Animism拜物教

General Information 一般信息

Animism is the belief that a spirit or divinity resides within every object, controlling its existence and influencing human life and events in the natural world. 拜物教是一個信念,認為這種精神或神駐留在企業內部每一個對象,控制它的存在和影響人類生活和活動的自然世界。 Animistic religious beliefs are widespread among primitive societies, particularly among those in which many different spiritual beings are believed to control different aspects of the natural and social environment. Animistic宗教信仰普遍原始社會中,特別是那些在許多不同的精神而被認為控制不同方面的自然和社會環境。

The British anthropologist Sir Edward B. Tylor developed the concept of animism in the late 19th century.英國人類學家愛德華B主席泰勒發達國家的概念,萬物有靈論19世紀後期。 Tylor regarded animism as the most primitive stage in the evolution of religion.泰勒認為萬物有靈論的最原始的階段發展過程中的宗教。 He suggested that the contemplation of dreams and trances and the observation of death led primitive peoples to conceive of the Soul and of human spirits, and that these spiritual conceptions were then projected onto the natural world.他建議,沉思的夢想和trances和觀察的死亡導致原始的民族想像的靈魂和人的精神,這些精神的概念,然後投影到自然世界。 Although he developed no fixed evolutionary sequence, Tylor postulated that a belief in animism led to the definition of more generalized deities and, eventually, to the worship of a single god.雖然他沒有固定的發展演化序列,泰勒假定,相信萬物有靈導致的定義更廣義神明,並最終以崇拜一個神。 This evolutionary view of religion has been rejected by many 20th-century anthropologists, who tend to stress the collective, social aspects of Primitive Religion.這種演進的宗教觀已被拒絕,許多二十世紀的人類學家,誰往往強調集體,社會方面的原始宗教。

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Bibliography 目錄
Frazer, JG, The Golden Bough, 3d ed.弗雷澤, JG ,在金枝,三維版。 (1935; repr. 1966); Lowie, RH, Primitive Religion (1948; repr. 1970); Tylor, EB, Primitive Culture (1871; repr. 1970). ( 1935年; repr 。 1966年) ;路威,銠,原始宗教( 1948年; repr 。 1970年) ;泰勒,電子束,原始文化( 1871年; repr 。 1970年) 。

Related ideas: Shaman; Totem.相關的想法:祭師;圖騰。


Animism拜物教

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(Latin, Anima, Soul) (拉丁,阿尼瑪,靈魂)

Animism is the doctrine or theory of the soul.拜物教的理論或理論的靈魂。 In current language the term has a twofold signification:在當前語言的任期具有雙重意義:

I. PHILOSOPHICAL--the doctrine that the soul is the principle of life in man and in other living things.一,哲學-理論的靈魂的原則是生活的男人和其他生活的事情。 As applied to man it embodies the essence of spiritualistic as opposed to Materialistic philosophy.適用於它所體現的人的本質spiritualistic ,而不是唯物主義哲學。

II.二。 ETHNOLOGICAL--a theory proposed in recent years to account for the origin and development of religion.民族學-理論提出近年來帳戶的起源和發展宗教。 As such it is known as the Soul or Ghost-theory of religion.因此,它被稱為靈魂或鬼理論的宗教。

I. PHILOSOPHICAL一,哲學

For the application of the theory of animism to living things in general, see LIFE.應用理論的萬物有靈論生活的東西一般,見生活。 So far as it is specially concerned with man, animism aims at a true knowledge of man's nature and dignity by establishing the existence and nature of the soul, its union with the body, its origin and duration.到目前為止,因為它是特別關注的人,萬物有靈的目標是一個真正的人的知識的性質和尊嚴建立的存在和性質的靈魂,其工會的機構,其原籍國和期限。 These problems are at the basis of our conscious existence and underlie all our studies in mental and moral life.這些問題的基礎,我們有意識地背後存在和我們所有的研究精神和道德的生活。 The importance of animism today is shown because;的重要性萬物有靈今天是因為顯示;

its validity as a theory has been questioned;其有效性的理論受到了質疑;

a school has risen which treats psychology without reference to the soul;一所學校已上升而對待心理沒有提及的靈魂;

hence the attempt at "psychology without a soul", eg Sully, James, Murray, Davis, Kœlpe, Höffding.因此,試圖在“心理學沒有靈魂的” ,例如蘇利,詹姆斯,穆雷,戴維斯, Kœlpe , Höffding 。

In establishing the doctrine of animism the general line of reasoning is from effect to cause, from phenomena to their subject or agent.在建立理論的萬物有靈論一般的推理是從造成的影響,從現象到其主題或代理人。 From the acts of mind and of will manifested in individual conscious life, we are forced to admit the existence of their source and principle, which is the human soul; from the nature of the activity is inferred the nature of the agent.從行為的心態和意志的體現在個人意識的生命,我們不得不承認存在其來源和原則,這是人類靈魂;從活動的性質推斷性質的代理人。 Scholastic philosophy, with Aristotle and the Christian Fathers, vindicates the true dignity of man by proclaiming the soul to be a substantial and spiritual principle endowed with immortality.士林哲學,與亞里士多德和基督教神父,證明人的真正尊嚴宣布的靈魂將是一個重大的原則和精神賦予了永生。 The soul is a substance because it has the elements of being, potency, stability, and is the subject of modifications--which elements make up the notion of substance.靈魂是一種物質,因為它的內容目前效力,穩定與主題的修改-這些元素構成的概念實質。 That the soul is a spiritual substance, ie immaterial and a spirit, is inferred from its acts of intelligence and of freewill, which are performed without the intrinsic cooperations of the bodily organs.這靈魂是一種精神實質,即非物質和精神,是推斷其行為的情報和自由意志,這是沒有完成的內在合作的身體器官。 By immortality is understood in general terms the future life of the soul after separation from the body.據了解永生籠統的未來生活的靈魂離職後的屍體。 The chief errors are those which contend;錯誤的主要是那些爭辯;

