Angel天使

General Information 一般信息

An angel (Greek: angelos, "messenger") is a celestial being believed to function as a messenger or agent of God in Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism.一個天使(希臘文:安耶洛斯, “信使” )是一個天體被認為充當信使或代理人在上帝的基督教,伊斯蘭教,猶太教和祆教。 In the Near Eastern antecedents to Judaism, angels were often understood to be gods or lesser divinities. Their existence was taken for granted by the biblical authors. The use of the word angel may have been a way of describing what was believed to be an appearance of God himself in human form.在近東前身為猶太教,天使常常被理解為神或神較小。他們的存在被認為是理所當然的聖經的作者。一詞的使用天使可能是一種方式,說明什麼被認為是一個外表上帝自己在人類形式。

In the Old Testament, angels are called "messengers," "men," "powers," "princes," "sons of God," and the "heavenly host."在舊約,天使被稱為“信使” , “男人” , “權力” , “王子” , “上帝的兒子”和“天上的東道主。 ” They either have no body or one that is only apparent.他們要么沒有任何一個機構或僅僅是顯而易見的。 They come as God's messengers to aid or punish, are assigned to individual persons or nations, and often have a name (Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Uriel). New Testament statements about angels reflect Jewish views of these beings.他們來為上帝的使者援助或懲罰,被分配到個人或國家,往往有一個名稱(邁克爾,加布里埃爾,拉斐爾,烏利爾) 。新約全書聲明天使猶太意見反映這些人。 Angels, for example, announced Christ's birth (Luke 2) and resurrection (Matt. 28).天使,例如,宣布耶穌的誕生(路加2 )和復活(瑪特泰28 ) 。

Ancient and medieval peoples widely accepted the influence of good spirits, or angels, and evil spirits, or fallen angels (see Demon; Satan).古代和中世紀各國人民廣為接受的影響,精神狀態良好,或天使,和邪惡的精神,或墮落的天使(見惡魔;撒旦) 。 During the Middle Ages, theologians developed a hierarchy of angels.在中世紀,神學制定了一個層次的天使。 They were classified in the following nine ranks (beginning with the lowest): angels, archangels, principalities, powers, virtues, dominations, thrones, cherubim, and seraphim. Angels are a popular subject in folklore, literature, and art.他們被分為以下九級(從最低) :天使,天使,公,權力,美德,統治,王位,基路伯,和天使。天使是一個熱門話題民俗,文學和藝術。

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Bibliography 目錄
Davidson, Gustav, A Dictionary of Angels (1967); Field, MJ, Angels and Ministers of Grace (1972); Heidt, WG, Angelology of the Old Testament (1949); Regamey, Raymond, What Is an Angel?, trans.戴維森,古斯塔夫,詞典天使( 1967年) ;場,麻將,天使和部長格雷斯( 1972年) ; Heidt ,工作組,天使舊約( 1949年) ; Regamey ,雷蒙德,什麼是天使? ,轉。 by Mark Pontifex (1960).馬克Pontifex ( 1960年) 。


Angels天使

General Information 一般信息


An'gel

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Angel is a word signifying, both in the Hebrew and Greek, a "messenger," and hence employed to denote any agent God sends forth to execute his purposes.天使是一個字意,無論是在希伯來文和希臘文,是“信使” ,因此僱用指任何代理人向上帝所載執行他的目的。 It is used of an ordinary messenger (Job 1:14: 1 Sam. 11:3; Luke 7:24; 9:52), of prophets (Isa. 42:19; Hag. 1:13), of priests (Mal. 2:7), and ministers of the New Testament (Rev. 1:20).這是用一個普通的信使(作業1時14分: 1薩姆。 11點03分;盧克7時24分, 9時52分)的先知(以賽亞書42:19 ;哈格。 1:13 ) ,司鐸(馬累。二點零七) ,和部長們的新約全書(修訂1:20 ) 。 It is also applied to such impersonal agents as the pestilence (2 Sam. 24: 16, 17; 2 Kings 19:35), the wind (Ps. 104:4).這也適用於這種客觀代理人的瘟疫( 2薩姆。 24 : 16日, 17日;列王紀下19:35 ) ,風(詩篇104:4 ) 。 But its distinctive application is to certain heavenly intelligences whom God employs in carrying on his government of the world.但其獨特的申請上天對某些人的智力上帝員工在履行他的政府的世界。

The name does not denote their nature but their office as messengers.名稱並不意味著其性質,但其辦公室的使者。 The appearances to Abraham at Mamre (Gen. 18:2, 22. Comp. 19:1), to Jacob at Peniel (Gen. 32:24, 30), to Joshua at Gilgal (Josh. 5:13, 15), of the Angel of the Lord, were doubtless manifestations of the Divine presence, "foreshadowings of the incarnation," revelations before the "fulness of the time" of the Son of God.該露面亞伯拉罕在Mamre (創18:2 , 22 。構件。 19:1 ) ,以雅各布在Peniel (創32:24 , 30 ) ,以約書亞在Gilgal ( Josh. 5時13分, 15歲) ,天使的上帝,無疑表現的神聖的存在, “ foreshadowings的化身” ,揭露前的“豐富的時間”的上帝之子。

From that time onward there are frequent references to their ministry on earth (Gen. 18; 19; 24:7, 40; 28:12; 32:1).從那個時候起,有經常提到他們在地球上部(創18 ; 19 ; 24:7 , 40 ; 28:12 ; 32:1 ) 。 They appear to rebuke idolatry (Judg. 2:1-4), to call Gideon (Judg. 6:11, 12), and to consecrate Samson (13:3).他們似乎譴責偶像崇拜( Judg. 2:1-4 ) ,要求基甸( Judg. 6時11分, 12個) ,並供奉大力士( 13點03 ) 。 In the days of the prophets, from Samuel downward, the angels appear only in their behalf (1 Kings 19: 5; 2 Kings 6:17; Zech. 1-6; Dan. 4:13, 23; 10:10, 13, 20, 21).在兩天的先知,從塞繆爾下降,天使只會出現在其代表(列王紀上19 : 5 ;列王紀下6時17分;撒加利亞。 1-6 ;丹。四點13分, 23歲; 10:10 , 13 , 20 , 21 ) 。 The Incarnation introduces a new era in the ministrations of angels.體現了一種新時代的ministrations的天使。 They come with their Lord to earth to do him service while here.他們來到他們的主地球做他的服務,同時在這裡。 They predict his advent (Matt. 1:20; Luke 1:26-38), minister to him after his temptation and agony (Matt. 4:11; Luke 22:43), and declare his resurrection and ascension (Matt. 28:2-8; John 20:12, 13; Acts 1:10, 11).他們預測他的到來(瑪特泰1:20 ;盧克1:26-38 ) ,部長後,他誘惑和痛苦(瑪特泰4點11分;路加22:43 ) ,並宣布他的復活和升天(瑪特泰28 :2 - 8 ;約翰20:12 , 13 ;行為1:10 , 11 ) 。 They are now ministering spirits to the people of God (Heb. 1:14; Ps. 34:7; 91:11; Matt. 18:10; Acts 5:19; 8:26; 10:3; 12:7; 27:23).他們現在ministering精神人民的神(希伯來書1時14分;物質。 34:7 ; 91:11 ;馬特。 18:10 ;行為的5點19分, 8時26分;十點03 ;十二點07分; 27:23 ) 。 They rejoice over a penitent sinner (Luke 15:10).他們高興了懺悔的罪人(路15:10 ) 。 They bear the souls of the redeemed to paradise (Luke 16:22); and they will be the ministers of judgement hereafter on the great day (Matt. 13:39, 41, 49; 16:27; 24:31).他們承擔的靈魂的贖回天堂(路16:22 ) ; ,他們將成為部長以下的判斷上偉大的一天(瑪特泰13:39 , 41 , 49 ; 16:27 ; 24:31 ) 。

The passages (Ps. 34:7, Matt. 18:10) usually referred to in support of the idea that every individual has a particular guardian angel have no such meaning. They merely indicate that God employs the ministry of angels to deliver his people from affliction and danger, and that the angels do not think it below their dignity to minister even to children and to the least among Christ's disciples. 通道(詩篇34:7 ,馬特。 18:10 )通常稱為支持的想法每個人都有一個特定的守護天使都沒有這種意思。他們只是表明,採用上帝的天使部提供他的人民從痛苦和危險,而天使並不認為這低於其尊嚴,部長甚至兒童和至少在基督的門徒。 The "angel of his presence" (Isa. 63:9. Comp. Ex. 23:20, 21; 32:34; 33:2; Nu,m. 20:16) is probably rightly interpreted of the Messiah as the guide of his people. “天使的存在” (以賽亞書63:9 。構件。防爆。 23:20 , 21 ; 32:34 ; 33:2 ;怒族,米20點16分)可能是正確的解釋彌賽亞為指導他的人民。 Others have supposed the expression to refer to Gabriel (Luke 1:19).另一些人理應表達提及加布里埃爾(路加1時19分) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


Angel天使

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Angelos, from which "angel" derives, is in itself a colorless word like its main Hebrew equivalent.安耶洛斯,從“天使”獲得,這本身就是一種無色字像它的主要希伯來當量。 It may denote either a human or a heavenly "messenger."這可能意味著任何一個人或天堂“的使者。 ” Yet in the NT, except in Luke 7:24; 9:52; and perhaps Rev. 1:20, it is used only for heavenly beings.然而,在NT中,除盧克7時24分;九時五十二; ,也許牧師1:20 ,這是只用於天上的人。 Rightly, therefore, the Vulgate introduced a distinction between angelus and nuntius which modern renderings and usage have maintained.正確,因此,武加大了區分nuntius鐘和現代透視圖和使用一直保持著。

The term chosen by Scripture to denote angels gives us the clue to the function by which they are primarily to be known and understood.這個詞選擇的聖經指的天使為我們提供了線索的功能,它們主要是要了解和理解。 They are God's messengers or ambassadors.他們是上帝的使者或大使。 They belong to his heavenly court and serice.它們屬於他的天堂法院和serice 。 Their mission in heaven is to praise him (Rev. 4:5).他們的任務是在天上,以表揚他(修訂4時05分) 。 They devote themselves to doing his will (Ps. 103:20) and in this activity they behold his face (Matt. 18:10).他們投身於做他的意志(詩篇103:20 ) ,並在這一活動中,他們看見他的臉(瑪特泰18:10 ) 。 Since heaven comes down to earth, they also have a mission on earth.自天上來腳踏實地,他們也有一種使命感,在地球上。 They accompany God in his work of creation (Job 38:7), though they themselves are also creatures (Ps. 148:2, 5).他們陪在他的上帝創造的工作(職務38:7 ) ,雖然他們自己也正在動物(詩篇148:2 , 5 ) 。 They also assist in God's providential ordering of affairs (Dan. 12:1).他們還協助在上帝的天賜訂購事務( Dan. 12:1 ) 。 Above all they are active in the divine work of reconciliation (from Gen. 19:1-2 onward).總之,他們活躍在神聖的和解工作(從將軍19:1-2起) 。 In fulfillment of their mission they declare God's word (eg, Luke 1:26-27) and do his work (eg, Matt. 28:2).在履行其使命,他們宣布上帝的詞(例如,盧克1:26-27 ) ,並做他的工作(例如,馬特。 28:2 ) 。 There seems to be some ordering in their ranks; some are referred to as archangels, as over against those who are referred to as simply angels (1 Thess. 4:16; Jude 9).似乎有些命令在他們的行列;一些被稱為天使,超過對那些誰被稱為只是天使( 1洛尼基。 4時16分;裘德9 ) 。

The function of angels may be seen clearly from their part in the saving mission of Jesus Christ.功能天使可清楚地看到他們參與節能任務的耶穌基督。 They are naturally present when this both begins with the nativity (Matt. 1; Luke 1-3) and ends with the resurrection (Matt. 28:2 and pars.) and ascension (Acts 1:10ff.).它們是自然存在時,這兩個始於耶穌(瑪特泰1 ;盧克1-3 )和結束的復活(瑪特泰28:2和標準桿。 )和升天(使徒1:10頁。 ) 。 They also assist the church in its early ministry (eg, Acts 5:19; 10:3). They will play an important part in the events of the end time (Rev. 7:1ff., etc.).他們還協助教會在其早期部(例如,行為的5點19 ; 10時03分) 。他們將發揮重要作用的事件結束時間(啟示錄7:1頁。 ,等等) 。 Finally they will come with Christ when he returns in glory (Matt. 24:31) and separate the righteous and the wicked (Matt. 13:41, 49).最後,他們將與基督當他返回的榮耀(瑪特泰24:31 )和單獨的正義和邪惡(瑪特泰13:41 , 49 ) 。 They do not do the real work of reconciliation, which is Christ's prerogative.他們不這樣做實際工作的和解,這是基督的特權。 But they accompany and declare this work, praising the God of grace and glory and summoning men and women to participate in their worship (Luke 1:46).但是,他們陪同,並宣布這項工作,讚揚上帝的恩典和榮耀,並傳喚男子和婦女參與其崇拜(路加1時46分) 。 Interestingly, there seem to be only two angelic appearances between Christ's birth and resurrection: at the beginning of his way to the cross in the temptation (Mark 1:12) and then before the crucifixion itself in Gethsemane (Luke 22:43).有趣的是,似乎有只有兩個天使般的外表之間的基督誕生和復活:在開始他的方式在兩岸的誘惑(馬克1:12 ) ,然後在自己的十字架在客西馬尼(路22:43 ) 。 This is perhaps because Jesus had to tread his way of atoning self-giving alone, and in his humiliation he is made a little lower than the angels (Heb. 2:9), though exalted far above them by nature (Heb. 1).這或許是因為耶穌踩他的贖罪奉獻,僅在他的侮辱,他是稍低於天使(希伯來書2時09分) ,儘管崇高遠遠高於它們的性質(希伯來書1 ) 。 Yet angels did not withdraw from the scene, for they rejoice at sinners repenting (Luke 15:10) and will hear the Son of man confess those who confess him (Luke 12:8-9).然而,天使沒有退出舞台,因為他們感到高興的罪人悔改(路15:10 ) ,並將於聽到兒子的男子供認這些誰承認他(路12:8-9 ) 。

The Bible offers only a few hints about the nature of angels. Belonging to the heavenly sphere, they cannot be properly conceived of in earthly terms.聖經上只提供一些線索的性質天使。屬於天上的領域,他們不能得到適當的設想在人間條件。 They are mostly described in relation to God, as his angels (eg, Ps. 104:4).他們大多是在描述上帝,因為他的天使(例如,聚苯乙烯。 104:4 ) 。 The two angelic names, Michael and Gabriel, emphasize this relationship with the el ending.這兩個天使般的名字,邁克爾和加布里埃爾,強調這與埃及的結局。 It is as God's angels, perhaps, that they are called "elect" in 1 Tim.這是作為上帝的天使,也許,他們是所謂的“選舉”在1蒂姆。 5:21. 5時21分。 Heb.河北。 1:14 describes them as "ministering spirits" in a conflation of the two parts of Ps. 1點14分介紹了他們是“ ministering精神”在混為一談的兩個部分的PS 。 104:4. 104:4 。 Elsewhere, in Job and Psalms, they figure as the "heavenly ones" (Ps. 29:1) or the "holy ones" (Job 5:1) who are set apart for God's service; both these terms occur in Ps.此外,在就業和詩篇,他們的數字是“天上的” (詩篇29:1 )或“神聖的” (職位5:1 )誰是一套除了在上帝的服務;這些條款都發生在物質。 89:6-7, though "sons of God" is here another rendering of "heavenly ones" in vs. 6 (cf. Ps. 29:1). 89:6-7 ,但“上帝的兒子”是這裡的另一渲染“天國的” 6日在主場迎戰(參見聚苯乙烯。 29:1 ) 。 The "gods" of Ps.在“神”的PS 。 82:1, in whose midst God holds judgment, are often thought to be angels too. 82:1 ,在其持有處於上帝的判決,往往被認為過於天使。 Since Christians can also be called God's children, we need not infer from this usage, as did some of the apologists, that the angels are lesser deities.由於基督徒也可以被稱為上帝的孩子,我們不需要從這一推斷的使用,就像一些辯護士,這是天使較小神。 Indeed, the Bible clearly warns us not to worship them (Col. 2:18; Rev. 19:10).事實上,聖經清楚地警告我們不崇拜他們(上校2點18分;牧師19:10 ) 。

Among the heavenly beings mention is made of the seraphim (Isa. 6:2) and, more frequently, the cherubim.在天上的人提到的天使(以賽亞書6點02分) ,並更頻繁的基路伯。 Cherubim guarded Eden after the expulsion of Adam and Eve (Gen. 3:24).基路伯守護伊甸園後驅逐亞當和夏娃(創3點24分) 。 They form God's chariot at his descent (Ps. 18:10).它們構成上帝的戰車在他的後裔(詩篇18:10 ) 。 Figures of cherubim adorned the ark (Exod. 25:17ff.) and Solomon's temple (I Kings 6:23ff.), so that Yahweh is said to be enthroned above the cherubim (I Sam. 4:4; Ps. 80:1).數字基路伯點綴方舟( Exod. 25:17頁。 )和所羅門聖殿的(我國王6點23頁。 ) ,使耶和華據說是坐床以上的基路伯(一山姆。 4點04分;物質。 80:1 ) 。 Ezekiel offers an elaborate visionary description (Ezek. 1:10; 9:3; 10:15-22) in which their form is human (1:5) but symbolical traits stress their glory and spiritual excellence.基爾提供了一個富有遠見的詳細說明( Ezek. 1:10 ; 9時03分; 10:15-22 )在其形式是人類( 1:5 ) ,但象徵性狀強調他們光榮和精神文明卓越。 Common paradise traditions may underlie Assyro-Babylonian parallels.共同的天堂傳統可依據亞述,巴比倫的相似之處。

Of the angels named, Michael is called "the great prince" (Dan. 12:1) and the other angels seem to be led by him (Rev. 12:7), though God himself, of course, is the Lord of hosts and Prince of the host (Dan. 8:11).天使的命名,邁克爾被稱為“偉大的王子” ( Dan. 12:1 )和其他天使似乎是由他(修訂十二時07分) ,但上帝自己,當然,這是上帝的主機和王子的主機( Dan. 8時11分) 。 The man who appeared to Joshua in Josh.這名男子似乎誰約書亞在喬希。 5:13ff., usually taken to be an angel, says that he has come as commander of the army of the Lord, Gabriel, the other angel named in canonical Scripture, is the angel of the annunciation (Luke 1:26). 5點13頁。 ,通常採取的是一個天使說,他已經為陸軍司令上帝,加布里埃爾,其他的天使命名規範的聖經中,是天使的榜文(路加1時26分) 。 Distinctions seem to be indicated in Rev. 4-5 with the references to the beasts and the elders, but the exact significance of these terms is disputed.區別似乎是在與牧師4-5中提到的野獸和長者,但確切的意義,這些條款是有爭議的。 The apocryphal writings provide three more angelic names, Raphael, Uriel, and Jermiel. Tob.在未經著作提供三個天使般的名字,拉斐爾,烏利爾,並Jermiel 。尖。 12:15 calls Raphael one of the holy angels who present the prayers of the saints (cf. the seven who stand before God in Rev. 8:2 and the possible link between these seven and the "chief princes" of Dan. 10:13). 12:15呼籲拉斐爾一個神聖的天使誰本祈禱的聖人(參見七誰站在上帝面前的牧師和8:2之間可能存在的聯繫這七個和“首席王子”丹。 10 : 13 ) 。

From the various statements about the nature of angels, and Paul's use of the terms "principalities," "powers," "thrones," "dominions," and "forces," early and medieval theology evolved a complex speculative account of the angelic world.從各種報表的性質天使,和保羅的使用“公” , “權力” , “王位” , “領地”和“部隊, ”早期和中世紀的神學形成一個複雜的投機帳戶的天使般的世界。 Pseudo-Dionysius found separate entities in these, and he grouped them with the seraphim, cherubim, archangels, and angels in a threefold hierarchy of nine choirs.偽狄奧尼修斯發現單獨的實體在這些,他歸納他們塞拉芬,基路伯,天使,和天使在三個層次的九個合唱團。 Aquinas, the Angelic Doctor, adopted a similar scheme in his full and acute discussion but was more interested in the nature of angels as individual, spatial, spiritual substances engaged primarily in the work of enlightenment and capable of rational demonstration (Summa contra Gentiles 91; Summa Theologica 50-64).阿奎那的天使醫生,通過了一項類似的計劃,他完全和急性討論,但更感興趣的性質,作為單獨的天使,空間,精神物質主要從事的工作的啟示,並能合理示威(禁忌大全外邦人91 ;神學大全50-64 ) 。

As Calvin saw, the error in so much angelology was to deal with angels apart from the biblical witness.正如卡爾文看到,誤差在這麼多天使是處理天使除了聖經的見證。 Even regarding their function there was a tendency to rationalize or to focus interest on the idea of the guardian angel (cf. Matt. 18:10 and perhaps Acts 12:15).即使就其功能有一種趨勢是合理化,或把重點放在利益的想法守護天使(參見馬特。 18:10和12:15也許行為) 。 An inevitable reaction came in the age of the Enlightenment and liberal Protestantism when angels were either dismissed as fantastic, submitted to reinterpretation, or explained away as the relics of an original polytheism.一個不可避免的反應是時代的啟示和自由時,新教天使被解僱的太棒了,重新提交,或解釋為文物的原始多神教。

Some legitimate deductions may certainly be made from the biblical data.一些合法扣減可以肯定是從聖經的數據。 Though they come in human form, the angels are essentially noncorporeal.雖然他們在人類形式,基本上是天使noncorporeal 。 Present at creation, they are still creatures (Ps. 148:2, 5).出席成立,他們仍然動物(詩篇148:2 , 5 ) 。 They form an ordered unity, yet their plurality entails the existence of individuals within the totality, with a possible gradation in function.他們形成一個有序的團結,但他們需要多元化的存在,個人的全部,可能層次的功能。 As compared with humans they have the advantage of being in God's immediate presence and serving as his direct messengers.作為與人類相比,他們的優勢在於它是上帝的存在,並立即擔任他的直接使者。 They also guard the proprieties, if that is the meaning of I Cor.他們還守衛禮節,如果這是我所指的心病。 11:10, and seem to play some role in or over the nations (Dan. 10). 11:10 ,而且似乎可以發揮一些作用,或以上的國家( Dan. 10 ) 。 But when men and women respond to God's saving work in Christ they are raised above them, enjoy their ministry (Heb. I:14), and will finally judge them (I Cor. 6:3), for even angels are not faultless in God's eyes (Job 4:18; 15:15).但是,當男人和女人作出回應上帝的拯救工作,他們是基督上文提到他們,享受他們的省(希伯來書一: 14 ) ,並最終將他們的法官(我肺心病。 6點03分) ,即使天使不完美的上帝的眼睛(作業4點18 ; 15:15 ) 。

Has there been a fall of angels?有沒有下降的天使? Jude 6 suggests this, and Irenaeus (Against Heresies iv. 37.1) and many fathers took this view.裘德6日建議,並依(反對異端四。 37.1 )和許多父親了這一觀點。 Certainly the Bible speaks of the dragon and his angels (Rev. 12:7) and also of powers of evil (Eph. 6:12), so that while we cannot be too dogmatic on the subject, we have to assume that there is a real kingdom of evil in grotesque caricature of the angelic kingdom.當然,聖經講龍和他的天使(啟示錄12時07分)和權力的邪惡(以弗所書6時12 ) ,因此,雖然我們不能太教條關於這個問題,我們必須承擔,有一個真正的王國,邪惡的荒唐滑稽的天使般的王國。 These angels and their leader were defeated at the cross (Col. 2:15) and will finally be condemned (Matt. 25:41).這些天使和他們的領導人被打敗的交叉(上校2時15分) ,並最終將應受到譴責(瑪特泰25:41 ) 。

A last question concerns the so-called angel of the Lord.最後一個問題涉及所謂的天使的上帝。 In Judg. 13:2-3 this seems to be identical with God.在Judg 。 13:2-3這似乎是相同的上帝。 Many have thought, then, that in the OT at least the reference is to the preincarnate Logos. Liberals have explained it as a softening of theophany to angelophany but without showing why this does not always apply.許多人都以為,那麼,在加時賽,至少在此提到的是理性的preincarnate 。自由黨解釋說,作為一個軟化的神來angelophany但沒有顯示為什麼這並不總是適用。 Another possible interpretation is that God speaks so fully through the angel that he himself is virtually speaking.另一種可能的解釋是,上帝說話,以便通過充分的天使,他本人幾乎是說話。 Certainly the "angel of the Lord" of Luke 2:9 is not Christ, but this does not in itself rule out such an equation in the OT.當然, “天使的上帝”的盧克2點09分是不是基督,但是這本身並不排除這樣一種方程中的催產素。

GW Bromiley毛重Bromiley

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
K. Barth, Church Dogmatics III/3, 51; H. Cremer et al., SHERK, I, 174-78; HDB, I, 93; W. Grundmann et al., TDNT, I, 74-87; JM Wilson, ISBE (rev.), I, 124-27.光巴特,教會教義學三/ 3 , 51 ;閣下默等人。 , SHERK ,我174-78 ;建屋局,我93 ;總統格倫德曼等。 , TDNT ,我74-87 ; JM威爾遜, ISBE (修訂) ,我, 124-27 。


