 14:4, 14), but probably in a restricted sense only, as one sent forth by the Antioch church, to which he was obligated to report when his mission was completed (14:27).巴拿巴(連同保羅)被稱為使徒(使徒14時04 , 14 ) ,但可能在一個意義不僅限於之一,派出了由教會的安提阿,他有義務報告時,他的使命已經完成( 14 : 27 ) 。 He was not regarded as an apostle at Jerusalem (Acts 9:27), though later on he was given the right hand of fellowship as well as Paul (Gal. 2:9).他不被視為一個使徒在耶路撒冷(使徒9點27分) ,儘管後來他又獲得了右手的獎學金以及保羅( Gal.二點09 ) 。 Andronicus and Junias are said to be of note among the apostles (Rom. 16:7).尼克斯和Junias據說是值得注意的使徒(羅馬書16時07分) 。 Silvanus and Timothy seem to be included as apostles in Paul's statement in I Thess. Silvanus和霍震霆似乎被列為使徒保羅的發言,我洛尼基。 2:6. 2點06 。 The references in I Cor.的提法,我肺心病。 9:5 and 15:7 do not necessarily go beyond the Twelve.九時05分和15時07不一定超越了12個。

It is reasonably clear that in addition to the Twelve, Paul and James had the leading recognition as apostles.這是相當清楚,除了12名,保羅和詹姆斯的領導承認使徒。 Others also might be so indicated under special circumstances.其他人也可能是這樣表示在特殊情況下。 But warrant is lacking for making "apostle" the equivalent of "missionary."但是,令缺乏使“使徒” ,相當於“傳教” 。 In the practice of the modern church, prominent pioneer missionaries are often called apostles, but this is only an accommodation of language.在實踐中的現代教堂,著名的先驅傳教士通常被稱為使徒,但這只是一個住宿的語言。 In the apostolic age one who held this rank was more than a preacher (II Tim. 1:11).在使徒時代舉行的一個誰是這個級別以上牧師(二蒂姆。 1點11分) 。 All disciples were supposed to be preachers, but not all were apostles (I Cor. 12:29).所有的弟子被認為是說教,但並非所有的使徒(我肺心病。 12:29 ) 。 Curiously, at one point in the church's life all were busy preaching except the apostles (Acts 8:4).奇怪的是,在一個點在教堂裡的生活都是繁忙的說教,但使徒(使徒8點04 ) 。 Paul would not have needed to defend his apostleship with such vehemence if he were only defending his right to proclaim the gospel.保羅不會有需要捍衛自己的apostleship這種憤怒,如果他只捍衛他的權利,宣布福音。 Alongside the distinctive and more technical use of the word is the occasional employment of it in the sense of messenger (Phil. 2:25; II Cor. 8:23).除了獨特的和更多的技術使用這個詞,偶爾就業它的意義信使( Phil. 2時25分;二肺心病。 8時23分) 。

EF Harrison英法哈里森
Elwell Evangelical Dictionary規矩福音詞典

See also:另見:
Apostolic Succession使徒繼承
Authority in Church管理局在教會

Bibliography 目錄
A. Fridrichsen, The Apostle and His Message; FJA Hort, The Christian Ecclesia; K. Lake in The Beginnings of Christianity, V, 37-59; JB Lightfoot, St. Paul's Epistle to the Galatians; TW Manson, The Church's Ministry; CK Barrett, The Signs of an Apostle; W. Schmithals, The Office of Apostle in the Early Church; KE Kirk, ed., The Apostolic Ministry; E. Schweizer, Church Order in the NT; J. Roloff, Apostalat, Verkundigung, Kirche; G. Klein, Die Zwolf Apostel, Ursprung und Gehalt einer Idee; KH Rengstorf," TDNT, I, 398ff.; JA Kirk, "Apostleship Since Rengstorf," NTS 21:2149ff.; D. Muller and C. Brown, NIDNTT,I, 126ff.字母a. Fridrichsen ,使徒和他的訊息; FJA園藝,基督教教會;光湖的起源基督教,五, 37-59 ;巴頓娜萊,聖保祿書信向加拉太;荃灣曼森,教會部;對照巴雷特跡象的使徒;總統Schmithals ,辦公室使徒在早期教會;柯柯克,編輯。 ,使徒部;體育施魏策爾,教會秩序新台幣;學者Roloff , Apostalat , Verkundigung ,教堂;灣克萊因,模具Zwolf Apostel ,起源與Gehalt領袖理念;鎖眼Rengstorf “ , TDNT ,我398ff 。 ;茉莉柯克, ” Apostleship自Rengstorf , “國稅21:2149頁。 ; D.穆勒和布朗, NIDNTT ,我126ff 。


Apostle使徒

Advanced Information 先進的信息

A person sent by another; a messenger; envoy.一個人發出的另一種選擇;使者;特使。 This word is once used as a descriptive designation of Jesus Christ, the Sent of the Father (Heb. 3:1; John 20:21).這個詞是曾經作為一個描述指定的耶穌基督,發送父(希伯來書3:1 ;約翰20:21 ) 。 It is, however, generally used as designating the body of disciples to whom he intrusted the organization of his church and the dissemination of his gospel, "the twelve," as they are called (Matt. 10:1-5; Mark 3:14; 6:7; Luke 6:13; 9:1).然而,通常是用來指定機構的弟子,以他的組織intrusted他的教堂和傳播他的福音, “十二” ,因為它們是所謂的(瑪特泰10:1-5 ;馬克3 :第14條; 6時07 ;盧克6時13分; 9:1 ) 。 We have four lists of the apostles, one by each of the synoptic evangelists (Matt. 10: 2-4; Mark 3:16; Luke 6:14), and one in the Acts (1:13).我們有四個名單使徒,一個由各天氣的福音派(瑪特泰10 : 2-4 ; 3點16馬克;盧克6點14 ) , 1個在行為( 1:13 ) 。

No two of these lists, however, perfectly coincide.沒有兩個名單,但是,完全一致的。 Our Lord gave them the "keys of the kingdom," and by the gift of his Spirit fitted them to be the founders and governors of his church (John 14:16, 17, 26; 15:26, 27; 16:7-15).我們的主給他們的“鑰匙的王國”和禮物,他精神裝有他們的創始人和省長,他教會(約翰14:16 , 17 , 26 ; 15:26 , 27 ; 16點07分- 15 ) 。 To them, as representing his church, he gave the commission to "preach the gospel to every creature" (Matt. 28: 18-20).對他們來說,是代表他的教會,他的委員會,以“宣揚福音每個動物” (瑪特泰28 : 18日至20日) 。 After his ascension he communicated to them, according to his promise, supernatural gifts to qualify them for the discharge of their duties (Acts 2:4; 1 Cor. 2:16; 2:7, 10, 13; 2 Cor. 5:20; 1 Cor. 11:2).他登基後,他傳達給他們,根據他的諾言,超自然的禮物,以他們的資格履行其職責(使徒2:4 ; 1肺心病。二時16分;二點○七, 10日, 13日, 2肺心病。 5 : 20日, 1肺心病。 11時02分) 。

