Anticlericalism

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The term "anticlerical" probably first appeared in the early 1850s in Catholic France.所謂“反聖職者的”可能最早出現在19世紀50年代初在法國天主教。 It indicated opposition to Ultramontane revival with its reassertion of the sacral power of priests and of the primacy of the pope in the church.它表示反對Ultramontane恢復其重申骶神職人員的權力和至高無上的,教皇在教堂裡。 A staggering battle in Italy and Europe over the temporal power of the pope focused anticlerical attitudes in the 1850s and 1860s, especially in Italy, Belgium, Spain, and France.驚人的戰鬥在意大利和歐洲的時間權力的教皇的重點反聖職者的態度在19世紀50年代和19世紀60年代,特別是在意大利,比利時,西班牙和法國。 Thereafter, to this day, anticlericalism as attitude and as movement has been a considerable political factor in every Roman Catholic area, notably in Europe, Latin America, and Quebec.此後,這一天,因為anticlericalism的態度和行動一直是相當大的政治因素在每一個羅馬天主教的地區,尤其是在歐洲,拉丁美洲,和魁北克省。 Anticlericalism has condemned priestly participation in national governments, municipalities, elections, education, and land and capital ownership. Anticlericalism譴責牧師參與國家政府,市政府,選舉,教育,土地和資本的所有權。

Opposition to clerical authority, as well as fear and ridicule of priests, are age old within Catholic Christendom.反對文書的權力,以及恐懼和嘲笑的牧師,是古老的天主教基督教內。 In Catholic tradition, both before and after the creation of Protestant churches, clergy have claimed to be the sole authority in church government and doctrine as well as the only exerciser of sacramental power.在天主教的傳統,之前和之後都建立新教教堂,神職人員都聲稱自己是唯一的權威政府和教會的理論,以及作為唯一的鍛煉的聖禮權力。 They have put themselves forward as the leaders in faith and morals, and often as the guides of the laity in politics, economics, and intellectual and social life.他們把自己未來的領導人在信仰和道德,而且往往是作為導遊的俗人在政治,經濟,智力和社會生活。 In response there is a long tradition of popular satire in songs and tales against any clerical failings, irregular sexual behavior, religious hypocrisy, social pomp, intellectual stupidity, and arrogance.在回答有著悠久的傳統流行的諷刺的歌曲和故事,對任何文書的失敗,非正常性行為,宗教的虛偽,社會排場,智力愚昧,和傲慢。 Moreover, excessive use of clerical power or usurpation of political and economic power has again and again evoked vigorous resistance.此外,過度使用的文書或篡奪權力的政治和經濟實力一次又一次地誘發有力的抵抗。 Anticlericalism has assumed that priests are constitutionally unable to keep their own standards, and are by nature inclined to dominate the whole of life. Anticlericalism假設牧師憲法無法跟上自己的標準,而且其性質傾向於主宰整個生活。

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The anticlerical factor in the Protestant movement of the 1500s contributed to the break with Rome and has continued to be a crucial element in anti - Catholicism to this day.在反聖職者的因素在新教運動的十六有助於打破羅馬,仍然是一個關鍵因素反-天主教這一天。 In the 1700s the French philosophes were merciless against priests, and one Catholic state after another expelled the Jesuits.在18世紀的法國哲學家被無情的打擊神職人員,和一個天主教國家又驅逐了耶穌。 The French revolutionary governments tried to control priests by making them state employees. The revolutionaries in Catholic Europe in 1820, 1830, 1848, and 1870 explicitly regarded priestly power as an enemy.法國革命政府試圖控制神職人員,使他們國家的僱員。革命家中的天主教歐洲1820年, 1830年, 1848年和1870年明確把祭司權力視為敵人。 The Papal States, as a "government of priests," epitomized to anticlericals all that was evil.教皇國,作為“政府的神職人員, ”以體現所有anticlericals這是邪惡。

The liberal republics in Latin America were anticlerical.自由共和國在拉丁美洲反聖職者。 After 1870, in France, Spain, Italy, and Quebec, as well as in much of Latin America, politics polarized as the church and most clergy sided with the right against liberals, republicans, and socialists who built anticlericalism into their programs.在1870年,在法國,西班牙,意大利和加拿大,以及在許多拉丁美洲,政治兩極化的教堂和神職人員片面最有權對自由主義者,共和黨和社會黨是誰打造anticlericalism納入其計劃。 Anticlericalism has usually contributed to secularization in Catholic cultures: since clergy have been the main agents of Christian presence in public life, opposition to priests in politics has entailed opposition to Christianity in modern society. Anticlericalism通常有助於天主教世俗文化:自已神職人員的主要代理人,基督教的存在在公共生活中,反對神職人員在政治造成了反對基督教在現代社會中。 Following Vatican II opposition to clerical domination within the church itself has contributed to a lay revival, but not yet to a termination of exclusively priestly authority in the church.繼梵蒂岡第二反對辦事員統治教堂內的本身有助於奠定復甦,但尚未終止的權力完全牧師在教堂裡。

Anticlericalism has not been absent among Protestants. Anticlericalism沒有缺席的新教徒。 Many a Baptist pastor, Reformed dominie, or Lutheran minister has evoked anticlerical responses.很多浸禮會牧師,牧師歸正,或路德部長引起了反聖職者的答复。 Charismatics, Brethren, and Quakers have found they can do without clergy entirely. Charismatics ,弟兄們,和誼已經發現它們能夠這樣做完全沒有神職人員。

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Bibliography 目錄
O Chadwick, "The Rise of Anticlericalism," in The Secularization of the European Mind in the Nineteenth Century; A Mellor, Histoire de l'anticlericalisme francais; R Remond, l'Anticlericalisme en France, de 1815 a nos jours; JM Diaz Mozaz, Apuntes para una sociologia del anticlericalismo. ö查德威克“的興起Anticlericalism , ”在世俗的心靈在歐洲十九世紀的一個梅勒,法國史anticlericalisme法國; R Remond ,近Anticlericalisme法國,由1815年1號jours ; JM迪亞茲Mozaz , Apuntes第烏納sociologia刪除anticlericalismo 。


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