Angel of the Lord天使的上帝

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In the OT and NT the angel of the Lord (mal'ak yhwh) is represented as acting on behalf of the nation of Israel as well as of individuals.在加時賽和NT的天使主( mal'ak耶和華)是派的名義行事的國家,以色列以及個人。 The lack of precise data in the OT with regard to the identification of this figure and his relationship to Yahweh has given rise to a number of conclusions.由於缺乏精確的數據在加時賽就確定,這個數字和他的關係,耶和華已引起了一些結論。 Eichrodt understands the presence of this figure in the literature of the OT as an attempt to express the concept of theophany in a less direct manner because of the early realization that it is impossible to see God. Eichrodt理解的存在,這個數字在文獻中的催產素是企圖表達的概念,神不那麼直接的方式,因為早日實現,這是無法看到的上帝。 Von Rad suggests that the figure may have been inserted into some of the older traditions in place of an original Canaanite numen.馮拉德認為,這個數字可能已被插入到一些舊傳統,取代原來迦南numen 。 However, this presupposes an already concrete idea of the concept and does not explain its origin or the nature of the concept in early Israelite religion.然而,這個前提已經具體想法的概念,並不說明其來源或性質的概念在早期以色列人的宗教。

Many understand the angel of the Lord as a true theophany.許多了解天使的上帝作為一個真正的神。 From the time of Justin on, the figure has been regarded as the preincarnate Logos.從時間上,該數字已被視為preincarnate標誌。 It is beyond question that the angel of the Lord must be identified in some way with God (Gen. 16:13; Judg. 6:14; 13:21-22), yet he is distinguished from God in that God refers to the angel (Exod. 23:23; 32:34), speaks to him (II Sam. 24:16; I Chr. 21:27), and the angel speaks to Yahweh (Zech. 1:12).這是毫無疑問的天使上帝必須確定以某種方式與神(創16:13 ; Judg 。 6時14分; 13:21-22 ) ,但他卻有別於上帝,上帝是指天使( Exod. 23:23 ; 32:34 ) ,講他(二山姆。 24:16 ,我染色體。 21:27 ) ,以及天使談到耶和華( Zech. 1:12 ) 。 The evidence for the view that the angel of the Lord is a preincarnate appearance of Christ is basically analogical and falls short of being conclusive.的證據認為,天使的上帝是一個preincarnate外觀基本上是基督類比,並遠遠低於目前定論。 The NT does not clearly make that identification.新台幣沒有明確使鑑定。 It is best to see the angel as a self-manifestation of Yahweh in a form that would communicate his immanence and direct concern to those to whom he ministered.最好是看到天使作為一個自我表現的耶和華的形式將其內在溝通和直接關心的那些人,他ministered 。

TE McComiskey電子McComiskey

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
H. Bietenhard et al., NIDNTT, I, 101-5; W. Eichrodt, Theology of the OT; P. Heinisch, Theology of the OT; G. von Rad, OT Theology.閣下Bietenhard等。 , NIDNTT ,我101-5 ;總統Eichrodt ,神學的加時賽;體育Heinisch ,神學的加時賽;灣馮儀,催產素神學。


Angel天使

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Angel, "a messenger" (from angello, "to deliver a message"), sent whether by God or by man or by Satan, "is also used of a guardian or representative in Rev. 1:20, cf. Matt. 18:10; Acts 12:15 (where it is better understood as 'ghost'), superior to man, Heb. 2:7; Ps. 8:5, belonging to Heaven, Matt. 24:36; Mark 12:25, and to God, Luke 12:8, and engaged in His service, Ps. 103:20. "Angels" are spirits, Heb. 1:14, ie, they have not material bodies as men have; they are either human in form, or can assume the human form when necessary, cf. Luke 24:4, with v. 23, Acts 10:3 with v. 30. "They are called 'holy' in Mark 8:38, and 'elect,' 1 Tim.安琪爾, “使者” (來自angello , “信息傳輸” ) ,發出是否由上帝或人或撒旦“ ,還用來監護人或代表在牧師1:20 ,比照。馬特。 18 : 10 ;行為12:15 (其中,這是更好地理解為'鬼' ) ,優於男子,河北。 2點07分;物質。 8點05 ,屬於天堂,馬特。 24:36 ;馬克12:25 ,和上帝,盧克12時08分,並從事他的服務,物質。 103:20 。 “天使”的精神,河北。一時14分,也就是說,他們沒有材料機構的男人,他們是不是人類的形式,或者可以假設人類的形式必要時,比照。路加24:4 ,與訴23日, 10時03行為與訴30 。 “他們所謂的'聖地'的馬克8時38分,和'選舉' 1蒂姆。 5:21, in contrast with some of their original number, Matt. 5時21分,與他們的一些原來的號碼,馬特。 25:41, who 'sinned,' 2 Pet. 25:41 ,誰是罪, ' 2寵物。 2:4, 'left their proper habitation,' Jude 6, oiketerion, a word which occurs again, in the NT, only in 2 Cor. 2:4 ,離開了他們適當的居住,裘德6 oiketerion ,一個字的再次出現,在NT中,只有2肺心病。 5:2. 5時02分。 Angels are always spoken of in the masculine gender, the feminine form of the word does not occur."天使總是談到在男性,女性形式的詞不會發生。 “

From Notes on Thessalonians, by Hogg and Vine, p.從債券尼迦,由霍格和藤蔓,第 229. 229 。

Note: Isangelos, "equal to the angels," occurs in Luke 20:36.注: Isangelos , “平等的天使” ,發生在盧克20:36 。


Jewish Angelology and Demonology猶太天使和魔鬼
The Fall of the Angels秋季的天使

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(from Appendix XIII From Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah (從附錄十三從生活和時代的耶穌救世主
by Alfred Edersheim, 1886)由阿爾弗雷德愛德生, 1886年)

(See vol. i. Book III. ch. ip 306.) (見卷。島第三卷。通道。知識產權306 。 )

WITHOUT here entering on a discussion of the doctrine of Angels of devils as present in Holy Scriptures, the Apocrypha, and the Pseudepigrapha, it will be admitted that considerable progression may be marked as we advance from even the latest Canonical to Apocryphal, and again from these to the Pseudepigraphic Writings.但在這裡進入了討論的理論,天使作為當前德弗爾斯聖經中的偽經,以及Pseudepigrapha ,這將是承認,相當進展可能會被標記,我們事先甚至最新的典型,以未經證實,並再次從這些著作的Pseudepigraphic 。 The same remark applies even more strongly to a comparison of the later with Rabbinic literature.同樣是適用於更強烈的比較後,拉比文獻。 There we have comparatively little of the Biblical in its purity.我們已經有相對較少的聖經在其純潔性。 But, added to it, we now find much that is the outcome of Eastern or of prurient imagination, of national conceit, of ignorant superstition, and of foreign, especially Persian, elements.但是,添加到它,現在我們找到很多的結果是東歐或prurient的想像力,民族自大,愚昧迷信的,和外國,特別是波斯,內容。

In this latter respect it is true, not, indeed, as regards the doctrine of good and evil Angels, but much of its Rabbinic elaboration, that 'the names of the Angels (and of the months) were brought form Babylon ' (Jer. Rosh. haSh. 56 d; Ber. r. 48), and with the 'names,' not a few of the notions regarding them.後者在這方面,它是真的,不是,實際上,對於理論的善和惡的天使,但它的許多拉比制定,即'的名字天使(和月)的形式被帶到巴比倫' ( Jer.羅什。哈希。 56 D節;蘇貝等。河48條) ,並與姓名,而不是少數人的觀念有關。 At the same time, it would be unjust to deny that mush of the symbolism which it is evidently intended to convey is singularly beautiful.與此同時,這將是不公正的否認,感傷的象徵它顯然是為了表達的奇異美麗。

I. ANGELOLOGY.一,天使。

1. 1 。 Creation, Number, Duration and Location of the Angels.創作,數量,時間和地點的天使。

We are now considering, not the Angel-Princes but that vast unnumbered 'Host' generally designated as 'the ministering Angels'.我們現在正在考慮,而不是天使,王子,但絕大多數未編號的'主機'一般指定為' ministering天使。 Opinions differ (Ber. R. 3) whether they were created on the second day as being 'spirit,' winds' (Ps. civ. 4), or on the fifth day (Is. vi. 2) in accordance with the words of Creation on those days.意見不一( Ber.河3 )是否設立了第二天就被'精神, '風' (詩篇持續輸注。 4 ) ,或第五天(群島六。 2 )根據關鍵詞創作的那些日子。 Viewed in reference to God's Service and Praise, they are 'a flaming fire': in regard to their office, winged messengers (Pirge de R. El. 4).閱讀中提及上帝的服務和讚美,他們是'一火火' :關於他們的辦公室,翼使者( Pirge德河薩爾瓦多。 4 ) 。 But not only so: every day ministering Angels are created, whose apparent destiny is only to raise the praise of God, after which they pass away into the fiery stream (Nahar deNur) whence they originally issued [1 This stream issued from under the throne of God, and is really the sweat of the 'living creatures' in their awe at the glory of God (Ber. R. 78).] (Chag. 14a; Ber. R. 78).但不僅如此:每天ministering創建的天使,其明顯的命運只有提高讚美上帝,之後他們過世的火流(阿拉伯文deNur )何處他們最初發出[ 1這流下發出王位上帝,和真的是汗水的'生物'的敬畏在榮耀上帝( Ber.河78 ) 。 ] ( Chag. 14A條;蘇貝等。河78 ) 。

More than this, a new Angel is created to execute to every behest of God, and then passeth away (Chag. us).以上這一點,一個新的天使是建立執行每一個上帝的指示,然後passeth以外( Chag.我們) 。 This continual new creation of Angels, which God, and then passeth allegory, partly savours of the doctrine of 'emanation,' is Biblical supported by an appeal to Lament.這個不斷創造新的天使,上帝,然後passeth寓言,部分savours理論的'氣'是聖經的支持,呼籲輓歌。 iii.三。 23. 23 。 Thus it may be said that daily a Kath, or company of Angels is created for daily service of God, and that every word which proceedeth from His mouth becomes an 'Angel' [Messenger, mark here the ideal unity of Word and Deed], (Chang. 14 a).因此可以說,每日Kath ,或天使公司創建的日常服務的上帝,這其中的每一個字proceedeth從他的嘴裡成為一個'天使' [信使,標誌著這裡的理想團結的言論和行動] ( Chang. 14 ) 。

The vast number of that Angelic Host, and the consequent safety of Israel as against its enemies, was described in the most hyperbolic language.廣大的天使主機,以及由此產生的安全對以色列的敵人,被稱為最誇張的語言。 There were 12 Mazzaloth (signs of the Zodiac), each having 30 chiefs of armies, each chief with 30 legions, each legion with 30 leaders, each leader with 30 captains, each captain with 30 under him, and each of these things with 365,000 stars, and all were created for the sake of Israel!共有12 Mazzaloth (跡象,十二生肖) ,每個有30個酋長軍隊,每個長30軍團,每個軍團30領導人,每個領導人, 30日隊長,每隊有30下了他,這些事情與36.5萬星級,並創造了所有,為了以色列! (Ber. 32. b.) ( Ber. 32 。灣)

Similarly, when Nebuchadnezzar proposed to ascend into heaven, and to exalt his throne above the stars, and be like the Most High, the Bath Qol replied to this grandson of Nimrod that man's age was 70, or at most 80 years, while the way from earth to the firmament occupied 500 years, [a In Jer.同樣,當尼布甲尼撒建議升天到天堂,發揚他的王位以上的星級,並最喜歡的高,生活質量的浴回答這個孫子尼姆羅德那個男人的年齡是70歲,或最多80年,而方式從地球向蒼穹被佔領的500年, [ a在哲。 Ber 2 c it is 50 years.] a thickness of the firmament was 500 years, the feet of the living creatures were equal to all that had preceded, and the joints of their feet to as many as had preceded them, and so on increasingly through all their members up to their horns, after which came the Throne of Glory, the feet of which again equaled all that had preceded, and so on (Chag. 13 a [b See also Pes. 94 b.]).小蘗鹼2架C這是50年。 ]厚度蒼穹是500年前,腳下的眾生都是平等的一切之前,以及關節腳多達之前他們,所以就越來越通過所有成員自己的喇叭後,出現了王座的榮耀,腳下的這再次等於一切之前,依此類推( Chag. 13 [ b見也瘟。 94灣] ) 。

[1 Some add the Cherubim as another and separate class.] In connection with this we read in Chag. [ 1一些新增革魯賓作為另一個單獨的類別。 ]在這方面,我們閱讀Chag 。 12 b that there are seven heavens: the Vdon, in which there is the sun; Riqia, in which the sun shines, and the moon, stars, and planets are fixed; Shechaqim, in which are the millstones to make the manna for the pious; Aebhul, in which the Upper Jerusalem, and the Temple and the Altar, and in which Michael, the chief Angel-Prince, offers sacrifices; Maon, in which the Angels of the Ministry are, who sing by night and are silent by day for the sake of the honour of Israel (who now have their services); Machon, in which are the treasuries of snow, hail, the chambers of noxious dews, and of the receptacles of water, the chamber of wind, and the cave of mist, and their doors are of fire; lastly, Araboth, wherein Justice, Judgment and Righteousness are, the treasures of Life, of Peace and of Blessing, the soul of the righteous, and the spirits and souls of those who are to be born in the future, and the dew by which the dead are to be raised. 12日乙有7天:在吟誦,其中有太陽; Riqia ,其中太陽,月亮,星星,行星是固定的; Shechaqim ,其中有millstones作出的甘露虔誠的; Aebhul ,其中上耶路撒冷,以及廟和祭壇,其中邁克爾,首席天使王子,提供犧牲; Maon ,其中天使部是誰唱的晚上是無聲的一天為了紀念以色列(誰現在他們的服務) ; Machon ,其中國債是雪,冰雹,商會有毒dews ,以及貯的水,風室,並洞穴薄霧,他們的門是防火;最後, Araboth ,其中司法,判斷和正義的,寶藏的生命,和平與祝福,靈魂的正義,以及精神和靈魂的人誰應出生於未來,露水,其中死者中有待提高。

There also are the Ophanim, and the Seraphim, and the living creatures and the ministering Angels, and the Throne of Glory and over them is enthroned the Great King.還有的Ophanim和天使,以及生物和ministering天使,以及王座的榮耀和他們的坐床大國王。 [For a description of this Throne and of the Appearance of its King, see Pirqe de R. Eliez. [如需說明這個王座和外觀的國王,見Pirqe德河Eliez 。 4.] On the other hand, sometimes every power and phenomenon in Nature is hypostatised into an Angel, such as hail, rain, wind, sea &c.; similarly, every occurrence, such as life, death, nourishment, poverty, nay, as it is expressed: there is not stalk of grass upon earth but it has its Angels in heaven 'Ber R. 10). 4 。 ]另一方面,有時每一個權力和現象的本質是hypostatised成為一個天使,如冰雹,暴雨,大風,海上和角;同樣,每一個發生,如生命,死亡,營養不良,貧困,不,因為它是表示:不存在莛經地球,但它擁有天使在天堂'貝河10 ) 。 This seems to approximate the views of Alexandrian Mysticism.這似乎近似的看法亞歷山大神秘主義。 So also, perhaps, the idea that certain Biblical heroes became after death Angels.因此,也或許,想法,某些聖經英雄死後成為天使。 But as this may be regarded as implying their service as messengers of God, we leave it for the present.但是,因為這可能被視為暗示他們的服務作為上帝的使者,我們離開本。

2. 2 。 The Angel-Princes, their location, names, and offices.天使,王子,他們的位置,名稱,和辦事處。

Any limitation, as to duration or otherwise, of the Ministering Angels does not apply either to the Ophanim (or wheel-angels), the Seraphim, the Cayoth (or living creatures), nor to the Angel-Princes (Ber. R. 78).任何限制,因為時間或其他的Ministering天使並不適用於任何的Ophanim (或輪椅天使)的天使,在Cayoth (或生物) ,也不是天使,王子( Ber.河78 ) 。 [2 According to Jer Ber. [ 2根據哲蘇貝等。 ix.九。 1, the abode of the living creatures was to an extent of 515 years' journey, which is proved from the numerical value of the word 'straight' (Ezek. i. 7).] In Chag. 1 ,居留權的生物是在一定程度515多年的歷程,這是證明從數值這個詞'直' ( Ezek.島7 ) 。 ]在Chag 。 13 a, b the name Chashamal is given to the 'living creatures.' 13甲,乙的名字Chashamal考慮的是'眾生。 The word is explained as composed of two other which mean silence and speech, it being beautifully explained, that they deep silence when the Word proceeds out of the mouth of God, and speak when He has ceased.這個詞解釋為組成的其他兩個,這意味著沉默和講話,被美麗解釋,他們深深沉默的Word時的收益口的上帝,和說話時,他已經停止。

It would be difficult exactly to state the number of the Angel-Princes.這將是難以完全狀態的數目天使王子。 The 70 nations, of which the world is composed, had each their Angel-Prince (Targ. Jer.on Gen xi.7, 8; comp. Ber. R. 56; Shem. R. 21; Vayyi. R. 29; Ruth R. ed. Warsh. p. 36 b), who plead their cause with God. 70個國家,其中世界組成,每個有其天使王子( Targ. Jer.on根xi.7 , 8 ;補償。蘇貝等。河56 ;閃。河21 ; Vayyi 。河29 ;露絲河版。沃什。第36頁b )項,誰懇求他們的事業與上帝。 Hence these Angels are really hostile to Israel, and may be regarded as not quite good Angels, and are cast down when the nationality which they represent is destroyed.因此,這些天使真的敵視以色列,並可能被視為不太好天使,並垂下的國籍時,他們所代表被摧毀。 It may have been as a reflection on Christian teaching that Israel was described as not requiring any representative with God, like the Gentiles.它可能已被作為一個基督教反思教學,以色列被描述為不要求任何代表上帝,像外邦人。 For, as will soon appear, this was not the general view entertained.因為,不久將出現,這不是一般的看法受理。

Besides these Gentiles Angel-Princes there were other chiefs, whose office will be explained in the sequel. Of these 5 are specially mentioned, of whom four surrounded the Throne of God: Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Uriel.除了這些外邦人天使王子有其他首領,他的辦公室將解釋的續集。 其中5特別提到,其中四人包圍了王座上帝:邁克爾,加布里埃爾,拉斐爾,並烏利爾。 But the greatest of all is Metatron, who is under the Throne, and before it. These Angels are privileged to be within the Pargod, or cloudy veil, while the others only hear the Divine commands or councils outside this curtain (Chag. 16 a, Pirque d. R. El. iv.). 但最大的問題是Metatron ,是誰下的王座,並在它的前面。這些天使有幸成為Pargod內,或多雲的面紗,而其他只有聆聽神聖的命令或議會外幕( Chag. 16 , Pirque金薩爾瓦多。四。 ) 。 It is a slight variation when the Targum Pseudo-Jonathan on Deut.這是一個略有變化時,根偽喬納森對Deut 。 xxxiv.三十四。 6 enumerates the following as the 6 principal Angels: Michael, Gabriel, Metatron, Yopheil, Uriel, and Yophyophyah.第6列舉了以下6個主要的天使:邁克爾,加布里埃爾, Metatron , Yopheil ,烏利爾,並Yophyophyah 。 The Book of Enoch (ch. xx.) speaks also of 6 principal Angels, while Pirque d.書伊諾克(章第xx 。 )還談到6主要天使,而Pirque d. R. Eliez.河Eliez 。 iv.四。 mentions seven.提到7 。

In that very curious passage (Berakhoth 51 a) we read of three directions given by Suriel, Prince of the Face, to preserve the Rabbis from the Techaspith (company of Evil Angels), or according to others, form Istalganith (another company of Evik Angels. In Chag. 132 b we read of an Angel called Sandalpon, who stands upon the earth, while his head reaches 500 years' way beyond the living creatures. He is supposed to stand behind the Merkabah (the throne-chariot), and make crowns for the Creator, which rise of their own accord. We also read of Sagsagel, who taught Moses the sacred Name of God, and was present at his death. But, confining ourselves to the five principal Angel-chiefs, we have,在這非常好奇通道( Berakhoth 51 )我們讀到的三個方向給予Suriel ,王子的臉,維護拉比從Techaspith (公司邪惡天使) ,或根據其他形式Istalganith (另一家公司的Evik天使。在Chag 。 132 b我們讀到的天使呼籲Sandalpon ,根據誰主張地球,而他的頭500年的道路以外的生物。他是站在後面的Merkabah (王位,戰車) ,以及使冠的造物主,這增加自己的協議。我們還讀到Sagsagel ,誰教摩西的神聖上帝的名稱,並出席了他的死亡。然而,局限於自己的五個主要天使長,我們有,

a. Metatron, [1 On the controversy on the meaning of the name Metatron, whether it means under the throne, or behind the throne, or is the same as Meatator, divider, arranger, representative, we will not enter.] who appears most closely to correspond to the Angel of the Face, or the Logos.字母a. Metatron , [ 1論爭議的含義Metatron的名稱,是否意味著下王位,或背後的王位,或者是相同的Meatator ,除法,編曲,有代表性的,我們將無法進入。 ]誰出現最密切的對應到天使的臉,或標識。 He is the representative of God.他是上帝的代表。 In the Talmud (Sanh. 38 b) a Christian is introduced as clumsily starting a controversy on this point, that, according to the Jewish contention, Exod.在塔木德( Sanh. 38 b )一個基督徒介紹了拙劣的爭論開始關於這一點,指出,根據猶太論點, Exod 。 xxiv. 24 。 1 should have read, 'Come up to Me.' 1應已閱讀, '來吧對我。

On this R. Idith explained that the expression referred to the Metatron (Exod. xxxiii. 21, but denied the inference that Metatron was either to be adored, or had power to forgive sins, or that he was to be regarded as a Mediator. In continuation of this controversy we are told (Chang. 15 a, b) that, when an apostate Rabbi had seen Metatron sitting in heaven, and would have interfered from it that there were two supreme powers, Metatron received from another Angel 60 fiery stripes so as to prove his inferiority! In Targ. Ps.-Jon. on Gen. v. 24 he is called the Great Scribe, and also the Prince of this world.在此河Idith解釋說,該表達提到Metatron ( Exod.三十三。 21 ,但否認了推斷, Metatron是不是被崇拜,或電力原諒的罪孽,或者說,他將被視為調解人。在繼續這一爭論我們被告知( Chang. 15 ,二) ,當叛教者拉比看到Metatron坐在天堂,會干擾它,有兩個最高權力, Metatron收到來自另一個天使60火熱的條紋以便證明自己的自卑!在Targ 。詩篇,喬恩。訴的將軍24日,他被稱為大雕,還有王子的這個世界。

He is also designated as 'the Youth,' and in the Kabbalah as 'the Little God,' who had 7 names like the Almighty, and shared His Majesty.他也被指定為'青年'和卡巴拉為'小上帝, '誰的七名稱,如萬能的,並共同陛下。 he is also called the 'Prince of the Face,' and described as the Angel who sits in the innermost chamber (Chang. 5 b), while the other Angels hear their commands outside the Veil (Chang. 16 a).他也被稱為'王子的臉,和形容為天使誰坐在裡面的房間( Chang.五b )項,而其他天使聽取他們的命令以外的面紗( Chang. 16 ) 。 He is represented as showing the unseen to Moses (Siphre. p. 141 a), and as instructing infants to the Midrash on Lamentation there is a revolting story in which Metatron is represented as proposing to shed tears in order that God might not have to weep over the destruction of Jerusalem, to which, however, the Almighty is made to refuse His assent.他是代表作為無形展示摩西( Siphre.第141頁一) ,並指示嬰兒的米德拉士的悲嘆有一種令人作嘔的故事,其中Metatron是代表作為建議流下了眼淚,以便上帝可能沒有來哭泣的破壞耶路撒冷,而不過,萬能的是拒絕他的同意。

We hesitate to quote further from the passage.我們毫不猶豫地報價進一步的通道。 In Siphre on Deut.在Siphre上Deut 。 (ed. freidm. p. 141 a) Metatron is said to have shown Moses the whole of Palestine. (編輯freidm 。第141頁一) Metatron據說已顯示出摩西整個巴勒斯坦。 He is alos said to have gone before Israel in the Wilderness.他是阿洛斯說,已經在以色列的荒野。

b. Michael ('who is like God?'), or the Great Prince (Chag. 12b).邁克爾 ( '誰就像是上帝? ' ) ,或大王子( Chag. 12B條) 。 He stands at the right hand of the throne of God.他站在右邊的寶座的上帝。 According to Targ.據Targ 。 Ps.-Jon. on Exod.詩篇,喬恩。對Exod 。 xxiv. 24 。 1, he is the Prince of Wisdom. 1 ,他是王子的智慧。 According to the Targum on Ps.據根在PS 。 cxxxvii. cxxxvii 。 7, 8, the Prince of Jerusalem, the representative of Israel. 7日, 8日,王子在耶路撒冷,以色列代表。 According to Sebach.據Sebach 。 62 a he offers upon the heavenly Altar; according to some, the soul of the pious; according to others, lambs of fire. 62 ,他提供的神聖祭壇,據一些人來說,靈魂的虔誠;根據給他人,羔羊火災。 But, although Michael is the Prince of Israel, he is not to be invoked by them (Jer. Ber. ix. 13 a).但是,儘管邁克爾親王以色列,他是不能由他們引用( Jer.蘇貝等。九。 13 ) 。 In Yoma 77 a we have an instance of his ineffectual advocacy for Israel before the destruction of Jerusalem.在山脈77 ,我們的一個實例,他徒勞無益的宣傳之前,以色列摧毀耶路撒冷。 The origin of his name as connected with the Song of Moses at the Red Sea is explained in Bemidb.起源他的名字作為與宋摩西在紅海解釋Bemidb 。 R. 2. Many instance of his activity are related.河2 。許多實例,他的活動有關。

