Alexandrian Theology亞歷山大神學

Clement of Alexandria克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞

General Information 一般信息

Clement of Alexandria, whose full name was Titus Flavius Clemens (150?-215?), was a Greek theologian and an early Father of the Church.克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,其全稱是泰特斯弗拉菲烏斯克萊門斯( 150 ? -215 ? ) ,是一個神學和希臘早期的父親教會。 He was probably born in Athens, Greece, and was educated at the catechetical school in Alexandria, where he studied under the Christian philosopher Pantaenus.他可能是出生在希臘雅典,並在教育問答學校在亞歷山大,在那裡他研究的基督教哲學家Pantaenus 。 Some time after Clement's conversion from paganism, he was ordained a presbyter.一段時間後,克萊門特的轉換從異教,他被祝聖一長老。 In about 190 he succeeded Pantaenus as head of the catechetical school, which became famous under his leadership. Origen, who later achieved distinction as a writer, teacher, and theologian, may have been one of Clement's pupils.在約190他成功地Pantaenus擔任問答學校,成為著名的在他的領導下。奧利,誰後取得的區分作為一個作家,教師,和神學家,可能已是克萊門特的學生。 During the persecution of the Christians in the reign of Septimius Severus, emperor of Rome, Clement moved from Alexandria to Caesarea (Mazaca) in Cappadocia.在迫害基督教徒統治Septimius塞維魯,羅馬的皇帝,克萊門特從亞歷山大愷撒( Mazaca )在卡帕多西亞。 Little is known of his subsequent activities.目前還不知道他以後的活動。 At times, he was considered a saint; his name appeared in early Christian martyrologies.有時,他被認為是一個聖人;他的名字出現在早期基督教martyrologies 。

Many scholars regard Clement as the founder of the Alexandrian school of theology, which emphasized the divine nature of Christ. It was Alexandrian theologians such as Saint Cyril and Saint Athanasius who took the lead in opposing Adoptionism and Nestorianism, both of which emphasized Christ's humanity at the expense of his divinity. According to Clement's system of logic, the thought and will of God exhorts, educates, and perfects the true Christian.許多學者克萊門特的創始人亞歷山大學校的神學, 其中強調基督神性的。這是亞歷山大的神學家,如聖西里爾和聖亞他那修誰帶頭反對Adoptionism和景教,兩者都強調基督的人類犧牲了他的神。克萊門特根據系統的邏輯,思想和上帝的意志激勵,教育,並完善了真正的基督徒。 This process is described in A Hortatory Address to the Greeks, The Tutor, and Miscellanies, Clement's major works.這個過程描述勸告地址的希臘人,在導師和雜記,克萊門特的重大工程。 The first work is addressed to the educated public with an interest in Christianity; it is modeled on the Hortatory Address of Aristotle, a lost work in which Aristotle addressed the general reader with an interest in philosophy. The Tutor is designed to broaden and deepen the foundation of Christian faith imparted in baptismal instruction. Miscellanies is a discussion of various points of doctrinal theology, designed to guide the mature Christian to perfect knowledge.第一個工作是給公眾教育有興趣的基督教,它是模仿勸告地址亞里士多德,失去工作,其中亞里士多德給一般讀者有興趣的哲學。 導師的目的是擴大和深化基礎信仰基督教的洗禮傳授教學。 雜記是討論不同的神學理論,旨在引導基督教成熟完善的知識。 Clement was also the author of a number of tracts and treatises, including Slander, Fasting, Patience, and Who Is the Rich Man That Is Saved?克萊門特也是作者的一些傳單和論文,其中包括誹謗,禁食,耐心,和誰是富人保存?

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Clement of Alexandria克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(ca. 150-ca. 215) (約150鈣。 215 )

Titus Flavius Clemens, Greek theologian and writer, was the first significant representative of the Alexandrian theological tradition.泰特斯弗拉菲烏斯克萊門斯,希臘神學家和作家,是第一個顯著代表亞歷山大神學傳統。 Born of pagan parents in Athens, Clement went to Alexandria, where he succeeded his teacher Pantaenus as head of the Catechetical School.異教徒出生的父母在雅典,克萊門特去亞歷山大,在那裡他繼承他的老師Pantaenus擔任問答學校。 In 202 persecution forced him to leave Alexandria, apparently never to return.在202迫害強迫他離開亞歷山大,顯然是從來沒有返回。

