Apollinarianism亞波里拿留派

General Information 一般信息

Apollinarianism was a 4th-century explanation of the nature of Jesus Christ that was rejected by the Christian church.亞波里拿留派是第四世紀的解釋的性質,耶穌基督是拒絕的基督教教堂。 Its author, Apollinaris of Laodicea (310-90), trying to arrive at a formula that would explain how Jesus could be both human and divine, taught that human beings were composed of body, soul, and spirit, and that in Jesus the human spirit was replaced by the Logos, or the second person of the Trinity.它的作者, Apollinaris的老底嘉( 310-90 ) ,試圖達成一個公式,將解釋如何耶穌可能是人類和神聖,教,人組成的機構,靈魂和精神,並在耶穌的人精神所取代,標識,或第二人的三位一體。 This teaching was opposed by Athanasius, Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Gregory of Nyssa because they thought it implied that Christ was not fully human. Apollinarianism was declared a heresy by the First Council of Constantinople in 381.這種教學反對他那修,巴茲爾大,格雷戈里的高利,和格雷戈里的果樹,因為他們認為這意味著基督沒有得到充分人權。亞波里拿留派被宣布為邪教的第一屆理事會君士坦丁堡在381 。

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Apollinarianism亞波里拿留派

General Information 一般信息

Apollinarianism was a heretical doctrine taught by Apollinaris the Younger, bishop of Laodicea in Syria during the 4th century. A controversial theologian, he maintained that the Logos, or divine nature in Christ, took the place of the rational human soul or mind of Christ and that the body of Christ was a spiritualized and glorified form of humanity.亞波里拿留派是一個邪教教義教Apollinaris年輕,老底嘉主教在敘利亞在4世紀。一項有爭議的神學家他堅持認為, 標識,或神性的基督,取代了理性人的靈魂 ,或到基督和該機構的基督是一個spiritualized和美化形式的人類。 This doctrine was condemned as a heresy by Roman councils in 377 and in 381 and also by the Council of Constantinople in 381.這一理論被譴責為異端邪說的羅馬議會377和381 ,也由理事會君士坦丁堡在381 。 In spite of its repeated condemnation, Apollinarianism persisted into the 5th century.儘管它一再譴責,亞波里拿留派堅持到公元5世紀。 At that time its remaining adherents merged with the Monophysites, who held that Christ had a divine nature but no human nature.當時,其剩餘的信徒合併, Monophysites ,誰是基督舉行了神聖的性質,但沒有人類的本性。


Apollinarianism亞波里拿留派

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Apollinarianism was a heresy of the fourth century bearing the name of its originator, Apollinaris (or Apollinarius) the Younger.亞波里拿留派是異端的第四世紀軸承的名稱其發端, Apollinaris (或Apollinarius )年輕。 Apollinaris was born sometime between 300 and 315 and died shortly before 392. Apollinaris的某個時候出生300至315和前不久去世392 。 He apparently lived out his entire lifetime in Laodicea, which is southwest of Antioch.他顯然住了他的整個一生中老底嘉,這是西南安提阿。 He was a man of such unusual ability and gracious saintliness that even his staunchest opponents paid tribute to his sterling character.他是一位不尋常的能力和親切的聖潔說,即使是最堅定的反對者他讚揚英鎊的性質。 As a young man he became a reader in the church of Laodicea under Bishop Theodotus and ca.作為一個年輕的男子,他成為讀者在教堂下的老底嘉主教Theodotus和CA 。 332 was briefly excommunicated for attending a pagan function. 332短暫逐出教會出席異教徒的功能。 In 346 he was excommunicated a second time by the Arian Bishop George.在346名被逐出教會,他第二次由阿里安主教喬治。 However, the Nicene congregation of Laodicea selected him bishop sometime around 361.然而,尼西亞聚集老底嘉主教選定他左右361 。

Evidence would suggest that Apollinaris put more time into teaching and writing in nearby Antioch than in ecclesiastical administration.證據表明, Apollinaris把更多的時間納入教學和寫作在附近的安比教會管理。 As a revered teacher he was the friend of Athanasius, consultant by correspondence to Basil the Great, and numbered among his pupils Jerome in 373 or 374.作為一個尊敬的老師,他的朋友亞他那修,諮詢的信件,以巴茲爾大,而且編號是他的學生杰羅姆在373或374 。