Judas Iscariot, one of "the twelve," fell by transgression, and Matthias was substituted in his place (Acts 1:21).加略人猶大,一對“ 12 ” ,減少了海侵和薩默爾是取代他的位置(使徒一時21分) 。 Saul of Tarsus was afterwards added to their number (Acts 9:3-20; 20: 4; 26:15-18; 1 Tim. 1:12; 2:7; 2 Tim. 1:11).索爾的塔爾蘇斯後來被添加到他們的號碼(行為9:3-20 ; 20 : 4 ; 26:15-18 ; 1蒂姆。 1:12 ; 2時07分, 2添。 1點11 ) 。 Luke has given some account of Peter, John, and the two Jameses (Acts 12:2, 17; 15:13; 21:18), but beyond this we know nothing from authentic history of the rest of the original twelve.盧克已經提供了一些帳戶的彼得,約翰,和兩個Jameses (使徒12:2 , 17 ; 15:13 ; 21:18 ) ,但超出這一點,我們什麼都不知道從真實的歷史,其餘的原始12 。 After the martyrdom of James the Greater (Acts 12:2), James the Less usually resided at Jerusalem, while Paul, "the apostle of the uncircumcision," usually travelled as a missionary among the Gentiles (Gal. 2:8).犧牲後的詹姆斯大(使徒12:2 ) ,詹姆斯在不到通常居住在耶路撒冷,而保羅, “使徒的uncircumcision ” ,通常前往傳教的外邦人( Gal. 2點08分) 。

It was characteristic of the apostles and necessary (1) that they should have seen the Lord, and been able to testify of him and of his resurrection from personal knowledge (John 15:27; Acts 1:21, 22; 1 Cor. 9:1; Acts 22:14, 15).這是特有的和必要的使徒( 1 ) ,他們應該看到了上帝,並已能夠證明他和他的復活從個人知識(約翰15:27 ;行為1時21分, 22 ; 1肺心病。 9 : 1 ;行為22:14 , 15 ) 。 (2.) They must have been immediately called to that office by Christ (Luke 6:13; Gal. 1:1). ( 2 。 )他們必須已立即要求該辦公室由基督(路6時13分;半乳糖。 1:1 ) 。 (3.) It was essential that they should be infallibly inspired, and thus secured against all error and mistake in their public teaching, whether by word or by writing (John 14:26; 16:13; 1 Thess. 2:13). ( 3 ) 。至關重要的是,他們應該infallibly啟發,從而保證對所有的錯誤和失誤,其公共教學,無論是詞或以書面形式(約14:26 ; 16:13 ;一日洛尼基。二時13分) 。 (4.) Another qualification was the power of working miracles (Mark 16:20; Acts 2:43; 1 Cor. 12:8-11). ( 4 ) 。另一個資格的權力的工作奇蹟(馬克16:20 ;行為2點43分, 1肺心病。 12:8-11 ) 。 The apostles therefore could have had no successors.使徒因此,有沒有接班人。 They are the only authoritative teachers of the Christian doctrines.他們是唯一的權威教師的基督教學說。 The office of an apostle ceased with its first holders.該辦公室的使徒停止其第一人。 In 2 Cor. 2肺心病。 8:23 and Phil. 8時23分和菲爾。 2:25 the word "messenger" is the rendering of the same Greek word, elsewhere rendered "apostle." 2時25字“信使”是渲染同希臘字,其他地方提供的“使徒” 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


The Apostles使徒

Saint Matthew聖馬太

In the New Testament, Saint Matthew was the New Testament tax collector called by Jesus Christ to be one of the 12 apostles (Matt. 9:9).在新約,聖馬修是新約稅務員稱為耶穌基督是一個12使徒(瑪特泰9點09 ) 。 Matthew has often been identified with Levi, the son of Alphaeus, also a tax collector (Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27-28).馬修常常被確定列維的兒子, Alphaeus ,也是一個稅務員(馬克2時14分;盧克5:27-28 ) 。 Although traditionally regarded as the author of the Gospel According to Saint Matthew, modern scholarship strongly disputes this attribution.雖然傳統上被視為作者的福音聖馬太,強烈現代學術這個歸屬的爭端。 Matthew's symbol as an evangelist is an angel, and in art he is often depicted with sword and money bag.馬修的象徵作為一個傳道者是一個天使,以及在藝術,他常常是描述與劍和錢袋。 Feast day: Sept. 21 (Western); Nov. 16 (Eastern).盛宴一天: 9月21日(西) ; 11月16日(東部時間) 。


An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint Matthew一種先進的和全面的文件是: 聖馬太


Saint Peter聖彼得

Saint Peter was the most prominent of Jesus Christ's disciples.聖彼得教堂是最突出的是耶穌基督的門徒。 Originally named Simon son of Jonah (Matt. 16:17), he was given the Aramaic name Cephas by Jesus or the early church; the name means "rock" and is translated into Greek as Peter.原名西蒙的兒子喬納(瑪特泰16:17 ) ,他被授予阿拉姆名稱Cephas的耶穌或早期教會;的名字的意思是“岩石” ,並譯成希臘文的彼得。

All that is known of Peter's life before he was called by Jesus is that he was a Galilean fisherman with a brother named Andrew.所有這一切都知道彼得的生活面前,他所謂的耶穌是,他是伽利略與漁民兄弟命名為安德魯。 Peter is mentioned numerous times in the Gospels and first 15 chapters of Acts.彼得是多次提到的福音和前15章的行為。 He is pictured as a leader and spokesman of the disciples; he identifies Jesus as Messiah (Mark 8:27; Matt. 16:16) and is selected as the rock on which the church will be built (Matt. 16:18).他是照片作為領導者和發言人的弟子,他指出耶穌是彌賽亞(馬克8點27分;馬特。 16:16 ) ,並選定為岩石上的教堂將建立(瑪特泰16:18 ) 。 He is several times mentioned with the brothers James and John, with whom he witnesses the Transfiguration and Jesus' agony in Gethsemane.他多次提到的兄弟詹姆斯和約翰,與他的證人的變形和耶穌在客西馬尼的痛苦。 After Jesus' arrest Peter denies knowing him three times and later repents his denial (Matt. 26:69-75; John 18:10-27).在耶穌被逮捕彼得否認知道他的3倍,後來他拒絕懺悔(瑪特泰26:69-75 ;約翰18:10-27 ) 。

In Acts, Peter is a leader in the Jerusalem church and engages in missionary activity in Samaria, Galilee, Lydda, Sharon, and Joppa.在行為,彼得是一個領導人在耶路撒冷教會和從事傳教活動在撒馬利亞,加利利, Lydda ,沙龍,並約帕。 He favors admission of Gentiles into the church but occupies a middle position between James (the "brother" of Jesus), who wants to keep Christianity very Jewish in practice, and Paul, who wishes to minimize requirements for Gentile converts.他主張接納外邦人進入教堂,但佔有之間的中間立場詹姆斯(以下簡稱“兄弟”的耶穌) ,誰願保持非常猶太基督教在實踐中,和保羅,誰願最大限度地減少所需的詹蒂萊轉換。

The New Testament says nothing about Peter's life after his presence at the meeting in Jerusalem with James and Paul (Acts 15).新約隻字未提彼得的生活後,出席會議在耶路撒冷與詹姆斯和保羅(使徒15 ) 。 Later sources say that Peter went to Rome, was martyred (64-68) under Nero, and buried on Vatican Hill. Evidence concerning his presence, activity, and death in Rome is slight.後來的消息說,彼得前往羅馬,為烈士( 64-68 )根據尼祿,並埋在梵蒂岡山。證據有關他的存在,活動,並在羅馬逝世是輕微。