Of Clement's writings four are preserved complete: Protreptikos (an exhortation addressed to the Greeks urging their conversion); Paedagogos (a portrayal of Christ as tutor instructing the faithful in their conduct); Stromata (miscellaneous thoughts primarily concerning the relation of faith to philosophy); "Who Is the Rich Man That Is Saved?"在克萊門特的寫作四個保存完整: Protreptikos (一種告誡給希臘人敦促其轉換) ; Paedagogos (一描繪基督為導師,指示信徒在他們的行為) ; Stromata (雜項,主要涉及思想關係的信仰哲學) “誰是富人保存? ” (an exposition of Mark 10:17-31, arguing that wealth, if rightfully used, is not un-Christian). (闡述了馬克10:17-31 ,認為財富,如果正確使用,是不是取消基督教) 。 Of other writings only fragments remain, especially of the Hypotyposes, a commentary on the Scriptures.其他著作只有片段依然存在,特別是Hypotyposes ,評注的聖經。

Clement is important for his positive approach to philosophy which laid the foundations for Christian humanism and for the idea of philosophy as "handmaid" to theology.克萊門特重要的是,他的積極態度哲學奠定了基礎基督教人文精神和哲學思想的“侍女”的神學。 The idea of the Logos dominates his thinking.這個想法在他的理性思維佔主導地位。 The divine Logos, creator of all things, guides all good men and causes all right thought.神聖的標誌,創造一切事物,指導所有的好男人和原因的所有權利思想。 Greek philosophy was, therefore, a partial revelation and prepared the Greeks for Christ just as the law prepared the Hebrews.古希臘哲學,因此,部分啟示,並準備希臘人基督一樣的法律編寫了猶太人。 Christ is the Logos incarnate through whom man attains to perfection and true gnosis.基督是理性的化身通過他們的人達到完善和真正的直覺。 Against the Gnostics who disparaged faith, Clement considers faith the necessary first principle and foundation for knowledge, which itself is the perfection of faith. Man becomes a "true Gnostic" by love and contemplation.對Gnostics誰貶低信仰,信念克萊門特認為必要的第一條原則和基礎知識,這本身就是完美的信念。人成為“真正的諾斯底”的愛和沉思。 Through self-control and love man rids himself of passions, reaching finally the state of impassibility wherein he attains to the likeness of God. With this idea Clement profoundly influenced Greek Christian spirituality.通過自我控制和愛的人肋自己的激情,最終達到的狀態impassibility他在達到向上帝那樣。有了這個想法克萊門特深刻影響希臘基督教靈性。

WC Weinrich碳化鎢溫瑞奇
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
EF Osborn, The Philosophy of Clement of Alexandria; SRC Lilla, Clement of Alexandria: A Study in Christian Platonism and Gnosticism; RB Tollington, Clement of Alexandria: A Study in Christian Liberalism, 2 vols.; E. Molland, The Conception of the Gospel in the Alexandrian Theology; J. Quasten, Patrology, II: The Ante-Nicene Literature after Irenaeus; WH Wagner, "The Paideia Motif in the Theology of Clement of Alexandria" (Diss., Drew University, 1968); WEG Floyd, Clement of Alexandria's Treatment of the Problem of Evil; DJM Bradley, "The Transfiguration of the Stoic Ethic in Clement of Alexandria," Aug 14:41-66; J. Ferguson, "The Achievement of Clement of Alexandria," RelS 12:59-80.英法奧斯本,哲學克萊門特亞歷山大;鋼骨混凝土•里拉,克萊門特亞歷山大:在研究基督教柏拉圖和諾斯替主義;包Tollington ,克萊門特亞歷山大:在研究基督教自由主義,第2卷。 ;體育Molland ,該構想福音在亞歷山大神學;學者Quasten , Patrology ,二:在產前文學尼西亞後依;武漢瓦格納說: “ Paideia題的神學克萊門特亞歷山大” ( Diss. ,德魯大學, 1968年) ; WEG的弗洛伊德,克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞的待遇問題的邪惡;粉噴樁布拉德利說: “變了斯多葛倫理克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞, ” 8月14:41-66 ;學者弗格森說: “成就的亞歷山德里亞克萊門特, ” RelS 12:59 -80 。



Alexandrian Theology亞歷山大神學

Advanced Information 先進的信息

It is probable that Christianity came to Alexandria in apostolic times, though the tradition that it was first brought by John Mark cannot be verified.這是可能的,基督教來到亞歷山大在使徒時代,雖然傳統,這是第一所帶來的約翰馬克無法得到證實。 The indications are that Christianity was well established in middle Egypt by AD 150 and that Alexandria was its port of entry and supporting base.跡象表明,基督教以及中設立埃及公元150和亞歷山大是其入境口岸和支持基地。