Apollinarianism seemed to have emerged gradually as an independent strand of Christianity as its opponents succeeded in getting it condemned.亞波里拿留派似乎出現了逐步作為一個獨立的股基督教作為其對手成功地譴責。 A synod at Alexandria in 362 condemned the teaching but not the teacher.阿主教在362亞歷山大譴責教學而不是教師。 Basil the Great moved Pope Damasus I to censure it ca. 376, and in 377 Apollinaris and Apollinarianism both were condemned by a Roman synod.巴茲爾大教宗達瑪斯一世譴責它鈣。 376 ,並在377 Apollinaris和亞波里拿留派均譴責羅馬主教。 The general Council of Constantinople in 381 anathematized Apollinaris and his doctrine.總理事會君士坦丁堡在381 anathematized Apollinaris和他的學說。 Emperor Theodosius I then issued a series of decrees against Apollinarianism in 383, 384, and 388.皇帝狄奧然後我就頒布了一系列法令,對亞波里拿留派在383 , 384和388 。 But the elderly heretic apparently continued serenely writing and teaching in Antioch and laodicea, pursuing his scholar's passion for truth with a saint's serene confidence in his own rightness.但老人顯然邪教繼續安詳寫作和教學的安提阿和老底嘉,追求他的學者的熱情,為真理與聖的寧靜的信心在自己的正確性。

Apollinarianism had become a definite schism by 373, for when the Emperor Valens deported certain Egyptian bishops to Diocaesarea, Apollinaris approached them with greetings and an invitation to enter into communion.亞波里拿留派已經成為一個明確的分裂373 ,因為當皇帝瓦倫斯埃及驅逐出境的某些主教Diocaesarea , Apollinaris走近他們的問候和邀請進入共融。 They in turn rejected his overtures.他們又拒絕了他的序曲。 By 375 Vitalis, a disciple of Apollinaris, had founded a congregation in Antioch.由375 Vitalis ,一個弟子Apollinaris ,成立了聚集在安提阿。 Vitalis was consecrated bishop by Apolinaris, who also engineered his friend Timothy's election to the bishopric of Berytus. Vitalis主教是神聖的Apolinaris ,誰也策劃他的朋友霍震霆當選為主教的貝來圖斯。 Apollinarians held at least one synod in 378, and there is evidence that there may have been a second Apollinarian synod subsequently. Apollinarians舉行至少有一個主教在378 ,而且有證據表明,可能有第二次主教隨後Apollinarian 。 After Apollinaris's death his followers split into two parties, the Vitalians and the Polemeans or Sinusiati.經過Apollinaris的死亡他的追隨者分裂成兩個政黨, Vitalians和Polemeans或Sinusiati 。 By 420 the Vitalians had been reunited with the Greek Church.由420的Vitalians團聚已與希臘教會。 Somewhat later the Sinusiati merged into the monophysite schism.有些後來的Sinusiati併入monophysite分裂。

Apollinarianism was the harbinger of the great Christological battles which pitted Antioch against Alexandria, with Rome as referee, and finally issued in Christendom's permanent monophysite schism after the Council of Chalcedon in 451.亞波里拿留派是預示著偉大的基督而戰進站安提阿對亞歷山大與羅馬的裁判,最後發出的基督教的永久分裂後monophysite理事會卡爾西在451 。

Diodore of Tarsus, leader of the Antiochene school from ca. Diodore的塔爾蘇斯領導人Antiochene學校鈣。 378 to his death ca. 378他的死亡鈣。 392, typified the Christology of that literalist school of Bible interpretation. 392 ,典型的基督的拘泥字義學校的聖經解釋。 To defend the immutability and eternity of the Logos he spoke of Christ as Son of God and Son of Mary by nature and grace respectively.保衛不變性和永恆的標誌,他以基督作為上帝之子和瑪麗之子的性質和寬限期分別。 Their union was a moral one.工會是一個道德之一。 If this was not Christological dualism, it was perilously close.如果這不是基督二元論,這是危險地接近。

In contrast the Alexandrian school approached Christology in a word-flesh manner.與此相反的亞歷山大接近基督學校的一個詞,肉的方式進行。 The Word or Logos assumed human flesh at the incarnation, and Alexandrians were apt to deny or ignore Christ's possession of a human soul or mind.在Word或標識假定人肉的化身,並Alexandrians容易被否認或忽視基督的擁有人的靈魂或銘記。