New Testament documents assign Peter a variety of roles.新約文件分配彼得的各種角色。 He is seen as a missionary fisherman, pastoral shepherd, martyr, recipient of special revelation, confessor of the true faith, magisterial protector, healer, and repentant sinner.他被看作是一個傳教士的漁民,畜牧牧羊人,烈士,接受特殊的啟示,懺悔的真正誠意,權威的保護者,醫治,並悔過的罪人。 These roles and images help explain the wealth of later stories and legends surrounding Peter and his high status in Christian literature, including his role in Roman Catholic belief as founder of the papacy.這些角色和形象有助於解釋的財富之後的故事和傳說圍繞彼得和他的崇高地位的基督教文獻,包括他在羅馬天主教信仰的創始人教皇。 The two Epistles of Peter are ascribed to Peter, although the attribution is questioned.這兩個書信彼得是歸因於彼得,雖然歸屬提出質疑。 Many postbiblical books were also produced in his name, notably the Acts of Peter.許多postbiblical書籍也產生了在自己的名字,尤其是行為的彼得。 Feast day: June 29 (with Saint Paul).盛宴一天: 6月29日(與聖保羅) 。

Anthony J. Saldarini安東尼Saldarini

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Brown, R., et al., eds., Peter in the New Testament (1973); Cullmann, Oscar, Peter, Disciple, Apostle, Martyr, trans.布朗,河,等。合編。 ,彼得在新約( 1973年) ; Cullmann ,奧斯卡,彼得,門徒,門徒,烈士,轉。 by FV Filson, 2d ed.由亞阿馬菲爾森, 2版。 (1962); Murphy, WF, Upon This Rock (1987); O'Connor, DW, Peter in Rome (1969); Taylor, WM, Peter, The Apostle (1990); Thomas, WH, The Apostle Peter: His Life and Writings (1984); Winter, Michael M., Saint Peter and the Popes (1960; repr. 1979). ( 1962年) ;墨菲,白表,經本岩( 1987年) ;奧康納,數據倉庫,彼得在羅馬( 1969年) ;泰勒,西醫,彼得,使徒( 1990年) ;托馬斯,武漢,使徒彼得:他的生命和著述( 1984年) ;冬季,邁克爾先生,聖彼得和教皇( 1960年; repr 。 1979年) 。


An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint Peter一種先進的和全面的文件是: 聖彼得


Saint James (James the Great)聖詹姆斯(詹姆斯大)

Together with his brother Saint John, Saint James was among the first disciples called by Jesus (Matt. 4:21).連同他的哥哥聖約翰,聖詹姆斯是第一批弟子所謂的耶穌(瑪特泰4時21分) 。 These sons of Zebedee, called the Boanerges ("Sons of Thunder"), joined the brothers Peter and Andrew, also fishermen by trade, in a close inner circle around Jesus.這些兒子號Zebedee ,稱為Boanerges ( “雷霆之子” ) ,加入兄弟彼得和安德魯,還漁民的貿易,密切內圈約耶穌。 James, Peter, and John were the only disciples present, for example, at the Transfiguration (Luke 9) and near Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane.詹姆斯,彼得,約翰是唯一的弟子目前,例如,在變(路9 )和附近的耶穌在客西馬尼園。 James was martyred under Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12).詹姆斯下希律王殺害了阿格里帕一(法12條) 。 According to legend, his bones were taken to Spain, and his shrine at Santiago de Compostela was one of the most important pilgrimage centers in the Middle Ages. Feast day: Apr. 30 (Eastern); July 25 (Western).根據傳說,他的骨頭被運到西班牙,和他的參拜靖國神社在聖地亞哥德孔波斯特拉是一個最重要的朝聖中心,在中世紀。盛宴一天: 4月30號(東部) ; 7月25日(西方) 。


Saint James (James the Great)聖詹姆斯(詹姆斯大)

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Boaner'ges, sons of thunder, a surname given by our Lord to James and John (Mark 3:17) on account of their fervid and impetuous temper (Luke 9:54). Boaner'ges ,兒子的雷聲,一個姓所給予我們的主詹姆斯和約翰(馬克3時17分)在考慮到它們的熾熱和浮躁的脾氣(路九點54分) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint James一種先進的和全面的文件是: 聖詹姆斯


Saint John聖約翰

Saint John, a Galilean fisherman and the son of Zebedee, was one of the Twelve Apostles.聖約翰的伽利略和漁民的兒子, 6號Zebedee ,是一個十二門徒。 John and his brother, Saint James (the Great), were called Boanerges, or Sons of Thunder, by Christ.約翰和他的弟弟,聖詹姆斯(大) ,被稱為Boanerges ,或父子的防雷,由基督。 Several passages in the Bible imply that this describes their intense loyalty and aggressive zeal (Mark 9:38; Luke 9:49, 54).有幾個段落聖經中的暗示,這說明其密集的忠誠和積極的熱情(馬克9點38分;盧克9點49 , 54 ) 。 John was one of the inner circle among the Twelve.約翰是一個內圈之間的12個。 Saint Peter, James, and John witnessed the Transfiguration (Matt. 17:1; Mark 9:2; Luke 9:28) and went to Gethsemane with Jesus (Matt. 26:37; Mark 14:33).聖彼得,詹姆斯和約翰目睹了變(瑪特泰17:1 ;馬克9點02分;盧克9時28 ) ,並到客西馬尼與耶穌(瑪特泰26:37 ;馬克14:33 ) 。

Many people believe that John was the beloved disciple referred to in the fourth gospel.許多人認為,約翰是心愛的弟子中提到的第四個福音。 If so, he was beside Jesus at the Last Supper (John 13:23), was asked to care for Jesus' mother Mary (John 19:26), and was the first to comprehend Jesus' Resurrection (John 20:2-9).如果是這樣,他旁邊的耶穌在最後的晚餐(約13時23分) ,被要求照顧耶穌的母親瑪利亞(約翰19:26 ) ,並且是第一個理解耶穌的復活(約翰20:2-9 ) 。 John had a prominent role in the early church (Acts 1:13, 8:14). Traditionally, five New Testament books are ascribed to him: the fourth gospel, three Epistles, and the Book of Revelation.約翰了突出的作用在早期教會(使徒1:13 , 8:14 ) 。傳統上,五年新約聖經的書籍歸咎於他說:第四福音,三個書信和啟示錄。 Feast day: Dec. 27 (Western); Sept. 26 (Eastern).盛宴一天: 12月27日(西) ; 9月26日(東部時間) 。

Douglas Ezell道格拉斯Ezell


Saint John聖約翰

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Boaner'ges, sons of thunder, a surname given by our Lord to James and John (Mark 3:17) on account of their fervid and impetuous temper (Luke 9:54). Boaner'ges ,兒子的雷聲,一個姓所給予我們的主詹姆斯和約翰(馬克3時17分)在考慮到它們的熾熱和浮躁的脾氣(路九點54分) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint John一種先進的和全面的文件是: 聖約翰