that the soul is not a substance.的靈魂不是物質。 Thus因而

some writers, eg Kant, hold that the soul is not a real, but only a logical, subject;一些作家,如康德認為,靈魂是不是真實的,但只有合乎邏輯的,主體;

modern Pantheism, seem especially in New England Transcendentalism (eg Emerson, Royce) and the Neo-Hegelian school which unifies human and divine consciousness (eg Prof. TH Green);現代泛神論,似乎特別是在新英格蘭超驗(如艾默生,勞斯萊斯)和新黑格爾學校統一的人力和神聖的意識(如教授治療綠色) ;

the school of Associationists (eg Hume, Davis, Höffding, Sully), who contend that the soul is only a bundle or group of sensations; those who teach that the soul is only activity, nothing more (Wundt), or "a wave of consciousness" (Morgan);學校Associationists (如休謨,戴維斯, Höffding ,蘇利) ,認為誰的靈魂只是一個捆綁或團體的感覺;那些誰教的靈魂是唯一的活動,只不過(馮特) ,或“浪潮意識“ (摩根士丹利) ;

the Agnostic and Positivistic school (eg Locke, Spencer, James, Prof. Bowne, Comte), who affirm that the soul is unknown and unknowable, although some among them postulate it as the subject of our conscious states; the materialistic school which denies its existence altogether (eg Tyndall, Huxley)的不可知和實證學校(如洛克,斯賓塞,詹姆斯教授,鮑恩,孔德) ,誰確認,靈魂是未知和不可知,但也有一些它們之間的假設為主題的我們有意識地州;學校的唯物主義否認其存在完全(例如廷德爾,赫胥黎)

That the soul is neither spiritual, nor immortal.這靈魂的既不是精神,也不不朽的。 Modern Materialism, Positivism, and Agnosticism have tried in every way to establish this thesis. Various theories of knowledge have been proposed, and the discoveries of modern science have been cited in its behalf.現代唯物主義,實證和不可知論曾試圖以各種方式建立這一論斷。各種理論知識已經提議,並經發現,現代科學已引其代表。 Appeal has been taken to psychophysics and to such facts as the localization of function, the correlation of thought to the structure of the brain, and the results of cerebral lesion.呼籲已採取心理物理學和這些事實作為定位功能,關聯的思想,以結構的大腦,結果腦損傷。 Theories of Monism (eg the double-aspect theory) and of Parallelism have been advanced to account for the acts of mind and of will. Yet animism as a doctrine of the spiritual soul remains unshattered, and the spiritualistic philosophy is only more strongly entrenched.一元理論(如雙方面的理論)和並行已推進到帳戶的行為的心態和意志。然而,作為一個萬物有靈論學說的精神靈魂仍然unshattered ,並spiritualistic哲學只有更根深蒂固。 (Cf. SUBSTANCE, AGNOSTICISM POSITIVISM, MATERIALISM, SOUL, IMMORTALITY, PSYCHOLOGY). (參見物質,不可知論主義,唯物論,靈魂不死,心理學) 。

II.二。 ETHNOLOGICAL民族

In this sense animism is the theory proposed by some evolutionists to account for the origin of religion.從這個意義上來說是萬物有靈論的理論提出的一些evolutionists考慮到原產地的宗教。 Evolution assumes that the higher civilized races are the outcome and development from a ruder state.演變假設較高的文明比賽的結果和發展從一個粗魯的狀態。 This early stage resembles that of the lowest savages existing today.這個早期階段相似的最低野蠻人現有的今天。 Their religious belief is known as animism, ie belief in spiritual beings, and represents the minimum or rudimentary definition of religion.他們的信仰被稱為萬物有靈論,即精神信仰的人,並代表最低或最基本的定義宗教。 With this postulate as the groundwork for the philosophy of religion, the development of religious thought can be traced from existing data and therefore admits of scientific treatment.這一假設為基礎的哲學,宗教,發展的宗教思想可以追溯到從現有的數據和承認,因此,科學治療。 The principle of continuity, which is the basal principle in other departments of knowledge, was thus applied to religion.這一原則的連續性,這是基本原理在其他部門的知識,因而適用於宗教。 Comte had given a general outline of this theory in his law of the three states.孔德提供了一個總體綱要這一理論在其定律的三個國家。 According to him the conception of the primary mental condition of mankind is a state of "pure fetishism, constantly characterized by the free and direct exercise of our primitive tendency to conceive all external bodies soever, natural or artificial, as animated by a life essentially analogous to our own, with mere difference of intensity". Proposed at a time when evolution was in the ascendency, this opinion fell at once under the dominion of the current conviction.根據他的構想的主要精神狀況對人類是一種“純粹的拜物教,不斷的特點是自由和直接行使我們的原始傾向想像的所有外部機構soever ,自然的或人為的,因為動畫的生活基本上是類似的我們自己的,與單純的強度差別。 “建議時,進化中的優勢,這一觀點再次下跌下的自治領當前的信念。 The hope was entertained that by a wider and more complete induction religion might be considered as a purely natural phenomenon and thus at last be placed on a scientific basis. The foundation of animism as a theory of religion is the twofold principle of evolution:我們希望在受理,通過更廣泛和更完整的感應宗教可能被視為一個純粹的自然現象,因此在去年放在了科學依據。基金會的萬物有靈論的理論是對宗教的雙重原則的演變:

