Translating the Bible翻譯聖經

General Information 一般資料

Figuring Out a Bible Translation計算出一本聖經翻譯

People sometimes wonder why there are various "Versions" or "Translations" of the Bible. After all, all of the many English language Bible Versions are translated from the exact same source text , which was in Greek (NT) and Ancient Hebrew (OT).人們有時會感到奇怪,為何有不同的"版本"或"翻譯"的聖經,畢竟所有的許多英語語言版本的聖經翻譯,由完全相同的源文字 ,這是在希臘( NT )和古希伯來語(城市旅遊局) 。 Shouldn't really smart people be able to figure out how to translate something exactly right?應該不是很聰明的人能想出如何翻譯的東西到底對不對? Especially something as important as the Bible, where many thousands of people have been involved?特別是一些重要的,因為聖經中,有許多都是成千上萬的人都參與了嗎?

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
Well, the problem turns out to be a little harder than that.那麼,這個問題,原來是一個小困難得多。 First of all, many of the source artifacts that we have are incomplete.首先,很多的源頭文物,我們是不完整的。 At some point in history, weather or vandalism or war or just plain age has caused some parts of documents to have disappeared.在某個時刻,在歷史上,天氣或故意破壞或戰爭或剛剛平原年齡已引起部分文件已經消失。 Next, even though there are several thousand existing (partial) source documents, once in a while, in one of those source documents (which are actually scribe-copied copies of earlier documents), a single character sometimes somehow gets mis-copied by some scribe along the way.其次,即使有幾千現行(部分)原始單據,一旦在同時,在這些原始單據(這實際上是刀抄副本早期文件) ,一個單一的性格,有時或多或少得到誤抄一些文士在前進的道路上。 After all, by the time that scribe made our source document around a thousand years ago (about as old as most existing documents actually are), that document is a scribe-copy of an earlier scribe-copy of an earlier scribe-copy, etc. All of those scribes were as careful as humans are capable of, and most of them truly believed that they would be banished to Hell if they made even a single copying error!畢竟,由當時文士,使我們的源文件大約一千多年前(約歲到大多數現有的文件,其實是一個) ,該文件是一個刀副本較早刀副本較早刀副本等所有這些文士被小心人類有能力,他們大都確信,他們將被流放到地獄,如果他們發了言,甚至一個單一的複製錯誤! But the Bible contains around 800,000 words and around three million characters.但聖經中包含約80萬多字,並圍繞三個多萬字。 Extremely careful comparison between the thousands of different scribe copies that still exist have found some very minor copying errors in some of the existing copies of the earlier original Manuscripts.極為審慎的比較與數以千計的不同文士複製品依然存在已發現了一些非常小抄寫錯誤,在現有的一些副本較早原始手稿。 None of them have changed any significant wording or belief.他們都不曾改變,任何重大的措辭或信仰。

In addition to this, the actual way the Bible used to be written was quite different from the way we read it today.除了這個,但實際的方式聖經用來寫是相當不同的方式讀它。 To give you the "flavor" of the problems, we are presenting Genesis 1 IN ENGLISH here in some historical formats, working our way backward in time as we go.給你的"味"的問題,我們正呈現成因一日在此間英語在歷史上的一些格式,我們的工作方式落後,因為我們去的。 Of course, the original source documents were not in English.當然,原來的源文件,不說英語。 Many (over 5,000) are in Greek.許多( 5,000 )是希臘文。 Others (over 10,000) are Latin copies of the Vulgate Bible (of about 400 AD).其他(超過10000 )是拉丁語份的vulgate聖經(約400 AD )的關係。 A lesser number are in a variety of other languages.較少數,是在其他多種語文。

The Greek documents are particularly important, partly because that was the original language of the New Testament Manuscripts, so there was minimal chance of errors from language translation back then.希臘的文件就顯得尤其重要,這部分是因為這是原文的新約聖經手稿,所以極少有機會出錯的,從語言的翻譯不會回來了。 Our thoughts below are based on thinking about those Greek language source documents.我們的想法下面是基於思考那些希臘語言源文件。