Judas Iscariot加略人猶大

Judas Iscariot was the Apostle who betrayed Jesus Christ to the authorities.猶大是使徒誰背叛耶穌基督給當局。 According to Matthew 27:4, Judas, distraught over Jesus' condemnation, returned his reward of 30 pieces of silver and hanged himself.據馬修27:4 ,猶大,發狂了耶穌的譴責,返回他的懸賞30枚銀牌和上吊自殺。 According to Acts 1:18, Judas bought a field with the money, but fell headlong in it, injured himself, and died.根據行為的1:18 ,猶大買了外地的資金,但仍輕率中,自己受傷,死亡。 His surname may indicate that he belonged to the Sicarii, a radical political group.他的姓可能表明,他屬於Sicarii ,一個激進的政治團體。

Bibliography: Gartner, Bertil, Iscariot (1971); Schaumberg, EL, Judas (1981).參考書目: Gartner稱,俄,加略( 1971年) ; Schaumberg ,電致發光,猶大( 1981年) 。


An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Judas Iscariot一種先進的和全面的文件是: 猶大


Saint Matthias聖馬蒂亞斯

In the New Testament, Matthias was the apostle chosen by lot to replace Judas Iscariot (Acts 1:15-26).在新約,薩默爾是使徒通過抽籤來取代猶大(使徒1:15-26 ) 。 According to one tradition, he preached the gospel in Ethiopia.根據一項傳統,他宣揚福音在埃塞俄比亞。 Feast day: May 14 (Roman); Feb. 24 (other Western); Aug. 9 (Eastern).一天盛宴: 5月14日(羅馬) ; 2月24日(西方) ; 8月9日(東部時間) 。


An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint Matthias一種先進的和全面的文件是馬蒂亞斯


Saint Andrew聖安德魯

St. Andrew was a fisherman whom Jesus called to be an Apostle (Matt. 4:19).聖安德魯是一名漁夫耶穌人稱為是一個使徒(瑪特泰4時19分) 。 He was also the brother of Simon Peter.他還的兄弟西門彼得。 According to a popular but mistaken tradition, Andrew was crucified on an X-shaped cross.根據一項受歡迎的,但錯誤的傳統,安德魯被釘在十字架上的X形交叉。 The crossed bars of the Scottish flag are derived from this belief.酒吧的跨越的蘇格蘭國旗是來自這一信念。 St. Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland and Russia.聖安德魯是守護神蘇格蘭和俄羅斯。 Feast day: Nov. 30.盛宴一天: 11月30日。


Saint Andrew聖安德魯

General Information 一般信息

Saint Andrew was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ and the brother of Simon (later the apostle Peter).聖安德魯是一個12使徒耶穌基督的弟弟西蒙(後來的使徒彼得) 。 A Galilean fisherman of Bethsaida, he was originally a disciple of John the Baptist.阿伽利略漁民的伯賽大,他原本是門徒施洗約翰的。 In the Gospel of John (1:35-42), Andrew was the first called of Jesus' disciples.在約翰福音( 1:35-42 ) ,安德魯是第一個所謂的耶穌的門徒。 According to tradition, Andrew was crucified at Patras, in Achaea, on an X-shaped cross, the form of which became known as Saint Andrew's Cross (see Cross). Eusebius of Caesarea records that Andrew preached Christianity among the Scythians, thus becoming the patron saint of Russia.按照傳統,安德魯被釘在十字架上帕特雷,在Achaea上的X形交叉的形式而被稱為聖安德魯十字(見十字) 。撒利亞的優西比烏記錄安德魯宣揚基督教之間的Scythians ,從而成為守護神俄羅斯。 He is also the patron saint of Greece.他也是守護神希臘。 In the 8th century relics of Andrew were taken to the future site of Saint Andrews in Scotland, so that he is the patron saint of that country as well; a white Saint Andrew's cross on a blue field is the national flag of Scotland.在八世紀的安德魯文物被運到未來的網站聖安德魯斯在蘇格蘭,所以他是守護神該國以及一個白色的聖安德魯的交叉上一個藍色的領域是國家國旗的蘇格蘭。 Andrew's feast day is November 30.安德魯的盛宴一天是11月30日。


Saint An'drew聖An'drew

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Andrew, manliness, a Greek name; one of the apostles of our Lord.安德魯,男子氣概,希臘的名稱;之一使徒我們的上帝。 He was of Bethsaida in Galilee (John 1:44), and was the brother of Simon Peter (Matt. 4: 18; 10:2).他伯賽大加利利(約翰1時44分) ,是兄弟西門彼得(瑪特泰4 : 18 ; 10時02 ) 。 On one occasion John the Baptist, whose disciple he then was, pointing to Jesus, said, "Behold the Lamb of God" (John 1:40); and Andrew, hearing him, immediately became a follower of Jesus, the first of his disciples.有一次施洗約翰的門徒,他當時指著耶穌,說: “看哪,天主的羔羊” (約翰1:40 ) ;和安德魯,聽他,立刻成為跟隨耶穌,首先他弟子。 After he had been led to recognize Jesus as the Messiah, his first care was to bring also his brother Simon to Jesus.之後他一直領導認識到耶穌是彌賽亞,他的第一個護理也使他的弟弟西蒙耶穌。 The two brothers seem to have after this pursued for a while their usual calling as fishermen, and did not become the stated attendants of the Lord till after John's imprisonment (Matt. 4:18, 19; Mark 1:16, 17).兩兄弟似乎都在這個追求的,而他們通常要求漁民,並沒有成為服務員說的上帝後,到約翰的監禁(瑪特泰4點18分, 19 ; 1時16馬克, 17歲) 。 Very little is related of Andrew.很少涉及的安德魯。 He was one of the confidential disciples (John 6:8; 12:22), and with Peter, James, and John inquired of our Lord privately regarding his future coming (Mark 13:3).他是保密的門徒(約翰6時08分; 12:22 ) ,並與彼得,詹姆斯和約翰詢問我們的主私下對他未來的未來(馬克十三時03分) 。 He was present at the feeding of the five thousand (John 6:9), and he introduced the Greeks who desired to see Jesus (John 12:22); but of his subsequent history little is known.他出席了餵養的5000 (約6時09 ) ,他介紹了希臘人誰想要見耶穌(約12:22 ) ;但他後來的歷史知之甚少。 It is noteworthy that Andrew thrice brings others to Christ, (1) Peter; (2) the lad with the loaves; and (3) certain Greeks.值得注意的是,三次安德魯帶來其他基督, ( 1 )彼得; ( 2 )孩子的麵包;和第( 3 )某些希臘人。 These incidents may be regarded as a key to his character.這些事件可以被視為一個關鍵他的性格。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint Andrew一種先進的和全面的文件是: 聖安德魯


Saint Philip聖菲利普

Saint Philip, one of Jesus' first apostles, brought Nathanael (or Bartholomew) to Jesus (John 1:43-51).聖菲利普之一,耶穌的第一個使徒,使拿(或巴塞洛繆)耶穌(約1:43-51 ) 。 He was present at the feeding of the 5,000 (John 6:5-7) and acted as an intermediary for Gentiles wishing to meet Jesus (John 12:20-22).他出席了餵養的5000 (約6:5-7 ) ,並充當中間人外邦人希望,以滿足耶穌(約12:20-22 ) 。 Feast day: Nov. 14 (Eastern); May 3 (Western).盛宴一天: 11月14日(東部) ; 5月3日(西方) 。


