Saint Thomas聖托馬斯

General Information 一般資料

One of the original 12 Apostles of Jesus Christ, Thomas, called Didymus, refused to believe in the testimony of the other Apostles concerning the resurrection of Jesus until he saw the wounds of the resurrected Christ himself (John 20:24, 25, 26-29).其中原12個門徒的耶穌基督,托馬斯,所謂didymus ,都不相信,在證詞中的其餘的使徒關於復活的耶穌,直到他看到傷口復活基督本人(約翰20時24分,第25 ,第26條- 29 ) 。 From this comes the expression "doubting Thomas."從這個來表達"存疑" 。 Thomas earlier had expressed great devotion (John 11:16) and a questioning mind (John 14:5).托馬斯早些時候曾表示了極大的獻身精神(約翰福音11:16 )和審問記(約翰14時05分) 。

Eusebius of Caesarea records that Thomas became a missionary to Parthia.尤西比烏斯的caesarea記錄托馬斯成為傳教士parthia 。 The Acts of Thomas (3d century), however, states that he was martyred in India.行為托馬斯(三維世紀) ,不過,國說,他是烈屬,在印度。 The Malabar Christians claim that their church was founded by him.馬拉巴爾基督徒聲稱他們的教會成立由他來決定。 This tradition can neither be substantiated nor denied on the basis of current evidence.這一傳統既不能予以證實,也不否認在此基礎上的現有證據。 Saint Thomas' Mount in Madras is the traditional site of his martyrdom.聖托馬斯摩在馬德拉斯,是傳統的現場,他的心靈和思想。 Feast day: July 3 (Western and Syrian); Oct. 6 (Eastern).盛宴的日子: 7月3日(西部和敘利亞) , 10月6日(東區) 。

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Bibliography: 參考書目:
Griffith, Leonard, Gospel Characters (1976); Perumalil, Hormice C., and Hambye, ER, eds., Christianity in India (1973).格里菲斯,安仔,福音字( 1976年) ; perumalil , hormice長,昂比,呃,合編,基督教在印度( 1973年) 。


Saint Thom'as聖thom'as

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Thomas, twin, one of the twelve (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18, etc.).托馬斯,雙胞胎,其中的12個。 ( 10時03分;馬克3時18分,等等) 。 He was also called Didymus (John 11:16; 20:24), which is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew name.他還呼籲didymus (約翰11:16 ; 20時24分) ,這是希臘相當於希伯來文的名字。 All we know regarding him is recorded in the fourth Gospel (John 11:15, 16; 14:4, 5; 20:24, 25, 26-29).我們所知道的關於他的記錄是在第四福音(約翰11:15 , 16 ; 14時04分, 5條; 20時24分, 25 , 26-29 ) 。 From the circumstance that in the lists of the apostles he is always mentioned along with Matthew, who was the son of Alphaeus (Mark 3:18), and that these two are always followed by James, who was also the son of Alphaeus, it has been supposed that these three, Matthew, Thomas, and James, were brothers.從這種情況下,在名單上的門徒,他始終被提及,隨著馬太福音,誰是兒子阿爾菲厄斯(馬克3時18分) ,並認為這兩個問題是始終遵循由詹姆斯,他也是兒子的阿爾菲厄斯,一直以為這三個,馬修,托馬斯,詹姆斯,被兄弟。


St. Thomas the Apostle聖托馬斯使徒

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

Little is recorded of St. Thomas the Apostle, nevertheless thanks to the fourth Gospel his personality is clearer to us than that of some others of the Twelve.很少是有記錄的聖托馬斯使徒,不過多虧了第四福音但他的個性卻清晰的,我們比一些其他國家的12支。 His name occurs in all the lists of the Synoptists (Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6, cf. Acts 1:13), but in St. John he plays a distinctive part.他的名字出現在所有名單的synoptists (馬太10時03分;馬克3時18分;路加福音6 ,比照行為1:13 ) ,但在聖約翰他發揮了獨特的作用。 First, when Jesus announced His intention of returning to Judea to visit Lazarus, "Thomas" who is called Didymus [the twin], said to his fellow disciples: "Let us also go, that we may die with him" (John 11:16).第一,當耶穌宣布他打算重返朱迪亞訪問拉撒路, "托馬斯" ,又是所謂didymus [雙]說,以他的同胞弟子說: "讓我們也去,那我們可能會死於與他" (約翰福音11 : 16 ) 。 Again it was St. Thomas who during the discourse before the Last Supper raised an objection: "Thomas saith to him: Lord, we know not whither thou goest; and how can we know the way?" (John 14:5). (約翰14時05分) 。 But more especially St. Thomas is remembered for his incredulity when the other Apostles announced Christ's Resurrection to him: "Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the place of the nails, and put my hand into his side, I will not believe" (John 20:25); but eight days later he made his act of faith, drawing down the rebuke of Jesus: "Because thou hast seen me, Thomas, thou hast believed; blessed are they that have not seen, and have believed" (John 20:29).但更多的,尤其是聖托馬斯是記住他的incredulity當其他門徒宣布基督的復活對他說: "除非我看到在他的手裡,印刷的指甲,並把我的手指納入地方指甲,並把我的手到他身邊,我也不會相信, " (約翰福音20時25分) ,但8天以後,他作出了他的行為,信仰,繪畫下來的手,耶穌說: "因為祢看到了我,托馬斯,祢相信;有福了,他們有沒有看到,並相信" (約翰福音20時29分) 。