Thus, he delivered Abraham from the fiery oven of Nimrod, and afterwards, also, the Three Children out of the fiery furnace.因此,他交付亞伯拉罕從火熱的尼姆羅德烤箱,事後,還三個孩子的火熱熔爐。 He was the principal or middle Angel of the three who come to announce to Abraham the birth of Isaac, Gabriel being at his right, and Raphael at his left.他是主要的或中等天使的三個誰來亞伯拉罕宣布的誕生艾薩克,加布里埃爾被他的權利,拉斐爾在他的左邊。 Michael also saved Lot.邁克爾還保存地段。 Michael and Gabriel wrote down that the primogeniture belonged to Jacob, and God confirmed it.邁克爾和加布里埃爾寫下的長子屬於雅各,上帝證實。 Michael and Gabriel acted as 'friends of the bridegroom' in the nuptials of Adam.邁克爾和加布里埃爾擔任的朋友的新郎,在婚禮亞當。 Yet they could not bear to look upon the glory of Moses.然而,他們不忍視的光榮摩西。 Michael is also supposed to have been the Angel in the bush (according to others, Gabriel).邁克爾還假定已經天使在叢林中(根據給他人,加布里埃爾) 。 At the death of Moses, Michael prepared his bier, Gabriel spread a cloth over the head of Moses, and Sagsagel over his feet.在死亡的摩西,邁克爾準備了啤酒,加布里埃爾傳播布頭上的摩西,和Sagsagel了他的腳下。

In the world to come Michael would pronounce the blessing over the fruits of Eden, then hand them to Gabriel, who would give them to the patriarchs, and so on to David.在未來世界的邁克爾會發音的祝福的果實的伊甸園,那麼一方面他們加布里埃爾,誰給他們的始祖,等等大衛。 The superiority of Michael over Gabriel is asserted in Ber.優越的邁克爾比加布里埃爾是在博斷言。 4 b, where, by an ingenious combination with Dan. 4號決議B ,在那裡,由一個巧妙的結合丹。 x. 13, it is shown that Is. 13 ,證明這是。 vi.六。 6 applies to him (both having the word, one). 6條適用的對他(包括有一句話,一個) 。 It is added that Michael flies in one fight, Gabriel in two, Elijah in four, and the Angel of Death in eight flights (no doubt to give time for repentance).這是邁克爾說,蒼蠅在一個戰鬥,在兩個加布里埃爾,以利亞在四個,而且死亡天使在8個航班(毫無疑問,以便有時間悔改) 。

c. Gabriel ('the Hero of God') represents rather judgment, while Michael represents mercy.加布里埃爾 ( '英雄上帝' )代表,而判斷,而邁克爾代表手軟。 Thus he destroyed Skodom (Bab. Mex. 86 b, and other places).因此,他摧毀Skodom ( Bab.墨西哥。 86 b和其他地方) 。 He restored to Tamar the pledges of Judah, which Sammael had taken away (Sot. 10 b). He struck the servants of the Egyptian princess, who would have kept their mistress from taking Moses out of the water (Sot. 12 b); also Moses, that he might cry and so awaken pity.他恢復到添馬艦的認捐猶大,這Sammael拿走( Sot. 10個b )項。擊中他的僕人的埃及公主,誰保持其情婦採取摩西出水面( Sot. 12個b )款;還摩西,他可能哭,因此喚醒可惜。 According to some, it was he who delivered the Three Children; but all are agreed that he killed the men that were standing outside the furnace.據一些,這是誰,他提供了三個孩子,但都一致認為,他殺死的男子是站在爐。 He also smote the army of Sennacherib.他還smote軍隊的森納赫里布。

The passage in Ezek.通過在Ezek 。 x. 2, 7 was applied to Gabriel, who had received from the Chureb two coals, which, however, he retained for six years, in the hope that Israel might repent. 2 , 7個適用於加布里埃爾,誰收到了來自Chureb兩個煤,然而,他保留了六年,希望以色列可能後悔。 [a Gabriel was also designated Itmon, because he stops up the sing of Israel (Sanh. 45 b).] He is supposed to be referred to in Ezek. [一個加布里埃爾還被指定Itmon ,因為他停止了歌唱,以色列( Sanh. 45 b )項。 ]他應該是中提到的Ezek 。 ix.九。 4 as affixing the mark on the forehead which is a drawn, in the wicked, in blood (Shabb. 55 a). 4貼商標的額頭這是一個制定,在邪惡的,在血液( Shabb. 55 ) 。 We are also told that he had instructed Moses about making the Candlestick, on which occasion he had put on an apron, like a goldsmith; and that he had disputed with Michael about the meeting of a word.我們還得知,他已指示有關摩西使燭台,這一次他把圍裙,像一個金; ,他與邁克爾有爭議的有關會議的一個字。 To his activity the brining of fruits to maturity is ascribed, perhaps because he was regarded as made of fire, while Michael was made of snow (Deb. R. 5).他的活動,引進的水果成熟原因是,也許是因為他被視為了火災,而邁克爾是雪( Deb.河5 ) 。

These Angels are supposed to stand beside each other, without the fire of the one injuring the snow of the other.這些天使理應站在對方,而不火的一個受傷的雪其他。 The curious legend is connected with him (Shabb. 56 b, Sanh. 21 b), that, when Solomon married the daughter of Pharaoh, Gabriel descended into the sea, and fixed a reed in it, around which a mudbank gathered, on which a forest sprang up.好奇的傳說是與他( Shabb. 56 b , Sanh 。 21 b )項,在所羅門群島的女兒結婚的法老,加布里埃爾後裔入海,和固定蘆葦中,大約有mudbank聚集一堂,就森林跳起來。 On this site imperial Rome was built.在這個網站上羅馬帝國建立。 The meaning of the legend, or perhaps rather allegory, seems (as explained in other parts of this book) that, when Israel began to decline from God, the punishment through its enemies was prepared, which culminated in the dominion of Rome.所指的傳說,或者而是寓言,似乎(如在其他地區的這本書) ,當以色列開始下降,從上帝,懲罰通過其敵人準備,終於在羅馬統治。 In the future age Gabriel would hunt and slay Leviathan.在未來年齡加布里埃爾將追捕和殺死利維坦。 This also may be a parabolic representation of the destruction of Israel's enemies.這也可能是一個拋物線的代表性摧毀以色列的敵人。

d. Of Uriel ('God is my light') and Raphael ('God heals') it need only be said, that the one stands at the left side of the Throne of glory, the other behind it.烏利爾 ( '上帝是我的輕' )和拉斐爾 ( '上帝痊癒' )它只需要說,一個站在左邊王座的榮耀,其他後面。 [1 The names of the four Angel-Princess, Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, and Raphael, are explained in Bemid. [ 1姓名的四個天使公主,邁克爾,加布里埃爾,烏利爾,以及拉斐爾,解釋Bemid 。 R. 2.]河2 。 ]

3. 3 。 The Ministering Angels and their Ministry.天使的Ministering及其部。

The ministry of the Angels may be divided into two parts, that of praising God, and that of executing His behests.內政部的天使可分為兩個部分,即讚美上帝,並執行他的遺志。 In regard to the former, there are 684,000 myriads who daily praise the Name of God.關於前者,有68.4萬無數讚美誰每天以上帝的名義。 From sunrise to sundown they say: Holy, holy, holy, and from sundown to sunrise: Blessed bore the Glory of God from its place.從日出到日落他們說:羅馬,神聖的,神聖的,從日落到日出:祝福負有光榮的上帝從它的位置。 In connection with this we may mention the beautiful allegory (Shem. R. 21) that the Angel of prayer waves crowns for God out of the prayer of Israel.在這方面我們會提到美麗的寓言( Shem.河21日)表示,天使的祈禱冠波神的祈禱以色列。 As to the execution of the Divine commands by the Angels, it is suggested (Aboth d. R. Nathan 8, that their general designation as ministering Angels might have led to jealousy among them.至於執行命令的神聖的天使,因此建議( Aboth金彌敦道8日,他們一般指定為ministering天使可能導致它們之間的嫉妒。

Accordingly, their names were always a composition of that of God with the special commission entrusted to them (Shem. r. 29), so that the name of each Angel depended in Yalkut (vol. ii. Par. 797), where we are told that each Angel has a tablet on his heart, in which the Name of God and that of the Angel is combined.因此,他們的名字總是一個組成的神與特別委員會委託給他們( Shem.河29 ) ,因此,每一個名字天使取決於Yalkut (第二卷。桿。 797 ) ,在那裡我們是告訴每一個天使有一個片對他的心,其中以上帝的名義和天使的結合。 This change of names explained the answer of the Angel to Manoah (Bemidb. R. 10).這種變化的名稱解釋答案的天使,以Manoah ( Bemidb.河10 ) 。 It is impossible to enumerate all the instance of Angelic activity recorded in Talmudic writings.這是不可能列舉所有的實例天使活動記錄在塔木德的著作。 Angels had performed the music at the first sacrifice of Adam; they had announced the consequences of his punishment; they had cut off the hands and feet of the serpent; they had appeared to Abraham in the form of a baker, a sailor, and an Arab.天使的表現音樂的第一犧牲的亞當;他們已宣布的後果,他的處罰;他們已經切斷了手和腳的蛇,它們似乎亞伯拉罕的形式麵包,一個水手,並阿拉伯。

120,000 of them had danced before Jacob when he left Laban; 4,000 myriads of them were ready to fight for him against Esau; 22,000 of them descended on Sinai and stood beside Israel when, in their terror at the Voice of God, they fled for twelve miles. 120000的人跳舞時,雅各布之前,他離開班; 4000無數人準備戰鬥,他對以掃; 22000人後裔的西奈半島和以色列站在旁邊時,他們的恐怖之聲上帝,他們逃離12英里。 Angels were directed to close the gates of heaven when the prayer of Moses with the All-powerful, Ineffable Name in it, which he had learn from Sagsagel, would have prevented his death.天使是針對關閉閘門天堂祈禱時,摩西與全功能強大,無法形容的名稱中,這是他學習Sagsagel ,將會阻止他的死亡。 Finally, as they were pledged to help Israel, so would they also punish every apostate Israelite.最後,他們承諾將幫助以色列,所以將它們也懲治一切叛教以色列人。 Especially would they execute that most terrible punishment of throwing souls to each other from one word to another.尤其是他們會執行這一最可怕的懲罰投擲的靈魂彼此從一個字到另一個。

By the side of these debasing superstitions we come upon beautiful allegories, such sa that a good and an evil Angel always accompanied man, but especially on the eve of the Sabbath when he returned from the Synagogue, and that for every precept he observed God sent him a protecting Angel. This is realistically developed in Pirke d.一邊貶低這些迷信後,我們來到美麗的寓言,如山,一個良好和邪惡的天使總是伴隨的人,但特別是在前夕安息日當他回來的猶太教堂,並為每個戒律他指出上帝派遣他的保護天使。這是現實發展的Pirke d. R. El.河薩爾瓦多。 15, where the various modes and time which the god Angels keep man from destruction are set forth. 15日,那裡的各種方式和時間,神讓天使男子破壞規定。

It is quite in accordance with what we know of the system of Rabbinism, that the heavenly host should be represented as forming a sort of consultative Sanhedrin.這是非常符合我們所知道的Rabbinism制度,即天上的東道國應派形成了一種諮商公會。 Since God never did anything without first taking counsel with the family above (Sanh. 38 b,) [2 According to Jer.自從上帝從來沒有任何事情首先考慮的律師與家庭以上( Sanh. 38 b ) [ 2根據哲。 Ber.蘇貝等。 ix.九。 7 (p. 14 b), God only takes counsel with His Sanhedrin when He takes away, not when He giveth (Job i. 21), and it is argued that, wherever the expression 'and Jehovah' occurs, as in the last clause of 1 Kings xxii. 7 (第14頁b )項,上帝只需要與他的律師公會時,他帶走,而不是當他giveth (作業島21歲) ,有人認為,只要表達和耶和華的發生,因為在過去條款列王紀上22 。 23m ut n eabs God His Sanhedrin.] it had been so when He resolved to create man. 2300 UT斯達康ñ eabs上帝他公會。 ]已經因此,當他決心創造的人。 Afterward the Angels had interceded for Adam, and, when God pointed to his disobedience, they had urged that thus death would also come upon Moses and Aron, who were sinless, since one fate must come to the just and the unjust.後來天使為制止了亞當,並指出當上帝對他不服從,他們已敦促死亡,從而也將根據摩西和阿隆,誰是無罪的,因為人的命運必須公正和不公正的。 Similarly, they had intercede for Isaac, when Abraham was about to offer him and finally dropped there tears on the sacrificial knife, by which its edge became blunted.同樣,他們已經為伊薩克調解時,亞伯拉罕正要給他,最後下跌有眼淚的祭祀刀,其中優勢成為減弱。 And so through the rest of Israel's history, where on all critical occasion Jewish legend introduces the Angels on the scene.通過和其他以色列的歷史,在所有關鍵時刻猶太傳說介紹了天使現場。

4. 4 。 Limitation of the power of the Angels.限制權力的天使。

According to Jewish ideas, the faculties, the powers, and even the knowledge of Angels were limited.根據猶太人的想法,院系的權力,甚至是知識的天使是有限的。 They are, indeed, pure spiritual beings (Vayyikra R. 24), without sensuous requirements (Yoma 75 b), without hatred, envy, or jealousy (Clhag. 14), and without sin (Pirqe d. R. El. 46).事實上,純精神的人( Vayyikra河24 ) ,而感性的要求(山脈75 b )項,不帶任何仇恨,嫉妒,或嫉妒( Clhag. 14 ) ,並在罪孽( Pirqe金薩爾瓦多。 46 ) 。 They know much, notably the future (Ab. d. R. Nath. 37), and have in the Divine Light.他們知道的不多,尤其是未來( Ab.金納特。 37歲) ,並已在神聖的光。 Tyey live on the beams of the Divine Glory (Bem. R. 21), are not subject t our limitatious as to movement, see but are not seen (A bd R. Nath. us), can turn their face to any side (Ab. d. R. Nath. 37), and only appear to share in our ways, such as in eating (Bar. R. 48). Tyey就住在梁神的榮耀( Bem.河21條) ,不受我們limitatious噸,以運動,見,但沒有看到(甲藍光河納特。我們) ,可以把他們面臨的任何一方(抗體。金納特。 37歲) ,以及只出現在我們的共享方式,如飲食( Bar.河48 ) 。

Still, in many respects they are inferior to Israel, and had been employed in ministry (Ber. R. 75).不過,在許多方面處於劣勢,他們到以色列,並已僱用部( Ber.河75 ) 。 They were unable to give names to the animals, which Adam did (Priqe d. R. El. 13).但他們無法給名字的動物,它沒有亞當( Priqe金薩爾瓦多。 13 ) 。 Jocob had wrestled with the Angel and prevailed over him when the Angel wept (Chull. 95 a). Jocob了扭打的天使和壓倒他當天使哭泣( Chull. 95 ) 。 Thus it was rather their nature than their powers or dignity which distinguished them from man.因此,它們的性質,而不是自己的權力或尊嚴,尊敬他們的人。 No angel could do two messages at the same time (Ber. R. 50). In general they are merely instruments blindly to do a certain work, not even beholding the Throne of Glory (Bemidb. R. 14), but needed mutual assistance (Vayyikia R. 31).沒有天使可以做兩個信息在同一時間( Ber.河50 ) 。總的來說它們只是手段盲目做了一定工作,甚至沒有beholding的王座榮耀( Bemidb.河14 ) ,但需要相互援助( Vayyikia河31條) 。

They are also liable to punishments (Chag. 16 a).他們也屬處罰( Chag. 16 ) 。 Thus, they were banished from their station for 138 years, because they had told Lot that God would destroy Sodom, while the Angel-Princes of the Gentiles were kept in chains till the days of Jeremiah.因此,他們被放逐站從138多年來,因為他們曾告訴地段,上帝將摧毀所多瑪,而天使王子的外邦人被關押在連鎖店,直到天的耶利米。 As regards their limited knowledge, with the exception of Gabriel, they do not understand Chaldee or Syriac (Sot. 33 a).至於他們的知識有限,但加布里埃爾,他們不明白Chaldee或敘利亞( Sot. 33 ) 。 The realistic application of their supposed ignorance on this score need not here be repeated (see Shabb. 12 b).實際應用其理應對這個無知的評分在這裡沒有必要重複(見Shabb 。十二日b )項。 As the Angels are inferior to the righteous, it follows that they are so to Israel.正如天使處於劣勢的正義,因此,它們是以色列。 God had informed the Angels that the creation of man was superior to theirs, and it had excited their envy.上帝告訴天使,創造男子優於自己,並激發了他們的羨慕。 Adam attained a place much nearer to God than they, and God loved Israel more than the Angels.亞當達到的地方非常接近上帝比他們,上帝愛以色列超過天使。 And God had left all the ministering Angels in order to come to Moses, and when He communicated with him it was directly, and the Angels standing between them did not hear what passed.上帝已經離開所有ministering天使為了來摩西,當他與他溝通是直接和天使站在他們之間並沒有聽到什麼過去了。

In connection with this ministry of the Angels on behalf of Biblical heroes a curious legend may here find its place.在這方面部天使的名義聖經英雄一個奇怪的傳說在這裡可以找到它的位置。 From a combination of Ex.從結合惠。 xviii.十八。 4 with Ex. ii. 4 ,惠。二。 15 the strange inference was made that Moses had actually been seized by Pharaoh. 15奇怪的推論是,摩西實際上已被扣押的法老。 Two different accounts of how he escaped from his power are given.兩種不同的帳目他如何擺脫他的權力得到。 According to the one, the sword with which he was to be executed rebounded from the neck of Moses, and was broken, to which Cant.據一個劍與他是被處決的反彈,從摩西的脖子,並被打破,而公會。 vii. ㈦ 。 5 was supposed to refer, it being added that the rebound killed the would-be executioner.五是要提及,它正在補充說,死亡的反彈將成為劊子手。 According to another account, an Angel took the place of Moses, and thus enabled him to fly, his flight being facilitated by the circumstances that all the attendants of the king were miraculously rendered either dumb, deaf, or blind, so that they could not execute the behest of their master.另據帳戶,天使取代了摩西,從而使他能飛,他的飛行正在推動的情況下,所有乘務員國王被奇蹟般地使要么啞,聾,或者盲目的,所以,他們不能執行的遺志,他們的主人。

Of this miraculous interposition Moses is supposed to have been reminded in Ex.這一奇蹟般的干預摩西是已在惠提醒。 iv.四。 11, for hid encouragement in undertaking his mission ot Pharaoh. 11日,為鼓勵藏在他的使命進行加時賽法老。 In the exaggeration of Jewish boastfulness in the Law, it was said that the Angels had wished to receive the Law, but that they had not been granted this privilege (Job xxviii. 21). And sixty myriads of Angels had crowned with two crowns every Israelite who at Mount Sinai had taken upon himself the Law (Shabb. 88 a).在誇張的猶太boastfulness法中,有人說,天使有希望得到的法律,但他們沒有獲得這一特權(作業二十八。 21 ) 。第六十一無數天使已圓滿每兩冠誰以色列人在西奈山時採取了自己的法律( Shabb. 88 ) 。 In view of all VOL.鑑於所有卷。 ii.二。 this we need scarcely mention the Rabbinic prohibition to address to the Angels prayers, even although they bore them to heaven (Jer. Ber. ix. 1), or to make pictorial representations of them (Targ. Ps-Jon. on Ex. xx. 23; Mechilta on the passage, ed. Weiss, p. 80 a).為此,我們需要很少提及拉比禁止處理的天使祈禱,甚至儘管他們承擔他們天堂( Jer.蘇貝等。九。 1 ) ,或使圖案交涉人( Targ.聚苯乙烯喬恩。於前。二十。 23 ; Mechilta的通道,版。維斯, 80頁) 。

5. 5 。 The Angels are not absolutely good.天使沒有絕對好的。

Strange as it may seem, this is really the view expressed by the Rabbis.奇怪的,因為它看起來可能,這是真正所表達的觀點拉比。 Thus it is said that, when God consulted the Angels, they opposed the creation of man, and that, for this reason, God had concealed from them that man would sin.因此,它是說,當上帝的天使協商,反對建立男子,而且,由於這個原因,上帝隱瞞了他們的那個男人將罪孽。 but more than this, the Angels had actually conspired for the fall of man (the whole of this is also related in Pirqe d. R. El. 13). Nor had their jealous and envy been confined to that occasion.但超過這一點,實際上天使的陰謀下滑的人(整個這也是有關的Pirqe金薩爾瓦多。 13 ) 。也沒有他們的嫉妒和羨慕被局限在那個場合。 They had accused Abraham, that, when he gave a great feast at the weaning of Isaac, he did not even offer to God a bullock or a goat.他們指責亞伯拉罕,當他一個偉大的節日以撒斷奶,他甚至沒有向上帝一牛或一隻山羊。 Similarly, they had laid charges against Ishmael, in the hope that he might be left to perish of thirst.同樣,他們已經落案起訴伊斯梅爾,希望他可能會留給亡的渴求。

They had expostulated with Jacob, because he went to sleep at Bethel.他們expostulated與雅各,因為他去睡覺時伯特利。 But especially had they, from envy, opposed Moses' ascension into heaven; they had objected to his being allowed to write down the Law, falsely urging that Moses would claim the glory of it for himself, and they are represented, in a strangely blasphemous manner, as having been with difficulty appeared by God.但是,他們是從嫉妒,反對摩西升天到天堂,他們曾反對他被允許寫下來的法律,虛假敦促摩西將索賠的光榮,它為自己和他們的代表,一個奇怪的褻瀆的方式,已出現困難的上帝。 In Shabb.在Shabb 。 88 b we have an account of how Mosses pacified the Angels, by showing that the Law was not suitable for them, since they were not subject to sinful desires, upon which they became the friends of Moses, and each taught him some secret, among others the Angel of death how to arrest the pestilence. 88 b ,我們有一個帳戶是如何安撫苔蘚植物的天使,表明該法不適合他們,因為他們沒有受到罪孽深重的慾望時,他們成為了朋友,摩西,每個教他一些秘密,除其他的天使的死亡如何逮捕瘟疫。 Again, it is said, that the Angels were wont to bring charges against Israel, and that, when Manasseh wished to repent, the Angels shut the entrance to heaven , so that his prayer might not penetrate into the presence of God.再次,這是說,天使的習慣,使針對以色列的指控,並說,當瑪希望思悔改,天使關閉的入口處天堂,所以,他的祈禱可能不會滲透到存在的上帝。

Equally profane, though in another direction, is the notion that Angels might be employed for magical purposes.同樣的褻瀆,但在另一個方向,是天使概念,即可以採用神奇的目的。 This had happened at the siege of Jerusalem under Nebuchadnezzar, when, after the death of that mighty hero Abika, the son of Gaphteri, Chananeel, the uncle of Jeremiah, had conjured up ministering Angels, who affrighted the Chaldees into flight. On this God had changed their names, when Chananeel, unable any longer to command their services, had summoned up the Prince of the World by using the Ineffable Name, and lifted Jerusalem into the air, but God had trodden it down again, to all which Lam.這是發生在耶路撒冷的包圍下尼布甲尼撒時,去世後,這一強大的英雄Abika的兒子, Gaphteri , Chananeel ,大叔耶利米,有別有用心的行動ministering天使,誰的查爾德斯affrighted到飛行。在這個上帝改變了自己的名字時, Chananeel ,不能再指揮其服務,已經傳喚了王子的世界用說不出姓名,並取消耶路撒冷到空氣中,但上帝已經走過它再次下跌,這對所有林。 ii.二。 1 referred (Yalk. vol. ii. p. 166 c and d, Par. 1001).一提到( Yalk.卷。二。第166頁C和D ,標準桿。 1001 ) 。

The same story is repeated in another place (p. 167, last line of col. c, and col. d), with the addition that the leading inhabitants of Jerusalem had proposed to defend the city by conjuring up the Angels of Water and Fire, and surrounding their city with walls of water, of fire, or of iron; but their hopes were disappointed when God assigned to the Angel names different from those which they had previously possessed, so that when called upon they were unable to do what was expected of them.同樣的故事一再在另一個地方(第167頁,最後一行的山口。 c和山口。 d )項,再加上領先的耶路撒冷居民提出了保衛城市的變戲法的天使水和火,和周圍的牆壁城市的水,火,或鐵,但他們的希望感到失望時,分配給上帝的天使的名字不同於他們以前擁有的,這樣,當要求他們不能做什麼對它們的期望。