Before about 1560 AD and the Genevan New Testament, Bible scripture was not divided into verses. Genesis 1 would then appear (in English) basically like the following: 前約1560年的廣告和genevan新約聖經,聖經經文是不是分為小詩。成因一日會出現(以英語進行) ,基本上像以下內容:
In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.在開始上帝創造天地。 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep.和地球是沒有形式,而且無效;與黑暗是基於面對深。 And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.和上帝的精神提出後,面對該水域。 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.和上帝說,讓有輕:有輕。 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.上帝看到了光,這是很好的:與神分為輕,從黑暗中徘徊。 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night.與神,稱為光的一天,黑暗中,他所謂的夜晚。 And the evening and the morning were the first day.和傍晚和清晨的第一天。 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.和上帝說,讓有一個firmament在一片水域,讓它分化水域,由水域。 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.與神使firmament ,並劃分水域,其中下firmament從水域,其中團以上firmament :它是如此。 And God called the firmament Heaven.與神稱為firmament天堂。 And the evening and the morning were the second day.和晚上和今天上午分別在第二天。 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.和上帝說,讓下水域天堂被糾合在一起,祂一個地方,讓幹地出現:它是如此。 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.上帝叫旱地地球和聚集的水域稱為公海他:和神看見它是好的。 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.和上帝說,讓大地帶來了草,藥草高產制種,果樹豐產水果後,他的客氣,他們的種子,這本身就是,當地球:它是如此。 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.與地球帶來了草,草高產制種後,他的實物,樹高產水果,其種子是在自己後,他的客氣:與神看見它是好的。 And the evening and the morning were the third day.和晚上和今天上午分別到第三天。 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years: And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.和上帝說,讓有燈在firmament的天堂,以鴻溝每天早上從那天晚上,讓他們為標誌,並為季節,為天,而且年:任由它們為燈在firmament的老天給光後,地球:它是如此。 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.與神取得了兩個偉大的燈;就越輕統治一天,和較小的輕治,夜間:他的星星也。 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that [it was] good.與神定他們在firmament的天堂,讓輕經地球,並以統治的一天,並在夜間,以鴻溝鑑於從黑暗:與神看見[這是]好。 And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.和傍晚和清晨第四天。 And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.和上帝說,讓水帶來非常感人的動物,即祂所生活,禽可能飛往地球上空在公開firmament的天堂。 And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.上帝創造了巨大的鯨魚,每一個生活的動物,即moveth ,其中水域帶來了大量後,他們客氣點,每翅雞後,他的客氣:與神看見它是好的。 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.願上帝祝福他們,說,富有成果,並繁殖,並填寫海域,在公海,並讓禽倍增地球。 And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.和傍晚和清晨第五天。 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.和上帝說,讓大地帶來了生活的動物後,他的客氣,牛,和爬行事,和野獸的地球後,他的客氣:它是如此。 And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.與神使獸的地球後,他的客氣,和牛後,他們的實物,每一件事, creepeth經地球後,他的客氣:與神看見它是好的。 And God said, Let us make man in our image, afterour likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.和上帝說,讓我們使男子在自己的形象, afterour相似:讓他們有統治魚的大海,並在禽的空氣,並在牛,並超過所有地球,而超過每蠕動一件事, creepeth經地球。 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.所以上帝創造了人,在他自己的形象,在形象的上帝,他創造了他;男性和女性創造了他。 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.願上帝祝福他們,上帝對祂說,富有成果,並繁殖,並充實到地球,並制服它:有統治魚的大海,並在禽的空氣,而超過每活件事moveth經地球。 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.與神說,看哪,我給了你一切藥草軸承種子,這是後面對所有地球上,每一個樹,在它是果實的樹高產制種;給你的,它應為肉。 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so.和每一個野獸的地球,並以每禽的空氣中,並每一件事, creepeth經地球,其中有生活中,我給了每一個綠色香草肉:它是如此。 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold,[it was] very good.與神看見每一件事,他已作出,而且,你看, [這是]非常好。 And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.和傍晚和清晨第六天。


That is pretty easy to read and understand, although not quite as much so as our modern Bibles with verses separated and numbered.這是相當容易閱讀和理解,雖然不太一樣,使我們的現代聖經,與小詩分離和編號。