the anthropological assumption that the savage races give a correct idea of religion in its primitive state;人類學前提是野蠻的比賽給予了正確的宗教思想在其原始狀態;

the philosophical assumption that the savage state was the childhood of the race and that the savage mind should be likened to a child (eg Lubbock, Tylor, Comte, Tiele, Reville, and Spencer).哲學假設,即野蠻的狀態是童年的比賽,並野蠻應該銘記比喻為一個孩子(例如拉伯克,泰勒,孔德, Tiele ,雷維爾,並斯賓塞) 。

Hence the evolution of religious thought can be traced from existing data, viz, the beliefs of the lowest savages, and though deeply modified as mankind rises in culture, yet it always preserves an unbroken continuity into the midst of modern civilization.因此,演化的宗教思想可以追溯到從現有的數據,即,信仰的最低野蠻人,雖然深感修改人類文化的上升,但始終保持一個完整的連續性中到現代文明。 This continuum, or common element, in all religions is animism.這統一體,或共同的要素,在所有宗教是萬物有靈。 The importance of animism in the science of religion is due to Tylor, who represents it as a primitive philosophy supplying at the same time the foundation of all religion.的重要性萬物有靈論科學的宗教是由於泰勒,誰代表它作為一種原始的哲學提供在同一時間的基礎,所有的宗教。 His work entitled "Primitive Culture", first published in 1863, is justly called the "Gospel of Animism".他的作品題為“原始文化” ,首次出版於1863年,理所當然地被稱為“福音拜物教” 。 Animism comprehends the doctrine of souls and spirits, but has its starting point in the former. Dreams and visions, apparitions in sleep and at death, are supposed to have revealed to primitive man his soul as distinct from his body.拜物教理解理論的靈魂和精神,但它的出發點前。夢想和遠見,顯現在睡眠和死亡,是為了顯示對原始人他的靈魂有別於他的身體。 This belief was then transferred to other objects.這種信念,然後轉移到其他物體。 As the human body was believed to live and act by virtue of its own inhabiting spirit-soul, so the operations of the world seemed to be carried on by other spirits.由於人體被認為生活和行為,憑藉自己的居住精神的靈魂,所以行動的世界似乎是進行的其他烈性酒。 To the savage mind, animals, plants, and all inanimate things have souls.要牢記的野蠻,動物,植物,以及所有生命的東西的靈魂。 From this doctrine of souls arises the belief in spirits.從這個理論的靈魂產生的信仰精神。 Spirits are of the same nature as souls, only separated from bodies--eg genii, fairies, demons--and acting in different ways as tutelary guardians, lingering near the tomb or roaming about (Spiritism), or incorporated in certain objects (Fetishism, Totemism).白酒屬於同一性質的靈魂,只有分開的機構-例如g enii,仙女,魔鬼-和代理以不同的方式作為監護人的監護,揮之不去的墓地附近,或漫遊約(通靈術) ,或納入某些物體(拜物教,圖騰崇拜) 。 They appear to man in a more subtle material form as vapour, or as an image retaining a likeness to the bodily shape; and they are feared by him, so that he tries to control their influence by propitiation and magic (Shamanism).他們似乎在一個人更微妙的物質形式蒸氣,或作為一個圖像保留一個相似的身體形態; ,他們擔心他,所以他試圖控制自己的影響,和解和魔術(薩滿教) 。 Thus unconsciousness, sickness, derangement, trance were explained by the departure of the soul.因此失去知覺,疾病,錯亂,恍惚被解釋為離開的靈魂。 Among savages and Buddhist Tatars the bringing back of lost souls was a regular part of the sorcerer's profession.在野蠻人和佛教的韃靼人帶回失去的靈魂是一項經常性的一部分,巫師的職業。 The belief prevails among the American Indians that if one wakes a sleeper suddenly he will die, as his vagrant soul may not get back in time.普遍存在的信仰之間的美洲印第安人,如果一個醒來臥舖突然,他將死去,因為他的流浪者的靈魂可能不會回來的時間。 For the savage, as the lowest of men, is supposed to be actuated by the lowest of passions.對於野蠻的,因為最低的男人,應該是啟動了最低的激情。 Hence the fear-theory of religion is essential to animism. Animism therefore discovers human life in all moving things.因此,恐懼的宗教理論是必不可少的萬物有靈論。拜物教因此,發現人類生活的所有移動的東西。 To the savage and to primitive man there is no distinction between the animate and the inanimate. Nature is all alive.向野蠻和原始人沒有區別動畫和生命。大自然是所有活著。 Every object is controlled by its own independent spirit. Spirits are seen in the rivers, the lakes, the fountains, the woods, the mountains, the trees, the animals, the flowers, the grass, the birds.每個對象是控制自己的獨立精神。酒業是出現在河流,湖泊的噴泉,樹林,山,樹木,動物,花,草,鳥。 Spiritual existences--eg elves, gnomes, ghosts, manes, demons, deities--inhabit almost everything, and consequently almost everything is an object of worship.精神存在-例如精靈,侏儒,鬼,鬃毛,鬼,神-居住在幾乎所有的,因此,幾乎一切都是對象的崇拜。 The Milky Way is "the path of the souls leading to the spirit-land"; and the Northern Lights are the dances of the dead warriors and seers in the realms above.銀河系是“的路徑,導致靈魂的精神,土地” ;和北極光舞蹈的死亡戰士和預言家的境界以上。 The Australians say that the sounds of the wind in the trees are the voices of the ghosts of the dead communing with one another or warning the living of what is to come.澳大利亞人說,聲音在風樹的聲音鬼死者communing彼此或警告的生活是什麼來。 The conception of the human soul formed from dreams and visions served as a type on which primitive man framed his ideas of other souls and of spiritual beings from the lowest elf up to the highest god.這個概念的人類靈魂形成的夢想和遠見擔任該類型原始人他的想法制定的其他靈魂和人的精神從最低埃爾夫達到最高神。 Thus the gods of the higher religions have been evolved out of the spirits, whether ghosts or not, of the lower religions; and the belief in ghosts and spirits was produced by the savage's experience of dreams and trances.因此,神的更高的宗教已經演變出的精神,無論是鬼與否,較低的宗教和信仰的鬼,神是由野蠻的經驗,夢想和trances 。 Here, it is claimed, we have the germ of all religions, although Tylor confesses that it is impossible to trace the process by which the doctrine of souls gave rise to the belief in the great gods.在這裡,它是人,我們有胚芽的所有宗教,但泰勒承認,這是不可能的追踪過程中,理論的靈魂引起的信念,偉大的神。 Originally, spirits were the application of human souls to non-human beings; they were not supernatural, but only became so in the course of time.起初,精神的應用人類靈魂的非人類,他們不是超自然的,但只是變得如此過程中的時間。 Now, as modern science shows the belief in ghosts or spirits to be a hallucination, the highest and purest religion--being only the elaboration of savage beliefs, to the savage mind reasonable enough--cannot be accepted by the modern mind for the reason that it is not supernatural nor even true.現在,隨著現代科學表明,信仰的鬼或神是一個幻覺,最高的和純潔的宗教-只有制定野蠻的信仰,對野蠻到合理的不夠-不能被接受的現代銘記的理由這不是超自然甚至也不真實。 Such in brief is the outline of the theory by which Tylor attempts to explain not only the phenomenon but the whole history and development of religion.這種簡單的概述了該理論的泰勒試圖解釋不僅現象,而是整個歷史和發展宗教。