It was undoubtedly as a representative of Alexandrian thinking countering the trend in Antioch that Apollinaris began to teach and write Christology and to move toward his own extreme.毫無疑問,作為一個代表亞歷山大思維對抗的趨勢安提阿的Apollinaris開始教寫基督和走向自己的極端。

The central deviation of Apollinarianism from the later Chalcedonian orthodoxy began in a Platonic trichtomy.中央偏差亞波里拿留派的正統以後迦克開始在柏拉圖trichtomy 。 Man was seen to be body, sensitive soul, and rational soul.男子被認為是身體,敏感的靈魂,理性的靈魂。 Apollinaris felt that if one failed to diminish the human nature of Jesus in some way, a dualism had to result. Apollinaris認為,如果一個沒有削弱人類的本性耶穌在某種程度上,一個二元不得不的結果。 Furthermore, if one taught that Christ was a complete man, then Jesus had a human rational soul in which free will resided; and wherever there was free will, there was sin.此外,如果一個教授認為基督是一個完整的人,然後耶穌了人類理性的靈魂在其中居住的自由意志;哪裡有自由意志,有罪孽。 Therefore it followed that the Logos assumed only a body and its closely connected sensitive soul. The Logos or Word himself took the place of the rational soul (or spirit or nous) in the manhood of Jesus.因此,它遵循的理性假定只有一個機構及其密切相關的敏感的靈魂。標識或Word自己取代了理性的靈魂(或精神或靜脈)在耶穌的男子氣概。 Thus one can speak of "the one sole nature incarnate of the Word of God."因此,可以說“一個唯一的性質體現了天主的聖言。 ” This doctrine was developed by Apollinaris in his Demonstration of the Divine Incarnation, which was written in 376 in response to the initial papal condemnation.這一理論是由Apollinaris在他的示範神聖化身,這是在376書面答复的初步教皇譴責。

Apollinaris was a prolific writer, but following his anathematization in 381 his works were assiduously sought out and burned. Apollinaris是一位多產作家,但他anathematization在381他的作品有刻苦努力和燒毀。 Thus Apollinarianism leaves little literature except as cited in the works of its critics.因此亞波里拿留派葉片很少,除非文學中所列舉的作品批評。 The general principle on which Apollinarianism was condemned was the Eastern perception that "that which is not assumed is not healed."總的原則上亞波里拿留派譴責是東歐的看法說, “這不是假設是沒有癒合。 ” If the Logos did not assume the rational soul of the man Jesus, then the death of Christ could not heal or redeem the rational souls of men.如果標識不承擔合理的靈魂,是耶穌的男子,然後死亡的基督不能治愈或贖回理性靈魂的男人。 And as the church wrestled with this perception it rejected Apollinarianism and moved toward the Chalcedonian Definition, which rebuked and corrected both Antioch and Alexandria in their extremes: "This selfsame one is perfect both in deity and also in humanness; this selfsame one is also actually God and actually man, with a rational soul and a body."和教堂按倒與這種看法拒絕亞波里拿留派和走向的迦克的定義,責罵和糾正兩種安提阿和亞歷山大在其極端: “這同一人是完美的在神和在人性;這同一之一也是實際上帝和實際的人,有一個合理的靈魂和身體。 “

VL Walter沃爾特的VL
Elwell Evangelical Dictionary規矩福音詞典

Bibliography 目錄
CE Raven, Apollinarianism; GL Prestige, Fathers and Heretics; B. Altaner, Patrology; PA Norris, Manhood and Christ; JND Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines.行政長官烏鴉,亞波里拿留派;吉爾威望,父親和異端;灣Altaner , Patrology ;擴聲諾里斯,青壯年和基督; JND凱利,早期基督教教義。


Apollinarianism亞波里拿留派

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

A Christological theory, according to which Christ had a human body and a human sensitive soul, but no human rational mind, the Divine 1Logos taking the place of this last.阿基督理論,根據該基督了人類的身體和敏感的一個人的靈魂,但沒有人類理性的神聖1Logos取代過去。