Earlier than that, the Greek texts were written without spaces or breaks between words, and no punctuation. As an example, the same Genesis 1 would look very different from the above: 更早些時候,希臘文寫的,沒有空間或時間間隔,換言之,也沒有標點符號。作為一個例子,同樣的成因一日會看起來非常不同,從上述:
InthebeginningGodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthAndtheearthwaswithoutformand voidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepAndtheSpiritofGodmoveduponthefaceof thewatersAndGodsaidLettherebelightandtherewaslightAndGodsawthelightthatit wasgoodandGoddividedthelightfromthedarknessAndGodcalledthelightDayandthe darknesshecalledNightAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayAndGodsaid Lettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthe watersAndGodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmament fromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoAndGodcalledthefirmament HeavenAndtheeveningandthemorningweretheseconddayAndGodsaidLetthewaters undertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearandit wassoAndGodcalledthedrylandEarthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalled heSeasandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGodsaidLettheearthbringforthgrasstheherb yieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitself upontheearthanditwassoAndtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldingseed afterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinitselfafterhiskindand GodsawthatitwasgoodAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethethirddayAndGodsaid Lettherebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightand letthembeforsignsandforseasonsandfordaysandyearsAndletthembeforlightsin thefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoAndGodmadetwo greatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthe madethestarsalsoAndGodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightuponthe earthAndtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfromthedarkness andGodsawthatitwasgoodAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefourthdayAndGod saidLetthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowl thatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheavenAndGodcreatedgreatwhales andeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafter theirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGod blessedthemsayingBefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandlet fowlmultiplyintheearthAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayAndGodsaid Lettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthing andbeastoftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoAndGodmadethebeastoftheearth afterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGodsaidLetusmakemaninour imageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandover thefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreeping thingthatcreepethupontheearthSoGodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageof GodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemAndGodblessedthemandGodsaid untothemBefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthandsubdueitandhave dominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereveryliving thingthatmovethupontheearthAndGodsaidBeholdIhavegivenyoueveryherb bearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheearthandeverytreeinthewhichis thefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouitshallbeformeatAndtoeverybeastofthe earthandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearth whereinthereislifeIhavegiveneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoAndGodsaw everythingthathehadmadeandbeholditwasverygoodAndtheeveningandthe morningwerethesixthday inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswithoutformand voidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoveduponthefaceof thewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightandgodsawthelightthatit wasgoodandgoddividedthelightfromthedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthe darknesshecallednightandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayandgodsaid lettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthe watersandgodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmament fromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoandgodcalledthefirmament heavenandtheeveningandthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewaters undertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearandit wassoandgodcalledthedrylandearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalled heseasandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforthgrasstheherb yieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitself upontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldingseed afterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinitselfafterhiskindand godsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethethirddayandgodsaid lettherebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightand letthembeforsignsandforseasonsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsin thefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwo greatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthe madethestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightuponthe earthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfromthedarkness andgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefourthdayandgod saidletthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowl thatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhales andeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafter theirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgod blessedthemsayingbefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandlet fowlmultiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayandgodsaid lettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthing andbeastoftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearth afterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninour imageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandover thefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreeping thingthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageof godcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessedthemandgodsaid untothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthandsubdueitandhave dominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereveryliving thingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbeholdihavegivenyoueveryherb bearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheearthandeverytreeinthewhichis thefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouitshallbeformeatandtoeverybeastofthe earthandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearth whereinthereislifeihavegiveneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaw everythingthathehadmadeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthe morningwerethesixthday


OK.確定。 That's still somewhat easy to figure out.說的還是有點容易弄懂。 But, earlier yet, the Greek manuscripts were written without differences of upper and lower cases, so our example text would appear as the following:不過,較早前然而,希臘手稿寫的,沒有分歧的上限和下限情況下,使我們的例子中的文本,將出現下列內容:
inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswithout formandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoved uponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightand godsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfromthedarknessand godcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednightandtheeveningandthe morningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthe watersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadethefirmamentand dividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmamentfromthewaterswhichwere abovethefirmamentanditwassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandthe eveningandthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersunderthe heavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwas soandgodcalledthedrylandearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaters calledheseasandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforth grasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskind whoseseedisinitselfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforth grassandherbyieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhose seedwasinitselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningand themorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmament oftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandfor seasonsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthemade thestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupon theearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfrom thedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethe fourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreature thathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheaven andgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthe watersbroughtforthabundantlyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafter hiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfuland multiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmultiplyintheearthand theeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbring forththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeast oftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafter hiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemanin ourimageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthe seaandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandover everycreepingthingthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisown imageintheimageofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgod blessedthemandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishthe earthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowl oftheairandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaid beholdihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouit shallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairandto everythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegivenevery greenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehadmadeandbehold itwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesixthday inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswithout formandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoved uponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightand godsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfromthedarknessand godcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednightandtheeveningandthe morningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthe watersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadethefirmamentand dividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmamentfromthewaterswhichwere abovethefirmamentanditwassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandthe eveningandthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersunderthe heavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwas soandgodcalledthedrylandearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaters calledheseasandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforth grasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskind whoseseedisinitselfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforth grassandherbyieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhose seedwasinitselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningand themorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmament oftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandfor seasonsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthemade thestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupon theearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfrom thedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethe fourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreature thathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheaven andgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthe watersbroughtforthabundantlyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafter hiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfuland multiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmultiplyintheearthand theeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbring forththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeast oftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafter hiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemanin ourimageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthe seaandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandover everycreepingthingthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisown imageintheimageofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgod blessedthemandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishthe earthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowl oftheairandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaid beholdihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouit shallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairandto everythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegivenevery greenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehadmadeandbehold itwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesixthday

When we get back to about the Ninth Century AD, this Greek text was written in a scriptio continua called MINUSCULE WRITING or Cursives.當我們回到關於第九世紀廣告中,這個希臘文寫在scriptio連續所謂微不足道書面或cursives 。 This had the text not only unspaced but written in a handwritten script where all the letters were connected.這是該文不僅unspaced而是寫在一張手寫的劇本,所有的信件被接通。 The appearance of our example text would now look more like:外觀我們的例子中的文本現在更像:
inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandthe earthwaswithoutformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefac eofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoveduponthefaceofthewa tersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightandgo dsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfrom thedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshe callednightandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstd ayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewat ersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadet hefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefir mamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentandit wassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningan dthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersu ndertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandlett hedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedrylandear thandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasan dgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringfort hgrasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfr uitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitselfupontheearthandi twassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldings eedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwas initselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheev eningandthemorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidletther ebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfr omthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseasonsandford aysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofth eheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmade twogreatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandtheles serlighttorulethenighthemadethestarsalsoandgodsett heminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheeart handtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeve ningandthemorningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthew atersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathath lifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmame ntofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcr eaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundant lyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfu landmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmul tiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefi fthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcrea tureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastofth eearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastofth eearthafterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeveryt hingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandgodsawt hatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageaftero urlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthese aandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoverallt heearthandovereverycreepingthingthatcreepethuponth eearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageofgodc reatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessed themandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandrepl enishtheearthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefish oftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereverylivingth ingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbeholdihavegive nyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldi ngseedtoyouitshallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheear thandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepet hupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegiveneverygree nherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethesixthday inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandthe earthwaswithoutformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefac eofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoveduponthefaceofthewa tersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightandgo dsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfrom thedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshe callednightandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstd ayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewat ersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadet hefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefir mamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentandit wassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningan dthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersu ndertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandlett hedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedrylandear thandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasan dgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringfort hgrasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfr uitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitselfupontheearthandi twassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldings eedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwas initselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheev eningandthemorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidletther ebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfr omthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseasonsandford aysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofth eheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmade twogreatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandtheles serlighttorulethenighthemadethestarsalsoandgodsett heminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheeart handtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeve ningandthemorningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthew atersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathath lifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmame ntofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcr eaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundant lyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfu landmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmul tiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefi fthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcrea tureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastofth eearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastofth eearthafterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeveryt hingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandgodsawt hatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageaftero urlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthese aandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoverallt heearthandovereverycreepingthingthatcreepethuponth eearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageofgodc reatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessed themandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandrepl enishtheearthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefish oftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereverylivingth ingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbeholdihavegive nyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldi ngseedtoyouitshallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheear thandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepet hupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegiveneverygree nherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethesixthday


This text might have been presented in either Greek or Latin in that era.這個文本可能已在要么希臘語或拉丁語在那個時代。 We might as well look at what this sort of situation would have looked like in Greek, except we don't have available a computer font that can represent connected Greek script:倒不如看看什麼是這種情況會看上去像在希臘,除了我們沒有可用的電腦字體表示,能代表關連希臘的腳本:
inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswith outformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritof godmoveduponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandther ewaslightandgodsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfr omthedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednigh tandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebe afirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthew atersandgodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderth efirmamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoand godcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningandthemorningwerethese conddayandgodsaidletthewatersundertheheavenbegatheredtogetheru ntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedryl andearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasandgodsa wthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforthgrasstheherbyield ingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinit selfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherby ieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinit selfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseas onsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentoftheh eaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthema dethestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogiveligh tupontheearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemo rningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantl ythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthin theopenfirmamentofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeveryliving creaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafterthe irkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandg odblessedthemsayingbefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersinthes easandletfowlmultiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningweret hefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafte rhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastoftheearthafterhiskindan ditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafterhiskindandcattleafter theirkindandeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageafterourlike nessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloft heairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreepingthi ngthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheima geofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessedthem andgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthand subdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowlofthea irandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbehol dihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheea rthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouits hallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairan dtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegi veneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesix thday inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswith outformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritof godmoveduponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandther ewaslightandgodsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfr omthedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednigh tandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebe afirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthew atersandgodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderth efirmamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoand godcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningandthemorningwerethese conddayandgodsaidletthewatersundertheheavenbegatheredtogetheru ntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedryl andearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasandgodsa wthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforthgrasstheherbyield ingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinit selfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherby ieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinit selfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseas onsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentoftheh eaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthema dethestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogiveligh tupontheearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemo rningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantl ythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthin theopenfirmamentofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeveryliving creaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafterthe irkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandg odblessedthemsayingbefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersinthes easandletfowlmultiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningweret hefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafte rhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastoftheearthafterhiskindan ditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafterhiskindandcattleafter theirkindandeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageafterourlike nessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloft heairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreepingthi ngthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheima geofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessedthem andgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthand subdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowlofthea irandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbehol dihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheea rthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouits hallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairan dtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegi veneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesix thday


Prior to around 900 AD, essentially all texts in most languages were apparently written with only the consonants presented, without ever recording any of the vowels!之前,大約有900專案,基本上所有文本在大多數語言顯然是寫只有輔音介紹,從來沒有記錄任何的元音! So consider this same text, first in English and then in Greek!:因此,這個問題,同時文本中,第一次在英語,然後在希臘! :