Tylor's theory expresses two sides of animism, viz., souls and spirits.泰勒的理論表示,雙方的萬物有靈論,即。 ,靈魂和精神。 Spencer attempts to synthesize them into one, viz., souls or ancestor-worship.斯賓塞企圖綜合成一個,即。 ,靈魂或祖先崇拜。 He agrees with Tylor in the animistic explanation of dreams, diseases, death, madness, idiocy, ie as due to spiritual influences; but differs in presenting one solution only; viz., cult of souls or worship of the dead.他同意泰勒在animistic解釋的夢想,疾病,死亡,瘋狂,白痴,即由於精神上的影響,但在提出不同的解決辦法只有一個,即。 ,邪教的靈魂或崇拜死了。 "The rudimentary form of all religion", he writes, "is the propitiation of dead ancestors", or "ghost propitiation". “的最基本的形式,所有的宗教” ,他寫道, “是和解的死亡祖先”或“鬼和解” 。 Hence Spencer denies that the ascription of life to the whole of nature is a primitive thought, or that men ever ascribed to animals, plants, inanimate objects, and natural phenomena souls of their own.因此,斯賓塞否認歸屬的生活整個本質是一種原始的思想,或者說男人都歸因於動物,植物,無生命的物體,自然現象和靈魂的自己。 Spencer's theory is known as the "Ghost-theory of Religion" and at the present time is generally discredited even by evolutionists.斯賓塞的理論被稱為“鬼理論的宗教” ,並在目前的時間一般是掃地甚至evolutionists 。 With Tylor the worship of the dead is an important subdivision of animism; with Spencer it is the one and all of religion.與泰勒崇拜死是一個重要的細分萬物有靈;與斯賓塞它是一個和所有的宗教。 Lippert consistently carries out the theory of Spencer and, instead of animism, uses the word Seelenkult. Lippert不斷進行的理論和斯潘塞,而不是萬物有靈,使用這個詞Seelenkult 。 De la Saussaye says that Lippert pushes his view to an extreme and supports it with rich, but not over-trustworthy, material.德拉魯阿Saussaye說, Lippert推他認為,以一種極端的,並支持它具有豐富的,但不能過分信賴,材料。 Schultze considers fetishism and animism as equally primitive.舒爾茨認為,拜物教和萬物有靈的原始平等。 FB Jevons rejects the theory that all gods of earlier races were spirits of dead men deified.全傑文斯拒絕理論,所有以前的神的比賽是精神的死亡男子神化。