An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint Philip一種先進的和全面的文件是菲利普


Saint Bartholomew聖巴塞洛繆

Saint Bartholomew was one of the Apostles, mentioned only in the lists of the Twelve (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:14; Acts 1:13).聖巴塞洛繆是一個使徒,只提到名單中的12個(瑪特泰10時03分;馬克3時18分;盧克6點14分;行為1:13 ) 。 His name means "son of Tolmai," and he is frequently identified with Nathanael (John 1).他的名字的意思是“兒子Tolmai , ”他常常是確定拿(約1 ) 。 According to tradition, he was martyred in Armenia.根據傳統,他是犧牲在亞美尼亞。 Feast day: Aug. 24 (Western); June 11 (Eastern).盛宴一天: 8月24日(西) ; 6月11日(東部時間) 。

He may have been the same person as Nathanael.他可能已被同一人拿。


Barthol'omew

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Bartholomew was a son of Tolmai, and one of the twelve apostles (Matt. 10:3; Acts 1:13); generally supposed to have been the same as Nathanael.巴塞洛繆是一個兒子Tolmai ,其中的12使徒(瑪特泰10點03 ;行為1:13 ) ;一般假定已經一樣拿。 In the synoptic gospels Philip and Bartholomew are always mentioned together, while Nathanael is never mentioned; in the fourth gospel, on the other hand, Philip and Nathanael are similarly mentioned together, but nothing is said of Bartholomew.在天氣福音菲利普和巴塞洛繆總是提到在一起,而拿是從未提及;在第四福音,另一方面,菲利普和拿同樣提到在一起,但沒有說巴塞洛繆。 He was one of the disciples to whom our Lord appeared at the Sea of Tiberias after his resurrection (John 21:2).他是門徒的人我們的上帝出現在日本海的太巴列後,他的復活(約21點02分) 。 He was also a witness of the Ascension (Acts 1:4, 12, 13).他還證人的阿森松島(使徒1:4 , 12日, 13日) 。 He was an "Israelite indeed" (John 1:47).他是一個“以色列人確實” (約翰1時47分) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint Bartholomew一種先進的和全面的文件是巴塞洛繆

An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Nathanael一種先進的和全面的文件是:


Saint Thomas聖托馬斯

One of the original 12 Apostles of Jesus Christ, Thomas, called Didymus, refused to believe in the testimony of the other Apostles concerning the resurrection of Jesus until he saw the wounds of the resurrected Christ himself (John 20:24, 25, 26-29).其中原來的12個使徒的耶穌基督,托馬斯,所謂Didymus ,拒絕相信在證詞中涉及的其他使徒的復活耶穌直到看見自己的傷口自己復活基督(約翰20:24 ,第25 ,第26 - 29 ) 。 From this comes the expression "doubting Thomas."從這一點來表達“托馬斯懷疑。 ” Thomas earlier had expressed great devotion (John 11:16) and a questioning mind (John 14:5).托馬斯早些時候已表示了極大的獻身精神(約11:16 )和訊問銘記(約翰14時05 ) 。

Eusebius of Caesarea records that Thomas became a missionary to Parthia.優西比烏的愷撒記錄,托馬斯成為一個傳教士安息。 The Acts of Thomas (3d century), however, states that he was martyred in India.的行為托馬斯(三維世紀) ,但指出,他是犧牲在印度。 The Malabar Christians claim that their church was founded by him.基督徒的馬拉巴聲稱,他們的教堂是由他。 This tradition can neither be substantiated nor denied on the basis of current evidence.這種傳統既不能得到證實,也不否認,根據目前的證據。 Saint Thomas' Mount in Madras is the traditional site of his martyrdom.聖托馬斯'山在馬德拉斯是傳統的網站,他殉難。 Feast day: July 3 (Western and Syrian); Oct. 6 (Eastern).盛宴一天: 7月3日(西方和敘利亞) ; 10月6日(東部時間) 。

Douglas Ezell道格拉斯Ezell

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Griffith, Leonard, Gospel Characters (1976); Perumalil, Hormice C., and Hambye, ER, eds., Christianity in India (1973).格里菲斯,倫納德,福音特徵( 1976年) ; Perumalil , Hormice角,並Hambye ,雌,合編。 ,基督教在印度( 1973年) 。


Saint Thomas聖托馬斯

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Thomas, twin, one of the twelve (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18, etc.).托馬斯,雙胞胎,其中一名12 (瑪特泰10時03 ;馬克3點18分,等等) 。 He was also called Didymus (John 11:16; 20:24), which is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew name.他還呼籲Didymus (約11:16 ; 20:24 ) ,這是希臘相當於希伯來文的名字。 All we know regarding him is recorded in the fourth Gospel (John 11:15, 16; 14:4, 5; 20:24, 25, 26-29).我們都知道關於他的記錄是在第四福音(約翰11:15 , 16 ; 14點04分, 5個; 20:24 , 25日, 26日至29日) 。 From the circumstance that in the lists of the apostles he is always mentioned along with Matthew, who was the son of Alphaeus (Mark 3:18), and that these two are always followed by James, who was also the son of Alphaeus, it has been supposed that these three, Matthew, Thomas, and James, were brothers.從這種情況下,在列出的使徒,他始終是提到連同馬修,誰是兒子Alphaeus (馬克3點18分) ,以及這兩個總是其次是詹姆斯,誰也Alphaeus的兒子,這一直以為這三個,馬修,托馬斯,詹姆斯,是兄弟。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


Saint Thomas聖托馬斯

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Did'ymus

(Gr. twin = Heb. Thomas, qv), John 11:16; 20:24; 21:2. ( Gr.雙=河北。托馬斯, qv ) ,約翰11:16 ; 20:24 ; 21時02分。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint Thomas一種先進的和全面的文件是: 聖托馬斯


Saint James (James the Lesser)聖詹姆斯(詹姆斯小)

Saint James the Lesser was the Apostle James, son of Alphaeus and disciple of Jesus (Mark 3:18).聖詹姆斯小使徒是詹姆斯的兒子, Alphaeus和耶穌的門徒(馬克三點18分) 。 His mother, Mary, was one of the women at the crucifixion and at the tomb (Matt. 10:3; 27:56, Mark 15:40; 16:1; Acts 1:13). This James is sometimes identified with James the "brother of Jesus," although this and other identifications are unproven.他的母親,瑪麗,是一個婦女在十字架和墓(瑪特泰十點03 ; 27:56 ,馬克15:40 ; 16:1 ;行為1:13 ) 。詹姆斯這有時是確定詹姆斯的“耶穌的兄弟” ,雖然這和其他身份的證實。 Feast day: Oct. 9 (Eastern); May 3 (Western, since 1969).盛宴一天: 10月9日(東部) ; 5月3日(西,自1969年以來) 。


An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint James (the Less)一種先進的和全面的文件是: 聖詹姆斯(以較低者為準)


Saint Simon聖西蒙

Saint Simon the Less, one of the 12 apostles, appears only in the biblical lists of Jesus' disciples.聖西蒙減之一, 12使徒,只出現在聖經名單耶穌的弟子。 Called the Zealot by Luke and called the Cananaean (Aramaic for "zealot") by Matthew and Mark, he may have originally belonged to the Zealots, an extremist group (possibly called the Sicarri) opposed to Roman rule in Palestine.所謂的狂熱的盧克,並呼籲該Cananaean (阿拉姆的“狂熱” )的馬修和馬克,他可能本來屬於狂熱的極端主義組織(可能稱為Sicarri )反對羅馬統治巴勒斯坦。 Feast day: May 10 (Eastern); Oct.一天盛宴: 5月10日(東部) ; 10月 28 (Western; with Saint Jude). 28 (西方;與聖洛) 。