Clement of Alexandria became head of the Catechetical School about 190.克萊門特亞歷山大開始擔任問答學校約190 。 A philosopher throughout his life, Clement saw Greek philosophy as a preparation for Christ, even as a witness to divine truth.一位哲學家在他的生活,克萊門特認為希臘哲學作為一個基督的準備,即使是作為證人神聖真理。 Plato was a cherished guide. Sin is grounded in man's free will.柏拉圖是一個寶貴的指南。 黃大仙是植根於人的自由意志。 Enlightement by the Logos brings man to knowledge. 啟示的理性使人類的知識。 Knowledge results in right decisions. 知識的結果正確的決定。 These draw a man toward God until he is assimilated to God (Stromata iv. 23). 這些畫對上帝的人,直到他是等同於神( Stromata四。 23 ) 。 The Christian lives by love, free from passion.基督教熱愛生命,遠離激情。 His life is a constant prayer.他的一生是一個不斷的祈禱。 Clement set forth its pattern in minute detail in the Paedagogos.克萊門特規定其格局分鐘詳細的Paedagogos 。 He took an optimistic view of the future of all men, but knowledge would be rewarded in the world to come.他採取了樂觀的看法未來的所有男人,但知識將得到獎勵的世界來。 An allegorical exegesis of Scripture supported these views.一個寓言聖經註釋支持這些觀點。

Around 202 Clement was succeeded in the Catechetical School by the much abler Origen. A biblical student and exegete of great ability, Origen produced the Hexapla text of the OT. 大約202克萊門特是成功的問答學校的很多埃布勒奧利。一個聖經學生和exegete的偉大能力,奧利產生文本Hexapla的加時賽。 He wrote commentaries, scholia, or homilies on all the biblical books; but they were based on three senses of Scripture, the literal, moral, and allegorical.他寫評注, scholia ,或講道詞的所有聖經的書籍,但他們是基於三種含義的經文,文字,道德和寓言。 The Bible was inspired, useful, true in every letter, but the literal interpretation was not necessarily the correct one.聖經的啟發,有益的,真正在每一封信,但字面解釋不一定是正確的。 Indebted, like Clement, to the Greeks, Origen was not as admiringly dependent upon them.債,像克萊門特的希臘人,奧利是讚美不是依賴他們。

His conception was of a great spiritual universe, presided over by a beneficent, wise, and personal being.他的構想是一個偉大的精神宇宙,主持的善行,明智和個人福祉。 Alexandrian Christology makes its beginnings with Origen.亞歷山大基督使其與奧利開端。 Through an eternal generation of the Son, the Logos, God communicates himself from all eternity. There is a moral, volitional unity between the Father and the Son, but an essential unity is questionable .通過一個永恆的一代人的兒子,理性,上帝傳達自己從所有永恆。 有道德,意志統一,父子,但一個基本的統一是值得懷疑的。 The world of sense provides the theater of redemption for fallen creatures who range from angels through men to demons. By the incarnation the Logos is the mediator of redemption.世界的意義提供了戰區下降贖回的動物誰範圍從天使通過男子惡魔。 通過的化身的標誌是調解人的贖回。 He took to himself a human soul in a union that was a henosis. 他以自己是人類靈魂的工會,這是一個henosis 。

It was, therefore, proper to say that the Son of God was born an infant, that he died (De princ. II. vi. 2-3). By teaching, by example, by offering himself a propitiatory victim to God, by paying the devil a ransom, Christ saves men .因此,正確地說,上帝的兒子出生的嬰兒,他去世(德原理。二。六。 2-3 ) 。 通過教學,以身作則,通過提供自己是受害者和解的上帝,由魔鬼支付贖金,基督拯救男人。 Men gradually free themselves from the earthy by meditation, by abstinence, by the vision of God.男子逐漸擺脫泥土的冥想,通過禁慾,由遠見的上帝。 A purging fire may be needed in the process.阿瀉火可能需要在這一進程中。 Although this world is neither the first nor the last of a series, there will ultimately come the restoration of all things.雖然這個世界既不是第一次,也不是最後一個系列,將最終恢復所有的事情。 Flesh, matter, will disappear, spirit only will remain, and God will be all in all.肉的問題,就會消失,精神不僅將繼續,上帝將所有的一切。 How long human freedom will retain the power of producing another catastrophe is not clear, but ultimately all will be confirmed in goodness by the power of God's love.多久人的自由將保留電力生產另一場浩劫目前尚不清楚,但最終都將得到確認善良的力量上帝的愛。