6. 6 。 The Names of the Angels.姓名的天使。

Besides those already enumerated, we may here mention, [1 Akhtariel , perhaps 'the crown of God,' seems to be the name given to the Deity (Ber. 7 a).] the Sar ha-Olam , or 'Prince of the World' (Yeb. 16 b); the Prince of the Sea, whose name is supposed to have been Rahab , and whom God destroyed because he had refused to receive the waters which had covered the world, and the small of whose dead body would kill every one if it were not covered by water. Dumah is the Angel of the realm of the dead (Ber. 18 b).除了那些已經列舉,我們可以在這裡提及, [ 1 Akhtariel ,也許'皇冠上的上帝, '似乎是名稱的神( Ber. 7 ) 。 ]的范德薩公頃, Olam ,或者'王子世界' ( Yeb. 16 b )款;王子海,他的名字是已拉哈伯 ,並摧毀了其中上帝,因為他拒絕接受水域已涵蓋了世界,和小的,其屍體將殺死每一個如果不是被水覆蓋。 度瑪是天使的境界,死亡( Ber. 18 b )項。 When the soul of the righteous leaves the body, the ministering Angels announce it before God, Who deputes them to meet it.當靈魂離開正義的身體, ministering天使宣布上帝面前,誰deputes它們能夠滿足它。

Three hosts of Angels then proceed on this errand, each quoting successively one clause of Is.三東道主天使接著對這個差事,每一個引用先後條款是。 lvii.第五十七。 2. On the other hand, when the wicked leave the body, they are met by three hosts of destroying Angels, one of which repeats Is. 2 。另一方面,當邪惡的假體,它們是由三個東道主摧毀天使,其中之一是重複。 xlviii.四十八。 22, another Is. 22日,另一名。 1. 1 。 11, and the third Ezek. 11日,第三次Ezek 。 xxxii. 19 (Keth. 104 a).三十二。 19 ( Keth. 104 a )條。 Then the souls of all the dead, good or bad, are handed over to Dumah. Yorqemi is the Prince of hail. He had proposed to cool the fiery furnace into which the Three Children were cast, but Gabriel had objected that this might seem a deliverance by natural means, and being himself the Prince of the fire, had proposed, instead of this, to make the furnace cold within and hot without, in order both to deliver the Three Children and to destroy those who watched outside (Pes. 118 a and b) [1 It is said that Gabriel had proposed in this manner of deliver Abraham when in similar danger at the hands of Nimrod.然後,靈魂的所有死了,好還是壞,交給度瑪。 Yorqemi王子是冰雹。他提出了以冷卻爐到火熱的三個孩子都是演員,但加布里埃爾表示反對,這可能似乎是解脫自然的手段,正在自己的王子的火災,曾提議,而不是這一點,使爐膛內冷不熱,以便雙方提供的3個孩子和銷毀這些誰看著外面( Pes. 118 A和B ) [ 1有人說,加布里埃爾提出了這種方式的亞伯拉罕時提供類似危險的手中尼姆羅德。

And, although God had by His own Hand delivered the patriarch, yet Gabriel had obtained this as the reward of his proposal, that he was allowed to deliver the Three Children from the fiery furnace.] Ridya , or Rayda is the Angel of rain.而且,雖然上帝已經由他自己的手交付了家長,但加布里埃爾獲得了這一獎勵作為他的提議,他被允許提供的三個孩子從火熱爐。 ] RidyaRayda是天使的降雨。 One of the Rabbis professed to describe him from actual vision as like a calf whose lips were open, standing between the Upper and the Lower, Let you waters springs up.一個拉比聲稱來形容他從實際眼光像小腿的嘴唇被打開,站在之間的上,下,讓您水域溫泉了。 The representation of this Angel as a calf may be due to the connection between rain and ploughing, and in connection with this may it be notices that Rayda means both a plough and ploughing (TAan. 25 b).代表這個天使的小腿可能是由於下雨之間的聯繫和耕耘,並在這方面可能是通知Rayda指一個犁和春耕( TAan. 25 b )項。

Of other Angels we will only name the Ruach Pisqonith , or Spirit of decision, who is supposed to have made most daring objection to what God had said, Ezek.其他天使我們只會名稱Ruach Pisqonith ,或精神的決定,誰理應作出了最大膽反對了什麼上帝說, Ezek 。 xvi.十六。 3, in which he is defended by the Rabbis, since his activity had been on behalf of Israel (Sanh. 44 b); Naqid , the Angel of Food; Nabhel , the Angel of Poverty; the two Angels of Healing; the Angel of Dreams, Lailah ; and even the Angel of Lust. 3 ,在他捍衛的拉比,因為他的活動已代表以色列( Sanh. 44 b )款; Naqid ,該天使食品; Nabhel ,該天使貧窮;兩個天使的癒合;的天使夢, Lailah ; ,甚至慾望的天使。 [a See also the names of the five angels of destruction of whom Moses was afraid on his descent from the mount. [一個也見的姓名五個天使的破壞,其中摩西害怕他的後裔從安裝。 Against three of them the thrice Patriarchs were to fight, God Himself being asked , or else proposing, to combat along with Moses against the other two (Sanh. R. 41; 44)對其中3人的始祖了三次打擊,上帝被要求,否則,建議,以打擊與摩西對其他兩個( Sanh.河41 ; 44 )

It is, of course, not asserted that all these grossly materialistic superstitious and profane views were entertained in Palestine, or at the time of our Lord, still less that they are shared by educated Jews in the West.當然,不是說,所有這些嚴重的物質和世俗的迷信觀點是受理在巴勒斯坦,或在當時我們的上帝,更是他們共同的受過教育的猶太人在西岸。 But they certainly date from Talmudic times; they embody the only teaching of Rabbinic writings about the Angels which possess, and hence, whencesoever introduce, or however developed, their roots must be traced back to far earlier times than those when they were propounded in Rabbinic Academies.但是,他們肯定日期從塔木德時間,他們不僅體現了教學的拉比著作的天使擁有,因此, whencesoever介紹,或者多麼發達,其根源必須追溯到時間遠遠早較時,他們提出在拉比書院。 All the more that modern Judaism would indignantly repudiate them, do they bear testimony against Rabbinic teaching.所有的更現代的猶太教會憤怒地駁斥他們,他們證明對拉比教學。 And one thing at least must be evident, for the sake of which we have undertaken the task of recording at such length views and statements repugnant to all reverent feeling.一件事,並至少應明顯,為了我們已經開展的工作記錄了這麼長的意見和報表令人厭惡的所有虔誠的感覺。

The contention of certain modern writers that the teaching about Angels in the New Testament is derived from, and represents Jewish notions must be perceived to be absolutely groundless and contrary to fact.在爭論的某些現代作家的教學天使在新約聖經是來自,代表猶太人的概念必須被認為是絕對沒有根據,違背事實。 In truth, the teaching of the New Testament on the subject of Angels represents, as compared with that of the Rabbis, not only a return to the purity of Old Testament teaching, but, we might almost say, a new revelation.事實上,教學的新約全書的主題天使代表,相比之下,在拉比,不僅是一個返回的純潔性舊約教學,但是,我們幾乎可以說,一個新的啟示。

II.二。 SATANOLOGY AND FALL OF THE ANGELS. SATANOLOGY和秋季的天使。

The difference between the Satanology of the Rabbis and of the New Testament is , if possible, even more marked than that in their Angelology.之間的差異Satanology的拉比和新約全書是,如果可能的話,甚至更為明顯高於他們的天使。 In general we note that, with the exception of the word Satan, none of the names given to the great enemy in the New Testament occurs in Rabbinic writing. More important still, the latter contain no mention of a Kingdom of Satan.總的來說,我們注意到,除了這個詞撒旦,沒有名字,向偉大的敵人在新約中出現拉比書面形式。更重要的是,後者包含沒有提到撒旦王國。 In other words, the power of the evil is not contrasted with that of good, nor Satan with God.換言之,權力的邪惡是沒有對照的是良好的,也不撒旦與上帝。 The devil is presented rather as the enemy of man, than of God and of good.魔鬼提出,而作為敵人的人,不是神和好。

This marks a fundamental difference.這標誌著一個根本性的差別。 The New Testament sets before us two opposing kingdoms, or principles, which exercise absolute sway over man.新約全書集擺在我們面前的兩個對立的王國,或原則,它行使的絕對支配的人。 Christ is 'the Stronger one' who overcometh 'the strong man armed,' and taken from him not only his spoils, but his armour (St. Luke xi. 21, 22).基督是'強之一'誰overcometh '的強大武裝的人,並採取了從他不僅他的戰利品,但他的盔甲(聖盧克喜。 21日, 22日) 。 It is a moral contest in which Satan is vanquished, and the liberation of his subjects is the consequence of his own subdual.這是一個道義上的競賽中撒旦是失敗者,和解放他的臣民的後果是他自己的征服。 This implies the deliverance of man from the power of the enemy, not only externally but internally, and substitution of a new principle of spiritual life for the old one.這意味著解脫的人從權力的敵人,不僅國外,但國內,並取代了新原則的精神文化生活的舊。 It introduces a moral element, both as the ground and as the result of the contest.它介紹了一種道德因素,既作為地面和由於比賽。

From this point of view the difference between the New Testament and Rabbinism cannot be too much emphasized, and it is no exaggeration to say that this alone, the question here being one of principle not of details, would mark the doctrine of Christ as fundamentally divergent from, and incomparably superior to, that of Rabbinism.從這個角度看之間的差別和新約Rabbinism不能過多強調,這是毫不誇張地說,僅此,這個問題在這裡得到一個原則而不是細節,將標誌著基督的學說作為根本分歧從和無比優越,即Rabbinism 。 'Whence hath this Man this wisdom?' '何處上帝這個人這個智慧? ' Assuredly, it may be answered, not from His contemporaries.當然,可以回答,而不是從他的同時代人。

Since Rabbinism viewed the 'great enemy' only as the envious and malicious opponent of man, the spiritual element was entirely eliminated.自Rabbinism認為'偉大的敵人'不僅是羨慕和惡意反對的人,精神因素是完全消除。 [1 An analogous remark would apply to Jewish teaching about the good angels, who are rather Jewish elves than the high spiritual beings of the Bible.] Instead of the personified principle of Evil, to which there is response in us, and of which all have some experience, we have only a clumsy and, to speak plainly, often a stupid hater. [ 1類似的言論將適用於猶太人教學的好天使,誰是猶太人,而精靈比人高的精神聖經。 ]相反的人格化原則的邪惡,這是我們的反應,以及所有有一些經驗,我們只有一個笨拙,並講清楚,往往是一個愚蠢的厭惡。 This holds equally true in regard to the threefold aspect under which Rabbinism presents the devil: as Satan (also called Sammael); as the Yester haRa, or evil impulse personified; and as the Angel of Death, in other words, as the Accuser, Tempter, and Punisher.這個擁有同樣的關於三個方面下Rabbinism介紹了魔鬼:作為撒旦(亦稱為Sammael ) ;作為昨天原邪惡的衝動或人格化;並作為死亡天使,換言之,作為原告,誘惑和懲罰者。 Before explaining the Rabbinic views on each of these points, it is necessary to indicate them in regard to:在解釋有關拉比意見每一分,有必要說明他們在以下方面:

1. 1 。 The Fall of Satan and of his Angels.秋季撒旦和他的天使。

This took place, not antecedently, but subsequently to the creation of man.這發生,而不是先行,但後來創造的人。 As related in Pirqe de R. Eliezer, ch 13, the primary cause of it was jealously and envy on the part of the Angels.至於有關在德河Pirqe埃利澤, 13路,主要原因是嫉妒和羨慕的是天使。 [2 As a curious illustration how extremes meet, we subjoin the following from Jonathan Edwards. [ 2作為一個好奇的極端例證如何應付,我們添了以下從喬納森愛德華茲。 After describing how 'Satan, before his fall, was the chief of all the angels ...在說明如何'撒旦之前,他的下降,主要是所有的天使... nay, ... the Messiah or Christ (!), as he was the Anointed, so that in the respect, Jesus Christ is exalted unto his place in heaven'; and that 'Lucifer or Satan, while a holy angel ... was a type of Christ,' the great American divine explains his fall as follows: 'But when it was revealed to him, high and glorious as he was, that he must be a ministering spirit ot the race of mankind which he had seen newly created, which appeared so feeble, mean, and despicable, of vastly inferior not only to him, the prince of the angels, and head of the created universe, but also to the inferior angels, and that he must be subject to one of that race which should hereafter be born, he could not bear it, This occasioned his fall' (Tractate on 'The Fall of the Angels,' Works, vol. ii. pp. 608, 609, 610).不, ...彌賽亞或基督( ! ) ,因為他的受膏者,以便在尊重,耶穌基督是崇高的祂他在天堂' ;和'路西法或撒旦,而一個神聖的天使...一類是基督, '偉大的美國神解釋了他屬於如下: '但是,當有人發現他,高和光榮,他說,他必須是一個ministering精神加時賽的比賽對人類,他看到新建立,似乎如此軟弱,意思是說,和可恥的,極大地下的不僅是他,王子的天使,和頭部的創造宇宙,而且還下的天使,而且他必須服從這一之一這場比賽應該稱出生,他不能忍受了,這引起他的秋天(短文對'的墮落天使, '工程,第二卷。二。頁。 608 , 609 , 610 ) 。

Could Jonathan Edwards have heard of the Rabbinic legends, or is this only a strange coincidence?喬納森愛德華茲可以聽到的拉比的傳說,還是這只是一個奇怪的巧合? The curious reader will find much quaint information, though, I fear, little help, in Prof. W. Scott's vol.好奇的讀者會發現很多古怪的信息,但我擔心,很少的幫助,美國的斯科特教授的第二卷。 'The Existence of Evil Spirits,' London, 1843.] Their opposition to man's creation is also described in Ber. '的存在惡靈,倫敦, 1843年。 ]他們反對人類的創造中還介紹了黃連素。 R. 8, although there the fall of man is not traced to Satanic agency.河8日,雖然有下降的人是不會追查到撒旦機構。 But we have (as before stated) a somewhat blasphemous account of the discussions in the heavenly Sanhedrin, whether or not man should be created.但是,我們必須(如前說)有點褻瀆帳戶的討論中,天上的公會,不管男人應該建立。 While the dispute was still proceeding God actually created man, and addressed the ministering Angels: 'Why dispute any longer?雖然爭議仍在進行中實際上上帝創造的人,並發表講話ministering天使: '為什麼不再爭端? Man is already created.'人是已經建立。 In the Pirqe de R. Eliezer, we are only told that the Angels had in vain attempted to oppose the creation of man.在德河Pirqe埃利澤,我們只是說,天使在徒勞的企圖,反對建立男子。 The circumstance that his superiority was evidenced by his ability to give names to all creatures, induced them to 'lay a plot against Adam,' so that by his fall they might obtain supremacy.的情況下,他的優勢是證明了他有能力給的名字眾生,誘導他們'奠定了對亞當陰謀,因此他屬於他們可能獲得優勢。

Now of all Angel-Princes in heaven Sammael was the first, distinguished above Taking the company of Angels subject to him, he came down upon earth, and selected as the only fit instrument for his designs the serpent, which at that time had not only speech, but hands and feet, and was in stature and appearance like the camel.現在,所有天使王子在天上Sammael是第一次,尊敬的上述考慮該公司的天使受他,他下來後地球,並選定為唯一的合適的工具,他設計了蛇,這在當時已不僅講話中,但手和腳,並在身高和外貌像駱駝。 In the language of the Pirqe de R. Eliezer, Sammael took complete possession of the serpent, even as demoniacs act under the absolute control of evil spirits.在語言的Pirqe德河埃利澤, Sammael擁有了完整的蛇,甚至demoniacs行為的絕對控制之下辟邪的。 Then Sammael, in the serpent, first deceived the woman, and next imposed on her by touching the tree of life (although the tree cried out), saying, that he had actually 'touched' the tree, of which he pretended the touch had been forbidden on pain of death (Gen. iii. 3) [1 The Rabbis point out, how Eve had added to the words of God.然後Sammael ,在蛇,首先欺騙女人,今後對她的動人的生命之樹(雖然樹哭了)說,他實際上已經'感動'的樹,他假裝觸摸了被禁止的痛苦的死亡(創三。 3 ) [ 1拉比指出,如何除夕增加了對上帝的話。

He had only commanded them not to eat of the tree, while Eve added to it, that they were not to touch it.他只指揮他們不要吃樹,而除夕補充了,他們不要觸摸它。 Thus adding to the words of God had led to the first sin with all the terrible consequences connected with it.], and yet he had not died!因此增加的話上帝導致了第一次與所有罪惡的可怕後果與它相連。 ] ,但他並沒有死! Upon this Eve followed hi example, and touched the tree when she immediately saw the Angel of Death coming against her.在此前夕其次高科技的例子,感動樹時,她立即看到了死亡天使對她的未來。 Afraid that she would die and God give another wife to Adam, she led her husband into sin of disobedience.怕她會死天主再舉一個亞當的妻子,她率領她的丈夫到了反抗罪孽。 The story of the Fall is somewhat differently related in Ber.的故事秋季是有所不同的小蘗鹼有關。 R. 18, 19.河18日, 19日。 No mention is there earlier of Sammael or of his agency, and the serpent is represented as beguiling Eve from a wish to marry her, and for that purpose to compass the death of Adam.沒有提到有較早的Sammael或其機構和蛇是代表作為逗趣從除夕要和她結婚,並為此目的羅盤死亡的亞當。

Critical ingenuity may attempt to find a symbolic meaning in many of the details of the Jewish legend of the Fall, although, to use moderate language, .關鍵的聰明才智可能試圖找到一種象徵意義在許多細節的猶太傳說的秋季,但使用溫和的語言, 。 they seem equally profane and repulsive.他們似乎同樣粗俗和令人厭惡的。 But this will surely be admitted by all, that the Rabbinic account of the fall of the Angels, as connected with fall of man, equally contrasts with the reverent reticence of the Old testament narrative and the sublime teaching of the New Testament about sin and evil.但是,這肯定會被接納所有,即拉比到了秋天的天使,因為與秋天的人,同樣的對比與虔誠沉默舊約敘事和崇高的教學新約全書約罪惡和邪惡。

2. 2 。 Satan, of Sammael, as the accuser of man.撒旦的Sammael ,作為原告的男子。

And clumsy, indeed, are his accusations.和笨拙,實際上是他的指控。 Thus the statement (Gen. xxii. 1) that 'God tempted Abraham' is, in Jewish legend, transformed (Sanh. 89 b) into a scene, where, in the great upper Sanhedrin (Ber. R. 56), Satan brings accusation against the Patriarch.因此,聲明(將軍22 。 1 ) '上帝亞伯拉罕的誘惑' ,在猶太人的傳說,轉化( Sanh.八十九二)到現場,那裡的偉大上層公會( Ber.河56條) ,使撒旦控告的主教。 [2 In BerR. [ 2在貝爾。 56 the accusation is stated to have been brought by the ministering angels] All his previous piety had been merely interested; and now when, at the age of one hundred, God had given him a son, he had made a great feast and not offered aught to the Almighty. 56指控說已帶來的ministering天使]所有他以前的孝道已經不僅僅是興趣,現在時的年齡為100 ,上帝給他的兒子,他已作出了很大的節日,而不是提供奧特的萬能的。 On this God is represented as answering, that Abraham was ready to sacrifice not only an animal but his own son; and this had been the occasion of the temptation of Abraham.在這個上帝是派代表作為回答,即亞伯拉罕準備犧牲不僅是動物,但自己的兒子,這已經為紀念亞伯拉罕的誘惑。

That this legend is very ancient, indeed pre-Christian (a circumstance of considerable importance to the student of this history) appears from its occurrence, though in more general form, in the Book of Jubilees, ch.這個傳說是非常古老的,實際上前基督教(一情況相當重視學生的這段歷史)似乎從它的發生,但更普遍的形式,在圖書Jubilees ,膽固醇。 xvii.十七。 In Ber.R.在Ber.R. 55 and in Tacchuma (ed. Warsh p. 29 a and b), the legend is connected with a dispute between Isaac and Ishmeal as to their respective merits, when former declares himself ready to offer up his life unto God. 55和Tacchuma (編輯沃什29頁A和B ) ,傳說是與之間的爭端伊薩克和Ishmeal以各自的優點,前宣布自己願意提供他的生活你們的上帝。 In Tanchuma (us) we are told that this was one of the great merits of man, to which the Almighty and pointed when the Angels made objection to his creation.在Tanchuma (我們)告訴我們,這是一個很大的優點的人,其中萬能的,並指出當天使了反對他的創造。

3. 3 。 Satan, or Sammael, as the seducer of man.撒旦,或Sammael ,因為seducer的男子。

This statement in Baba B. 16 a which identifies Satan with the Tester haRa, or evil impulse in man, must be regarded are a rationalistic attempt to gloss over the older teaching about Sammael, by representing him as a personification of the evil inclination within us.這一聲明在巴巴灣16確定撒旦的測試原或邪惡的衝動的人,必須被視為是一種理性的企圖掩蓋舊教學Sammael由代表他作為一個人格化的邪惡在我們的傾向。 For, the Talmud not only distinguishes between a personal Satan without, and evil inclination within man, but expressly ascribes to God the creation of the Yester haRa in man as he was before the Fall, the occurrence of two in the word ('and He formed,' Gen. ii. 7) being supposed to indicate the existence of two impulses in us, the Yester Tobh and the Yester haRa (Ber. 61 a).因為,猶太法典不僅區分個人未經撒旦和邪惡的傾向內的人,但明確賦予上帝創造的原昨天在男子,他的秋季之前,發生的兩個詞( '和他形成, '二將軍。七日)被假定表明存在著兩個衝動的我們來說,與昨天Tobh在昨天原( Ber. 61 ) 。 And it is stated that this existence of evil in man's original nature was infinite comfort in the fear which would otherwise beset us in trouble (Ber. R. 14).它指出,這存在著邪惡的人的原始性質的無限舒適的恐懼否則困擾我們的麻煩( Ber.河14條) 。 More than this (as will presently be shown), the existence of this evil principle within us was declared to be absolutely necessary for the continuance of the world (Yoma 69 b, Sanh. 64 a)超過此(如將目前顯示) ,存在著這種罪惡原則範圍內我們被宣布為絕對必要的連續性的世界(山脈69 b , Sanh 。 64 )

Satan, or Sammael, is introduced as the seducer of man in all the great events of Israel's history.撒旦,或者Sammael ,介紹了作為人的seducer在所有偉大的事件,以色列的歷史。 With varying legendary additions the story of Satan's attempts to prevent the obedience of Abraham and the sacrifice of Isaac is told in Sanh.不同的傳奇故事增添了撒旦的企圖,以防止服從亞伯拉罕和以撒的犧牲是告訴Sanh 。 89 b, Ber. 89 b ,蘇貝等。 R. 56, and Tanchuma, p.河56個,並Tanchuma頁 30 a and b. 30日A和B Yet there is nothing even astute, only a coarse realism, about the description of the clumsy attempts of Satan to turn Abraham from, or to hinder him in, his purpose; to influence Isaac; or to frighten Sarah.然而,即使是沒有什麼精明,只有粗現實,有關說明笨拙的企圖撒旦把亞伯拉罕,或妨礙他,他的目的;影響艾薩克;或嚇唬莎拉。 Nor are the other personages in the legend more successfully sketched.也不是其他人士的傳說更成功地勾勒。

There is a want of all higher conception in the references to the Almighty, a painful amount of downright untruthfulness about Abraham. Lamentable boastfulness and petty spite about Isaac, while the Sarah of the Jewish legend is rather a weak old Eastern woman that the mother in Israel, To hold perversions of the Old Testament by the side of the New Testament conception of the motives of lives of the heroes of old, or the doctrinal inferences and teaching of the Rabbis by those of Christ and His Apostles, were to compare darkness with light.有一個希望所有的概念中提到的萬能的,痛苦的數額徹頭徹尾untruthfulness的亞伯拉罕。可悲boastfulness和小額儘管對艾薩克,而莎拉的猶太傳說是相當薄弱歲的東歐婦女,母親在以色列舉行perversions舊約的一側的新約全書概念的動機,生命的英雄歲,或推論的理論和教學的拉比這些基督和他的使徒,是比較黑暗的光。

The same remarks apply to the other legends in which Satan is introduced as seducer.同樣的話適用於其他傳說中介紹了撒旦作為seducer 。 Anything more childish could scarcely be invented than this, that, when Sammael could not otherwise persuade Israel that Moses would not return from Mount Sinai, he at last made his bier appear before them in the clouds (Shab. 89a), unless it be this story, that when Satan David he assumed the form of a bird, and that, when David shot at it, Bath-Sheba suddenly looked up, thus gaining the king by her beauty (Sanh. 107 a).更孩子氣的東西幾乎是比這個發明,當Sammael無法說服否則以色列將不會摩西返回西奈山,他在去年作了柩出現在他們面前的雲彩( Shab. 89a ) ,除非它是本故事,當大衛撒旦他擔任的形式鳥類,而且,當大衛槍殺它,洗浴,巴突然抬起頭來,從而獲得國王她的美貌( Sanh. 107 a )條。 In both these instances the obvious purpose is to palliate the guilt whether of Israel or of David, which, indeed, is in other places entirely explained away as not due to disobedience or to lust (Comp. Ab. Zar. 4 b, 5 a).在這兩種情況下,明顯的目的是為了減輕罪責無論是以色列還是大衛,這的確是在其他地方完全解釋為不是因為不服從或情慾( Comp.抗體。扎爾。 4號決議B , 5 ) 。