An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint Simon一種先進的和全面的文件是西蒙


Saint Thaddaeus聖項退

Thaddaeus is mentioned in Mark 3:18 and Matt.項退中提到的馬克3時18分和馬特。 10:3 as one of Jesus Christ's original 12 apostles.作為一個10點03耶穌基督原來的12個使徒。 He is often identified with the Jude, or Judas, son of James, in Luke 6:16. Although this identification helps reconcile the biblical lists of apostles, little is known of this minor figure. Feast day: October 28 (Western); June 19 (Eastern).他常常是確定的裘德,或猶大的兒子詹姆斯,在路加6點16分。雖然這有助於調和鑑定聖經使徒名單,幾乎沒有人知道這個小的數字。盛宴一天: 10月28日(西) ; 6月19日(東部時間) 。


Saint Thaddaeus聖項退

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Thaddeus, breast, the name of one of the apostles (Mark 3:18), called "Lebbaeus" in Matt.撒迪厄斯,乳腺癌的名字之一,使徒(馬克3時18分) ,所謂的“ Lebbaeus ”的馬特。 10:3, and in Luke 6: 16, "Judas the brother of James;" while John (14:22), probably referring to the same person, speaks of "Judas, not Iscariot." 10點03 ,在盧克6 : 16 , “猶大的兄弟詹姆斯; ”而約翰( 14:22 ) ,大概指的是同一個人,說的是“猶大,而不是加略人。 ” These different names all designate the same person, viz., Jude or Judas, the author of the epistle. (Easton Illustrated Dictionary)這些不同的名字都指定同一人,即。 ,裘德或猶大,作者的書信。 (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


Saint Jude聖裘德

Jude, sometimes called Judas, or Jude Thaddaeus, is mentioned in Luke 6:16 and Acts 1:13 as one of the apostles of Jesus.裘德,有時被稱為猶大,或裘德項退,是盧克中提到的6點16分和1時13分行為之一的耶穌的使徒。 He was traditionally believed to have been the author of the Epistle of Jude and is often identified with Thaddaeus, the apostle mentioned in Mark 3:18 and Matt. 10:3.他認為,傳統上一直是作者的洛書和確定往往是與項退,使徒提到的馬克3時18分和馬特。 10點03分。 Among Roman Catholics he is known as the patron saint of desperate cases.其中羅馬天主教徒,他被稱為守護神絕望的案件。 Feast day: June 19 (Eastern), Oct. 28 (Western; with Saint Simon).盛宴一天: 6月19日(東部) , 10月28日(西;與聖西蒙) 。

He may have been the same person as Saint Thaddeus.他可能已被同一人聖撒迪厄斯。


An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint Jude一種先進的和全面的文件是裘德


According to Hippolytus (170 AD- 236 AD)據西波呂(公元170 - 236 AD )的

Where Each OF The Twelve Apostles Preached, And Where He Met His End.凡每十二門徒宣講,並在那裡會見了他的結束。

1. Peter preached the Gospel in Pontus, and Galatia, and Cappadocia, and Betania, and Italy, and Asia, and was afterwards crucified by Nero in Rome with his head downward, as he had himself desired to suffer in that manner. 1 。 彼得宣揚福音的龐和加拉太和卡帕多西亞,並Betania ,意大利和亞洲,後來被釘在十字架上的尼祿在羅馬與他的頭向下,因為他本人希望在遭受這種方式。

2. Andrew preached to the Scythians and Thracians, and was crucified, suspended on an olive tree, at Patrae, a town of Achaia; and there too he was buried. 2 。 安德魯鼓吹的Scythians和色雷斯,並釘在十字架上,暫停了橄欖樹,在Patrae ,一個鎮的亞該亞和他也有被埋葬。

3. John , again, in Asia, was banished by Domitian the king to the isle of Patmos, in which also he wrote his Gospel and saw the apocalyptic vision; and in Trajan s time he fell asleep at Ephesus, where his remains were sought for, but could not be found. 3 。 約翰,再次,在亞洲,被放逐的多米田國王島上的帕特摩斯,其中還他寫他的福音,看到世界末日的遠景;並在圖拉的時候,他睡著了以弗所,在那裡,他的遺骨被要求為,但無法找到。

4. James , his brother, when preaching in Judea, was cut off with the sword by Herod the tetrarch, and was buried there. 4 。 詹姆斯,他的弟弟時,鼓吹在朱迪亞,被切斷與劍的希律tetrarch ,並埋葬在這裡。

5. Philip preached in Phrygia, and was crucified in Hierapolis with his head downward in the time of Domitian, and was buried there. 5 。 菲利普在Phrygia鼓吹,並在希拉波利斯釘在十字架上與他的頭向下的時候多米田,並埋葬在這裡。

6. Bartholomew , again, preached to the Indians, to whom he also gave the Gospel according to Matthew, and was crucified with his head downward, and was buried in Allanum, a town of the great Armenia. 6 。 巴塞洛繆 ,再次鼓吹的印度人,對他也給馬太福音,並與他在十字架頭向下,並被埋在Allanum鎮大亞美尼亞。

7. 7 。 And Matthew wrote the Gospel in the Hebrew tongue, and published it at Jerusalem, and fell asleep at Hierees, a town of Parthia. 馬修寫了福音在希伯來文母語,並公佈它在耶路撒冷,並在睡著Hierees ,一個鎮的安息。

8. 8 。 And Thomas preached to the Parthians, Medes, Persians, Hyrcanians, Bactrians, and Margians, and was thrust through in the four members of his body with a pine spears at Calamene, the city of India, anti was buried there. 托馬斯鼓吹的Parthians ,米底王國,波斯人, Hyrcanians , Bactrians ,並Margians ,並通過主旨的四個成員他的身體與松樹在Calamene矛,市的印度,反被埋葬在這裡。

9. 9 。 And James the son of Alphaeus , when preaching in Jerusalem. 詹姆斯的兒子Alphaeus時,鼓吹在耶路撒冷。 was stoned to death by the Jews, and was buried there beside the temple.被人用石頭打死的猶太人,並被埋在那裡的寺廟旁。

10. Jude , who is also called Lebbaeus , preached. 10 。 裘德 ,誰也稱為Lebbaeus ,鼓吹。 to the people of Edessa, and to all Mesopotamia, and fell asleep at Berytus, and was buried there.人民埃德薩,和所有的美索不達米亞,並睡著了在貝來圖斯,並埋葬在這裡。

11. Simon the Zealot , the son of Clopas, who is also called Jude, became bishop of Jerusalem after James the Just, and fell asleep and was buried there at the age of 120 years. 11 。 西蒙狂熱的兒子, Clopas ,誰也叫洛,成為耶路撒冷主教後,詹姆斯的公正,睡著了,並被埋在那裡的年齡為120歲。