The animism of Tylor is vague and indefinite.在萬物有靈的泰勒是含糊和無限期的。 It means the doctrine of spirits in general, and is best expressed by "Animated Nature".這意味著學說的精神一般,是最好的表達的“動畫自然” 。 Fetishism is a subordinate department of animism, viz, the doctrine of spirits embodied in, or attached to, or conveying influence through, certain animals or material objects.拜物教是一個下屬部門的萬物有靈論,即這一理論的精神體現在,或重視,或通過輸送的影響,某些動物或實物。 The animism of Tylor differs little from the naturalism of Reville or the fetishism of De Ia Rialle.在萬物有靈的泰勒沒有什麼很大的差別的自然主義的雷維爾或拜物教德新星Rialle 。 It accounts for the belief in immortality and metempsychosis.它佔的信念不朽和輪迴。 It thus explains the belief in the passage of souls from men to beasts, and to sticks and stones.因此,它解釋的信念,通過靈魂從男人野獸,並棍棒和石頭。 It includes tree-worship and plant-worship--eg the classic hamadrya, the tree-worship of the South African natives, the rice-feasts held by the Dyaks of Borneo to keep the rice-souls in the plants lest by their departure the crop decay.它包括樹崇拜和植物崇拜-例如經典h amadrya,樹崇拜南非本地人,水稻節日舉行的D yaks婆羅洲保持大米的靈魂中的植物,以免在他們離開的作物腐爛。 It is the solution proposed for Manes-worship, for the Lares and the Penates among the Greeks and Romans, where the dead ancestors, passing into deities, go on protecting the family as the dead chief watches over the tribe.它提出的解決辦法為馬崇拜,對尖吻和忒斯之間的希臘人和羅馬人,其中死亡的祖先,通過到神,去保護家庭作為首席手錶死亡的部落。 In animism Tylor finds an explanation for funeral rites and customs--feasts of the dead, the human sacrifices of widows in India, of slaves in Borneo; sending messages to dead chiefs of Dahomey by killing captives taken in war, the slaughtering of the Pawnee's horse and of the Arab's camel at the graves of their masters, placing food and weapons in, or on, the tomb--customs which survive in the practice of burning paper messengers and placing stone, clay, or wooden substitutes on graves in China and Japan.在萬物有靈泰勒認為解釋葬禮和習俗-節日的死亡,人類犧牲的寡婦在印度,奴隸在婆羅洲;發送郵件死達荷美參謀長殺害人質所採取的戰爭中,屠宰的波尼的馬和阿拉伯的駱駝在墳墓的主人,把糧食和武器,或者,該墓-生存習俗的實踐中,燃燒了送信,把石料,粘土,或木製代用品墳墓中國和日本。

The general principles of animism are:一般原則萬物有靈是:

in the last analysis it is a biological theory, and attempts to explain all phenomena through analogy with biological phenomena.在過去的分析這是一個生物學的理論,並試圖解釋所有的現象,通過類比的生物現象。 To the savage, and to primitive man, all moving things lived, and the fancy which created ghosts or souls to account for human life soon extended this explanation to all other external objects.要野蠻,並原始人,所有移動的東西生活,並創造想像鬼或靈魂考慮到人的生命很快擴展這一解釋所有其他外來物體。

The greater value it attaches to unwritten sources, viz., folk-lore, customs, rites, tales, and superstitions, in comparison with literary sources. That spiritual beings are modelled by man on the primary conception of his own human soul.在更大的價值重視不成文的來源,即。 ,民間傳說,風俗,禮儀,故事,和迷信,比較文學來源。這種精神都是仿照人類的主要概念,他自己的人類靈魂。

Their purpose is to explain nature on the primitive, childlike theory that it is thoroughly and throughout animated nature.其目的是解釋性質的原始,童稚的理論,這是徹底和整個動畫的性質。

The conception of the human soul is the source and origin of the conceptions of spirit and deity, from the lowest demon up to Plato's ideas and the highest God of Monotheism.的概念是人類靈魂的來源和原產地的概念和精神神,從最低惡魔高達柏拉圖的思想和最高的神的一神教。

Yet it gives no unified concept of the world, for the spirits which possess, pervade, and crowd nature are individual and independent.然而,它並沒有統一的概念的世界,為擁有精神,貫穿和人群的性質是個人和獨立。

It is without ethical thoughts and motives.這是沒有道德的想法和動機。 Thus Tylor holds as proved that religion and morality stand on independent grounds; that, while lower races have a code of morals, yet their religion--animism--is unmoral, and thus the popular idea that the moral government of the universe is an essential tenet of natural religion simply falls to the ground.因此,泰勒認為作為證明,宗教和道德的立場上獨立的理由;認為,雖然較低的比賽有道德守則,但他們的宗教-萬物有靈-是u n moral,因而流行的思想道德政府的宇宙是一個基本宗旨的自然宗教僅僅落在地上。