Please note that this first one is actually in English! Could you have studied it or even read it back then? 請注意,這第一點是,其實在英語!你能一直在學習研究,甚至讀回來,然後呢? Since you know much of the wording, you can pick out some familiar words.既然你知道大部分的字眼,你可以挑選出一些熟悉的字眼。 But could you fully understand everything presented here?但是,你能充分了解一切,在這裡嗎? Pick some random spot in the middle of this text and see if you can figure out the wording.選擇一些抽樣突擊在本年年中的文本,看看你是否能計算出的措詞。 Find the part where God Created mankind!找到部分地方上帝創造人類! (It is about ten lines up from the end). (這是大約十線從全文完) THAT is the only form of Bible texts that was available to anyone prior to around 900 AD, and it was generally only available to Churches and virtually never to individuals, unless they were permitted to copy it themselves.這是唯一的形式,聖經文本的,這是任何人都可以查閱之前,大約有900專案,而且它通常只提供給教會和幾乎從來沒有給個人,除非他們被允許複製自己。

nthbgnnnggdcrtdthhvnndthrthndthrthwswthtfrmndvdnddr knsswspnthfcfthdpndthsprtfgdmvdpnthfcfthwtrsndgdsdl tthrblghtndthrwslghtndgdswthlghtthttwsgdndgddvddthl ghtfrmthdrknssndgdclldthlghtdndthdrknsshclldnghtndt hvnngndthmrnngwrthfrstdndgdsdltthrbfrmmntnthmdstfth wtrsndlttdvdthwtrsfrmthwtrsndgdmdthfrmmntnddvddthwt rswhchwrndrthfrmmntfrmthwtrswhchwrbvthfrmmntndtwssn dgdclldthfrmmnthvnndthvnngndthmrnngwrthscnddndgdsdl tthwtrsndrthhvnbgthrdtgthrntnplcndltthdrlndpprndtws sndgdclldthdrlndrthndthgthrngtgthrfthwtrsclldhssndg dswthttwsgdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrthgrssthhrbldngsdndth frttrldngfrtftrhskndwhssdsntslfpnthrthndtwssndthrth brghtfrthgrssndhrbldngsdftrhskndndthtrldngfrtwhssdw sntslfftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthth rddndgdsdltthrblghtsnthfrmmntfthhvntdvdthdfrmthnght ndltthmbfrsgnsndfrssnsndfrdsndrsndltthmbfrlghtsnthf rmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtwssndgdmdtwgrtlghtsthgr trlghttrlthdndthlssrlghttrlthnghthmdthstrslsndgdstt hmnthfrmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtrlvrthdndvrthnght ndtdvdthlghtfrmthdrknssndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmr nngwrthfrthdndgdsdltthwtrsbrngfrthbndntlthmvngcrtrt hththlfndfwlthtmflbvthrthnthpnfrmmntfhvnndgdcrtdgrt whlsndvrlvngcrtrthtmvthwhchthwtrsbrghtfrthbndntlftr thrkndndvrwngdfwlftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdblssdthm sngbfrtflndmltplndfllthwtrsnthssndltfwlmltplnthrthn dthvnngndthmrnngwrthffthdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrththlvn gcrtrftrhskndcttlndcrpngthngndbstfthrthftrhskndndtw ssndgdmdthbstfthrthftrhskndndcttlftrthrkndndvrthngt htcrpthpnthrthftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltsmkmnnr mgftrrlknssndltthmhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndv rthcttlndvrllthrthndvrvrcrpngthngthtcrpthpnthrthsgd