This exhausts all our certain knowledge regarding the Apostle but his name is the starting point of a considerable apocryphal literature, and there are also certain historical data which suggest that some of this apocryphal material may contains germs of truth.這排氣管我們所有的某些方面的科學知識的傳道者,但他的名字就是出發點相當猜測文學,也有一定的歷史資料,這些資料顯示,一些本猜測材料可能含有病菌的真理。 The principal document concerning him is the "Acta Thomae", preserved to us with some variations both in Greek and in Syriac, and bearing unmistakeable signs of its Gnostic origin.主文件是關於他是" thomae學報" ,保存著我們會有所變化無論是在希臘和敘利亞文,並銘記unmistakeable的跡象,其諾斯替原產地。 It may indeed be the work of Bardesanes himself.它確實可能成為工作的bardesanes自己。 The story in many of its particulars is utterly extravagant, but it is the early date, being assigned by Harnack (Chronologie, ii, 172) to the beginning of the third century, before AD 220.故事中,它的許多細節,簡直是奢侈,但它是能夠早日被指派的Harnack ( chronologie ,二, 172 ) ,以年初三世紀前,公元220 。 If the place of its origin is really Edessa, as Harnack and others for sound reasons supposed (ibid., p. 176), this would lend considerable probability to the statement, explicitly made in "Acta" (Bonnet, cap. 170, p.286), that the relics of Apostle Thomas, which we know to have been venerated at Edessa, had really come from the East.如果發生的,其原產地是真的edessa ,作為的Harnack及其他合理的原因,假定(同上,第176頁) ,這將給予相當大的概率來聲明,明確提出在"學報" (恩奈第170號,磷0.286 ) ,將有關文物的使徒托馬斯,我們知道已被崇敬,在edessa ,真正來自東部地區。 The extravagance of the legend may be judged from the fact that in more than one place (cap. 31, p. 148) it represents Thomas (Judas Thomas, as he is called here and elsewhere in Syriac tradition) as the twin brother of Jesus.該奢侈的傳說,可從以下事實:在一個以上的地方(第31頁148 ) ,它代表著托馬斯(猶大托馬斯,因為他是所謂的在這裡和其他地方,在敘利亞文的傳統) ,作為孿生兄弟的耶穌。 The Thomas in Syriac is equivalant to didymos in Greek, and means twin.托馬斯在敘利亞文是equivalant以didymos在希臘語和手段,雙床。 Rendel Harris who exaggerates very much the cult of the Dioscuri, wishes to regards this as a transformation of a pagan worship of Edessa but the point is at best problematical. rendel哈里斯的人誇大了十分崇拜的dioscuri ,希望在這方面作為一個轉型的一個異教崇拜edessa但有一點是最成問題的。 The story itself runs briefly as follows: At the division of the Apostles, India fell to the lot of Thomas, but he declared his inability to go, whereupon his Master Jesus appeared in a supernatural way to Abban, the envoy of Gundafor, an Indian king, and sold Thomas to him to be his slave and serve Gundafor as a carpender.這個故事本身運行簡述如下:在師的門徒,印度下降到了大量的托馬斯,但他宣稱他不能去,在這種情況下他的主人耶穌出現在超自然方式abban ,特使gundafor ,一名印國王,並出售托馬斯給他,是他的奴隸和服務gundafor作為carpender 。 Then Abban and Thomas sailed away until they came to Andrapolis, where they landed and attended the marriage feast of the ruler's daughter.然後abban和托馬斯航行距離,直到他們來到andrapolis ,在那裡降落,並參加了婚禮盛宴的執政者的女兒。 Strange occurences followed and Christ under the appearence of Thomas exhorted the bride to remain a Virgin.奇怪的事件之後,並根據基督的出現,托馬斯告誡新娘仍然是一個處女。 Coming to India Thomas undertook to build a palace for Gundafor, but spend the money entrusted to him on the poor.來印度托馬斯曾承諾建立一個宮gundafor ,但花的錢託付給他的對窮人的影響。 Gundafor imprisoned him; but the Apostle escaped miraculously and Gundafor was converted. gundafor囚禁了他,但傳道者逃脫奇蹟般地和gundafor轉化。 Going about the country to preach, Thomas met with strange adventures from dragons and wild asses.前往該國傳教,托馬斯見了奇怪,冒險從小龍和野生資產。 Then he came to the city of King Misdai (Syriac Mazdai), where he converted Tertia the wife of Misdai and Vazan his son.然後他來到市景misdai (敘利亞文mazdai ) ,在那裡他皈依tertia妻子misdai和vazan他的兒子。 After this he was condemed to death, led out of city to a hill, and pierced through with spears by four soldiers.這之後,他condemed死刑,帶領出城,以一宗山火,並射穿與布蘭妮由四名士兵。 He was buried in the tomb of the ancient kings but his remains were afterwards removed to the West.他被安葬在墓穴中的古代國王,但他的遺體被拆除後,向西方國家。