4. 4 。 As the Enemy of man, Satan seeks to hurt and destroy由於敵人的人,撒旦力求傷害和摧毀
him; and he is the Angel of Death.他和他是死亡天使。

Thus, when Satan had failed in shaking the constancy of Abraham and Isaac, he attacked Sarah (Yalkut, i. Par. last lines p. 28 b).因此,當撒旦在沒有動搖恆常亞伯拉罕和以撒,他攻擊莎拉( Yalkut島平標準桿。最後幾行第28頁b )項。 To his suggestions, or rather false reports, her death had been due, either from fright at being told that Isaac had been offered (Pirqe de R. El. 32, and Targum Ps.- Jon.), or else from the shock, when after all she learned that Isaac was not dead (Ber. R. 58). Similarly, Satan had sought to take from Tamar the pledges which Judah had given her.他的建議,或者虛假的報告,她的死是因為,無論從驚嚇時被告知,艾薩克提供了( Pirqe德河薩爾瓦多。 32歲,和根素.-喬恩。 ) ,或者從休克,畢竟當她了解到,伊薩克是沒有死( Ber.河58 ) 。同樣,撒旦曾試圖從添馬艦採取認捐的猶太給她。 He appeared as an old man to show Nimrod how to have Abraham cast into the fiery oven, at the same time persuading Abraham not to resist it, &c.他似乎是一個老人顯示尼姆羅德如何有亞伯拉罕拋入火烤爐,在同一時間說服亞伯拉罕不抵制,與角 Equally puerile are the representations of Satan as the Angel of Death.同樣幼稚的交涉撒旦的死亡天使。

According to Abod.據Abod 。 Zar.扎爾。 20 b, the dying sees his enemy with a drawn sword, on the point of which a drop of gall trembles. 20 B中,死於看到他的敵人,以得出劍,就這點下降了膽顫抖。 In his fright he opens his mouth and swallows this drop, which accounts for the pallor of the face and the corruption that follows.在他的恐懼,他打開他的嘴和燕子此下拉,佔蒼白的臉和腐敗如下。 According to another Rabbi, the Angel of Death really uses his sword, although, on account of the dignity of humanity, the wound which he inflicts is not allowed to be visible.另據拉比的死亡天使真正使用他的劍,但考慮到尊嚴的人類,傷口,他帶來是不允許可見。 It is difficult to imagine a narrative more repulsive than that of the death of Moses according to Deb.這是很難想像的敘述更令人厭惡的比死亡的摩西根據德布。 R. 11.河11 。

Beginning with the triumph of Sammael over Michael at the expected event, it tells how Moses had entered rather to be changed into a beast or a bird than to die; how Gabriel and Michael had successively refused to bring the soul of Moses; how Moses, knowing that Sammael was coming for the purpose, had armed himself with the Ineffable Name; how Moses had in boastfulness recounted to Sammael all his achievements, real legendary; and how at last Moses had pursued the Enemy with the Ineffable Name, and in his anger taken off one of his horns of glory and blinded Satan in one eye.從勝利Sammael超過邁克爾在預期的事件,它講述摩西已進入而改變成一個野獸或鳥類,而不是死亡;如何加布里埃爾和邁克爾曾先後拒絕把摩西的靈魂;如何摩西,明知Sammael是未來的目的,武裝了自己的無法形容的名稱;如何摩西在boastfulness回憶到Sammael他的所有成就,真正的傳奇;以及如何在去年摩西推行了敵人的無法形容的名稱,並在他的憤怒起飛他的一個角的光榮和失明撒旦的一隻眼睛。 We must be excused from following this story through its revolting details.我們必須從以下原諒這個故事通過其令人作嘔的細節。

But, whether as the Angel of Death or as the seducer of man, Sammael has not absolute power.但是,無論是作為死亡天使或作為seducer的男子, Sammael沒有絕對的權力。 When Israel took upon themselves at Mount Sinai, they became entirely free from hie sway, and would have remained so, but for the sin of the Golden Calf.當以色列在對自己在西奈山,他們成為完全擺脫缺血缺氧性腦病晃動,並且將一直如此,但對罪惡的金牛犢。 Similarly, in the time of Ezra, the object of Israel's prayer (Neh. vii.) was to have Satan delivered to them.同樣,在以斯拉時,該物體對以色列的祈禱( Neh.七。 )是有撒旦交付給他們。 After a three day's fast it was granted, and the Yetser haRa of idolatry, in the shape of a young lion, was delivered up to them.經過為期3天的快速這是理所當然,並Yetser原的偶像,在塑造一個年輕的獅子,被交付給他們。 It would serve no good purpose to repeat the story of what was done with the bound enemy, or now his cries were rendered inaudible in heaven.這將有助於良好的目的沒有重複的故事是什麼做的約束的敵人,還是現在他的呼聲作出了無聲的天堂。 Suffice it that, in view of the requirements of the present world, Israel liberated him from the ephah covered with lead (Zech. v. 8), under which, by advice of the prophet Zechariah, they had confined him, although for precaution they first put out his eye (Yoam, 69 b).只要它認為,鑑於要求的當今世界,以色列釋放他來自ephah覆蓋鉛( Zech.訴8 ) ,按照這種主張,通過諮詢先知撒迦利亞,但限於他,但他們的防範措施首先提出了他的眼睛( Yoam , 69 b )項。 And yet, in view, or probably, rather, in ignorance, of such teaching, modern criticism would deprive the Satanology of the New Testament an the history of the Temptation from Jewish sources!然而,在瀏覽或可能,而在無知,這種教學,現代的批評將剝奪Satanology新約一個歷史的誘惑猶太來源!

Over these six persons, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, with whom some apparently rank Benjamin, the Angel of Death, had no power (Baba. B. 17 a).在這六人,亞伯拉罕,以撒,雅各,摩西,亞倫,和劉健,他們顯然有些排名本傑明的死亡天使,沒有權力( Baba.灣17 ) 。 Benjamin, Amram, Jesse, and Chileb (the son of David) are said to have died (only through 'the sin of the serpent.' In other cases, also, Sammael may not be able to exercise his sway till, for example, he has by some ruse diverted a theologian from his sacred study. Thus he interrupted the pious meditations of David by going up into a tree and shaking it, when, as David went to examine it, a rung of the ladder, on which he stood, broke, and so interrupted David's holy thoughts.本傑明,阿姆拉姆,傑西,並Chileb (的兒子大衛)據說已經死亡(只有通過'的罪惡的蛇。 '在其他情況下,也Sammael可能無法行使其影響力到,例如,他的一些詭計轉一神學從他的神聖的研究。因此,他中斷了虔誠的冥想大衛的上升到了一棵樹,搖它,當時,作為大衛去檢查,一個響的梯子上,他站在,打破,因此中斷大衛的神聖的想法。

Similarly, Rabbi Chasda, by occupation with sacred study, warded off the Angel of Death till the crackling of a beam diverted his attention.同樣,拉比Chasda ,按職業的神聖與研究,抵禦了死亡天使,直到劈啪的梁改行了他的注意。 Instances of the awkwardness of the Enemy are related (Kethub. 77 b), and one Rabbi, Joshua, actually took away his sword, only returning it by direct command of God. Where such views of Satan could even find temporary expression, superstitious fears may have been excited; but the thought of moral evil and of a moral combat with it could never have found lodgement.實例尷尬的天敵有關( Kethub. 77 b )和一個拉比,約書亞,實際上拿走了他的劍,只有回到它的直接指揮的上帝。如果這種看法撒旦甚至可以找到暫時的言論,迷信的恐懼可能是興奮,但思想道德邪惡和道義上的戰鬥永遠無法發現報關。

III.三。 Evil Spirits (Shedim, Ruchin, Rucoth, Lilin).惡靈( Shedim , Ruchin , Rucoth ,林) 。

Here also, as throughout, we mark the presence of Parsee elements of superstition.在這裡,作為整個,我們紀念在場的帕西要素的迷信。 In general, these spirits resemble the gnomes, hobgoblins, elves, and spirits of our fairy tales. They are cunning and malicious, and contact with them is dangerous; but they can scarcely be described as absolutely evil.一般來說,這些精神的侏儒相似, hobgoblins ,精靈,和烈酒的童話故事。他們是狡猾和惡毒的,並與他們接觸是危險的,但他們幾乎可以被描述為絕對邪惡。 Indeed, they often prove kind and useful; and may at all times be rendered innocuous, and even made serviceable.事實上,他們往往證明實物和有益的; ,並可能在任何時候都變得無害,甚至可用。

1. 1 。 Their origin, nature, and numbers.其來源,性質和數量。

Opinions differ as to their origin, in fact, they variously originated.眾說紛紜他們的原籍國,事實上,他們不同的起源。 According to Ab.根據抗體。 12 b, Ber. 12個b ,蘇貝等。 R. 7, they were created on the eve of the first Sabbath.河7日,他們創造的前夕,第一次安息日。 But since that time their numbers have greatly increased.但自那時以來,他們的人數大為增加。 For, according of Erub.因為,根據的Erub 。 18 b. 18灣 Ber.蘇貝等。 R. 20 (ed Warsh. p. 40 b), multitudes of them were the offspring of Eve and of male spirits, and of Adam with female spirits, or with Lilith (the queen of the female spirits), during the 130 years that Adam had been under the ban, and before Seth was born (Gen. v. 3): [1 From the expression 'a son in his own likeness,' &c., it is inferred that his previous offspring during the 138 years was not in his likeness.] comp.河20 (版沃什。第40頁b )項,眾多人的後代和夏娃的男性精神,亞當與女性的精神,或與莉莉絲(女王的女性精神) ,在130多年的亞當已根據這項禁令,並在出生塞思(將軍訴3 ) : [ 1從表達'一個兒子在他自己的肖像, ' &角,這是推斷,他以前在後代的138年不在他的肖像。 ]補償。 Erub. Erub 。 18 b. 18灣

Again, their number can scarcely be limited, since they propagate themselves (Chag. 16 a), resembling men in this as well as in their taking of nourishment and dying.同樣,他們的人數幾乎是有限的,因為他們宣傳自己( Chag. 16 ) ,相似的男子在此以及在其考慮的營養和死亡。 On the other hand, like the Angels they have wings, pass unhindered through space, and know the future.另一方面,像他們天使翅膀,通過不受阻礙地通過空間,並知道未來。 Still further, they are produced by a process of transformation from vipers, which, in the course of four times seven years, successively pass through the forms of vampires, thistles and thorns, into Shedim (Bab. K 16 a), perhaps a parabolic form of indicating the origination of Shedim through the fall of man.進一步,它們所產生的變革進程的毒蛇,它的過程中, 4倍七年來,先後通過各種形式的吸血鬼, thistles和荊棘,到Shedim ( Bab. K 16 ) ,也許是拋形式顯示的起源Shedim通過秋季的人。 Another parabolic idea may be implied in the saying that Shedim spring from the backbone of those who have not bent in worship (us).另一個拋物線的想法可能是在暗示說,春天從Shedim骨幹的那些誰也不能彎曲的崇拜(我們) 。

Although Shedim bear, when they appear, the form of human beings, they may assume any other form.雖然Shedim承擔,當他們出現的形式的人,他們可能承擔其他任何形式。 Those of their number who are identified with dirty places are represented as themselves black (Kidd. 72 a).它們的數量確定誰是用骯髒的地方都派代表作為自己的黑色( Kidd. 72 ) 。 But the reflection of their likeness is not the same as that of man.但是,反映了它們的相似性是不一樣的人。 When conjured up, their position (whether with the head or the feet uppermost) depends on the mode of conjuring.當別有用心的行動,他們的立場(無論是頭部或腳至上)取決於模式的戲法。 Some of the Shedim have defects.一些Shedim有缺陷。 Thus, those of them who lodge in the caper bushes are blind, and an instance is related when one of their number, in pursuit of a Rabbi, fell over the root of a tree and perished (Pes. 111 b).因此,這些人誰提出的戲弄灌木叢盲人和一個例子是有關時,他們的一個號碼,在追求一個拉比,下跌逾根樹和滅亡( Pes. 111 b )項。

Trees, gardens, vineyards, and also ruined and desolate houses, but especially dirty places, were their favourite habitation, and the night-time, or before cock-crowing, their special time of appearance.樹木,花園,葡萄園,同時也破壞和荒涼的房屋,尤其是骯髒的地方,是他們最喜愛的居住環境,以及晚上時間,或在公雞,公雞,其特殊的時間出現。 [2 The following Haggadah will illustrate both the power of the evil spirits at night and how amenable they are to reasoning. [ 2以下哈加達將表明雙方的力量辟邪的夜晚,以及如何服從他們將推理。 A Rabbi was distributing his gifts to the poor at night when he was confronted by the Prince of the Ruchin with the quotation Deut.一名猶太拉比是他的禮物散發給窮人,晚上當他面對的王子Ruchin的報價Deut 。 xix. 19 。 34 ('Thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's landmark'), which seemed to give the 'spirit' a warrant for attacking him. 34 ( '你應該不會刪除你的鄰居的里程碑' ) ,這似乎給'精神'的手令攻擊他。 But when the Rabbi replied by quoting Prov. xxi.但是,當拉比回答引用省。 21 。 14 ('a gift in secret appeaseth wrath'), the 'spirit' fled in confusion (Jer. Peah viii. 9, p. 21 b).] Hence the danger of going alone into such places (Ber. 3 a, b; 62 a). 14 ( '禮物秘密appeaseth憤怒' )的'精神'逃離混亂( Jer. Peah八。 9日,第21頁b )項。 ]因此的危險去獨自到這些地方( Ber. 3 ,乙; 62 ) 。

A company of two escaped the danger, while before three the Shed did not even appear (Ber. 43 b).一個公司的兩個逃跑的危險,而前三年的大棚甚至沒有出現( Ber. 43 b )項。 For the same reason it was dangerous to sleep alone in a house (Shabb. 151 b), while the man who went out before cock-crow, without at least carrying for protection a burning torch (though moonlight was far safer) had his blood on his own head.出於同樣的原因它是危險的睡眠獨自一個人在院( Shabb. 151 b )項,而該名男子誰出去之前,公雞,烏鴉,但至少開展保護燃燒的火炬(雖然遠外快安全)有他的血自己的頭部。 If you greeted anyone in the dark you might unawares bid Godspeed to a Shed (Sanh. 44 a).如果您迎接任何人在黑暗中您可能會措手不及出價平安一個大棚( Sanh. 44 ) 。 Nor was the danger of this inconsiderable, since one of the worst of these Shedim, especially hurtful to Rabbis, was like a dragon with seven heads, each of which dropped off with every successive lowly bending during Rabbi Acha's devotions (Kidd. 29 b).也不是危險的這微不足道的,因為最嚴重的國家之一這些Shedim ,特別是傷害拉比,就像一個七龍元首,每個下車的每一個連續彎低拉比阿查期間的devotions ( Kidd. 29日二) 。 Specially dangerous times were the eyes of Wednesday and of the Sabbath.特別危險的時候是眼睛星期三和星期六。 But it was a comfort to know that the Shedim could not create or produce anything; nor had they power over that which had been counted, measured, tied up and sealed (Chull, 105 b); they could be conquered by the 'Ineffable Name;' and they might be banished by the use of certain formulas, which, when written and worn, served as amulets.但它是一個安慰知道, Shedim無法創建或生產什麼;他們也沒有權力,這已算,測量,捆綁和密封( Chull , 105 b )款;它們可以被征服的'無法形容的名稱' ,他們可能被放逐的使用某些公式,其中,在書面和磨損,充當護身符。

The number of these spirits was like the earth that is thrown up around a bed that is sown.在一些精神就像地球是圍繞扔在床上是播種。 Indeed, no one would survive it, if he saw their number.的確,沒有人會生存,如果他看見他們的號碼。 A thousand at your right hand and ten thousand at your left, such crowding in the Academy or by the side of a bride; such weariness and faintness through their malignant touch, which rent the very dress of the wearers !一千在您的右手和10000在你的左邊,這種擁擠的學院或由一側的新娘;如厭學,並通過他們的微弱惡性觸摸,其中租金非常禮服的配戴! (Ber. 6 a) The queen of the female spirits had no less a following than 180,000 (Pres. 112 b). ( Ber. 6 )女王的女性精神沒有減去下列超過18.00萬( Pres. 112 b )項。 Little as we imagine it, these spirits lurk everywhere around us: in the crumbs on the floor, in the oil in the vessels, in the water which we would drink, in the diseases which attack us, in the even-numbered cups of our drinking, in the air in the room, by day and by night.小如我們想像,這些潛伏的精神無處不在我們周圍:在麵包屑的地板上,在石油的船隻,在水,我們將飲料,在疾病的攻擊我們,在偶數杯我們飲用水,空氣中的房間,通過白天和晚上都能看到。

2. 2 。 Their arrangement.他們的安排。

Generally, they may be arranged into male and female spirits, the former under their king Ashmedai, the latter under their queen Lilispirits, the former under their king Ashmedai, the latter under their queen Lilith, probably the same as Agrath bath Machlath, only that the latter may nore fully present hurtful aspect of the demoness.一般來說,他們可能會安排到男性和女性的精神,前國王根據其Ashmedai ,後者根據其女王Lilispirits ,前國王根據其Ashmedai ,後者根據其女王莉莉絲,這可能是一樣的Agrath浴Machlath ,只是後者可能諾爾完全本傷害方面的demoness 。 The hurtful spirits are specially designated as Ruchin, Mazziqin (harmers), Malakhey Chabbalath (angels of damage), &c.精神的傷害特別指定為Ruchin , Mazziqin ( harmers ) , Malakhey Chabbalath (天使的損害) ,及角 From another aspect they are arranged into four classes (Targ. Pseudo-Jon. Numb. vi. 24): the Tsaphrire, or morning spirits (Targ. on Ps. cxxi. 6; Targ. Cant. iv. 6); the tihare, or midday spirits (Targ. Pesudo-Jon. Deut. xxxii 24; Targ. Cant. iv. 6); the Telane, or evening spirits (Targ. Pseuod-Jon. on Deut. xxxii. 34; Targ. Is. xxxiv. 14). (According to 2 Targ. Esther ii. 1, 3, Solomon had such power over them, that at his biding they executed dances before him.)從另一個側面安排他們分成四個類別( Targ.偽喬恩。麻木了。六。 24日) :在Tsaphrire ,或早上精神( Targ.在PS 。 cxxi 。 6 ; Targ 。公會。四。 6 ) ;的tihare ,或中午精神( Targ.偽喬恩。 Deut 。三十二24 ; Targ 。公會。四。 6 ) ;的Telane ,或晚上精神( Targ. Pseuod ,喬恩。對Deut 。三十二。 34 ; Targ 。是。三十四。 14 ) 。 (據2 Targ 。埃斯特二。 1日, 3日,所羅門群島這種權力已超過他們,在他的等待,他們執行的舞蹈在他面前。 )

a.字母a. Ashmedai
Ashmedai (perhaps a Parsee name), Ashmodi, Ashmedon, or Shamdon, the king of the demons (Gitt. 68 a, b; Pes. 110 a). It deserves notice, that this name does not occur in the Jerusalem Talmud nor in older Palestinian sources. Ashmedai (也許是帕西名稱) , Ashmodi , Ashmedon ,或Shamdon ,國王的惡魔( Gitt. 68甲,乙;瘟。 110 ) 。它應得到通知,這一名稱不發生在耶路撒冷的猶太法典,也不老年人巴勒斯坦方面的消息。 [1 Hamburger ascribes this to the anxiety of the Palestinians to guard Judaism from Gnostic elements. [ 1漢堡歸因於這一焦慮的巴勒斯坦人從後衛猶太教諾斯底要素。 We are, however, willing to recognise in it an indirect influence of Christianity.] He is represented as of immense size and strength, as cunning, malignant, and dissolute.但是,我們願意承認的是一種間接影響的基督教。 ]他是代表作為巨大的規模和實力,因為狡猾,惡性腫瘤,以及腐化墮落。 At times, however, he is known also to do works of kindness, such as lead the blind, or to show the road to a drunken man.有時,但是,他也知道這樣做善意的作品,如導致失明,或顯示道路的醉漢。

Of course, he foreknows the future, can do magic, but may be rendered serviceable by the use of the 'Ineffable Name,' and especially by the signet of King Solomon, on which it was graven.當然,他foreknows未來,可以做魔術,但可提供可用的使用'無法形容的名稱,特別是印的所羅門王,它是刻。 The story of Solomon's power over him is well known and can here only be referred to in briefest outline.的故事所羅門的權力,他是眾所周知的,可以在這裡只能提到的briefest大綱。 It is said, that as no iron was to be used in the construction of the Temple, Solomon was anxious to secure the services of the worm Shamir, which possessed the power of cutting stones (see abou him Ab. z. 12 a; Sot. 48 b; Gitt. 68 a, b).這是說,因為沒有鐵將用於建造神廟,所羅門群島渴望安全的服務,蠕蟲病毒沙米爾,它擁有的權力切割石塊(見阿布他的抗體。威爾12 ;索。 48 B組; Gitt 。 68 , b )項。 By advice of the Sanhedrin, Solomon conjured up for this purpose a male and a female Shed, who directed him to Ashmedai.根據意見,公會,所羅門群島別有用心的行動為此一男一女大棚,誰指示他Ashmedai 。 The latter lived at the bottom of a deep cistern on a high mountain.後者住在底部的深池的高山區。

Every morning on leaving it to go into heaven and hear the decrees of the Upper Sanhedrin, he covered the cistern with a stone, and sealed it.每天早晨離開它進入天堂,並聽取法令上公會,他涵蓋了蓄水池的石頭,和密封它。 On this Benayah, armed with a chain, and Solomon's signet with the Ineffable Name, went and filled the cistern with wine, which Ashmedai, as all other spirits, hated.在此Benayah ,配備了鏈,和所羅門的私章與無法形容的名稱,去填補了池酒,其中Ashmedai ,因為所有其他烈性酒,恨。 But as he could not otherwise quench his thirst, Ashmedai became drunk, when it was easy, by means of the magical signet, to secure the chain around him.但是,他不能解渴否則他口渴, Ashmedai成為喝醉時,很容易,通過神奇的圖章,以確保在他周圍鏈。

Without entering on the story of his exploits, or how he indicated the custody of Shamir, and how ultimately the worm (which was in the custody of the moor-cock [2 The Tarnegol Bera, a mythical animal reaching from earth to heaven (Targ. on Ps. 1, 11), also called Naggar Tura (Gitt. 68 b) from his activity in cleaving mountains.]) was secured, it appears that, by his cunning, Ashmedai finally got released, when he immediately hurled Solomon to a great distance, assumed his form, and reigned in his stead; till at last, after a series of adventures, Solomon recovered his signet, which Ashmedai had flung away, and a fish swallowed.沒有進入的故事,他的攻擊,或如何表示,他保管的沙米爾,以及如何最終蠕蟲病毒(這是保管的曠野,公雞[ 2 Tarnegol貝拉,一個神秘的動物從地球到天堂( Targ 。在PS 。 1 , 11 ) ,也稱為納賈爾圖拉( Gitt. 68 b )從他的活動裂解山區。 ] )被擔保的,看來,他的狡猾, Ashmedai終於獲釋,當時他立即向投擲所羅門群島一個偉大的距離,假定他的形式,並在他的統治代替;直到最後,經過一系列的冒險,索羅門恢復了圖章,這Ashmedai了偏遠了,魚吞食。 Solomon was recognised by the Sanhedrin and Ashmedai fled at sight of the signet.所羅門是認可的公會,並在Ashmedai逃離視線的私章。 (Possibly the whole of this is only a parabolic form for the story of Solomon's spiritual declension, and final repentance.) (可能是整個這只是一個拋物線形式的故事所羅門的精神格,最後懺悔。 )

b. Lilith莉莉絲
Lilith, the queen of female spirits, to be distinguished from the Lilin or night-spirits, and from Lela or Laila, an Angel who accompanied Abraham on his expedition against Chedorlaomer (Sanh. 96 a).莉莉絲,女王的女性精神,是區別於林或夜間的精神,從勒伊拉或萊拉,天使誰陪同他的亞伯拉罕遠征打擊Chedorlaomer ( Sanh. 96 ) 。 Here we recognise still more distinctly the Parsee elements.在這裡,我們認識到仍有較為明顯的帕西內容。 Lilith is 'the queen of Zemargad' (Targ. on Jobi. 15), 'Zemargad' representing all green crystals, malachite, and emerald, and the land of Zemargad being 'Sheba.'莉莉絲是'女王的Zemargad ' ( Targ.關於苡。 15 ) , ' Zemargad '代表所有綠色的水晶,孔雀石,和祖母綠,土地的Zemargad被'謝巴赫。 Lilith is described as the mother of Hormiz or Hormuz [2 the superstition 'There's luck in odd numbers' has passed to all nations.] (Baba !. 73 a).莉莉絲被描述為母親Hormiz或霍爾木茲海峽[ 2迷信'有運氣在奇數'已通過所有國家。 ] (巴巴! 。 73 ) 。