crtdmnnhswnmgnthmgfgdcrtdhhmmlndfmlcrtdhthmndgdblss dthmndgdsdntthmbfrtflndmltplndrplnshthrthndsbdtndhv dmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrvrlvngthngthtmvthpn thrthndgdsdbhldhvgvnvrhrbbrngsdwhchspnthfcfllthrthn dvrtrnthwhchsthfrtftrldngsdttshllbfrmtndtvrbstfthrt hndtvrfwlfthrndtvrthngthtcrpthpnthrthwhrnthrslfhvgv nvrgrnhrbfrmtndtwssndgdswvrthngththhdmdndbhldtwsvrg dndthvnngndthmrnngwrthsxthd nthbgnnnggdcrtdthhvnndthrthndthrthwswthtfrmndvdnddr knsswspnthfcfthdpndthsprtfgdmvdpnthfcfthwtrsndgdsdl tthrblghtndthrwslghtndgdswthlghtthttwsgdndgddvddthl ghtfrmthdrknssndgdclldthlghtdndthdrknsshclldnghtndt hvnngndthmrnngwrthfrstdndgdsdltthrbfrmmntnthmdstfth wtrsndlttdvdthwtrsfrmthwtrsndgdmdthfrmmntnddvddthwt rswhchwrndrthfrmmntfrmthwtrswhchwrbvthfrmmntndtwssn dgdclldthfrmmnthvnndthvnngndthmrnngwrthscnddndgdsdl tthwtrsndrthhvnbgthrdtgthrntnplcndltthdrlndpprndtws sndgdclldthdrlndrthndthgthrngtgthrfthwtrsclldhssndg dswthttwsgdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrthgrssthhrbldngsdndth frttrldngfrtftrhskndwhssdsntslfpnthrthndtwssndthrth brghtfrthgrssndhrbldngsdftrhskndndthtrldngfrtwhssdw sntslfftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthth rddndgdsdltthrblghtsnthfrmmntfthhvntdvdthdfrmthnght ndltthmbfrsgnsndfrssnsndfrdsndrsndltthmbfrlghtsnthf rmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtwssndgdmdtwgrtlghtsthgr trlghttrlthdndthlssrlghttrlthnghthmdthstrslsndgdstt hmnthfrmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtrlvrthdndvrthnght ndtdvdthlghtfrmthdrknssndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmr nngwrthfrthdndgdsdltthwtrsbrngfrthbndntlthmvngcrtrt hththlfndfwlthtmflbvthrthnthpnfrmmntfhvnndgdcrtdgrt whlsndvrlvngcrtrthtmvthwhchthwtrsbrghtfrthbndntlftr thrkndndvrwngdfwlftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdblssdthm sngbfrtflndmltplndfllthwtrsnthssndltfwlmltplnthrthn dthvnngndthmrnngwrthffthdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrththlvn gcrtrftrhskndcttlndcrpngthngndbstfthrthftrhskndndtw ssndgdmdthbstfthrthftrhskndndcttlftrthrkndndvrthngt htcrpthpnthrthftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltsmkmnnr mgftrrlknssndltthmhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndv rthcttlndvrllthrthndvrvrcrpngthngthtcrpthpnthrthsgd crtdmnnhswnmgnthmgfgdcrtdhhmmlndfmlcrtdhthmndgdblss dthmndgdsdntthmbfrtflndmltplndrplnshthrthndsbdtndhv dmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrvrlvngthngthtmvthpn thrthndgdsdbhldhvgvnvrhrbbrngsdwhchspnthfcfllthrthn dvrtrnthwhchsthfrtftrldngsdttshllbfrmtndtvrbstfthrt hndtvrfwlfthrndtvrthngthtcrpthpnthrthwhrnthrslfhvgv nvrgrnhrbfrmtndtwssndgdswvrthngththhdmdndbhldtwsvrg dndthvnngndthmrnngwrthsxthd