After Origen's departure from Alexandria his disciples diverged.奧利後離開亞歷山大弟子分歧。 One group tended to deny the eternal generation of the Logos.一組傾向於否認永恆的一代人的標誌。 Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria (247-65), sympathized with this party and declared the Logos to be a creation of the Father, but the future in Alexandria belonged to the opposite wing, which emphasized the divine attributes of the Logos.狄奧尼修,主教亞歷山德里亞( 247-65 ) ,同情,這個黨,並宣布徽標是一個創造之父,但今後在亞歷山德里亞屬於對面翼,它強調的神聖屬性的標誌。 The Sabellian party was strong in Cyrenaica and Libya, and this influence affected Alexandria. When the presbyter Arius began, perhaps about 317, to proclaim that the Logos was a creation in time, differing from the Father in being, he attracted disciples, but Bishop Alexander opposed Arius.黨的Sabellian強勁昔蘭尼加和利比亞,這影響到亞歷山德里亞的影響。 當牧師阿里烏斯開始,也許約317 ,宣布該標識是一種建立在時間,不同的父親在被他吸引了弟子,但主教亞歷山大反對阿里烏斯。 As Emperor Constantine found it impossible to restore harmony by exhortation and influence, he called for a general meeting of bishops. 作為皇帝君士坦丁認為不可能恢復和諧的規勸和影響力,他呼籲召開一次大會主教。 The resulting Council of Nicaea in 325 was attended by an Alexandrian delegation which included the deacon Athanasius. 由此產生的理事會在325尼西亞出席了亞歷山大的代表團,其中包括執事亞他那修。 For the remaining years of his life Athanasius was to champion the Nicene conclusion that the Son was homoousios with the Father. The adoption of this term in spite of its checkered Gnostic and Sabellian background was a work of providential genius.至於其餘多年的亞他那修他的生命是冠軍尼西亞結論,認為兒子homoousios的父親。通過這個詞,儘管其格仔諾斯底和Sabellian背景是一個工作的天賜天才。

In 328 Athanasius succeeded Alexander as the Alexandrian bishop.在328亞歷山大亞他那修成功的亞歷山大主教。 In spite of some dictatorial tendencies he possessed a superb combination of the talents of a successful administrator with great depths of theological insight.儘管有一些獨裁的傾向,他掌握了高超的組合人才的成功與偉大的管理員深處的神學見解。 From this time on, Alexandria emphasized vigorously the identity in being of the Father and the Son. Athanasius presented, in his On the Incarnation of the Logos, the indispensability of the union of true God with true man for the Christian doctrine of salvation through the life and death of Christ. Wholly God and wholly man the Saviour must be. Through many false charges and five periods of exile Athanasius maintained his insistence upon one God, Father and Son of the same substance, the church the institute of salvation, not subject to the interference of the civil state. Athanasius also set forth the view that the Spirit is homoousios likewise with the Father and the Son, thus preparing the way for the formula miaousia, treis hypostaseis.從這個時間亞歷山大強調大力身份被父親和兒子。亞他那修介紹,在他的論道成肉身的標誌,是不可或缺的工會真正的上帝與真正的男人的基督教教義拯救通過生死耶穌基督。 全上帝和全男子救世主必須。通過許多不實指控和5個時期的流亡亞他那修堅持自己堅持的一個上帝,父與子相同的內容,教會學院的救星,不受對干擾民間的狀態。 亞他那修也提出認為,精神是homoousios同樣的父子,從而鋪平了道路的公式miaousia ,特賴斯hypostaseis 。

That Christ need not be wholly divine and wholly human was a view which Apollinaris of Laodicea did not succeed in fastening upon Alexandria in spite of his efforts in that direction.基督不必完全神聖和全是一個人的看法Apollinaris的老底嘉並沒有成功地緊固後亞歷山大儘管他朝著這個方向努力。 His view that the pneuma of the Logos replaced the human spirit was rejected.他認為靈魂的標誌代替了人的精神被駁回。 His emphasis upon the unity of the personality of Christ, however, became increasingly an Alexandrian emphasis and was strongly stressed by Cyril, who became bishop in 412. The Logos took a full human nature upon himself, but the result was henosis physike, and Cyril loved the formula miaphysis, one even though originally ek duo.他強調統一的人格基督,但是,變得越來越一個亞歷山大的重視和大力強調的西里爾,誰成為主教412 。 標識了充分的人對自己的性質,但結果卻是henosis physike和西里爾愛的公式miaphysis ,一個即使原先綻出二人。 The incarnation was to the end of salvation. God became man that we might become God.化身是結束得救。 神成為人,我們有可能成為上帝。