Now it is certainly a remarkable fact that about the year AD 46 a king was reigning over that part of Asia south of Himalayas now represented by Afghanistan, Baluchistan, the Punjab, and Sind, who bore the name Gondophernes or Guduphara.現在,它無疑是一個了不起的事實,即關於今年廣告46國王統治超過該部分的亞洲南部的喜馬拉雅山脈,現在為代表的阿富汗,俾路支,旁遮普,德,對負有名稱gondophernes或guduphara 。 This we know both from the discovery of coins, some of the Parthian type with Greek legends, others of the Indian types with the legends in an Indian dialect in Kharoshthi characters.這點我們都知道,從發現的硬幣,一些對帕提亞人型與希臘傳說中,他人的印度類型與傳說中的一個印第安方言在kharoshthi字。 Despite sundry minor variations the identity of the name with the Gundafor of the "Acta Thomae" is unmistakable and is hardly disputed.儘管雜輕微變異的身份,姓名與gundafor的"學報thomae " ,是明白無誤的,是很難引起爭議。 Further we have the evidence of the Takht-i-Bahi inscription, which is dated and which the best specialists accept as establishing the King Gunduphara probably began to reign about AD 20 and was still reigning in 46.進一步,我們有證據說明塔赫特- - bahi題詞,這是過時的,哪些是最好的專家接受為確立了國王gunduphara可能開始在位約公元20個,並仍在執政,在46 。 Again there are excellent reasons for believing that Misdai or Mazdai may well be transformation of a Hindu name made on the Iranian soil.再次有出色的理由相信misdai或mazdai可能被改造的一個印度教的名字就伊朗土壤。 In this case it will probably represent a certain King Vasudeva of Mathura, a successor of Kanishka.在這種情況下它可能會代表某國王vasudeva的馬圖拉,一名繼任人的kanishka 。 No doubt it can be urged that the Gnostic romancer who wrote the "Acta Thomae" may have adopted a few historical Indian names to lend verisimilitude to his fabrication, but as Mr. Fleet urges in his severely critical paper "the names put forward here in connection with St.Thomas are distinctly not such as have lived in Indian story and tradition" (Joul. of R. Asiatic Soc.,1905, p.235).毫無疑問,可以要求該諾斯替romancer誰寫的"學報thomae "可能已經採用了幾個歷史的印度名字借給逼真他造謠,但正如艦隊敦促在他的嚴厲批判文件"的名稱,提出了在這裡涉嫌與st.thomas明顯不如住在印度的故事和傳統" ( joul. R的亞洲芯片, 1905 , p.235 ) 。