The same in Greek:同時,在希臘語:

nthbgnnnggdcrtdthhvnndthrthndthrthwswthtfrmndvdnddrknsswspnthf cfthdpndthsprtfgdmvdpnthfcfthwtrsndgdsdltthrblghtndthrwslghtnd gdswthlghtthttwsgdndgddvddthlghtfrmthdrknssndgdclldthlghtdndth drknsshclldnghtndthvnngndthmrnngwrthfrstdndgdsdltthrbfrmmntnth mdstfthwtrsndlttdvdthwtrsfrmthwtrsndgdmdthfrmmntnddvddthwtrswh chwrndrthfrmmntfrmthwtrswhchwrbvthfrmmntndtwssndgdclldthfrmmnt hvnndthvnngndthmrnngwrthscnddndgdsdltthwtrsndrthhvnbgthrdtgthr ntnplcndltthdrlndpprndtwssndgdclldthdrlndrthndthgthrngtgthrfth wtrsclldhssndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrthgrssthhrbldngsdn dthfrttrldngfrtftrhskndwhssdsntslfpnthrthndtwssndthrthbrghtfrt hgrssndhrbldngsdftrhskndndthtrldngfrtwhssdwsntslfftrhskndndgds wthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrththrddndgdsdltthrblghtsnthfrmmntf thhvntdvdthdfrmthnghtndltthmbfrsgnsndfrssnsndfrdsndrsndltthmbf rlghtsnthfrmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtwssndgdmdtwgrtlghtsthgrt rlghttrlthdndthlssrlghttrlthnghthmdthstrslsndgdstthmnthfrmmntf thhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtrlvrthdndvrthnghtndtdvdthlghtfrmthdrknss ndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthfrthdndgdsdltthwtrsbrngfrth bndntlthmvngcrtrthththlfndfwlthtmflbvthrthnthpnfrmmntfhvnndgdc rtdgrtwhlsndvrlvngcrtrthtmvthwhchthwtrsbrghtfrthbndntlftrthrkn dndvrwngdfwlftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdblssdthmsngbfrtflndmltpl ndfllthwtrsnthssndltfwlmltplnthrthndthvnngndthmrnngwrthffthdnd gdsdltthrthbrngfrththlvngcrtrftrhskndcttlndcrpngthngndbstfthrt hftrhskndndtwssndgdmdthbstfthrthftrhskndndcttlftrthrkndndvrthn gthtcrpthpnthrthftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltsmkmnnrmgftrrlkn ssndltthmhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrthcttlndvrllthrthnd vrvrcrpngthngthtcrpthpnthrthsgdcrtdmnnhswnmgnthmgfgdcrtdhhmmln dfmlcrtdhthmndgdblssdthmndgdsdntthmbfrtflndmltplndrplnshthrthn dsbdtndhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrvrlvngthngthtmvthpnth rthndgdsdbhldhvgvnvrhrbbrngsdwhchspnthfcfllthrthndvrtrnthwhchs thfrtftrldngsdttshllbfrmtndtvrbstfthrthndtvrfwlfthrndtvrthngth tcrpthpnthrthwhrnthrslfhvgvnvrgrnhrbfrmtndtwssndgdswvrthngthth hdmdndbhldtwsvrgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthsxthd nthbgnnnggdcrtdthhvnndthrthndthrthwswthtfrmndvdnddrknsswspnthf cfthdpndthsprtfgdmvdpnthfcfthwtrsndgdsdltthrblghtndthrwslghtnd gdswthlghtthttwsgdndgddvddthlghtfrmthdrknssndgdclldthlghtdndth drknsshclldnghtndthvnngndthmrnngwrthfrstdndgdsdltthrbfrmmntnth mdstfthwtrsndlttdvdthwtrsfrmthwtrsndgdmdthfrmmntnddvddthwtrswh chwrndrthfrmmntfrmthwtrswhchwrbvthfrmmntndtwssndgdclldthfrmmnt hvnndthvnngndthmrnngwrthscnddndgdsdltthwtrsndrthhvnbgthrdtgthr ntnplcndltthdrlndpprndtwssndgdclldthdrlndrthndthgthrngtgthrfth wtrsclldhssndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrthgrssthhrbldngsdn dthfrttrldngfrtftrhskndwhssdsntslfpnthrthndtwssndthrthbrghtfrt hgrssndhrbldngsdftrhskndndthtrldngfrtwhssdwsntslfftrhskndndgds wthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrththrddndgdsdltthrblghtsnthfrmmntf thhvntdvdthdfrmthnghtndltthmbfrsgnsndfrssnsndfrdsndrsndltthmbf rlghtsnthfrmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtwssndgdmdtwgrtlghtsthgrt rlghttrlthdndthlssrlghttrlthnghthmdthstrslsndgdstthmnthfrmmntf thhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtrlvrthdndvrthnghtndtdvdthlghtfrmthdrknss ndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthfrthdndgdsdltthwtrsbrngfrth bndntlthmvngcrtrthththlfndfwlthtmflbvthrthnthpnfrmmntfhvnndgdc rtdgrtwhlsndvrlvngcrtrthtmvthwhchthwtrsbrghtfrthbndntlftrthrkn dndvrwngdfwlftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdblssdthmsngbfrtflndmltpl ndfllthwtrsnthssndltfwlmltplnthrthndthvnngndthmrnngwrthffthdnd gdsdltthrthbrngfrththlvngcrtrftrhskndcttlndcrpngthngndbstfthrt hftrhskndndtwssndgdmdthbstfthrthftrhskndndcttlftrthrkndndvrthn gthtcrpthpnthrthftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltsmkmnnrmgftrrlkn ssndltthmhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrthcttlndvrllthrthnd vrvrcrpngthngthtcrpthpnthrthsgdcrtdmnnhswnmgnthmgfgdcrtdhhmmln dfmlcrtdhthmndgdblssdthmndgdsdntthmbfrtflndmltplndrplnshthrthn dsbdtndhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrvrlvngthngthtmvthpnth rthndgdsdbhldhvgvnvrhrbbrngsdwhchspnthfcfllthrthndvrtrnthwhchs thfrtftrldngsdttshllbfrmtndtvrbstfthrthndtvrfwlfthrndtvrthngth tcrpthpnthrthwhrnthrslfhvgvnvrgrnhrbfrmtndtwssndgdswvrthngthth hdmdndbhldtwsvrgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthsxthd


This is only Genesis 1, a tiny portion of the Bible.這是唯一成因1 ,一小部份的聖經。 Imagine that you were a Monk responsible for precisely copying about 300 times this much text (the whole Bible), in that connected (English) script format above, by hand, one character at a time, are you SURE that your entire copy would be absolutely free of even a single copyist error?假設你是一個和尚負責正是抄襲約300倍,這大大文(整個聖經) ,在這連通(英語)的腳本格式以上的,由手,一個字一個時間,你肯定你的整個副本會絕對免費的,甚至一個單一的複製錯誤嗎?