12. 12 。 And Matthias , who was one of the seventy, was numbered along with the eleven apostles, and preached in Jerusalem, and fell asleep and was buried there.薩默爾 ,誰是一個七十,是有一起11使徒,並鼓吹在耶路撒冷,睡著了,並埋葬在這裡。

13. 13 。 And Paul entered into the apostleship a year after the assumption of Christ; and beginning at Jerusalem, he advanced as far as Illyricum, and Italy, and Spain, preaching the Gospel for five-and-thirty years. 保羅進入apostleship一年後擔任基督; ,並開始在耶路撒冷,他先進盡可能伊利裡庫姆,和意大利,西班牙,宣揚福音五年和30年。 And in the time of Nero he was beheaded at Rome, and was buried there.在時間的尼祿被斬首,他在羅馬,並埋葬在這裡。


Apostle使徒

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

Apostle (Greek ἀπόστολοσ, from ἀποστήλλειν, "to send"), a person delegated for a certain purpose; the same as sheliaḦ or sheluaḦ in Hebrew, one invested with representative power.使徒(希臘ἀπόστολοσ ,來自ἀποστήλλειν , “送” ) ,授予一個人的某種目的;一樣sheliaḦ或sheluaḦ希伯來文,一個有代表性的投資力量。 "Apostoloi" was the official name given to the men sent by the rulers of Jerusalem to collect the half-shekel tax for the Temple, the tax itself being called "apostolé." “ Apostoloi ”的正式名稱給男子發出了耶路撒冷的統治者收集半謝克爾對稅務寺,稅收本身被稱為“ apostolé 。 ” See Theod.見Theod 。 Reinach, "Textes Grecs et Romains, etc.," 1895, p.萊納赫, “文本Grecs與羅馬人,等等, ” 1895年,頁 208, and also Grätz, "Gesch. der Juden," iv. 208 ,也格拉茨, “ Gesch 。德國猶太人, ”四。 476, note 21, where Eusebius is quoted as saying: "It is even yet a custom among the Jews to call those who carry about circular letters from their rulers by the name of apostles"; Epiphanius, "Hæreses," i. 476 ,說明21日,在優西比烏是對媒體表示: “它甚至還沒有一個自定義的猶太人呼籲那些對誰進行通函從他們的統治者的名字叫使徒” ;埃皮法尼烏斯, “ Hæreses , ”島 128: "The so-called apostoloi are next in rank to the patriarchs, with whom they sit in the Sanhedrin, deciding questions of the Law with them." 128 : “所謂apostoloi是下一個級別的始祖,同他們坐在公會,決定問題的法律與他們。 ” The emperor Honorius, in his edict of 399, mentions "the archisynagogues, the elders and those whom the Jews call apostoloi, who are sent forth by the patriarch at a certain season of the year to collect silver and gold from the various synagogues" ("Cod. Theodos." xvi. 8, 14, 29. Compare Mommsen, "Corpus Inscr. Lat." ix. 648. See Apostolé).皇帝挪留在他的399法令,提到了“的archisynagogues ,老年人和那些人的猶太人呼籲apostoloi ,誰來回發送的家長在某一個賽季的一年,收集金,銀從各猶太教堂” ( “鱈魚。 Theodos 。 ”十六。 8日, 14日, 29日。比較蒙森, “語料庫Inscr 。叻。 ”九。 648 。見Apostolé ) 。

Grätz, looking for parallels in Talmudical literature, refers to Tosef., Sanh.格拉茨,尋找平行Talmudical文學,是指Tosef 。 , Sanh 。 ii.二。 6; Bab. 6 ;巴布。 11b, wherein it is stated that the regulation of the calendar or the intercalation of the month, the exclusive privilege of the patriarch, was delegated by him only to representative men such as R. Akiba and R. Meïr, to act for him in various Jewish districts. 11B款,其中指出,條例的日曆或插的一個月,獨有特權的家長,授予他不僅代表男性,如河秋葉忠利和R.果,以他的行為在各個猶太區。 (Compare also RH 25a and elsewhere.) Such delegates in ancient times were also appointed by the communal authority, sheluḦe bet din (delegates of the court of justice), to superintend the produce of the seventh year of release, so that no owner of fruit, fig, and olive trees, or of vineyards, should keep more than was needful for his immediate use-for three meals; the rest was to be brought to the city storehouse for common distribution every Friday (Tosef., Sheb. viii.). (對比也相對濕度25A和其他地方。 )此類的代表自古以來還任命了由社區權力, sheluḦe打賭喧囂(代表法院的司法) ,以監督生產的第七個年頭的釋放,這樣就沒有老闆水果,無花果,和橄欖樹,或葡萄園,應保持多是必要的,他立即使用為一日三餐,其餘的是被帶到城市的倉庫,共同分配逢星期五( Tosef. ,帥。八。 ) 。 The name "delegate of the community" ("sheliaḦ ẓibbur"), given to him who offers the prayers on behalf of the congregation (Ber. v. 5), rests on the principle of representation as it is expressed in the Mekilta on Exodus, xii.命名為“代表的社會” ( “ sheliaḦ ẓibbur ” ) ,考慮到他誰提供了祈禱代表聚集( Ber.訴5人) ,在於原則的代表性,因為它主要體現在對出Mekilta ,十二。 6: "The whole assembly of Israel shall slaughter it." How can a whole congregation do the slaughtering? 6 : “整個組裝以色列應宰殺它。 ”怎麼整個教會做屠宰? "Through the delegate who represents it."他說: “透過代表誰代表它。 ” Accordingly, the elders of the Sanhedrin of Jerusalem addressed the high priest "sheluḦenu usheluaḦ bet din" (our delegate and the delegate of the tribunal) (Yoma 18b). (The "angels of the churches," Rev. ii. 1, 12, 18; iii. 1, 7, 14, are probably also the "delegates of the churches," not angels, as is the general opinion.) Other delegates-"sheluḦim"-are mentioned in the Talmud: "Those sent forth to accomplish philanthropic tasks ["sheluḦe miẓwah"] need fear no disaster on the road" (Pes. 8b). "Those delegated to collect charity ["gabbae ẓedakah"] were always appointed in pairs, and not allowed to separate in order to avoid suspicion" (BB 8b).因此,長老公會討論耶路撒冷的大祭司“ sheluḦenu usheluaḦ打賭喧囂” (我們的代表和代表的仲裁庭) (山脈18B條) 。 (以下簡稱“天使的教會”牧師二。 1 , 12 , 18 ;三。 1日, 7日, 14日,很可能也是“代表的教堂” ,而不是天使,這是一般的看法。 )其他代表, “ sheluḦim ”中提到的塔木德: “那些被提出來完成慈善任務[ “ sheluḦe miẓwah ” ]需要害怕任何災難的道路上“ ( Pes. 8B條) 。 ”下放給這些收集慈善[ “ gabbae ẓedakah ” ]總是對任命的,並不得單獨以避免懷疑“ (體8B條) 。 As a rule two prominent men are spoken of as being engaged together in such benevolences as ransoming captives, and similar acts of charity (Abot R. Nathan [A], viii.; Lev. R. v. Compare the "Ḥaburot" of Jerusalem, Tosef., Megillah, iv. 15).作為一項規則兩個突出的男子談到作為從事這種共同benevolences作為ransoming俘虜,和類似行為的慈善機構( Abot河彌敦道[ A ]條,第八條。 ;列夫。 R.訴比較“ Ḥaburot ”耶路撒冷, Tosef 。 , Megillah ,四。 15 ) 。 Ḥama bar Adda was called "sheliaḦ Zion" (delegate of Zion), as being regularly sent by the authorities of Babylonia to Palestine charged with official matters (Beẓah 25b; Rashi and 'Aruk).哈馬酒吧住宅區被稱為“ sheliaḦ錫安” (錫安代表) ,作為定期向當局東風巴勒斯坦官員被控事項( Beẓah 25B條; Rashi和' Aruk ) 。