The author of this theory, Apollinaris (Apolinarios) the Younger, Bishop of Laodicea, flourished in the latter half of the fourth century and was at first highly esteemed by men like St. Athanasius, St. Basil, and St. Jerome for his classical culture, his Biblical learning, his defence of Christianity and his loyalty to the Nicene faith.作者的這種理論, Apollinaris ( Apolinarios )年輕,老底嘉主教,蓬勃發展下半年四世紀,並在第一高度評價男人一樣聖亞他那修,聖巴茲爾和聖杰羅姆的經典文化,他的聖經學習,他的辯護基督教和他的忠誠度尼西亞的信念。 He assisted his father, Apollinaris the Elder, in reconstructing the scriptures on classical models in order to compensate the Christians for the loss of Greek literature of which the edict of Julian had deprived them.他協助他的父親,老Apollinaris ,重建古典經文模型,以補償基督徒的損失希臘文學的法令朱利安剝奪了他們。 St. Jerome credits him with innumerable volumes on the Scriptures; two apologies of Christianity, one against Porphyry, and the other against Julian; a refutation of Eunomius, a radical Arian, etc.; but all these works are lost.聖杰羅姆信用他無數卷聖經;兩個道歉基督教, 1票反對斑岩型,和其他對朱利安;駁Eunomius ,從根本上阿里安等; ,但所有這些作品都將丟失。 With regard to Apollinaris's writings which bear on the present theory, we are more fortunate.關於Apollinaris作品承擔對本理論,我們更幸運。 A contemporary anonymous book: Adversus fraudes Apollinaristarum, informs us that the Apollinarists, in order to win credence for their error, circulated a number of tracts under the approved names of such men as Gregory Thaumaturgus (He kata meros pistis, Exposition of Faith), Athanasius (Peri sarkoseos, On the Incarnation), Pope Julius (Peri tes en Christo enotetos, On Unity in Christ), etc. Following that clue, Lequien (1740), Caspari (1879) and Dräseke (1892), have shown that in all probability these are Apollinaris's writings.當代匿名書: Adversus舞弊Apollinaristarum ,告訴我們, Apollinarists ,為了贏得信任的錯誤,散發了一些傳單根據核准的名稱,例如男子格雷戈里Thaumaturgus (他字美羅斯pistis ,博覽會的信仰) ,亞他那修(圍sarkoseos ,論道成肉身) ,教皇朱利葉斯(圍試驗恩克里斯托enotetos ,在統一基督)等,在此之後的線索, Lequien ( 1740 ) ,卡斯帕里( 1879年)和Dräseke ( 1892年) ,已經表明,在所有這些都是概率Apollinaris的著作。 Moreover, the Fathers of the Church who wrote in defence of orthodoxy, eg, Athanasius, in two books against Apollinaris; Gregory Nazianzen, in several letters; Gregory of Nyssa in his Antirretikos; Theodoret, in his Haereticae Fabulae and Dialogues, etc., incidentally give us ample information on the real system of the Laodicean.此外,父親教會誰寫在捍衛正統,如亞他那修,在兩本書對Apollinaris ;格雷戈里Nazianzen ,在幾封信;格雷戈里的果樹在他的Antirretikos ; Theodoret ,他Haereticae Fabulae和對話等,順便給我們大量資料,對實際系統的Laodicean 。

The precise time at which Apollinaris came forward with his heresy is uncertain. There are clearly two periods in the Apollinarist controversy.確切的時間, Apollinaris走上前來與他的異端邪說是不確定的。顯然有兩個時期的Apollinarist爭議。 Up to 376, either because of his covert attitude or of the respect in which he was held, Apollinaris's name was never mentioned by his opponents, ie by individuals like Athanasius and Pope Damasus, or by councils like the Alexandrian (362), and the Roman (376).高達376 ,這是因為他的態度或隱蔽的尊重他在信中舉行, Apollinaris的名字從來沒有提到他的對手,即由個人像他那修和教皇達瑪斯,或由理事會像亞歷山大( 362 ) ,以及羅馬( 376 ) 。 From this latter date it is open war.從這個日期後者是公開的戰爭。 Two more Roman councils, 377 and 381, and a number of Fathers, plainly denounce and condemn as heretical the views of Apollinaris.另外兩個羅馬議會, 377和381 ,一些父輩,顯然譴責為異端邪說的意見Apollinaris 。 He failed to submit even to the more solemn condemnation of the council of Constantinople, 381, whose first canon entered Apollinarianism on the list of heresies, and he died in his error, about 392. His following, at one time considerable in Constantinople, Syria, and Phoenicia, hardly survived him.他沒有提交甚至更多的嚴正譴責安理會君士坦丁堡, 381 ,其第一次進入亞波里拿留派教會名單上的歪理邪說,他死在他的錯誤,約392名。他以下,在同一時間相當君士坦丁堡,敘利亞和腓尼基,他幾乎沒有倖存下來。 Some few disciples, like Vitalis, Valentinus, Polemon, and Timothy, tried to perpetuate the error of the master and probably are responsible for the forgeries noticed above.一些少數的弟子一樣, Vitalis ,瓦倫廷, Polemon ,以及霍震霆,試圖永久誤差的主人可能是負責上述偽造的發現。 The sect itself soon became extinct.該節本身很快就消失了。 Towards 416, many returned to the mother-Church, while the rest drifted away into Monophysitism.對416 ,許多回到母親教會,其餘的漂流逃進基督一性。

