Theravada Buddhism theravada佛教

General Information 一般資料

Introduction導言

Theravada Buddhism, along with Mahayana Buddhism, are the two principal branches of Buddhist belief. theravada佛教,隨著大乘佛教,是兩個主要分支的佛教信仰。 It is most widespread in Sri Lanka, Myanmar (formerly known as Burma), Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand.這是最普遍的,在斯里蘭卡,緬甸(以前稱為緬甸) ,老撾,柬埔寨和泰國。 Like Mahayana Buddhism, Theravada (Pali for "School of the Elders") claims to perpetuate the true teachings and practices of the Buddha.如大乘佛教, theravada (八里為"學校的長老" )自稱是永久的真正教義和實踐佛陀。

The Theravada school traces its descent from the original sangha, or monastic community, that first followed the Buddha.該theravada學校痕跡,其後裔從原來的僧伽,或寺院的社區,首先遵循佛陀。 Its canon of scripture consists of the Tipitaka (Three Baskets), the first great compendium of Buddhist writings, composed in the Pali language.其佳能的經文組成的三藏(三籮) ,第一次大彙編的佛教著作,組成,在八里語言。 Theravada tends toward doctrinal conservatism, exemplified in a cautious interpretation of its canon. theravada傾向學說上的保守,體現了一種謹慎的解釋,它的佳能公司。 Because of this, it has been given the pejorative name Hinayana (Sanskrit for "Lesser Vehicle") by its rivals, who call their own tradition Mahayana ("Greater Vehicle").正因為如此,它已被賦予貶義的名稱小乘(梵語為"較輕的車輛" )是由它的競爭對手們稱為自己的傳統大乘( "大汽車" ) 。 The goal of the Theravadin, or devotee of Theravada, is to become an arhat, a sage who has achieved nirvana (enlightenment) and will never be reborn.目標的theravadin ,或devotee的theravada ,是要成為一個羅漢,一位哲人曾達到涅槃(啟示) ,而且也永不會獲得重生。 Mahayana traditionally prefers the figure of the bodhisattva - who, out of compassion, helps others toward salvation - to the arhat, who is concerned chiefly with his own salvation.大乘傳統上傾向於數字的菩薩-誰,但出於同情,幫助別人走向救贖-向羅漢,世衛組織擔心,主要是與他自己的救贖。

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Origins and Development起源與發展

Theravada was the only tradition among the so-called Eighteen Schools of early Buddhism to survive the first centuries after the Buddha's death in the 5th century BC. theravada是唯一的傳統,其中有所謂十八所學校的早期佛教生存第一世紀之後,佛陀的死在公元前5世紀。 Some authorities trace its origins to the events following the second great council of Buddhism at Vaishali, India, in 383 BC, in which novel interpretations of doctrine were condemned by conservatives - the Theras (Elders) - who thereby became the originators of Theravada orthodoxy.一些主管部門追查其來源,以該事件之後,第二次大會,佛教在vaishali ,印度,在公元前383 ,在這種新穎的演繹主義者譴責保守派-t heras(長者) -的人,從而成為原創th eravada正統。 The reformers, in turn, accused the conservatives of being too self-absorbed and dogmatic.維新,反過來指責保守派的過於自我吸收和教條式的。 The ideological split was confirmed at the third council, convened by King Ashoka at Pâtaliputra (now Patna, India) in about 250 BC.意識形態分裂,證實在第三屆理事會,召開了由國王阿蘇迦在pâtaliputra (現帕特納開往,印度) ,在大約公元前250 。 After that, according to tradition, the orthodox school is said to have been spread to Sri Lanka by Ashoka's son, the monk Mahinda.這之後,按照傳統,正統的學校據說已經蔓延到斯里蘭卡阿蘇迦的兒子,和尚馬欣達。 There it became a national creed, centered at the great monastery of Mahavihara and closely associated with the Sri Lankan monarchy.因此,它成為一個國家信條,圍繞在大修道院mahavihara和密切聯繫與斯里蘭卡君主立憲制。 Ashoka's missionaries also spread Theravada Buddhism to Myanmar and Thailand.阿蘇迦的傳教士們還在蔓延theravada傳佛教與緬甸和泰國。 For much of the 1st millennium AD, Theravada existed alongside Mahayana and esoteric Buddhism in all these areas.對於大部分的第一千年專案, theravada同時存在大乘和密宗在所有這些領域。