Sometimes she is represented as a very fair woman, but mostly with long, wild-flowing hair, and winged (Nidd. 24 b; Erub. 100 b).有時候,她是代表一個非常公平的女人,但大多是長期,野生流動頭髮,翅膀( Nidd. 24架B ; Erub 。 100 b )項。 In Pes.在瘟。 111 a we have a formula for exorcising Lillith. 111 1我們有一個公式的儺Lillith 。 In Pes 112b towards the end) we are told how Agrath bath Machlath (probably the Zend word Agra, 'smiting, very wicked' bath Machlath 'the dancer') threatened Rabbi Chanina with serious mischief, had it not been that his greatness had been proclaimed in inhabited places, but finally gave her liberty on the eve of the fourth day and of the Sabbath, which nights accordingly are the most dangerous seasons.在瘟112b年底)我們被告知如何Agrath浴Machlath (可能是Zend的字阿格拉,懲戒,非常邪惡的'浴Machlath '舞者' )拉比Chanina威脅嚴重的傷害,如果沒有,他的偉大之處了宣布居住的地方,但最後給了她自由的前夕第四天和安息日,因此這夜是最危險的季節。

3. 3 。 Character and habits of the Shedim.性格和習慣的Shedim 。

As many of the Angels, so many of the Shedim, are only personifications.由於許多天使,如此多的Shedim ,只有personifications 。 Thus, as diseases were often ascribed to their agency, there were Shedim of certain diseases, as of asthma, croup, canine rabies, madness, stomachic diseases, &c.因此,疾病往往被歸咎於其機構,有Shedim某些疾病,如哮喘,哮吼,狂犬病,瘋狂,健胃的疾病,與角 Again, there were local Shedim, as of Samaria, Tiberias, &c.再次,有地方Shedim ,截至撒馬利亞,太巴列,與角 On the other hand, Shedim might be employed in the magic cure of diseases (Shabb. 67 a).另一方面, Shedim可能受僱於神奇治愈的疾病( Shabb. 67 ) 。 In fact, to conjure up and make use of demons was considered lawful although dangerous (Sanh. 101 a), while a little knowledge of of the subject would enable a person to avoid any danger from them.事實上,變戲法和利用惡魔被認為是合法但危險( Sanh. 101 ) ,而知之甚少的主題將使一個人,以避免任何危險來自他們。 Thus, although Chamath, the demon of oil, brings eruptions on the face, yet the danger is avoided if the oil is used out of the hollow of the hand, and not out of a vessel.因此,儘管Chamath ,惡魔的石油,使噴發的臉,但危險是可以避免的,如果油價是用來出中空的手,而不是出的船隻。 Shed Joseph (Pes. 110 a) and the Shed Jonathan (Yeb. 122 a).大棚約瑟夫( Pes. 110 )和大棚喬納森( Yeb. 122 a )條。 Rabbis Papa had a young Shed to wait upon him (Vhull. 105 b).拉比爸爸有一個年輕的大棚等待他( Vhull. 105 b )項。

There can, however, be no difficulty in making sure of their real existence.有不過,可以沒有任何困難,確保他們的真實存在。 As Shedim have cock's feet, nothing more is required than to strew ashes by the side of one's bed, when in the morning their marks will be perceived (Ber. 6 a; Gitt. 68 b).作為Shedim有公雞的腳,沒有什麼更多的需要,而不是播骨灰一邊一個人的床上時,在上午的商標將被認為( Ber. 6 ; Gitt 。 68 b )項。 It was by the shape of his feet that the Sanhedrin hoped to recognise, whether Ashmedia as really Solomon, or not, but it was found that he never appeared with his feet uncovered.這是由形狀,他的腳該公會希望能認識到,無論是作為真正Ashmedia所羅門群島,或者不,但它被發現,他從來沒有出現在他的腳下發現。 The Talmud(Ber. 6 a) describes the following as an infallible means for actually seeing these spirits: Take the afterbirth of a black cat which is the daughter of a black cat, both mother and daughter being firstborn, burn it in the fire, and put some of the ashes in your eyes.該塔木德( Ber. 6 )介紹了以下作為一個可靠的手段,實際看到這些白酒:以胞衣的黑貓這是女兒的黑貓,無論母親和女兒正在初生,燒傷在火災,並提出一些骨灰在你的眼睛。 Before using them, the ashes must be put into an iron tube, and sealed with an iron signet.在使用他們的骨灰必須付諸鐵管,並蓋上印鐵。

It is added, that Rabbi Bibi successfully tried this experiment, but was hurt by the demons, on which he was restored to health by the prayers of the Rabbis.這是說,拉比比比的成功嘗試這個實驗,但傷害的惡魔,對他恢復健康祈禱的拉比。 [1 Dr. Kohut's comparison of Rabbinic Angelology and Demonology with Parseeism (Ueber d. jud. Angelol u. Damonol. in ihrer Abhang. vom Parsismus) is extremely interesting, although not complete and its conclusions sometimes strained. [ 1博士胡特的比較拉比天使和魔鬼同Parseeism (論d.珠德。 Angelol美國Damonol 。 Abhang在ihrer 。馮Parsismus )是非常有趣,雖然沒有完成,其結論有時緊張。 The negative arguments derived from Jewish Angelology and Satanology by the author of 'Supernatural Religion' are based on inaccurate and uncritical information, and do not require detailed discussion.負面的論點來自猶太天使和Satanology作者的'超自然的宗教,是基於不準確的和無條件的信息,並且不需要詳細討論。

Other and kindred questions, such as those of amulets, &c., will be treated under demoniac possessions.和其他同類的問題,如護身符,和角,將治療下飄移財產。 But may we not here once more and confidently appeal to impartial students whether, in view of this sketch of Jewish Angelology and Satanology, the contention can be sustained that the teaching of Christ on this subject has been derived from Jewish sources?但是,我們沒有可能在這裡再次呼籲,並滿懷信心地對學生是否公正,鑑於此畫的猶太天使和Satanology ,論點才能持續的教學基督就這個問題一直來自猶太人來源嗎?


Author Edersheim refers to MANY reference sources in his works.作者愛德生提到許多參考資料在他的作品。 As a Bibliography resource, we have created a separate Edersheim References list. All of his bracketed references indicate the page numbers in the works referenced.作為一個書目資源,我們創建了一個單獨的愛德生參考清單。所有提到他的括號內顯示頁碼的作品中引用。


Angels天使

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(Latin angelus; Greek aggelos; from the Hebrew for "one going" or "one sent"; messenger). (拉丁美洲鐘;希臘aggelos ;從希伯來文“一會”或“一派” ;信使) 。 The word is used in Hebrew to denote indifferently either a divine or human messenger.這個詞是用希伯來文指要么漠然神或人類的使者。 The Septuagint renders it by aggelos which also has both significations.在七十使得它的aggelos也有兩種意義。 The Latin version, however, distinguishes the divine or spirit-messenger from the human, rendering the original in the one case by angelus and in the other by legatus or more generally by nuntius.拉丁美洲版本,然而,神聖的區別或精神的使者從人力,使原來在一個案件的鐘和其他的legatus或更普遍的nuntius 。 In a few passages the Latin version is misleading, the word angelus being used where nuntius would have better expressed the meaning, eg Isaiah 18:2; 33:3, 6. It is with the spirit-messenger alone that we are here concerned.在一些段落的拉丁版是一種誤導,這個詞被用來鐘在nuntius將有更好的表達的含義,如以賽亞書18:2 , 33:3 , 6 。它的精神信使單獨,我們在這裡關注。 We have to discuss我們已經討論

the meaning of the term in the Bible,一詞的含義在聖經中,

the offices of the angels,辦事處的天使,

the names assigned to the angels,名稱分配給天使,

the distinction between good and evil spirits,區分善惡的精神,

the divisions of the angelic choirs,分歧的天使合唱團,

the question of angelic appearances, and問題的天使般的外表,和

the development of the scriptural idea of angels.發展的聖經思想天使。

The angels are represented throughout the Bible as a body of spiritual beings intermediate between God and men: "You have made him (man) a little less than the angels" (Psalm 8:6).天使是代表整個聖經作為一個機構的精神之間存在中間上帝和男子: “你必須讓他(男子)不到的天使” (詩篇8點06 ) 。 They, equally with man, are created beings; "praise ye Him, all His angels: praise ye Him, all His hosts . . . for He spoke and they were made. He commanded and they were created" (Psalm 148:2, 5; Colossians 1:16-17).他們,同樣的人,創造人; “你們讚美他,他所有的天使:你們讚美他,所有他的東道主。 。 。對他說,他們發了言。他指揮,他們創造了” (詩篇148:2 , 5 ;歌羅西書1:16-17 ) 。 That the angels were created was laid down in the Fourth Lateran Council (1215).這天使創建奠定了第四次拉特蘭會議( 1215 ) 。 The decree "Firmiter" against the Albigenses declared both the fact that they were created and that men were created after them.該法令“ Firmiter ”對Albigenses宣布的事實,他們創建和男子創造了他們。 This decree was repeated by the Vatican Council, "Dei Filius".這項法令是重複了梵蒂岡理事會, “上帝Filius ” 。 We mention it here because the words: "He that liveth for ever created all things together" (Ecclesiasticus 18:1) have been held to prove a simultaneous creation of all things; but it is generally conceded that "together" (simul) may here mean "equally", in the sense that all things were "alike" created.我們在這裡提到它,因為話: “他是永遠liveth創造一切事物在一起” ( Ecclesiasticus 18:1 )已經舉行了證明的同時創造一切事物,但人們普遍承認, “共同” (模擬)可這裡是指“平等” ,也就是說,所有事情“都”創建。 They are spirits; the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews says: "Are they not all ministering spirits, sent to minister to them who shall receive the inheritance of salvation?"他們的精神;作家的書希伯來人說: “他們是不是所有的ministering精神,向部長向他們誰應得到繼承拯救? ” (Hebrews 1:14). (希伯來1,14 ) 。

Attendants at God's throne服務員在上帝的寶座

It is as messengers that they most often figure in the Bible, but, as St. Augustine, and after him St. Gregory, expresses it: angelus est nomen officii ("angel is the name of the office") and expresses neither their essential nature nor their essential function, viz.: that of attendants upon God's throne in that court of heaven of which Daniel has left us a vivid picture:這是作為使者,他們最經常的數字在聖經中,但是,正如聖奧古斯丁,並在他的聖格雷戈里,表示它:三鐘經東nomen officii ( “天使的名字是辦公室” ) ,並表示自己既沒有必要它們的性質也基本職能,即。 :即服務員時上帝的寶座在該法院的天堂,其中丹尼爾離開了我們一個生動的圖片:

I behold till thrones were placed, and the Ancient of Days sat: His garment was white as snow, and the hair of His head like clean wool: His throne like flames of fire: the wheels of it like a burning fire.本人外表到王位被安置,以及古代的天坐下:他的服裝是潔白如雪,以及頭髮像他的頭部清潔羊毛:他的王位像火焰火:車輪像燃燒的火。 A swift stream of fire issued forth from before Him: thousands of thousands ministered to Him, and ten thousand times a hundred thousand stood before Him: the judgment sat and the books were opened.流迅速發出火災提出從他面前:千數千ministered他說,和1.0萬次, 100000站在他面前:坐著的判斷和書籍被打開。 (Daniel 7:9-10; cf. also Psalm 96:7; Psalm 102:20; Isaiah 6, etc.) (丹尼爾7:9-10 ;比照。還詩篇96:7 ;詩篇102:20 ;第6以賽亞等)

This function of the angelic host is expressed by the word "assistance" (Job 1:6; 2:1), and our Lord refers to it as their perpetual occupation (Matthew 18:10).此功能的主機是天使所表達的詞“援助” (職位1:6 ; 2:1 ) ,我們的上帝是指它作為他們的永久佔領(馬太18:10 ) 。 More than once we are told of seven angels whose special function it is thus to "stand before God's throne" (Tobit 12:15; Revelation 8:2-5).不止一次地告訴我們,七天使的特殊功能,因此它的“站在上帝的寶座” (托比書12:15 ;啟示8:2-5 ) 。 The same thought may be intended by "the angel of His presence" (Isaiah 63:9) an expression which also occurs in the pseudo-epigraphical "Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs".同樣的思維可能是打算以“天使,他的存在” (以賽亞書63:9 )的表達也發生在偽epigraphical “聖經十二始祖” 。

God's messengers to mankind上帝的使者給人類

But these glimpses of life beyond the veil are only occasional.但是,這些瞥見的生活以外的面紗只是偶爾。 The angels of the Bible generally appear in the role of God's messengers to mankind.天使的出現一般聖經中的作用上帝的使者人類。 They are His instruments by whom He communicates His will to men, and in Jacob's vision they are depicted as ascending and descending the ladder which stretches from earth to heaven while the Eternal Father gazes upon the wanderer below.他們是他的文書的人,他傳達他的意願的男子,並在雅各布的設想它們描繪成升和降階梯延伸從地球上天堂,而永恆的父親凝視的流浪者如下。 It was an angel who found Agar in the wilderness (Genesis 16); angels drew Lot out of Sodom; an angel announces to Gideon that he is to save his people; an angel foretells the birth of Samson (Judges 13), and the angel Gabriel instructs Daniel (Daniel 8:16), though he is not called an angel in either of these passages, but "the man Gabriel" (9:21).這是一個天使誰發現瓊脂在荒野(創16 ) ;天使提請地段的所多瑪;一個天使宣布對基甸說,他是拯救他的人民;預示著一個天使的誕生大力士(法官13日) ,以及天使加布里埃爾指示丹尼爾(丹尼爾8點16 ) ,但他沒有所謂的天使在這兩個段落,但“該名男子加布里埃爾” ( 9時21分) 。 The same heavenly spirit announced the birth of St. John the Baptist and the Incarnation of the Redeemer, while tradition ascribes to him both the message to the shepherds (Luke 2:9), and the most glorious mission of all, that of strengthening the King of Angels in His Agony (Luke 22:43).同樣的精神宣布,天上的誕生施洗者聖約翰和道成肉身的救世主,而傳統賦予他的訊息給牧羊人(路二點09分) ,和最光榮使命的一切,即加強國王的天使在他的痛苦(路22:43 ) 。 The spiritual nature of the angels is manifested very clearly in the account which Zacharias gives of the revelations bestowed upon him by the ministry of an angel.精神性質的天使是非常明確地體現在帳戶撒迦利亞給予的啟示賦予他的部一個天使。 The prophet depicts the angel as speaking "in him".先知描繪了天使的發言“他” 。 He seems to imply that he was conscious of an interior voice which was not that of God but of His messenger.他似乎暗示,他意識到內部的聲音是不是上帝,而是他的使者。 The Massoretic text, the Septuagint, and the Vulgate all agree in thus describing the communications made by the angel to the prophet.該Massoretic文本,譯本,以及拉丁文聖經中都同意這樣描述了通信所作的天使的先知。 It is a pity that the "Revised Version" should, in apparent defiance of the above-named texts, obscure this trait by persistently giving the rendering: "the angel that talked with me: instead of "within me" (cf. Zechariah 1:9, 13, 14; 2:3; 4:5; 5:10).可惜的是,在“修訂版本”應該,顯然違背了上述文件,掩蓋這種性狀堅持讓渲染: “天使的跟我說:不是”內我“ (見撒迦利亞一日: 9 , 13 , 14 ; 2:3 ; 4時05分; 5時10 ) 。

Such appearances of angels generally last only so long as the delivery of their message requires, but frequently their mission is prolonged, and they are represented as the constituted guardians of the nations at some particular crisis, eg during the Exodus (Exodus 14:19; Baruch 6:6).這種外表天使一般只持續只要提供他們的信息要求,但往往他們的任務是長期的,他們代表的構成監護人的國家在某些特定的危機,例如在出埃及記(出埃及記14:19 ;巴魯克6時06分) 。 Similarly it is the common view of the Fathers that by "the prince of the Kingdom of the Persians" (Dan., x, 13; x, 21) we are to understand the angel to whom was entrusted the spiritual care of that kingdom, and we may perhaps see in the "man of Macedonia" who appeared to St. Paul at Troas, the guardian angel of that country (Acts 16:9).同樣是共同的看法的父親,到“王子王國的波斯人” ( Dan. ,第十, 13人;設21 )我們要了解的天使是誰賦予的靈性照顧的王國,我們也許可以看到在“馬其頓人”誰似乎在聖保祿Troas的守護天使該國(使徒16:9 ) 。 The Septuagint (Deuteronomy 32:8), has preserved for us a fragment of information on this head, though it is difficult to gauge its exact meaning: "When the Most High divided the nations, when He scattered the children of Adam, He established the bounds of the nations according to the number of the angels of God".該譯本(申命記32:8 ) ,保存了我們一個片段的信息關於這個頭,雖然這是難以判斷其確切含義: “當大多數高分為國家,當他分散兒童的亞當,他成立的範圍根據國家的數目天使的上帝“ 。 How large a part the ministry of angels played, not merely in Hebrew theology, but in the religious ideas of other nations as well, appears from the expression "like to an angel of God".如何大的一部分部天使發揮,而不是僅僅在希伯來文神學,但在宗教思想的其他國家也似乎表達“要一個天使的上帝” 。 It is three times used of David (2 Samuel 14:17, 20; 14:27) and once by Achis of Geth (1 Samuel 29:9).它是用3倍的大衛(撒母耳記下14:17 , 20 ; 14:27 )和一次Achis的Geth (撒母耳記上29:9 ) 。 It is even applied by Esther to Assuerus (Esther 15:16), and St. Stephen's face is said to have looked "like the face of an angel" as he stood before the Sanhedrin (Acts 6:15).它是適用的甚至埃斯特以Assuerus (埃斯特15:16 ) ,及聖士提反臉說,有期待“就像面對一個天使” ,因為他站在公會(使徒6:15 ) 。

Personal guardians個人監護人

Throughout the Bible we find it repeatedly implied that each individual soul has its tutelary angel.在整個聖經我們發現它一再暗示,每個人的靈魂有其監護的天使。 Thus Abraham, when sending his steward to seek a wife for Isaac, says: "He will send His angel before thee" (Genesis 24:7).因此,亞伯拉罕,當他的管家派遣尋求為伊薩克的妻子,說: “他將派遣他的面前你的天使” (創24:7 ) 。 The words of the ninetieth Psalm which the devil quoted to our Lord (Matthew 4:6) are well known, and Judith accounts for her heroic deed by saying: "As the Lord liveth, His angel hath been my keeper" (xiii, 20).的話第九十詩篇的魔鬼引用到我們的主(馬太4:6 )是眾所周知的,朱迪帳戶,她的英雄行為,他說: “作為上帝liveth ,他的天使上帝是我的守門員” ( 13 , 20 ) 。 These passages and many like them (Genesis 16:6-32; Hosea 12:4; 1 Kings 19:5; Acts 12:7; Psalm 33:8), though they will not of themselves demonstrate the doctrine that every individual has his appointed guardian angel, receive their complement in our Saviour's words: "See that you despise not on of these little ones; for I say to you that their angels in Heaven always see the face of My Father Who is in Heaven" (Matthew 18:10), words which illustrate the remark of St. Augustine: "What lies hidden in the Old Testament, is made manifest in the New".這些通道和許多喜歡他們(創16:6-32 ;何西阿12點04分;列王紀上19點05分;行為12時07分;詩篇33:8 ) ,但他們將不會表現出自己的理論,每一個人都有他的任命守護天使,接受他們的補充我們的救主的話: “看到你們不是瞧不起這些小孩子,因為我要對你們說,他們的天使在天堂總是看到,面對我的父親是誰在天堂” (馬太18 : 10 ) ,話表明了一句話,聖奧古斯丁: “什麼是隱藏在舊約,是體現在新” 。 Indeed, the book of Tobias seems intended to teach this truth more than any other, and St. Jerome in his commentary on the above words of our Lord says: "The dignity of a soul is so great, that each has a guardian angel from its birth."的確,這本書的托拜厄斯似乎打算教這一事實超過了其他任何和聖杰羅姆在他的評論就上述的話我們的主說: “尊嚴的靈魂是如此巨大,每有一個守護天使從它的誕生。 “ The general doctrine that the angels are our appointed guardians is considered to be a point of faith, but that each individual member of the human race has his own individual guardian angel is not of faith (de fide); the view has, however, such strong support from the Doctors of the Church that it would be rash to deny it (cf. St. Jerome, supra).一般理論,天使是我們的任命監護人被認為是一個點的信念,但每個成員的人類有他自己的個人守護天使不信仰(德善意) ;的觀點,但是,諸如強有力的支持醫生的教會,應該輕率否認它(參見聖杰羅姆,前) 。 Peter the Lombard (Sentences, lib. II, dist. xi) was inclined to think that one angel had charge of several individual human beings.彼得的倫巴第(句,解放。二區。十一)傾向於認為,一個天使了負責幾個個別的人。 St. Bernard's beautiful homilies (11-14) on the ninetieth Psalm breathe the spirit of the Church without however deciding the question.聖伯納德美麗的講道詞( 11-14 )第九十詩篇呼吸的精神,但是教會沒有決定這個問題。 The Bible represents the angels not only as our guardians, but also as actually interceding for us.聖經代表天使不僅是我們的監護人,但實際上也為我們調解。 "The angel Raphael (Tob., xii, 12) says: "I offered thy prayer to the Lord" (cf. Job, v, 1 (Septuagint), and 33:23 (Vulgate); Apocalypse 8:4). The Catholic cult of the angels is thus thoroughly scriptural. Perhaps the earliest explicit declaration of it is to be found in St. Ambrose's words: "We should pray to the angels who are given to us as guardians" (De Viduis, ix); (cf. St. Aug., Contra Faustum, xx, 21). An undue cult of angels was reprobated by St. Paul (Colossians 2:18), and that such a tendency long remained in the same district is evidenced by Canon 35 of the Synod of Laodicea. “天使拉斐爾( Tob. ,十二, 12 )說: ”我為你祈禱上帝“ (見職位,五, 1 (七十) ,以及33:23 (武加大譯本) ;啟示8點04分) 。的天主教崇拜的天使,因此徹底的聖經。也許最早明確宣布它是要找到聖劉漢銓的話: “我們應該祈禱的天使是誰給我們作為監護人” (德Viduis ,九) ; (比照。街8月,魂斗羅Faustum , XX條, 21條) 。不適當的邪教reprobated天使是由聖保羅(歌羅西書2點18分) ,並且這種趨勢長期保持在同一地區都證明了佳能35主教會議的老底嘉。

As Divine Agents Governing The World作為神的代理人管理世界

The foregoing passages, especially those relating to the angels who have charge of various districts, enable us to understand the practically unanimous view of the Fathers that it is the angels who put into execution God's law regarding the physical world.上述通道,尤其是那些與天使誰掌管各區,使我們能夠了解幾乎一致的看法的父親,這是誰的天使付諸執行上帝的法中關於物理世界。 The Semitic belief in genii and in spirits which cause good or evil is well known, and traces of it are to be found in the Bible.在猶太人的信仰genii和精神造成好或邪惡是眾所周知的,它的痕跡是可以找到的聖經。 Thus the pestilence which devastated Israel for David's sin in numbering the people is attributed to an angel whom David is said to have actually seen (2 Samuel 24:15-17), and more explicitly, I Par., xxi, 14-18).因此,瘟疫摧毀以色列的大衛的罪孽在編號人民原因是其中一個天使大衛說,實際上已看到(撒母耳記下24:15-17 ) ,並更加明確,我平標準桿。 , 21 , 14日至18日) 。 Even the wind rustling in the tree-tops was regarded as an angel (2 Samuel 5:23, 24; 1 Chronicles 14:14, 15).即使是風中沙沙作響的樹木超過被看作是一個天使(撒母耳記下5時23分, 24 ;歷代誌上14:14 , 15 ) 。 This is more explicitly stated with regard to the pool of Probatica (John 5:1-4), though these is some doubt about the text; in that passage the disturbance of the water is said to be due to the periodic visits of an angel. The Semites clearly felt that all the orderly harmony of the universe, as well as interruptions of that harmony, were due to God as their originator, but were carried out by His ministers.這是更明確地指出關於池Probatica (約5:1-4 ) ,雖然這些是一些疑問的文本;在這通道干擾的水據說是由於定期訪問的天使。清楚的閃米特人都認為,和諧有序的宇宙,以及中斷的和諧,是由於上帝作為其發端,但進行了他的部長。 This view is strongly marked in the "Book of Jubilees" where the heavenly host of good and evil angels is every interfering in the material universe.這種觀點是堅決標誌著在“圖書Jubilees ”在天上的東道國善惡天使是每一個干涉的物質宇宙。 Maimonides (Directorium Perplexorum, iv and vi) is quoted by St. Thomas Aquinas (Summa Theol., I:1:3) as holding that the Bible frequently terms the powers of nature angels, since they manifest the omnipotence of God (cf. St. Jerome, In Mich., vi, 1, 2; PL, iv, col. 1206). Hierarchical organization邁蒙尼德( Directorium Perplexorum ,四,六)引述多瑪斯(大全Theol 。 ,我: 1:3 )舉行的聖經經常條款的權力性質的天使,因為它們體現了無所不能的上帝(參見聖杰羅姆,在美國密歇根州,六, 1 , 2 ;特等,四,山口。 1206 ) 。分層組織

Though the angels who appear in the earlier works of the Old Testament are strangely impersonal and are overshadowed by the importance of the message they bring or the work they do, there are not wanting hints regarding the existence of certain ranks in the heavenly army.雖然誰的天使出現在早期的作品舊約是奇怪的人格,並蒙上了陰影的重要性,它們帶來的信息或他們所做的工作,有沒有想暗示就存在某些隊伍在天國的軍隊。