Cyril supported this by allegorical exposition of the Scripture of both testaments, especially the Pentateuch.西里爾支持這一論斷的寓言聖經的見證,特別是五。 The phenomenal allegory of the facts is designed to yield the noumenal meaning.驚人的寓言的事實是為了產生本體的意義。 His most famous writing is his series of twelve anathemas against Nestorius, attacking what appeared to him to be denials of the unity and full deity of Christ and of the crucifixion and resurrection of the Word.他最有名的是他寫的一系列12 anathemas對聶斯脫裡,攻擊看來他是否定的統一和完整神耶穌和十字架和復活的Word 。 In 433 Cyril accepted, with the Antioch leaders, a profession of faith which declared that a unity of the two natures of Christ had come into existence (henosis gegone) and used the term for which Cyril had so vigorously contended against Nestorius, Theotokos, as a description of the Virgin Mary.在433 西里爾接受,與安領導人,專業的信念宣布,一個統一的兩個性質,基督已經存在( henosis gegone ) ,並使用了任期的西里爾了大力爭辯,以便對聶斯脫裡,子,因為描述了聖母。

Dioscurus continued the Cyrillian emphasis on unity in the person of Christ but pushed it to an extreme. At the Council of Chalcedon (451) the Alexandrian radicals suffered defeat with the adoption in the Chalcedonian Definition of the phrase en dyo physesin. Dioscurus繼續Cyrillian強調團結在基督的人,但推到極端。安理會在迦克墩( 451 )自由基的亞歷山大遭受失敗,通過在迦克的定義短語恩dyo physesin 。 The final Alexandrian tendencies produced schism after Chalcedon. The great bulk of Egyptian Christendom rejected Chalcedon and became monophysite. Monothelitism proved to be only a temporary enthusiasm in Alexandria. The arrival of Islamic rule ended it.最後亞歷山大產生分裂的傾向後,卡爾西。 偉大的大部分基督教埃及拒絕迦克墩,並成為monophysite 。 Monothelitism證明只是暫時的熱情在亞歷山德里亞。抵達伊斯蘭統治的結束它。

The Alexandrian school with its Platonic emphasis was the popular school of its time. In its more moderate form it set the Christological pattern for many centuries. The love of allegorical interpretation was characteristic.學校的亞歷山大與柏拉圖強調的是受歡迎的學校的時間。 在較溫和的形式確定了基督模式,許多世紀。愛情的寓言解釋的特點。 The intervention of the divine in the temporal was stressed, and the union of the natures of Christ with over-riding emphasis on the divine component was dangerously accented.干預神聖的時間在會上強調以及工會的性質,基督與壓倒一切的重點是神聖的部分是危險的口音。

P Woolley P伍利
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
ER Hardy, Jr., Christian Egypt; E. Molland, The Conception of the Gospel in the Alexandrian Theology; EF Osborn, The Philosophy of Clement of Alexandria; RB Tollinton, Clement of Alexandria; J. Danielou, Origen; A. Robertson, Select Writings and Letters of Athanasius, NPNF 2nd series, IV; JEL Oulton and H. Chadwick, eds., Alexandrian Christianity; ER Hardy, ed., Christology of the Later Fathers, LCC, III; RV Sellers, Two Ancient Christologies; C. Bigg, The Christian Platonists of Alexandria; RB Tollinton, Alexandrian Teaching on the Universe.哈雌小,基督教埃及; Molland體育的概念,福音在亞歷山大神學;英法奧斯本,哲學克萊門特亞歷山大;包Tollinton ,克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞;學者Danielou ,奧利的A.羅伯遜選擇寫作和文學的亞他那修, NPNF第二系列,四;凝膠Oulton和H.查德威克合編。 ,亞歷山大基督教;雌代編。 ,基督的父親後來,壽命週期費用,三;風疹病毒的賣家,兩個古老的Christologies ; ç 。 Bigg ,基督教Platonists亞歷山大;包Tollinton ,亞歷山大教學的宇宙。


Also, see:此外,見:
Origen 奧利
Sabellianism 撒伯流主義
Arianism Arianism
Council of Nicaea 尼西亞
Athanasius 亞他那修
Nicene 尼西亞
Apollinarianism 亞波里拿留派
Nestorianism 景教
Adoptionism Adoptionism
Council of Chalcedon 理事會卡爾西
Monophysitism 基督一性
Monothelitism Monothelitism


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