While other early sects died out or were absorbed into Mahayana Buddhism, Theravada retained its identity.而其他早期教派死亡或者被吸收到大乘佛教, theravada保留其身份。 Similarly, when Buddhism died out in India after the 12th century AD, Theravada kept its hold in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia.同樣地,當佛教死在印度之後, 12世紀的廣告中, theravada保持其持有在斯里蘭卡和東南亞地區。 In about the 10th century, a Theravada reform movement began in Sri Lanka that consolidated the kingdom as a Theravada monarchy.大約在10世紀,一個theravada改革運動開始在斯里蘭卡這鞏固了英國作為一個theravada君主立憲制。 The reform movement spread to Burma and Thailand, where it revitalized the Theravada tradition and ensured its supremacy over other Buddhist sects.維新運動傳播到了緬甸和泰國,在那裡重振theravada傳統,並確保其凌駕於其他佛教宗派。 Reformers also carried the creed into Cambodia and Laos, where the geographical limits of Theravada predominance were reached.改革者也進行了信條到柬埔寨和老撾,那裡的地理界限theravada絕對優勢的共識。 Despite some Theravada followers in Vietnam and elsewhere, Mahayana Buddhism became the dominant tradition in the rest of the Buddhist world.儘管取得了一些theravada追隨者,在越南和其他地方,大乘佛教已成為佔主導地位的傳統,在其餘的佛教世界。

Despite the European colonialism that began in the early 19th century, Theravada continued in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, in some areas becoming identified with nascent nationalist movements.儘管歐洲殖民主義開始於19世紀初, theravada繼續在斯里蘭卡和東南亞地區,在某些領域成為確定與新生的民族主義運動。 In Sri Lanka, during the 18th and 19th centuries, Theravada split into factions, mostly over questions regarding the caste of worshippers.在斯里蘭卡,在18世紀和19世紀, theravada分成各派,大部分的問題,關於種姓的信徒。 Thailand began reform of its Theravada tradition in the 19th century as part of the general national reform initiated in response to European colonialism, and the country has remained a fertile source of Theravada reform movements.泰國開始改革其theravada傳統,在19世紀作為綜合改革的國家發起針對歐洲殖民主義的,而且該國仍然是一個肥沃的來源theravada改革運動。 In the 1980s and 1990s, Theravada became an important factor in civil strife between the Buddhist Sinhalese majority and the Tamil minority of Sri Lanka, with some militant Buddhists promoting a vigorous Sinhalese nationalism.在20世紀80年代和90年代, theravada成為一個重要因素,在內亂之間的佛教僧伽羅人佔多數的泰米爾少數民族的斯里蘭卡,一些激進佛教徒促進嚴厲僧伽羅民族主義。 In Myanmar, Theravada has become one element of the rigidly conservative political and social policies of the country's military rulers.在緬甸, theravada已經成為一個要素的硬性保守的政治和社會政策,該國的軍事統治者。 Theravada in Laos and Cambodia suffered a setback during the Vietnam War (1959-1975) and the subsequent Communist domination but appeared to be reviving in the 1990s. Theravada has been reestablished in India in the modern era by the mass conversion to Theravada Buddhism of Harijans (the so-called Untouchables, who fall outside the traditional class divisions of Hindu society), who are attracted by Buddhism's indifference to Hindu concepts of caste. theravada在老撾和柬埔寨遭受挫折越南戰爭期間( 1959年至1975年) ,以及隨後的共產主義統治,但似乎是復活在20世紀90年代。 theravada已重新確立在印度近代由地下轉為theravada佛教的harijans (所謂的賤民,他們不屬於傳統的階級劃分,印度教社會) ,他們吸引了佛教的冷漠印度教觀念的種姓。

Organization組織

Theravada organization is in principle based on the original instructions of the Buddha as laid down in the Vinaya Pitaka, the compendium of 227 rules for monastic discipline that forms part of the Tipitaka. theravada組織,在原則上在原有基礎上的指示,佛陀作為寫在律pitaka ,彙編的227規則寺院紀律的形式部分的三藏。 Since the sangha is the core institution of Buddhism, its structure is the basis of Theravada organization.由於僧伽是核心機構的佛教,它的結構是基礎theravada組織。 Theravada monks were traditionally criticized by Mahayana believers for being too concerned with their own salvation and for indifference to the lay community. theravada和尚傳統上被批評,大乘信徒為過於關注自己的救贖和冷漠以奠定社會。 Theravada doctrine holds that only a monk can attain nirvana and that the laity can only aspire to be reborn as a monk after many reincarnations spent discharging the burden of karma (intentional action that determines one's future destiny). theravada學說認為,只有一名僧人可達到涅槃,並表示,俗人只能希望投胎作為一名僧人經過多次reincarnations花燃放的負擔,因果報應(故意的行動,決定著一個人的前途和命運) 。 However, in some countries, especially Myanmar and Thailand, young men are placed in monasteries temporarily as part of their education, thus fostering lay involvement in the sangha.但是,在一些國家,特別是緬甸和泰國的年輕男子被安置在寺廟暫時的一部分,他們的教育,從而培養奠定更積極參與有關僧伽。