The followers of Tylor have pushed these principles to an extreme and applied them with more clearness and precision.追隨者泰勒推動這些原則的極端和應用他們更清晰和準確。 The present tendency of the anthropological school is to begin with a prereligious stage, from which religious ideas slowly emerged and elaborated themselves.目前的趨勢,人類學學校是一開始就有一個prereligious階段,從宗教思想慢慢出現,並闡述了自己。 Hence religious life was preceded by a period characterized by an utter absence of religious conceptions.因此,宗教生活之前有一個時期的特點是完全沒有宗教的概念。 Thus Tiele holds that animism is not a religion, but a sort of primitive philosophy, which not only controls religion, but rules the whole life of man in the childhood of the world.因此Tiele認為萬物有靈不是宗教,而是一種原始的哲學,它不僅控制宗教,而是規則的整個生命的人在童年的世界。 It is a belief that every living thing--ie moving thing--is for primitive man animated by a thinking, feeling, willing spirit, differing from the human in degree and power only.這是一種信念,即每一個生活的事-即移動的事情-是原始人動畫的思想,感情,願意精神,不同的人在一定程度和權力只。 Religion did not spring from animism, but its first manifestations are dominated by animism, that being the form of thought natural to primitive man.宗教沒有春天從萬物有靈論,但它首先表現主要是萬物有靈論,這是形式的思想,以原始自然的人。 Pfleiderer teaches that belief in God was formed out of the prehistoric belief in spirits, that these spirits are ancestor-spirits and nature-spirits found everywhere in the primeval period of peoples side by side with one another and passing into each other in various forms of combination without the one being able to be referred to the other, that the prehistoric belief in spirits cannot yet be properly called religion--it only contained the germs of religion.弗萊德爾教導我們信仰上帝形成了史前信仰的精神,這些精神的祖先,精神和自然的精神無處不在發現原始時期的人民肩並肩互相傳球到對方各種形式的組合沒有一個能夠被稱為另一方面,史前信仰的精神仍然不能得到妥善所謂的宗教-它不僅包含了細菌的宗教。 Caspari teaches a pre-animistic period in the family circle and holds that the worship of elders and chieftains was the first religion.卡斯帕里任教前animistic時期在家庭中循環並認為崇拜長老和頭目是第一個宗教。 Brinton says "the present probability is that in the infancy of the race there was at least no objective expression of religious feeling", and that "there must have been a time in the progress of organic forms from some lower to that highest mammal, man, when he did not have a religious consciousness; for it is doubtful if even the slightest traces of it can be discerned in the inferior animals".布林頓說: “目前的概率是,在初級階段的比賽至少有沒有客觀的表達宗教感情” ,並說, “必須有一個時間進度的有機形式從一些較低這一最高的哺乳動物,男子時,他沒有一個宗教意識;的令人懷疑的是,即使最輕微的痕跡,可以看出在劣勢的動物“ 。 The French school of anthropology is distinguished by its outspoken atheism and materialism.法國學校的人類學是其傑出的直言不諱無神論和唯物論。 Darwin, Spencer, and Lubbock hold that primitive man had no idea of God.達爾文,斯賓塞,和拉伯克認為,原始人不知道上帝。 Linguistic analysis, as Baynes clearly proves, shows this to be false.語言的分析,貝恩斯清楚地證明,表明這是錯誤的。 The theory of animism has exerted great influence on the study of religions during the last twenty years.理論萬物有靈施加了很大的影響的研究宗教在過去的20年。 This is shown in the animistic trend of Prof. Maspero's study of the Egyptian religion; in the contention of the late Prof. W. Robertson Smith that the religion and social institutions of the Semites are founded on Totemism; in the emphasis laid on the animism of the ancient Israelites by Dr. Stade; in the worship of the dead and of ancestors among the Vedic Indians and the Persians; in the study of soul-worship among the Greeks, by E. Rhode.這是顯示在animistic趨勢伯樂教授的研究埃及的宗教;在爭論已故總統羅伯遜教授史密斯說,宗教和社會機構的閃米特人的基礎上圖騰崇拜;的重點放在萬物有靈古老的猶太人主場博士;在崇拜死亡和祖先之間的吠陀印度人,波斯人;研究的靈魂崇拜之間的希臘人,由E.羅德島。 That this influence was not for good is the opinion of Prof. Brinton, who says that the acceptance of animism as a sufficient explanation of early cults has led to the neglect, in English-speaking lands, of their profounder analysis and scientific study. Tylor published the third edition of "Primitive Culture" in 1891, confident of having proved the evolution theory as to the origin of our civilization from a savage condition, the savage belief in souls and spirits as the germs of religion, and the continuity of this belief in its progressive forms of development up to Monotheism.這種影響不是很好的意見是教授林頓,誰說,接受萬物有靈作為一個充分的解釋早期邪教導致了忽視,講英語的土地,其profounder分析和科學的研究。泰勒出版了第三版的“原始文化”於1891年,有信心證明進化論的起源我們的文明從野蠻狀態,野蠻信仰的靈魂和精神作為細菌的宗教和連續性的這一信念在其逐步發展形式到一神教。 Yet the hope was short-lived.然而,希望是短命的。 More scientific research and severer criticism have deprived this theory of its former wide influence.更多的科學研究和嚴厲批評了這一理論被剝奪其前廣泛的影響力。