After Adam's fall Paradise is guarded against our First Parents by cherubim who are clearly God's ministers, though nothing is said of their nature.在亞當的秋天天堂是防範我們的第一家長的基路伯誰顯然是上帝的部長,但沒有說他們的性質。 Only once again do the cherubim figure in the Bible, viz., in Ezechiel's marvellous vision, where they are described at great length (Ezekiel 1), and are actually called cherub in Ezechiel 10.只有再次做基路伯數字在聖經中,即。 ,在Ezechiel的奇妙構想,在那裡他們介紹了很長時間(以西結1 ) ,實際上是在所謂的天使Ezechiel 10 。 The Ark was guarded by two cherubim, but we are left to conjecture what they were like.方舟是由兩個守護基路伯,但我們不得不猜想他們是什麼樣。 It has been suggested with great probability that we have their counterpart in the winged bulls and lions guarding the Assyrian palaces, and also in the strange winged men with hawks' heads who are depicted on the walls of some of their buildings.有人以極大的概率,我們必須其對應的翅膀公牛和獅子守衛亞述宮殿,並在男子奇怪的翅膀與鷹派'誰主管臚列的牆壁上他們的一些建築物。 The seraphim appear only in the vision of Isaias 6:6.在天使只會出現在遠景伊薩亞斯6時06分。

Mention has already been made of the mystic seven who stand before God, and we seem to have in them an indication of an inner cordon that surrounds the throne. The term archangel occurs only in St. Jude and 1 Thessalonians 4:15; but St. Paul has furnished us with two other lists of names of the heavenly cohorts.提到已經取得的神秘的七個誰站在上帝面前,我們似乎都在表明他們的內心警戒線周圍王位。任期天使只發生在聖裘德和帖撒羅尼迦前書4:15 ;但聖。保羅我們提供了與其他兩個名單天上同夥。 He tells us (Ephesians 1:21) that Christ is raised up "above all principality, and power, and virtue, and dominion"; and, writing to the Colossians (1:16), he says: "In Him were all things created in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominations, or principalities or powers."他告訴我們(以弗所書1時21分)基督是提出了“首先是公,電力,和美德,並統治” ; ,並書面向歌羅西書(一時16分) ,他說: “他是一切事物建立在天堂和地球上的,有形和無形的,無論是王位或統治,或公或權力。 “ It is to be noted that he uses two of these names of the powers of darkness when (2:15) he talks of Christ as "despoiling the principalities and powers . . . triumphing over them in Himself".它需要指出的是,他用兩個名字的權力時,黑暗中( 2:15 ) ,他基督的會談是“掠奪的公和權力。 。 。戰勝了他們自己” 。 And it is not a little remarkable that only two verses later he warns his readers not to be seduced into any "religion of angels".它不是什麼了不起的,只有兩個詩句後,他警告他的讀者不被引誘到任何“宗教的天使” 。 He seems to put his seal upon a certain lawful angelology, and at the same time to warn them against indulging superstition on the subject.他似乎把他的印章後一定合法天使,並在同一時間,警告他們不要沉溺於迷信這個問題。 We have a hint of such excesses in the Book of Enoch, wherein, as already stated, the angels play a quite disproportionate part.我們有一個暗示這種暴行在以諾書,其中如前所述,天使發揮了相當一部分不相稱的。 Similarly Josephus tells us (Bel. Jud., II, viii, 7) that the Essenes had to take a vow to preserve the names of the angels.同樣約瑟夫告訴我們( Bel.珠德。 ,二,八,七)說,愛色尼不得不採取宣誓維護的名字天使。

We have already seen how (Daniel 10:12-21) various districts are allotted to various angels who are termed their princes, and the same feature reappears still more markedly in the Apocalyptic "angels of the seven churches", though it is impossible to decide what is the precise signification of the term.我們已經看到如何(丹尼爾10:12-21 )各區都分配給不同的天使誰被稱為他們的王子,和相同的特徵重新出現更明顯的啟示“天使的七個教會” ,儘管它是不可能的決定什麼是確切意義的任期。 These seven Angels of the Churches are generally regarded as being the Bishops occupying these sees.這七個天使教會通常被視為被佔領這些主教認為。 St. Gregory Nazianzen in his address to the Bishops at Constantinople twice terms them "Angels", in the language of the Apocalypse. The treatise "De Coelesti Hierarchia", which is ascribed to St. Denis the Areopagite, and which exercised so strong an influence upon the Scholastics, treats at great length of the hierarchies and orders of the angels.聖格雷戈里Nazianzen講話中向君士坦丁堡主教在這些方面的兩倍“天使” ,在語言的啟示。的論文“德Coelesti Hierarchia ” ,這是歸因於聖丹尼斯的Areopagite ,並行使如此強大的影響的Scholastics ,處理了很長時間的等級和命令的天使。 It is generally conceded that this work was not due to St. Denis, but must date some centuries later.人們普遍承認,這項工作不是因為聖丹尼斯,但必須日期有些世紀後。 Though the doctrine it contains regarding the choirs of angels has been received in the Church with extraordinary unanimity, no proposition touching the angelic hierarchies is binding on our faith.雖然理論它包含關於天使合唱團已收到在教會同尋常的一致,沒有命題觸摸天使的等級制度是具有約束力,我們的信仰。 The following passages from St. Gregory the Great (Hom. 34, In Evang.) will give us a clear idea of the view of the Church's doctors on the point:下面的段落聖格里高利大( Hom. 34歲,在Evang 。 )將給予我們一個明確的想法,認為教會的醫生的觀點:

We know on the authority of Scripture that there are nine orders of angels, viz., Angels, Archangels, Virtues, Powers, Principalities, Dominations, Throne, Cherubim and Seraphim.我們知道在權威的聖經,有9個訂單天使,即。 ,天使,天使,美德,國,公,統治,王座,革魯賓和天使。 That there are Angels and Archangels nearly every page of the Bible tell us, and the books of the Prophets talk of Cherubim and Seraphim.有天使和天使幾乎每一頁的聖經告訴我們,和書籍的先知談革魯賓和天使。 St. Paul, too, writing to the Ephesians enumerates four orders when he says: 'above all Principality, and Power, and Virtue, and Domination'; and again, writing to the Colossians he says: 'whether Thrones, or Dominations, or Principalities, or Powers'.聖保祿,也寫信給以弗所書列舉了四種訂單時,他說: '上面所有公,電力,和德,和統治' ; ,並再次,書面向歌羅西書他說: '是否王座,或統治,或公,或大國' 。 If we now join these two lists together we have five Orders, and adding Angels and Archangels, Cherubim and Seraphim, we find nine Orders of Angels.如果我們現在加入這兩個名單我們一起有五個命令,並添加天使和天使,革魯賓和天使,我們發現九個天使訂單。

St. Thomas (Summa Theologica I:108), following St. Denis (De Coelesti Hierarchia, vi, vii), divides the angels into three hierarchies each of which contains three orders.聖托馬斯(神學大全一: 108 ) ,繼聖丹尼斯(德Coelesti Hierarchia ,六,七) ,分為天使分為三個等級每個包含三個訂單。 Their proximity to the Supreme Being serves as the basis of this division.靠近最高法院作為擔任此基礎上劃分。 In the first hierarchy he places the Seraphim, Cherubim, and Thrones; in the second, the Dominations, Virtues, and Powers; in the third, the Principalities, Archangels, and Angels.在第一層次的地方,他的天使,革魯賓,並王座;在第二,統治,美德,以及國;在第三,公,天使,和天使。 The only Scriptural names furnished of individual angels are Raphael, Michael, and Gabriel, names which signify their respective attributes.唯一的聖經名字的個人提供的天使拉斐爾,邁克爾和加布里埃爾,名稱,表明各自的屬性。 Apocryphal Jewish books, such as the Book of Enoch, supply those of Uriel and Jeremiel, while many are found in other apocryphal sources, like those Milton names in "Paradise Lost".未經猶太人的書籍,如以諾書,供應的烏利爾和Jeremiel ,而許多被發現的其他未經證實消息來源,如米爾頓的名字“失樂園” 。 (On superstitious use of such names, see above). (論迷信使用這種名稱,見上面) 。

The number of angels數量天使

The number of the angels is frequently stated as prodigious (Daniel 7:10; Apocalypse 5:11; Psalm 67:18; Matthew 26:53).數量天使往往是說的驚人(丹尼爾7:10 ;啟示5時11分;詩篇67:18 ;馬太26:53 ) 。 From the use of the word host (sabaoth) as a synonym for the heavenly army it is hard to resist the impression that the term "Lord of Hosts" refers to God's Supreme command of the angelic multitude (cf. Deuteronomy 33:2; 32:43; Septuagint).從一詞的使用主機(千萬軍馬)作為同義詞天上的軍隊是難以抗拒的印象,即“上帝的主機”是指上帝的最高指揮天使多種(參見申命記33:2 ; 32 : 43 ;譯本) 。 The Fathers see a reference to the relative numbers of men and angels in the parable of the hundred sheep (Luke 15:1-3), though this may seem fanciful.父親看到參照相對數的男性和天使的寓言百羊(路15:1-3 ) ,儘管這可能似乎遙不可及。 The Scholastics, again, following the treatise "De Coelesti Hierarchia" of St. Denis, regard the preponderance of numbers as a necessary perfection of the angelic host (cf. St. Thomas, Summa Theologica I:1:3).該Scholastics ,再次之後,論文“德Coelesti Hierarchia ”的聖丹尼斯,把優勢的數字作為必要的完善天使主機(參見聖托馬斯,神學大全一: 1:3 ) 。

The evil angels邪惡天使

The distinction of good and bad angels constantly appears in the Bible, but it is instructive to note that there is no sign of any dualism or conflict between two equal principles, one good and the other evil.這種區別的好的和壞的天使不斷出現在聖經,但它是有啟發性地指出,沒有跡象顯示任何二元或衝突雙方平等的原則,一個良好的和其他的罪惡。 The conflict depicted is rather that waged on earth between the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of the Evil One, but the latter's inferiority is always supposed.描繪的衝突,而認為是地球上發動王國之間的上帝和英國的危機之一,但後者的自卑感總是假定。 The existence, then, of this inferior, and therefore created, spirit, has to be explained.的存在,那麼,這一劣勢,因此,創造精神,必須加以解釋。

The gradual development of Hebrew consciousness on this point is very clearly marked in the inspired writings.逐步發展意識希伯來文在這一點上是非常清楚地標示在著作的啟發。 The account of the fall of our First Parents (Genesis 3) is couched in such terms that it is impossible to see in it anything more than the acknowledgment of the existence of a principle of evil who was jealous of the human race.該帳戶屬於我們的第一次家長(創3 )措辭這些條款,這是不可能看到它只不過是承認存在的原則,誰是邪惡的嫉妒人類。 The statement (Genesis 6:1) that the "sons of God" married the daughters of men is explained of the fall of the angels, in Enoch, vi-xi, and codices, D, EF, and A of the Septuagint read frequently, for "sons of God", oi aggeloi tou theou.聲明(創6:1 )說, “上帝的兒子”的女兒結婚的男子是解釋秋季的天使,在伊諾克,六喜,並codices ,日,英法,和A的七十閱讀常見,因為“上帝的兒子” ,愛民aggeloi頭theou 。 Unfortunately, codices B and C are defective in Genesis 6, but it is probably that they, too, read oi aggeloi in this passage, for they constantly so render the expression "sons of God"; cf.不幸的是, codices B和C的缺陷成因6 ,但它可能是,他們也愛讀aggeloi在這一通道,為他們不斷提供這樣的表達“上帝的兒子” ;比照。 Job, i, 6; ii, 1; xxxviii, 7; but on the other hand, see Ps., ii, 1; lxxxviii, & (Septuagint). Philo, in commenting on the passage in his treatise "Quod Deus sit immutabilis", i, follows the Septuagint.工作,我, 6 ;二, 1 ;三十八, 7 ;但另一方面,見素。 ,二, 1 ; lxxxviii , & (七十) 。斐羅,在評論通過他的論文“獄卒上帝坐在immutabilis “ ,我的譯本如下。 For Philo's doctrine of Angels, cf.對於哲學的理論的天使,比照。 "De Vita Mosis", iii, 2, "De Somniis", VI: "De Incorrupta Manna", i; "De Sacrificis", ii; "De Lege Allegorica", I, 12; III, 73; and for the view of Gen., vi, 1, cf. “德簡歷Mosis ” ,三,二, “德Somniis ” ,第六章: “德Incorrupta嗎哪” ,我“德Sacrificis ” ,二“德法Allegorica ” ,我, 12歲;三, 73 ;和看法的將軍,六, 1 ,比照。 St. Justin, Apol., ii 5.聖賈斯汀, Apol 。 ,二5 。 It should moreover be noted that the Hebrew word nephilim rendered gigantes, in 6:4, may mean "fallen ones".此外,它應該指出的是,希伯來文詞nephilim提供癸幹忒斯,在6時04分,可能意味著“下降的” 。 The Fathers generally refer it to the sons of Seth, the chosen stock.父親一般是指它的兒子塞思,所選擇的股票。 In 1 Samuel 19:9, an evil spirit is said to possess Saul, though this is probably a metaphorical expression; more explicit is 1 Kings 22:19-23, where a spirit is depicted as appearing in the midst of the heavenly army and offering, at the Lord's invitation, to be a lying spirit in the mouth of Achab's false prophets.在撒母耳記上19點09分,一個邪惡的精神是說,擁有索爾,雖然這可能是一個比喻表達;更明確的是列王紀上22:19-23 ,在精神,是描繪成出現在各種艱難的軍隊和天堂提供,在上帝的邀請,是一個低窪的精神河口Achab的假先知。 We might, with Scholastics, explain this is malum poenae, which is actually caused by God owing to man's fault.我們可能會與Scholastics ,解釋這是malum poenae ,這實際上是上帝造成的,由於人為的過錯。 A truer exegesis would, however, dwell on the purely imaginative tone of the whole episode; it is not so much the mould in which the message is cast as the actual tenor of that message which is meant to occupy our attention.阿逼真的註釋,然而,談調子純粹的想像力的整個事件,這與其說是模具在該消息是演員的實際男高音的訊息,就是佔領我們的注意。

The picture afforded us in Job 1 and 2 is equally imaginative; but Satan, perhaps the earliest individualization of the fallen Angel, is presented as an intruder who is jealous of Job.圖片為我們提供就業1和2同樣是富有想像力的,但撒旦,也許最早的個性化的墮落天使,是作為一個入侵者誰是嫉妒作業。 He is clearly an inferior being to the Deity and can only touch Job with God's permission.他顯然是一個劣勢是神,只能觸摸就業與上帝的許可。 How theologic thought advanced as the sum of revelation grew appears from a comparison of 2 Samuel 24:1, with 1 Chronicles 21:1.如何theologic先進思想的總和增長的啟示似乎從一個比較撒母耳記下24:1 ,與歷代誌上21時01分。 Whereas in the former passage David's sin was said to be due to "the wrath of the Lord" which "stirred up David", in the latter we read that "Satan moved David to number Israel".鑑於前通過大衛的罪惡被說成是由於“觸怒上帝”的“激起了大衛” ,後者我們讀到, “撒旦感動大衛一些以色列” 。 In Job.在就業。 iv, 18, we seem to find a definite declaration of the fall: "In His angels He found wickedness."四, 18日,我們似乎找到一個明確的聲明秋季: “在他的天使他發現邪惡。 ” The Septuagint of Job contains some instructive passages regarding avenging angels in whom we are perhaps to see fallen spirits, thus xxxiii, 23: "If a thousand death-dealing angels should be (against him) not one of them shall wound him"; and xxxvi, 14: "If their souls should perish in their youth (through rashness) yet their life shall be wounded by the angels"; and xxi, 15: "The riches unjustly accumulated shall be vomited up, an angel shall drag him out of his house;" cf.該譯本的工作包含了一些啟發通道關於復仇天使在其中,我們或許看到下降的精神,從而三十三, 23 : “如果一千死亡天使處理應(對他)不是其中之一應他的傷口” ;和三十六, 14 : “如果他們的靈魂應該滅亡的青年(通過魯莽)尚未他們的生活將受傷的天使”和21 , 15 : “不公正的財富積累應嘔吐了,一個天使應拖累他了他的房子“ ;比照。 Prov., xvii, 11; Ps., xxxiv, 5, 6; lxxvii, 49, and especially, Ecclesiasticus, xxxix, 33, a text which, as far as can be gathered from the present state of the manuscript, was in the Hebrew original.省。 ,十七, 11人;物質。 ,三十四,五,六; lxxvii , 49 ,尤其是Ecclesiasticus ,三十九, 33歲,案文,就可以收集到目前的手稿,是在原來希伯來文。 In some of these passages, it is true, the angels may be regarded as avengers of God's justice without therefore being evil spirits.在其中一些段落,這是真的,天使可視為復仇者上帝的正義因此,辟邪的。 In Zach., iii, 1-3, Satan is called the adversary who pleads before the Lord against Jesus the High Priest.在扎克。 ,三, 1-3 ,撒旦被稱為誰的敵人面前懇求上帝對耶穌的大祭司。 Isaias, xiv, and Ezech., xxviii, are for the Fathers the loci classici regarding the fall of Satan (cf. Tertull., adv. Marc., II, x); and Our Lord Himself has given colour to this view by using the imagery of the latter passage when saying to His Apostles: "I saw Satan like lightning falling from heaven" (Luke 10:18).伊薩亞斯,十四,和Ezech 。 ,二十八,是為了父親的基因classici就屬於撒旦(參見Tertull 。 ,副詞。馬克。 ,二,十) ;和我們的上帝給了色彩這一觀點用圖像的通道時,後者說,他使徒: “我看見撒旦如閃電從天上下降” (路10:18 ) 。 In New Testament times the idea of the two spiritual kingdoms is clearly established.在新約時代的想法,這兩個王國的精神是明確規定的。 The devil is a fallen angel who in his fall has drawn multitudes of the heavenly host in his train.魔鬼是墮落天使誰在秋天已制定眾多的天堂在他所在的列車。 Our Lord terms him "the Prince of this world" (John xiv, 30); he is the tempter of the human race and tries to involve them in his fall (Matthew 25:41; 2 Peter 2:4; Ephesians 6:12; 2 Corinthians 11:14; 12:7).我們的主而言他“王子這個世界” (約十四30 ) ;他是誘惑人類,並試圖讓他們在其秋季(馬太25:41 ;彼得後書2:4 ;以弗所書6時12分;哥林多後書11時14分, 12時07分) 。 Christian imagery of the devil as the dragon is mainly derived from the Apocalypse (ix, 11-15; xii, 7-9), where he is termed "the angel of the bottomless pit", "the dragon", "the old serpent", etc., and is represented as having actually been in combat with Archangel Michael.基督教圖像魔鬼的舞龍,主要是來自啟示錄(九, 11日至15日;十二, 7-9 ) ,在那裡他被稱為“天使的無底洞” , “龍” , “老蛇“等,並派有實際上已在戰鬥中與天使邁克爾。 The similarity between scenes such as these and the early Babylonian accounts of the struggle between Merodach and the dragon Tiamat is very striking.之間的相似場景,如這些和早期巴比倫賬戶之間的鬥爭米羅達巴拉和龍Tiamat是非常驚人的。 Whether we are to trace its origin to vague reminiscences of the mighty saurians which once people the earth is a moot question, but the curious reader may consult Bousett, "The Anti-Christ Legend" (tr. by Keane, London, 1896).我們無論是追查其來源模糊回憶的威武saurians曾經在地球人是一個假設的問題,但好奇的讀者也許Bousett協商, “反基督傳奇” (編輯部的基恩,倫敦, 1896年) 。 The translator has prefixed to it an interesting discussion on the origin of the Babylonian Dragon-Myth.譯者已前綴給它一個有趣的討論起源的巴比倫龍的神話。

The Term "Angel" In The Septuagint術語“天使”在七十

We have had occasion to mention the Septuagint version more than once, and it may not be amiss to indicate a few passages where it is our only source of information regarding the angels.我們曾提到七十版本不止一次,它可能不會見怪表明幾段它是我們唯一的信息來源,關於天使。 The best known passage is Is., ix, 6, where the Septuagint gives the name of the Messias, as "the Angel of great Counsel". We have already drawn attention to Job, xx, 15, where the Septuagint reads "Angel" instead of "God", and to xxxvi, 14, where there seems to be question of evil angels.最有名的是通行。 ,九,六,七十而給的名字弭賽亞,因為“天使大律師。 ”我們已經提請注意作業,第xx , 15日,在七十內容“天使”不是“上帝” ,並三十六, 14日,那裡似乎是問題的邪惡天使。 In ix 7, Septuagint (B) adds: "He is the Hebrew (v, 19) say of "Behemoth": "He is the beginning of the ways of God, he that made him shall make his sword to approach him:, the Septuagint reads: "He is the beginning of God's creation, made for His Angels to mock at", and exactly the same remark is made about "Leviathan", xli, 24.在九7 ,七十(乙)說: “他是希伯來文(五19 )說的”巨獸“ : ”他是開始的上帝的方式,他使他應盡他的劍向他: ,在七十寫道: “他是自上帝的創造,為他的天使,以模擬在” ,並完全一樣的話是對“利維坦” ,四十一, 24 。 We have already seen that the Septuagint generally renders the term "sons of God" by "angels", but in Deut., xxxii, 43, the Septuagint has an addition in which both terms appear: "Rejoice in Him all ye heavens, and adore Him all ye angels of God; rejoice ye nations with His people, and magnify Him all ye Sons of God."我們已經看到,七十普遍呈現的“上帝的兒子”的“天使” ,但在Deut 。 ,三十二, 43歲的七十有一個此外,在這兩個方面出現: “親身體驗他一切業天空,並崇拜他耶的天使上帝;你們的國家感到高興與他的人民,並放大他你們父子的上帝。 “ Nor does the Septuagint merely give us these additional references to angels; it sometimes enables us to correct difficult passages concerning them in the Vulgate and Massoretic text.也沒有譯本只是給我們這些額外提及的天使;它有時使我們能夠正確的困難與他們有關段落中的武加大和Massoretic文字。 Thus the difficult Elim of MT in Job, xli, 17, which the Vulgate renders by "angels", becomes "wild beasts" in the Septuagint version.因此,很難琳的就業噸,四十一, 17歲,其中武加大使的“天使” ,變成“野獸”的譯本的版本。

The early ideas as to the personality of the various angelic appearances are, as we have seen, remarkably vague.早期的思想,以人格的各種天使般的表現是,我們已經看到,相當含糊。 At first the angels are regarded in quite an impersonal way (Genesis 16:7).在第一次的天使被視為在一個相當客觀的方式(創十六時07 ) 。 They are God's vice-regents and are often identified with the Author of their message (Genesis 48:15-16).他們是上帝的副校董和確定往往是與作者的訊息(創48:15-16 ) 。 But while we read of "the Angels of God" meeting Jacob (Genesis 32:1) we at other times read of one who is termed "the Angel of God" par excellence, eg Gen., xxxi, 11.但是,我們讀到的“上帝的天使”雅各布會議(創32:1 ) ,我們在其他時間閱讀的一個誰是被稱為“天使的上帝”卓越,如將軍,三十一, 11 。 It is true that, owing to the Hebrew idiom, this may mean no more than "an angel of God", and the Septuagint renders it with or without the article at will; yet the three visitors at Mambre seem to have been of different ranks, though St. Paul (Hebrews 13:2) regarded them all as equally angels; as the story in Ge., xiii, develops, the speaker is always "the Lord".的確,由於希伯來文的成語,這可能意味著不超過“天使的上帝” ,以及七十使其有或沒有文章意願;尚未三個遊客Mambre似乎已經對不同職級儘管聖保羅(希伯來書13時零二)認為他們都具有同等的天使;的故事在葛。 ,十三,開發,發言者永遠是“上帝” 。 Thus in the account of the Angel of the Lord who visited Gideon (Judges 6), the visitor is alternately spoken of as "the Angel of the Lord" and as "the Lord".因此,在考慮到天使的上帝誰訪問了基甸(法官6人) ,訪問者是輪流發言的是“天使的上帝” ,是“上帝” 。 Similarly, in Judges 13, xiii, the Angel of the Lord appears, and both Manue and his wife exclaim: "We shall certainly die because we have seen God."同樣,在法官13日,十三,天使的上帝看來,雙方Manue和他的妻子驚呼: “我們肯定死因為我們已經看到上帝。 ” This want of clearness is particularly apparent in the various accounts of the Angel of Exodus.這希望的清晰尤其明顯在各賬戶的天使出走。 In Judges 6, just now referred to, the Septuagint is very careful to render the Hebrew "Lord" by "the Angel of the Lord"; but in the story of the Exodus it is the Lord who goes before them in the pillar of a cloud (Exodus 13:21), and the Septuagint makes no change (cf. also Num., xiv, 14, and Neh., ix, 7-20. Yet in Exod., xiv, 19, their guide is termed "the Angel of God". When we turn to Exod., xxxiii, where God is angry with His people for worshipping the golden calf, it is hard not to feel that it is God Himself who has hitherto been their guide, but who now refuses to accompany them any longer. God offers an angel instead, but at Moses's petition He says (14) "My face shall go before thee", which the Septuagint reads by autos though the following verse shows that this rendering is clearly impossible, for Moses objects: "If Thou Thyself dost not go before us, bring us not out of this place." But what does God mean by "my face"? Is it possible that some angel of specially high rank is intended, as in Is., lxiii, 9 (cf. Tobias, xii, 15)? May not this be what is meant by "the angel of God" (cf. Numbers 20:16)?在法官6日,剛才提到的譯本是非常謹慎,使希伯來文“上帝”的“天使的上帝” ,但在故事的出這是誰不用上帝面前的一個支柱雲(出埃及記13時21 ) ,以及七十不作任何改變(參見還數。 ,十四,十四,和全國人文捐贈基金。 ,九, 7-20 。然而,在Exod 。 ,十四,十九,他們的指導是稱之為“天使的上帝。 “當我們轉向Exod 。 ,三十三,而上帝是生氣他的人崇拜的黃金小腿,這是很難不認為這是上帝誰迄今他們的指導,但誰現在拒絕陪同他們的任何更長的時間。上帝提供了一個不是天使,但摩西的呈請他說, ( 14 ) “我的臉應路要走你” ,其中七十內容的汽車雖然下面的詩句表明,這種渲染顯然是不可能的,因為摩西物體: “如果你是你自己斯特不能擺在我們面前,使我們沒有了這個地方。 ”但上帝是什麼意思“我的臉” ?是否有可能,一些天使特別高級別的目的是,在這。 , lxiii 9 (參見托比亞斯,十二, 15歲) ? 5月本是不是指的是什麼“天使的上帝” (見數20時16分) ?