On the other hand, though the tradition that St. Thomas preached in "India" was widely spread in both East and West and is to be found in such writers as Ephraem Syrus, Ambrose, Paulinus, Jerome, and, later Gregory of Tours and others, still it is difficult to discover any adequate support for the long-accepted belief that St. Thomas pushed his missionary journeys as far south as Mylapore, not far from Madras, and there suffered martyrdom.在另一方面,雖然傳統,在聖托馬斯鼓吹"印度" ,是廣為傳播,無論東方和西方,是要找到這樣的作家ephraem syrus ,劉漢銓, paulinus ,杰羅姆,以及後來的格雷戈里的旅行團另一些,但仍然是一個難以發現任何足以支持長期接受的,相信聖托馬斯推他的傳教行程為遠南作為mylapore ,不遠處的馬德拉斯,並有遭受殉難。 In that region is still to be found a granite bas-relief cross with a Pahlavi (ancient Persian) inscription dating from the seventh century, and the tradition that it was here that St. Thomas laid down his life is locally very strong.在該地區仍是被發現了花崗岩BAS的救災交叉與巴列維(古代波斯)碑文可以追溯到公元7世紀,和傳統,這是在這裡說,聖托馬斯犧牲了,是當地非常強。 Certain it is also that on the Malabar or west coast of southern India a body of Christians still exists using a form of Syriac for its liturgical language.能肯定的事,也是對馬拉巴爾或西海岸的印度南部的一個機構的基督徒仍然存在,用一種形式的敘利亞文供其禮儀語言。 Whether this Church dates from the time of St. Thomas the Apostle (there was a Syro-Chaldean bishop John "from India and Persia" who assisted at the Council of Nicea in 325) or whether the Gospel was first preached there in 345 owing to the Persian persecution under Shapur (or Sapor), or whether the Syrian missionaries who accompanied a certain Thomas Cana penetrated to the Malabar coast about the year 745 seems difficult to determine.這是否會日期從時間的聖托馬斯使徒(有一個syro -加爾丁禮主教約翰" ,從印度和波斯的"協助在安理會的nicea 325 ) ,還是福音,是第一所宣揚的有345名,由於波斯迫害下shapur (或味) ,還是敘利亞傳教士伴隨著一定的托馬斯拿侵入到馬拉巴爾海岸大約一年745似乎難以確定。 We know only that in the sixth century Cosmas Indicopleustes speaks of the existence of Christians at Male (? Malabar) under a bishop who had been consecrated in Persia.我們只知道在第六世紀科斯馬斯indicopleustes談到存在的基督徒在男性( ?馬拉巴爾)根據主教曾經consecrated在波斯。 King Alfred the Great is stated in the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" to have sent an expedition to establish relations with these Christians of the Far East.國王阿爾弗雷德偉大,是在"盎格魯-撒克遜編年史"已派出一個探險隊,建立與這些基督徒的遠東。 On the other hand the reputed relics of St. Thomas were certainly at Edessa in the fourth century, and there they remained until they were translated to Chios in 1258 and towards to Ortona.在另一方面,被譽為文物的聖托馬斯的人,當然在edessa在第四世紀時,有他們,直到他們被翻譯成當地流行病,在第1258和走向奧爾托納。 The improbable suggestion that St. Thomas preached in America (American Eccles. Rev., 1899, pp.1-18) is based upon a misunderstanding of the text of the Acts of Apostles (i, 8; cf. Berchet "Fonte italiane per la storia della scoperta del Nuovo Mondo", II, 236, and I, 44).這個難以琢磨的建議,即聖托馬斯鼓吹在美洲(美國埃克勒斯( Eccles 。牧師, 1899年, pp.1 - 18 ) ,是基於一種誤解文本的行為使徒(一, 8名;比照貝爾謝"彭光italiane %香格里拉storia della scoperta刪除nuovo盟" ,第二章, 236 ,而我, 44 ) 。

Besides the "Acta Thomae" of which a different and notably shorter redaction exists in Ethiopic and Latin, we have an abbreviated form of a so-called "Gospel of Thomas" originally Gnostic, as we know it now merely a fantastical history of the childhood of Jesus, without any notably heretical colouring.除了"學報thomae "其中一個不同的,尤其是短編撰學存在ethiopic拉,我們有一個縮寫形式的一個所謂的"福音托馬斯" ,本來是諾斯替,因為我們知道,它現在只是一個夢幻般的歷史,以及童年耶穌的,沒有任何特別的邪教填色。 There is also a "Revelatio Thomae", condemned as apocryphal in the Degree of Pope Gelasius, which has recently been recovered from various sources in a fragmentary condition (see the full text in the Revue benedictine, 1911, pp. 359-374).此外,還有一個" revelatio thomae " ,它指責為猜測,在一定程度的教宗gelasius ,並於近期得到康復,從各種來源的一個殘缺不全的情況(見全文在雜誌隱修院, 1911年,頁359-374 ) 。

Publication information Written by Herbert Thurston.出版信息寫赫伯特瑟斯頓。 Transcribed by Mary and Joseph Thomas.轉錄由瑪利亞和約瑟夫托馬斯。 In Memory of Ella Barkyoumb The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.在內存中的ella barkyoumb天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. nihil obstat , 1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


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