(1) The assumption that the lowest savages of today give approximately a faithful picture of primitive times is not true. ( 1 )假設,即最低的野蠻人今天給大約一個忠實圖片的原始時代是不正確的。 Savages have a past and a long one, even though not recorded.野人有過去和漫長的,即使沒有記錄在案。 "Nothing in the natural history of man", writes the Duke of Argyll, "can be more certain than that morally and intellectually and physically he can and often does sink from a higher to a lower level". “沒什麼的自然歷史的人” ,寫入阿蓋爾公爵“ ,可以更加肯定比道義上和智力上和體力,他可以而且往往不下沉較高到較低的水平。 ” Max Müller assures us that "if there is one thing which a comparative study of religions places in the clearest light, it is the inevitable decay to which every religion is exposed. . . . Whenever we can trace back a religion to its first beginnings, we find it free from many blemishes that affected it in its later states".繆勒向我們保證說: “如果有一件事了比較研究宗教場所最明顯的輕,這是不可避免的衰敗而每一種宗教暴露。 。 。 。每當我們可以追溯到宗教,以第一的開端,我們發現許多免費污點,影響其後來的國家“ 。 Even Tylor admits that animism is everywhere found with the worship of a great God.即使泰勒承認,萬物有靈論是與世界各地發現的崇拜一個偉大的上帝。 Brinton holds that the resemblance of the savage mind to that of the child is superficial and likens the savage to the uncultivated and ignorant adult among ourselves.林頓認為,類似的野蠻銘記這對兒童是表面的,野蠻的比喻為未開墾的無知和成人之間的自己。

(2) It is opposed by the Philological and Mythological schools. ( 2 )它是反對的文獻和神話的學校。 Thus Max Müller explains much in animism by superstition, a poetical conception of nature, and especially by personification.因此,繆勒解釋很多萬物有靈的迷信,一個詩意的概念,性質,特別是人格化。 He says that inanimate objects were conceived as active powers and as such were described as agents by a necessity of language, without, however, predicating life or soul of them; for human language knows at first no agents except human agents.他說,無生命的物體被設想為積極的權力,因此,被形容為代理人的必要性的語言,但不預測的生命或靈魂,他們對人類的語言第一次知道在沒有人類藥物製劑除外。 Hence animism was a stage of thought reached slowly, and not by sudden impulses.因此,萬物有靈是一個階段的思想慢慢達成的,而不是突然的衝動。 "What is classed as animism in ancient Aryan mythology", he writes, "is often no more than a poetical conception of nature which enables the poet to address sun, moon, rivers and trees as if they could hear and understand his words." “什麼是列為萬物有靈論古代雅利安人的神話” ,他寫道, “常常是不超過詩意的概念,性質,它使詩人以解決太陽,月亮,河流和樹木彷彿可以聽到並理解他的話。 ” The same truth finds abundant illustration in the Psalms.同樣的事實認定豐富的例證在詩篇。 "Sometimes, however," he adds, "what is called animism is a superstition which, after having recognized agents in sun, moon, rivers and trees, postulates on the strength of analogy the existence of agents or spirits dwelling in other parts of nature also, haunting our houses, bringing misfortunes upon us, though sometimes conferring blessings. These ghosts are often mixed up with the ghosts of the departed and form a large chapter in the history of ancient superstition." “有時候,然而, ”他補充說, “什麼是所謂的萬物有靈論是一種迷信,這之後,認識到代理人在太陽,月亮,河流和樹木,假設的力量的存在類推的代理人或神住在其他地方的性質同時,困擾我們的房子,使我們的不幸,但有時賦予祝福。這些鬼往往是混雜在一起的幽靈離開,形成一個大型史上的新篇章古老的迷信。 “ The ghost, or ancestor, theory received a fatal blow from Lang's "Making of a Religion", where it is shown that the belief of the most primitive savages is in a High God, Supreme God, and Moral God.鬼,或祖先,理論收到了致命的打擊來自郎的“製作宗教” ,它表明,信仰的最原始的野蠻人是一個高上帝,最高的上帝,和道德的上帝。 Lang thus confutes Tylor's contentions:因此,郎confutes泰勒的論點:

that man could not have possibly started with a belief in a Supreme Being; that religion and morality must have separate origins.那個男人也不可能有可能開始使用一種信念最高法院的一項福利; ,宗教和道德必須有獨立的起源。

Even in China, where ancestor-worship prevails, we find it distinct from the worship of gods, and there is no trace of an ancestor having ever become a god. Again, soul-worship and ancestor-worship are not identical, and with many tribes much attention is paid to conciliating the souls of the dead where ancestor-worship is unknown.即使在中國,在祖先崇拜盛行,我們發現它有別於崇拜神靈,也沒有任何痕跡的祖先曾經成為一個神。同樣,靈魂崇拜和祖先崇拜並不相同,並與許多部落得多注意調和的靈魂死在那裡的祖先崇拜是未知的。 Brinton holds the former to be older and more general.林頓認為,前者是老年人和更普遍。 The aim is to get rid of the soul, to put it to rest, or send it on its journey to a better land, lest it trouble the survivors.其目的是擺脫靈魂,把它休息,或發送它的旅程更美好的土地,以免麻煩倖存者。 Karl Mullenhöff maintains that folk-lore has no independent value and as a source of mythology is of only secondary importance.卡爾Mullenhöff堅持認為,民俗學沒有獨立的價值和作為一個來源的神話不僅是次要的。