The apostles, known as such from the New Testament, are declared to have derived name and authority from Jesus, who sent them forth as his witnesses (see Luke, vi. 13; Herzog and Hastings, sv "Apostles").使徒,這種被稱為從新約全書,現宣布獲得了名稱和權力從耶穌,誰把他們送到了他的證人(見盧克,六。 13 ;赫爾佐格和黑斯廷斯,希沃特“門徒” ) 。 But they were also originally delegated by the holy spirit and by the laying on of hands (Acts xiii. 3) to do charity work for the community (see II Cor. viii. 23).但是,他們也由最初授予的神聖的精神和所奠定的手(使徒十三。 3 )做慈善工作的社會(見二肺心病。八。 23 ) 。 "At the feet of the apostles" were laid the contributions of the early Christians to their common treasury, exactly as was done in the year of release in every city (Tos. Shebiit, viii. 1) and in every Essene community (Josephus, "BJ" ii. 8, § 3). “在腳下使徒”被解僱的貢獻早期基督教徒的共同國庫,正是這樣做的一年釋放的每一個城市( Tos. Shebiit ,八。 1 )和厄色尼在每個社區(約瑟夫, “北京”二。 8日,第3條) 。 "Two and two" the apostles were enjoined to travel (Mark vi. 7; Luke x. 2), exactly as was the rule among the charity-workers (BB 8b), and exactly as the Essene delegates are described as traveling, carrying neither money nor change of shoes with them (Josephus, "BJ" ii. 3, § 4; comp. Matt. x. 9, 10; Luke ix. 3, x. 4, xxii. 35; bemaḳḳel we-tarmil, Yeb. 122a). “兩個和兩個”使徒被責成旅行(馬克六。 7 ;盧克十2 ) ,是完全一樣的規則之間的慈善工作者(白殭菌8B條) ,並完全按照代表的厄色尼被描述為旅行,載沒有錢,也沒有改變的鞋與他們(約瑟夫, “北京”二。 3 ,第4 ;補償。馬特。十,九,十;盧克九。 3 ,十4 , 22 。 35 ; bemaḳḳel我們, tarmil , Yeb 。 122a ) 。 Thus Paul always traveled in the company of either Barnabas or Silas (Acts xi. 30; xii. 25; xv. 25, 30), and was entrusted with the charitable gifts collected for the brethren in Jerusalem (see also I Cor. xvi. 1; II Cor. viii. 4, ix. 5; Rom. xv. 25; Gal. ii. 10); while Barnabas traveled also with Mark (Acts xv. 39, 40).因此,保羅總是前往該公司的任何巴拿巴或西拉斯(法喜。 30 ;十二。 25 ;十五。 25日, 30日) ,並受委託的慈善禮物收集的兄弟在耶路撒冷(見我也心病。十六。 1 ;二肺心病。八。 4 ,九。 5 ;光盤。十五。 25 ;半乳糖。二。 10 ) ; ,同時也前往巴拿巴與馬克(使徒十五。 39 , 40 ) 。 Paul even mentions as "noted apostles who joined the Church of Christ before him his kinsmen and fellow-prisoners, Andronicus and Junia" (Rom. xvi. 7), persons otherwise unknown to us, but who in all likelihood had received no other mission or Apostleship than that of working in the field of philanthropy among the Jewish community of Rome.保羅甚至提到作為“指出使徒誰加入了基督教會之前,他的麵團和同胞囚犯,尼克斯和Junia ” (羅馬書十六。 7人) ,另有不明的人向我們,但誰在所有的可能性還沒有收到任何其他任務或Apostleship比在外地工作的慈善機構之間的猶太社區的羅馬。

The meaning of the term "Apostle," still used in its old sense (Phil. ii. 25) of "Epaphroditus, your apostle [delegate] who ministers to my wants," was, however, already changed in the Christian Church during Paul's time.一詞的含義“使徒” ,仍使用舊意識( Phil.二。 25日)的“ Epaphroditus ,您的倡導者[代表]誰部長我想, ”不過,已經改變了的基督教教會在保羅的時間。 It became the specific term for the one sent forth "to preach the kingdom of God" either to the Jews, or, as Paul and his disciples, to the heathen world (Mark iii. 14, vi. 7; Luke vi. 13; Rom. xi. 13).它成為具體的任期為一發出了“宣揚上帝的王國”無論是猶太人,或保羅和他的弟子,對異教徒的世界(馬克三。 14日,六。 7 ;盧克六。 13 ;光碟。喜。 13 ) 。 "The gospel of the circumcision gave Peter the chief-apostleship of the Jews, the gospel of the uncircumcision gave Paul the apostleship of the Gentiles," according to Gal. “的福音割禮給彼得的首席, apostleship的猶太人的福音uncircumcision了保羅apostleship的外邦人, ”根據加爾。 ii.二。 7, 8; and so Paul calls himself an Apostle not of men but of Jesus Christ (Gal. i. 1). 7日, 8日;和保羅自稱為使徒沒有一個男人,但耶穌基督( Gal.島1 ) 。 So the term "apostles of Christ" became a standing designation (I Thess. ii. 6), and it was confined to those who "saw Christ" (I Cor. ix. 1). Finally, the number twelve, corresponding with the twelve tribes of Israel, was fixed in the Gospel records (Matt. x. 2; Mark iii. 14; Luke ix. 1; Acts i. 25) in opposition to the apostles of the heathen, who rose in number from one, in the case of Paul, to seventy (Luke x. 1).因此,長期“基督使徒”成為一個常設指定(我洛尼基。二。 6 ) ,並僅限於那些誰“看到基督” (我肺心病。九。 1 ) 。最後, 12個號碼,相應的十二個部族,以色列是固定的福音記錄(瑪特泰十2 ;馬克三。 14 ;盧克九。 1 ;行為島25 )反對使徒的異教徒,誰上升,從一數,在如保羅,至第七十二(路十1 ) 。 Even the act of preaching the good tidings concerning the coming Messiah on the part of the wandering delegates of the community (Luke iv. 18; because of which Jesus himself is once called the Apostle [Heb. iii. 1]) was not without precedent in Jewish life, as may be learned from the prayer for good tidings recited every newmoon ("Seder Rab Amram," 33, Warsaw, 1865; compare RH 25a and Targ. Yer. to Gen. xlix. 21).即使行為的宣揚好消息的關於未來的彌賽亞的部分代表遊蕩的社區(路四。 18 ;因為耶穌本人是一度被稱為使徒[河北。三。 1 ] )並非沒有先例在猶太人的生活,可學到的祈禱好消息背誦每newmoon ( “ Seder饒阿姆拉姆” , 33歲,華沙, 1865年;比較相對濕度25A和Targ 。層。 xlix到將軍。 21 ) 。

Kaufmann Kohler考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。


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