THEORY理論

Apollinaris based his theory on two principles or suppositions, one ontological or objective, and one psychological or subjective. Apollinaris根據他的理論的兩個原則或假設,一個本體論的或客觀的,一個心理或主觀的。 Ontologically, it appeared to him that the union of complete God with complete man could not be more than a juxtaposition or collocation. Ontologically ,它似乎他說,工會完成上帝完整的人不能超過並列或搭配。 Two perfect beings with all their attributes, he argued, cannot be one.兩個完美的人同其所有屬性,他認為,不能是。 They are at most an incongruous compound, not unlike the monsters of mythology.他們正處於一個不協調的大多數化合物,而不是不同的怪物的神話。 Inasmuch as the Nicene faith forbade him to belittle the Logos, as Arius had done, he forthwith proceeded to maim the humanity of Christ, and divest it of its noblest attribute, and this, he claimed, for the sake of true Unity and veritable Incarnation.由於尼西亞信仰禁止貶低他的標誌,因為阿里烏斯做了,他立即著手殘害人類的基督,並剝奪了其高貴的屬性,為此,他聲稱,為了真正的統一和名副其實的化身。 Psychologically, Apollinaris, considering the rational soul or spirit as essentially liable to sin and capable, at its best, of only precarious efforts, saw no way of saving Christ's impeccability and the infinite value of Redemption, except by the elimination of the human spirit from Jesus' humanity, and the substitution of the Divine Logos in its stead.在心理上, Apollinaris ,考慮到合理的靈魂或精神的本質,即屬犯罪,有能力,在其最好的,只有岌岌可危的努力,看不出有什麼方式節水基督的無罪和無限的價值贖回,除非消除人類的精神從耶穌的人性,並取代了神聖的標誌取而代之。 For the constructive part of his theory, Apollinaris appealed to the well-known Platonic division of human nature: body (sarx, soma), soul (psyche halogos), spirit (nous, pneuma, psyche logike).以建設性的一部分,他的理論, Apollinaris呼籲眾所周知的柏拉圖分工人類的本性:機構( sarx ,體) ,靈魂(精神halogos ) ,精神(靜脈,靈魂,心靈logike ) 。 Christ, he said, assumed the human body and the human soul or principle of animal life, but not the human spirit.基督,他說,假定人體和人的靈魂或原則的動物生命,但並非人權的精神。 The Logos Himself is, or takes the place of, the human spirit, thus becoming the rational and spiritual centre, the seat of self-consciousness and self-determination.標識本人,或取代,人的精神,從而成為理性和精神的中心,席位的自我意識和自決。 By this simple device the Laodicean thought that Christ was safe, His substantial unity secure, His moral immutability guaranteed, and the infinite value of Redemption made self-evident.通過這個簡單的裝置Laodicean認為基督是安全的,他的大量的統一安全,他的道德不可改變保障,無限的價值贖回了言自明的。 And in confirmation of it all, he quoted from St. John i, 14 "and the Word was made flesh"; St. Paul, Phil., ii, 7, Being made in the likeness of men and in habit found as a man, and I Cor., xv, 47 The second man, from heaven, heavenly.在確認這一切,他引述聖約翰一, 14 “和Word是肉” ;聖保祿,菲爾。 ,二,七,所取得的相似的男子和習慣發現一名男子,我肺心病。 ,十五, 47歲的第二個男子,從天上,天上。

DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH理論的教堂

It is to be found in the seventh anathema of Pope Damasus in the Council of Rome, 381.它是要找到在第七詛咒教皇達瑪斯在安理會的羅馬, 381 。 "We pronounce anathema against them who say that the Word of God is in the human flesh in lieu and place of the human rational and intellective soul. For, the Word of God is the Son Himself. Neither did He come in the flesh to replace, but rather to assume and preserve from sin and save the rational and intellective soul of man." “我們宣布對他們的詛咒誰說,天主的聖言是在人肉代替和地點的人類理性和理智的靈魂。因為,天主的聖言是自己的兒子。也沒有他來的血肉,以取代,而是要承擔和維護從罪惡和拯救理性和智力的靈魂人物。 “ In answer to Apollinaris's basic principles, the Fathers simply denied the second as Manichaean.在回答Apollinaris的基本原則,根本否認父親的第二次作為摩尼教。 As to the first, it should be remembered that the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon had not yet formulated the doctrine of Hypostatical Union.至於第一,應該記住,在安理會的以弗所和卡爾西尚未制定了理論Hypostatical聯盟。 It will then appear why the Fathers contented themselves with offering arguments in rebuttal, eg:它就會出現,為什麼父親心滿意足自己提供的論據反駁,例如:

Scripture holds that the Logos assumed all that is human -- therefore the pneuma also -- sin alone excepted; that Jesus experienced joy and sadness, both being properties of the rational soul.聖經認為,標識承擔一切人類-因此,元氣也-罪惡僅除外;,耶穌經歷了歡樂和悲傷,無論是性能的合理的靈魂。

Christ without a rational soul is not a man; such an incongruous compound, as that imagined by Apollinaris, can neither be called God-man nor stand as the model of Christian life.基督沒有一個合理的靈魂不是一個人;這樣一個不協調的化合物,因為這想像Apollinaris ,既不能被稱為神人,也不作為模型的基督徒的生活。

What Christ has not assumed He has not healed; thus the noblest portion of man is excluded from Redemption.什麼基督沒有承擔他還沒有痊癒,因此最崇高的一部分人是被排除贖回。

They also pointed out the correct meaning of the Scriptural passages alleged by Apollinaris, remarking that the word sarx in St. John, as in other parts of Holy Writ, was used by synecdoche for the whole human nature, and that the true meaning of St. Paul (Philippians and I Corinthians) was determined by the clear teaching of the Pastoral Epistles.他們還指出了正確的含義,聖經所稱的通道Apollinaris ,議論這個詞sarx在聖約翰,如在其他地方的聖經,是用來提喻整個人類的本性,而真正意義的聖。保羅(腓利和我科林蒂安)確定了明確的教學的田園書信。 Some of them, however, incautiously insisted upon the limitations of Jesus' knowledge as proof positive that His mind was truly human.其中有些人,然而,魯莽地堅持的局限性耶穌的知識作為證明,他的心裡真正的人權。 But when the heresiarch would have taken them farther afield into the very mystery of the Unity of Christ, they feared not to acknowledge their ignorance and gently derided Apollinaris's mathematical spirit and implicit reliance upon mere speculation and human reasoning.但是,當heresiarch將進一步採取這些遙遠的非常神秘的統一基督,他們擔心不承認他們的無知和輕輕地嘲笑Apollinaris的數學精神和隱僅僅依靠投機和人類的推理。 The Apollinarist controversy, which nowadays appears somewhat childish, had its importance in the history of Christian dogma; it transferred the discussion from the Trinity into the Christological field; moreover, it opened that long line of Christological debates which resulted in the Chalcedonian symbol.該Apollinarist爭議,現在看來有點幼稚,有其重要的歷史,基督教的教條,而是轉入討論從三一進入基督領域;此外,它打開長長的基督的辯論導致迦克的象徵。

Publication information Written by JF Sollier.出版信息撰稿櫻Sollier 。 Transcribed by Michael C. Tinkler. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.轉錄由邁克爾C Tinkler 。天主教百科全書,體積一發布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat , 1907年三月一日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


See also:另見:
Council of Chalcedon理事會卡爾西


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