That a process of evolution in theological thought accompanied the gradual unfolding of God's revelation need hardly be said, but it is especially marked in the various views entertained regarding the person of the Giver of the Law. The Massoretic text as well as the Vulgate of Exod., iii and xix-xx clearly represent the Supreme Being as appearing to Moses in the bush and on Mount Sinai; but the Septuagint version, while agreeing that it was God Himself who gave the Law, yet makes it "the angel of the Lord" who appeared in the bush.這一個過程中的演變伴隨神學思想的逐步展開上帝的啟示需要很難說,但它是特別明顯的不同意見受理關於人的賜予的法律。 Massoretic文字以及拉丁文聖經的Exod 。 ,三,十九,二十顯然被最高法院作為摩西出現在叢林中和西奈山;但譯本的版本,雖然同意,這是上帝誰給了法,但使得“天使的上帝“誰出現在叢林中。 By New Testament times the Septuagint view has prevailed, and it is now not merely in the bush that the angel of the Lord, and not God Himself appears, but the angel is also the Giver of the Law (cf. Galatians 3:19; Hebrews 2:2; Acts 7:30). The person of "the angel of the Lord" finds a counterpart in the personification of Wisdom in the Sapiential books and in at least one passage (Zechariah 3:1) it seems to stand for that "Son of Man" whom Daniel (vii, 13) saw brought before "the Ancient of Days".由新約七十倍的觀點佔了上風,現在不僅是在叢林中的天使的上帝,而不是上帝出現,但天使也賜予的法律(參見加拉太3點19分;希伯來2點02分;行為7:30 ) 。人的“天使的上帝”找到一個對口的人格化的智慧在Sapiential書籍和至少在一個通道(撒迦利亞3:1 )似乎立場說, “人子”人丹尼爾(七, 13日)提交了“古代的天” 。 Zacharias says: "And the Lord showed me Jesus the high priest standing before the angel of the Lord, and Satan stood on His right hand to be His adversary".撒迦利亞說: “與上帝給我看了耶穌的大祭司站在天使的上帝,和撒旦站在他的右手是他的對手” 。 Tertullian regards many of these passages as preludes to the Incarnation; as the Word of God adumbrating the sublime character in which He is one day to reveal Himself to men (cf. adv, Prax., xvi; adv. Marc., II, 27; III, 9: I, 10, 21, 22).良認為其中的許多段落作為前奏曲的化身;作為天主的聖言adumbrating崇高性質在其中,他有一天發現自己的男人(見副詞,普凱。 ,十六;副詞。馬克。 ,二, 27 ;三, 9 :我, 10 , 21 , 22 ) 。 It is possible, then, that in these confused views we can trace vague gropings after certain dogmatic truths regarding the Trinity, reminiscences perhaps of the early revelation of which the Protevangelium in Genesis 3 is but a relic.這是可能的,那麼,在這些混亂的看法,我們可以追踪含糊gropings在某些教條式的真理關於三一,回憶也許是早期發現其中Protevangelium的成因,但3遺跡。 The earlier Fathers, going by the letter of the text, maintained that it was actually God Himself who appeared.早先的父親,去的信的案文,堅持認為,它實際上是上帝誰出現了。 he who appeared was called God and acted as God.他似乎誰被稱為上帝和充當上帝。 It was not unnatural then for Tertullian, as we have already seen, to regard such manifestations in the light of preludes to the Incarnation, and most of the Eastern Fathers followed the same line of thought. It was held as recently as 1851 by Vandenbroeck, "Dissertatio Theologica de Theophaniis sub Veteri Testamento" (Louvain).這不是自然然後良,因為我們已經看到,把這種現象鑑於前奏曲的化身,大多數東歐父親遵循同樣的思路。這是最近舉行的1851年的Vandenbroeck , “ Dissertatio神學的Theophaniis分Veteri Testamento ” (魯汶) 。

But the great Latins, St. Jerome, St. Augustine, and St. Gregory the Great, held the opposite view, and the Scholastics as a body followed them.但是,偉大的拉丁人,聖杰羅姆,聖奧古斯丁和聖格里高利大,舉行了相反的意見,並Scholastics作為一個機構跟著他們。 St. Augustine (Sermo vii, de Scripturis, PG V) when treating of the burning bush (Exodus 3) says: "That the same person who spoke to Moses should be deemed both the Lord and an angel of the Lord, is very hard to understand. It is a question which forbids any rash assertions but rather demands careful investigation . . . Some maintain that he is called both the Lord and the angel of the Lord because he was Christ, indeed the prophet (Isaiah 9:6, Septuagint Version) clearly styles Christ the 'Angel of great Counsel.'" The saint proceeds to show that such a view is tenable though we must be careful not to fall into Arianism in stating it.聖奧古斯丁( Sermo七,德Scripturis素五)治療時,燃燒的灌木(出埃及記3 )說: “這是同一個人誰以摩西應被視為上帝都和一個天使的上帝,是很難理解。這是一個問題,禁止任何魯莽的斷言,而是要求認真調查。 。 。有些堅持認為,他是所謂的上帝和天使的上帝因為他是基督,確實先知(以賽亞9點06分,七十版)明確風格基督'天使偉大的律師。 “收益的聖表明,這種觀點是站不住腳儘管我們必須小心,不要落入Arianism聲明它。 He points out, however, that if we hold that it was an angel who appeared, we must explain how he came to be called "the Lord," and he proceeds to show how this might be: "Elsewhere in the Bible when a prophet speaks it is yet said to be the Lord who speaks, not of course because the prophet is the Lord but because the Lord is in the prophet; and so in the same way when the Lord condescends to speak through the mouth of a prophet or an angel, it is the same as when he speaks by a prophet or apostle, and the angel is correctly termed an angel if we consider him himself, but equally correctly is he termed 'the Lord' because God dwells in him."他指出,但是,如果我們認為,這是誰的天使出現,我們必須解釋他是如何被稱為“上帝” ,他的收益,顯示這可能是: “在其他地方聖經中的先知時說這是沒有說是上帝誰說話,當然不是因為先知是上帝,而是因為上帝是先知; ,因此以同樣的方式時,主condescends發言通過口或先知天使,這是相同的,當他談到了先知或使徒和天使是正確稱為一個天使如果我們考慮他本人,但同樣正確的是他稱之為'上帝' ,因為上帝在他居住。 “ He concludes: "It is the name of the indweller, not of the temple."他得出結論: “這是名稱的indweller ,而不是廟宇。 ” And a little further on: "It seems to me that we shall most correctly say that our forefathers recognized the Lord in the angel," and he adduces the authority of the New Testament writers who clearly so understood it and yet sometimes allowed the same confusion of terms (cf. Hebrews 2:2, and Acts 7:31-33).和一個小進一步說: “在我看來,我們將最正確的說,我們的祖先承認上帝的天使, ”他1971權威的新約作家誰明確地理解,但有時允許同一混亂術語(見希伯來2點02 ,和行為7:31-33 ) 。 The saint discusses the same question even more elaborately, "In Heptateuchum," lib.在聖討論了同樣的問題更加精心, “在Heptateuchum , ”解放。 vii, 54, PG III, 558.七, 54歲,素三, 558 。 As an instance of how convinced some of the Fathers were in holding the opposite view, we may note Theodoret's words (In Exod.): "The whole passage (Exodus 3) shows that it was God who appeared to him. But (Moses) called Him an angel in order to let us know that it was not God the Father whom he saw -- for whose angel could the Father be? -- but the Only-begotten Son, the Angel of great Counsel" (cf. Eusebius, Hist. Eccles., I, ii, 7; St. Irenaeus, Haer., iii, 6).作為一個實例,如何說服一些父親舉行相反的意見,我們可以注意到Theodoret的話(在Exod 。 )說: “整個通道(出埃及記3 )表明,這是上帝誰似乎給他。但是, (摩西)打電話給他一個天使,以便讓我們知道這不是聖父他看到-為他們的天使可父親呢? -但只有-生兒子,偉大的天使法律顧問“(見優西比烏,歷史。埃克爾斯。 ,一,二, 7 ;聖依, Haer 。 ,三,六) 。 But the view propounded by the Latin Fathers was destined to live in the Church, and the Scholastics reduced it to a system (cf. St. Thomas, Quaest., Disp., De Potentia, vi, 8, ad 3am); and for a very good exposition of both sides of the question, cf.但是,鑑於所提出的拉丁教父是注定要生活在教會,並Scholastics減少到一個系統(參見聖托馬斯, Quaest 。 ,位移。 ,德潛在的,六,八,廣告凌晨3點) ;和一個很好的闡述了雙方的問題,比照。 "Revue biblique," 1894, 232-247. “ biblique雜誌” , 1894年, 232-247 。

Angels In Babylonian Literature天使在巴比倫文學

The Bible has shown us that a belief in angels, or spirits intermediate between God and man, is a characteristic of the Semitic people.聖經告訴我們,相信天使,或精神之間的中間上帝和人類,是一種特有的閃人。 It is therefore interesting to trace this belief in the Semites of Babylonia.因此,有趣的追踪這一信念在閃米特人的東風。 According to Sayce (The Religions of Ancient Egypt and Babylonia, Gifford Lectures, 1901), the engrafting of Semitic beliefs on the earliest Sumerian religion of Babylonia is marked by the entrance of angels or sukallin in their theosophy.據Sayce (的宗教古埃及和巴比倫,吉福德講座, 1901年) ,在嫁接的猶太人的信仰最早的蘇美爾人的宗教巴比倫的特點是入口的天使或sukallin在其神智學。 Thus we find an interesting parallel to "the angels of the Lord" in Nebo, "the minister of Merodach" (ibid., 355).因此,我們發現一個有趣的平行的“天使的上帝”在尼泊山, “部長米羅達巴拉” (同上, 355頁) 。 He is also termed the "angel" or interpreter of the will or Merodach (ibid., 456), and Sayce accepts Hommel's statement that it can be shown from the Minean inscriptions that primitive Semitic religion consisted of moon and star worship, the moon-god Athtar and an "angel" god standing at the head of the pantheon (ibid., 315).他還稱為“天使”或口譯的意願或米羅達巴拉(同上, 456 ) ,並Sayce接受霍梅爾的聲明,可以表明Minean從原始的題詞是猶太人的宗教包括月球和明星崇拜,月亮,神Athtar和“天使”神站在團長的萬神殿(同上, 315頁) 。 The Biblical conflict between the kingdoms of good and evil finds its parallel in the "spirits of heaven" or the Igigi--who constituted the "host" of which Ninip was the champion (and from who he received the title of "chief of the angels") and the "spirits of the earth", or Annuna-Ki, who dwelt in Hades (ibid. 355).聖經之間的衝突王國善惡認定其並行的“靈魂天堂”或Igigi -誰構成了“主機”的N inip是冠軍(和誰他收到了名為“長天使“ )和”精神的地球“ ,或Annuna基,誰住在閻王(同上355頁) 。 The Babylonian sukalli corresponded to the spirit-messengers of the Bible; they declared their Lord's will and executed his behests (ibid., 361).巴比倫sukalli相符的精神,送信的聖經,他們宣布,他們上帝的意願和執行他的遺志(同上, 361 ) 。 Some of them appear to have been more than messengers; they were the interpreters and vicegerents of the supreme deity, thus Nebo is "the prophet of Borsippa".其中一些人似乎已經超過送信;他們是口譯和vicegerents最高神,因此,尼泊山是“先知Borsippa ” 。 These angels are even termed "the sons" of the deity whose vicegerents they are; thus Ninip, at one time the messenger of En-lil, is transformed into his son just as Merodach becomes the son of Ea (ibid., 496).這些天使,甚至被稱為“兒子”的神,其vicegerents他們; Ninip因此,在同一時間的使者恩小小,轉化為自己的兒子一樣成為米羅達巴拉的兒子鄂(同上, 496 ) 。 The Babylonian accounts of the Creation and the Flood do not contrast very favourably with the Biblical accounts, and the same must be said of the chaotic hierarchies of gods and angels which modern research has revealed.巴比倫賬戶的建立和洪水並不十分有利的對比與聖經的帳戶,並同時必須指出的混亂層次的神和天使現代研究發現。 perhaps we are justified in seeing all forms of religion vestiges of a primitive nature-worship which has at times succeeded in debasing the purer revelation, and which, where that primitive revelation has not received successive increments as among the Hebrews, results in an abundant crop of weeds.也許我們有理由看到的一切形式的宗教遺跡一種原始自然崇拜它,有時成功地貶低了純潔的啟示,其中,這種原始的啟示還沒有收到連續遞增之間的希伯來人,結果在一個豐富的作物雜草。

Thus the Bible certainly sanctions the idea of certain angels being in charge of special districts (cf. Dan., x, and above).因此,聖經肯定制裁的想法,某些天使掌管的特殊地區(參見丹。 , X和段) 。 This belief persists in a debased form in the Arab notion of Genii, or Jinns, who haunt particular spots.這種信念堅持了庸俗的形式在阿拉伯概念Genii ,或Jinns ,特別是誰困擾著點。 A reference to it is perhaps to be found in Genesis 32:1-2: "Jacob also went on the journey he had begun: and the angels of God met him: And when he saw then he said: These are the camps of God, and he called the name of that place Mahanaim, that is, 'Camps.'提及,這也許可以找到在創世記32:1-2 : “雅各布還去的路途上,他已經開始:天使和上帝會見了他:當他看到然後他說:這是上帝的營地,他呼籲名稱瑪哈念那個地方,就是營地。 " Recent explorations in the Arab district about Petra have revealed certain precincts marked off with stones as the abiding-laces of angels, and the nomad tribes frequent them for prayer and sacrifice. “最近的探索,在阿拉伯佩特拉區有關人士透露某些選區標示了用石頭作為守法,花邊的天使,和游牧部族經常為他們祈禱和犧牲。 These places bear a name which corresponds exactly with the "Mahanaim" of the above passage in Genesis (cf. Lagrange, Religions Semitques, 184, and Robertson Smith, Religion of the Semites, 445).這些地方承擔的名稱這完全符合了“瑪哈念”上述通行起源(見拉格朗日,宗教Semitques , 184 ,和羅伯遜史密斯,宗教的閃米特人, 445 ) 。 Jacob's vision at Bethel (Genesis 28:12) may perhaps come under the same category.雅各布的設想在伯特利(創28:12 )也許屬於同一類別。 Suffice it to say that not everything in the Bible is revelation, and that the object of the inspired writings is not merely to tell us new truths but also to make clearer certain truths taught us by nature.我只想說,並非一切都在聖經的啟示,而且對象的啟發著作不僅是告訴我們新的真理,也使某些事實清楚地告訴我們的性質。 The modern view, which tends to regard everything Babylonian as absolutely primitive and which seems to think that because critics affix a late date to the Biblical writings the religion therein contained must also be late, may be seen in Haag, "Theologie Biblique" (339).現代的觀點,往往把一切巴比倫絕對原始,它似乎認為,因為批評者貼上的日期晚了聖經的宗教著作其中所載還必須晚了,可以看到哈格, “神學Biblique ” ( 339 ) 。 This writer sees in the Biblical angels only primitive deities debased into demi-gods by the triumphant progress of Monotheism.筆者認為聖經中的天使只有原始神庸俗成半神的勝利進展一神教。

Angels in the Zend-Avesta天使在Zend的,阿維斯塔

Attempts have also been made to trace a connection between the angels of the Bible and the "great archangels" or "Amesha-Spentas" of the Zend-Avesta.嘗試也取得了追查之間的聯繫天使聖經和“偉大的天使”或“ Amesha - Spentas ”的Zend公司,阿維斯塔。 That the Persian domination and the Babylonian captivity exerted a large influence upon the Hebrew conception of the angels is acknowledged in the Talmud of Jerusalem, Rosch Haschanna, 56, where it is said that the names of the angels were introduced from Babylon.這波斯統治和巴比倫囚禁產生了很大的影響的希伯來語的概念是天使中承認耶路撒冷塔木德,羅斯Haschanna , 56歲,其中有人說,名字的天使了來自巴比倫。 It is, however, by no means clear that the angelic beings who figure so largely in the pages of the Avesta are to be referred to the older Persian Neo-Zoroastrianism of the Sassanides.但是,絕不清楚地表明,人們誰天使般的數字,使大部分是在網頁的阿維斯塔是被稱為舊波斯新拜火教的Sassanides 。 If this be the case, as Darmesteter holds, we should rather reverse the position and attribute the Zoroastrian angels to the influence of the Bible and of Philo.如果這種情況下,作為Darmesteter持有,我們應該扭轉的地位和屬性的拜火教天使的影響,聖經和哲學。 Stress has been laid upon the similarity between the Biblical "seven who stand before God" and the seven Amesha-Spentas of the Zend-Avesta.應力已經奠定的相似之處聖經“七誰站在上帝面前”和七個Amesha - Spentas的Zend公司,阿維斯塔。 But it must be noted that these latter are really six, the number seven is only obtained by counting "their father, Ahura-Mazda," among them as their chief.但必須指出的是,這些後者則是真正六,七年的人數只有得到計數“他們的父親,胡,馬自達” ,其中包括作為其長。 Moreover, these Zoroastrian archangels are more abstract that concrete; they are not individuals charged with weighty missions as in the Bible.此外,這些拜火教天使更抽象的,具體他們是不是個人負責的重大任務,在聖經。

Angels in the New Testament天使在新約

Hitherto we have dwelt almost exclusively on the angels of the Old Testament, whose visits and messages have been by no means rare; but when we come to the New Testament their name appears on every page and the number of references to them equals those in the Old Dispensation.迄今為止,我們已經談到幾乎完全的天使舊約,其訪問和郵件已絕非罕見;但是當我們來到新約的名字出現在每一頁上都和多次提到他們等於那些老配方。 It is their privilege to announce to Zachary and Mary the dawn of Redemption, and to the shepherds its actual accomplishment.這是他們的榮幸地宣布,以451和瑪麗的到來贖回,和牧羊人其實際的成就。 Our Lord in His discourses talks of them as one who actually saw them, and who, whilst "conversing amongst men", was yet receiving the silent unseen adoration of the hosts of heaven.我們的主在他的話語會談,其中一個誰實際看到他們,誰,而“男人之間的對話” ,又是無聲的接受朝拜看不見的主機的天堂。 He describes their life in heaven (Matthew 22:30; Luke 20:36); He tell us how they form a bodyguard round Him and at a word from Him would avenge Him on His enemies (Matthew 26:53); it is the privilege of one of them to assist Him in His Agony and sweat of Blood.他形容他們的生活在天堂(馬太22:30 ;路加20:36 ) ;他告訴我們,他們如何形成一個回合他的保鏢和一個字,他會報復他的敵人(馬太26:53 ) ;這是特權其中之一,協助他的痛苦和汗水的血液。 More than once He speaks of them as auxiliaries and witnesses at the final judgment (Matthew 16:27), which indeed they will prepare (ibid., xiii, 39-49); and lastly, they are the joyous witnesses of His triumphant Resurrection (ibid., xxviii, 2).不止一次,他談到了它們作為助劑和證人在最後判決(馬太16:27 ) ,這確實他們將編寫(同上, 13 , 39-49 ) ;最後,他們是快樂的見證他的勝利復活(同上,二十八, 2 ) 。

It is easy for skeptical minds to see in these angelic hosts the mere play of Hebrew fancy and the rank growth of superstition, but do not the records of the angels who figure in the Bible supply a most natural and harmonious progression? In the opening page of the sacred story of the Jewish nation is chose out from amongst others as the depositary of God's promise; as the people from whose stock He would one day raise up a Redeemer.這是容易懷疑頭腦看到這些天使般的主機僅僅發揮想像的希伯來文和職級增長的迷信,但不記錄的數字天使誰在聖經中提供最自然,和諧的發展?在開幕頁神聖的故事猶太民族是選擇從其他國家之間的保管人上帝的承諾;作為人民的股票,他總有一天會提出了一個救世主。 The angels appear in the course of this chosen people's history, now as God's messengers, now as that people's guides; at one time they are the bestowers of God's law, at another they actually prefigure the Redeemer Whose divine purpose they are helping to mature. They converse with His prophets, with David and Elias, with Daniel and Zacharias; they slay the hosts camped against Israel, they serve as guides to God's servants, and the last prophet, Malachi, bears a name of peculiar significance; "the Angel of Jehovah."天使出現在這一過程中選擇人民的歷史,現在,上帝的使者,現在人們的指南;一次他們是bestowers上帝的法律,在另一他們實際上預示救世主是誰的神聖目的,他們正在幫助成熟。他們與他交談先知,大衛和埃利亞斯,與丹尼爾和撒迦利亞;他們殺死的主機針對以色列的帳篷,他們充當導遊,以上帝的僕人,最後先知瑪拉基,負有特殊的名稱的意義“ ;的天使耶和華。 “ He seems to sum up in his very name the previous "ministry by the hands of angels", as though God would thus recall the old-time glories of the Exodus and Sinai.他似乎在總結他的名字以前的“部的手中天使” ,彷彿是上帝,從而回顧歲時的輝煌的外流和西奈半島。 The Septuagint, indeed, seems not to know his name as that of an individual prophet and its rendering of the opening verse of his prophecy is peculiarly solemn: "The burden of the Word of the Lord of Israel by the hand of His angel; lay it up in your hearts."在七十,事實上,似乎不知道他的名字作為某個人的先知和渲染開放詩句,他的預言是獨有的莊嚴: “負擔的Word上帝對以色列的手,他的天使;奠定基礎它在您的心中。 “ All this loving ministry on the part of the angels is solely for the sake of the Saviour, on Whose face they desire to look.所有這一切愛好部的一部分天使純粹是為了救主,在其面對他們期待的願望。 Hence when the fullness of time was arrived it is they who bring the glad message, and sing "Gloria in excelsis Deo".因此,當豐滿的時間抵達,他們是誰把高興郵件,並唱“凱萊在excelsis上帝” 。 They guide the newborn King of Angels in His hurried flight into Egypt, and minister to Him in the desert.他們引導新生王天使在他匆匆飛行到埃及,和他的部長在沙漠中。 His second coming and the dire events that must precede that, are revealed to His chosen servant in the island of Patmos, It is a question of revelation again, and consequently its ministers and messengers of old appear once more in the sacred story and the record of God's revealing love ends fittingly almost as it had begun: "I, Jesus, have sent My angel to testify to you these things in the churches" (Revelation 22:16).他的第二個未來和悲慘的事件,必須先說,是顯示,他的僕人選擇在島上的帕特摩斯,這是一個問題的啟示再次,因此,其部長和舊的使者再次出現在神聖的故事和記錄上帝的揭示愛情結束恰當,因為它幾乎已經開始: “我,耶穌,派出我的天使,以證明這些東西你在教堂” (啟示錄22:16 ) 。 It is easy for the student to trace the influence of surrounding nations and of other religions in the Biblical account of the angels.人們很容易對學生跟踪的影響,周邊國家和其他宗教的聖經帳戶的天使。 Indeed it is needful and instructive to do so, but it would be wrong to shut our eyes to the higher line of development which we have shown and which brings out so strikingly the marvellous unity and harmony of the whole divine story of the Bible.實際上這是必要的和有益的這樣做,但將是錯誤的關閉我們的眼睛,以更高的路線發展,我們已經表明,並帶出如此驚人的了不起的團結與和諧的整個故事,神聖的聖經。 (See also ANGELS IN EARLY CHRISTIAN ART.) (又見天使在早期基督教藝術。 )

Publication information Written by Hugh T. Pope.出版信息撰稿休噸教皇。 Transcribed by Jim Holden. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.轉錄的吉姆豪。天主教百科全書,體積一發布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat , 1907年三月一日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

In addition to works mentioned above, see St. Thomas, Summa Theol., I, QQ.除了上面提到的作品,見聖托馬斯,神學Theol 。 ,我聊天。 50-54 and 106-114; Suarez De Angelis, lib. 50-54和106-114 ;蘇亞雷斯安吉利斯,解放。 i-iv.一至四。


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