It truly is a remarkable achievement by the many hundreds of Scribes who had to copy the entire Bible that they made astoundingly few copying errors!它的確是一個了不起的成就,由數以百計的文士,他們不得不複製整個聖經,他們取得了驚人數複製錯誤! (We know that there were a few, and we now know where they were, because thousands of existing copies of those Scribe written Manuscripts have been carefully compared to see if and when they had any tiny differences. (我們知道,有少數人,現在我們知道他們在哪裡人,因為成千上萬的現有副本那些抄寫寫的手稿已經仔細比較,看看是否以及何時他們有任何微小的差別。

An Experiment實驗

If you're part of a Bible Study Group or some other Christian Small Group, why not try hand copying just this Genesis 1 (not the Greek text, but the script style continuous English text without the vowels) as carefully as you can.如果您的一個組成部分,聖經研究小組或其他一些基督教小團體,為什麼不試試手抄寫,僅這成因1 (而不是希臘文本,但劇本的風格連續英文文本無元音) ,因為仔細,你可以的。 Then give YOUR copy to a different member of the group to copy.然後再給你拷貝給一個不同的小組的成員複製。 Then THAT copy would be given to a third person, and so on through the Group.然後副本將交給第三人,所以就透過該集團的實力。 Once everyone has copied their given source text as precisely as possible, you would finally get back a final copy.一旦人人都有照抄鑑於源文字盡可能準確,你會終於取回的最後文本。 As long as all of you had done a perfect job of being able to read each others handwriting and of copying, that final copy should read EXACTLY like the original.只要大家都做了完善的工作,能夠閱讀對方的筆跡和摹仿,即最後文本應改為完全像原來的。 But it will probably have at least a few minor variations.但是,它可能也將至少有幾個小的變動。 Even though each of you copyists are familiar with the Genesis story, and even though each of you was extremely careful, small errors are bound to appear.儘管你們每個人copyists熟悉成因的故事,即使是你們每個人時十分謹慎,小錯誤是必然會出現。 Such an experiment definitely increases one's respect for the multitude of anonymous Scribes that copied the Bible over the many centuries.這種實驗,肯定增加一個人的尊重,為眾多的無名氏的文士說,抄聖經超過了許多世紀。

The situation with the Bible and its extensive size seems like it would have caused massive copyist errors over the centuries because of the scale of the task and the format that is being copied.形勢與聖經及其廣泛的大小好像它會造成大量複製錯誤數百年來,因為任務的規模和形式,這就是被複製。 It is truly a sign of how incredibly careful the copyists all were that there were as few (minor) errors as are found in a few of the manuscripts.它確實是一個跡象,如何令人難以置信小心copyists都是有少(小)的誤差,因為被發現在一小部分的手稿。 Fortunately for us, there are so many source manuscripts that exist that the few variations that have been found have been checked in all the source documents and scholars are now extremely certain of the accuracy of modern translations.幸運的是,對於我們來說,有這麼多的稿件來源,即存在著少數變異已發現有得到有效遏制,在所有的源文件和學者正極為一定的準確性,現代譯本。

As an additional element to think about, many early Old Testament source manuscripts are written in Hebrew.作為額外的元素,想一想,許多早期舊約來源手稿是寫在希伯來語。 Before about 900 AD, Hebrew was also written without any vowels.之前,約有900名專案,希伯來語也沒有寫任何元音。 Can you imagine the possibilities of what might happen if copyists were even slightly careless?你能想像的可能性,可能發生的事情,如果copyists甚至稍不小心? By the way, this is closely related to YHWH, the Name of God, becoming Yahowah or Jehovah (or Yahweh), when the vowels from Adonai (another ancient Name for God) were inserted into YHWH many centuries later.由途徑,這是密切相關的yhwh ,以上帝的名義,成為yahowah或耶和華(或雅威) ,當元音從adonai (另一種古老的名稱為神)插入到yhwh許多世紀之後。

This discussion has been presented so you might better appreciate the amazing efforts put forth by the many copyists of the Bible Manuscripts over the centuries, and also in the task that Bible translators face in making sure they have the absolutely most accurate translation that can be made.本次討論已經提交,所以你可能會更好地理解驚人的努力,提出了許多copyists的聖經手稿數百年來,並在任務聖經翻譯人員所面臨的決策肯定他們有絕對最準確的譯法,可以作出。 It's not quite as easy as translating Buenos Dias into Hello !它的不太一樣容易翻譯布宜諾斯艾利斯迪亞斯您好 (even though that phrase could equally mean goodbye!) (儘管這句話也同樣意味著再見)

Finally, we have here really only been considering here the difficulties of perfect copying (for the Scribes) and in confirming the perfect accuracy (for the Bible scholars).最後,我們在這裡真的只是一直在考慮在此困難的完美複製(為文士) ,並在確認完美精確度(為聖經學者) 。 There is yet another level of complication in the translators' job.由於目前尚未有另一層次的並發症,在翻譯工作。 Many ancient words had several different meanings, often very different from each other.古今中外許多話有幾個不同的含義,往往很各有不同。 We created a separate little presentation to give you a taste of that aspect of the problem, at Literal Translation .我們創造了一個單獨的小演示,讓大家領略了這方面的問題,在直譯


Also, see:此外,見:
Romanized Bible Text 羅馬拼音聖經文本
Transliteration of Hebrew 音譯希伯來語
Literal Translation 直譯
Septuagint and early Manuscripts septuagint和早期手稿
A Thorough Presentation of Jewish Genesis 1 text which shows the Hebrew characters. 詳細介紹了猶太人成因一文 ,表明了希伯來語字符。

This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在