(3) Animism is not the sole and chief source of religion. ( 3 )拜物教不是唯一和主要的宗教。 De la Saussaye says that the belief of the early Teutons consisted only to a small extent of animistic ideas concerning souls and spirits.德拉魯阿Saussaye說,信仰的早期日爾曼人組成唯一的一個小範圍的animistic思想靈魂和精神。 Prof. FB Gummere teaches that in Teutonic mythology animism has not succeeded in annexing nature-mythology.全Gummere教授任教,在日爾曼神話萬物有靈未能成功地兼併自然神話。 FB Jevons holds that the religious idea is no part of animism pure and simple, and to make the personal agents of animism into supernatural agents or divine powers there must be added some idea which is not contained in animism, and that idea is a specifically religious idea, one which is apprehended directly or intuitively by the religious consciousness.全傑文斯認為,宗教的想法是沒有任何一部分萬物有靈純粹和簡單,使個人代理人的萬物有靈論到超自然的代理人或神聖的權力,必須有增加了一些想法是不包含在萬物有靈,這想法是一個特別的宗教的想法,這是一個直接或逮捕直觀的宗教意識。 E. Mogk, whose inclinations lean to Tylor, is yet constrained by a scientific mind to recognize nature-worship and the great gods as original; and he warns the student of Teutonic mythology that he must not allow himself to be seduced into disregarding the fact that the worship of the God of Heaven is one of the most original elements of the Teutonic belief.體育Mogk ,其傾向貧,以泰勒,還限制了一個科學認識到自然崇拜和神的偉大作為原始; ,他警告說,學生的日爾曼神話,他決不允許自己被引誘到無視事實該崇拜上帝的天堂是一個最原始要素的條頓人的信仰。 De la Saussaye and Pfleiderer hold that the supposition according to which every conception of an object--eg tree, sun, moon, clouds, thunder, earth, heaven--as a living being has an animistic character is undemonstrable and improbable.德拉魯阿Saussaye和弗萊德爾認為,假設其中規定,所有概念的一個物體-如樹,太陽,月亮,雲,雷,土,天堂-作為一個生活正有一個an imistic性質un demonstrable和難以置信。 They show from Teutonic mythology that the power and beneficent influence of these objects of nature and their symbolic conception belong to another sphere of ideas and sentiments than that of animism.它們表明由日爾曼神話中的權力和影響的善行這些物體的性質和其象徵性的概念屬於另一個領域的想法和情緒比萬物有靈。

(4) Prof. W. Robertson Smith and Prof. Frazer conclusively prove that the animistic religion of fear was neither universal nor primitive. ( 4 )美國羅伯遜教授史密斯教授和弗雷澤地證明, animistic宗教的恐懼既不普遍也不原始。 According to Prof.據教授 Frazer, the primitive reason of sacrifice was communion with God.弗雷澤,原始的原因,犧牲與上帝。 Even worship of the dead cannot be entirely explained animistically as the cult of souls.即使是崇拜死不能完全解釋animistically作為邪教的靈魂。 Animistic conceptions may enter into the worship of ancestors and heroes; but other ideas are so essential that they cannot be regarded merely as modifications of soul-worship. Animistic觀念可能進入崇拜祖先和英雄,但其他想法是如此重要,他們不能被看作僅僅是修改靈魂崇拜。

(5) It is not primitive nor specific. ( 5 )它不是原始的,也不具體。 Prof. Brinton says, "There is no special form of religious thought which expresses itself as what has been called by Dr. Tylor Animism, ie the belief that inanimate objects are animated and possess souls or spirits."林頓教授說, “沒有任何特殊形式的宗教思想表達自己所謂的博士泰勒拜物教,即認為無生命的物體的動畫和擁有靈魂或精神。 ” This opinion, which in one guise or another is common to all religions and many philosophies, "is merely a secondary phenomenon of the religious sentiment, not a trait characteristic of primitive faiths".這一意見,這在一個幌子或另一種是共同的所有宗教和許多哲學, “只是一個次要現象的宗教感情,而不是一個性狀特徵的原始宗教信仰。 ” De la Saussaye holds that animism is always and everywhere mixed up with religion; it is nowhere the whole of religion.德拉魯阿Saussaye認為萬物有靈總是到處混雜在一起的宗教,它是無處整個宗教。 Cf.比照。 ANTHROPOLOGY, MYTHOLOGY, EVOLUTION, TOTEMISM, SHAMANISM, FETISHISM, RELIGION, SPIRITISM.人類學,神話,演化,圖騰崇拜,薩滿教,拜物教,宗教,通靈術。

Publication information Written by JT Driscoll.出版信息撰稿里克奇德里斯科爾。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯學者波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.專門為聖心耶穌基督天主教百科全書,體積一發布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat , 1907年三月一日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

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