Most countries with large numbers of Theravada adherents exhibit strong historical ties between the Buddhist hierarchy and the government.大多數國家都擁有大量的theravada遺民展品濃厚的歷史關係,佛教層次和政府周圍。 In such countries, Ashoka's beneficent propagation of Buddhism has been accepted as the exemplar of wise and legitimate government and as a precedent for state involvement in religious affairs.在這些國家中,阿蘇迦的好意,傳播佛教已被接納為表表者明智和合法政府,並作為一個先例,為國家參與宗教事務。 The state and the sangha are often seen as complementary and mutually supportive, ministering respectively to the secular and religious needs of the people.國家和僧伽往往被視為相互補充和相互支持,服事分別向世俗和宗教人民的需要。 The temples themselves are loosely coordinated in most Southeast Asian countries, with little in the way of formal hierarchy between them.寺廟本身是鬆散的協調,在大多數東南亞國家,很少在阻礙著正式的等級關係。 In early Sri Lankan Buddhism, a short-lived and limited practice of clerical marriage developed, and charge of particular temples was passed from father to son.在年初的斯里蘭卡佛教,一個短命的和有限度的做法,文書婚姻的發展,並負責寺廟特別是通過父傳子。

Theravada has a notable tradition of forest-dwelling hermits who exist outside the monastic organizations. theravada有一個顯著的傳統,林居隱士的人存在外寺院組織。 In contrast to Mahayana Buddhism, since about AD 500, Theravada has had no orders of Buddhist nuns.相比之下,以大乘佛教,由於約公元500年, theravada卻苦無訂單的佛教尼姑。 There is limited participation in the sangha by women and lay people, who generally wear white robes and take up asceticism (self-denial) without entering a monastic order.有參與程度有限,在僧伽由婦女及裁員的人,一般人穿白色長袍,並採取了禁慾主義(自我否定) ,沒有進入寺院秩序。

Doctrine學說

Theravada claims to abide by the original teachings of the historical Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama. theravada聲稱要遵守原來的教義歷史佛陀,席德哈爾塔喬答摩。 Theravada doctrine reveres the Buddha as a single supremely gifted, yet mortal, teacher, in contrast to the succession of transcendent beings postulated by Mahayana. theravada學說奉佛祖作為一個單一的千鈞天才,但凡人,教師,相反,以繼承超然被假定由大乘。 Some Theravada scriptures list other Buddhas, but in general the emphasis is on the one historical Buddha, on the grounds that no universe can bear more than one Buddha without shattering.一些theravada經文所列出的其他佛像,但一般強調的是一個歷史的佛像,其理由是沒有宇宙中所能承受的一個以上的佛像沒有破滅。

The dharma, or teachings, of the historical Buddha are usually regarded as being contained in the Tipitaka.弘法,或教義,歷史佛陀通常被視為載於三藏。 Unlike Mahayana, which has generated a vast number of additional sutras (scriptural texts), Theravada confines itself to this core dharma.不像大乘,其中已產生了數量龐大的額外經典(聖經文本) , theravada局限於這個核心護法。 The Theravada canon is recorded in Pali, a dialect popular during the Buddha's lifetime.該theravada佳能是記錄在八里,方言流行,在佛陀的一生。 Other works highly esteemed in Theravada - particularly the dialogues in the Milindapanha (2nd century AD; translated as Questions of King Milinda, 1963), and the Visuddhimagga (5th century AD; Path of Purification, 1964) by the great Buddhist commentator Buddhaghosa - are regarded by most scholars as authoritative collections rather than as the fruit of further revelations of dharma (although the Milindapanha is considered canonical by the Myanmar).其他工程高度評價了在theravada -特別對話,在m ilindapanha(二世紀的廣告;譯作的問題,國王m ilinda, 1 963年) ,以及清淨道論(公元5世紀;道路淨化, 1 964年)由大佛像評論員b uddhaghosa-把由大多數學者作為權威的收藏品,而不是作為成果,進一步揭露大法(雖然milindapanha被認為是典型由緬甸) 。

The dharma of Theravada regards human existence as a complex of various transient aspects, also called dharmas.弘法的theravada對於人類生存是一個複雜的各種瞬變方面,也稱為dharmas 。 These dharmas are grouped in overlapping categories of 5 components (skandhas), 12 bases (ayatana), and 18 perceptual elements (dhatu).這些dharmas分為重疊類5組件( skandhas ) , 12個基地( ayatana ) , 18人的感性要素( dhatu ) 。 The 5 components are the physical body (rupa), feelings (vedana), cognitive perception (sanna), mental predispositions (sankhara), and consciousness (vijñana). 5個組成部分是肉體( Rupa在) ,情感( vedana ) ,認知觀感( sanna ) ,心理傾向( sankhara ) ,與意識( vijñana ) 。 The 12 bases are the 5 sensory organs with their 5 sensory fields, plus the mind and the object of mental perception. 12個基地,是5個感覺器官與5感官領域,加上頭腦和對象的心理認知。 The 18 elements are the 5 sensory organs plus the mind, their 6 associated objects, and the 6 so-called consciousnesses of ear, eye, nose, mouth, body, and mind. 18個要素是5個感覺器官加上頭腦,他們六相關的事物,和600這個所謂意識的耳朵,眼睛,鼻子,嘴,身體和心態。 These dharmas create a composite being not united by any enduring soul (atman) or identity: There is no self in the strict sense.這些dharmas創造一個複合正不團結,任何持久的靈魂(阿特曼)或身份證:沒有自我,在嚴格意義上的。 The Theravadin endeavors to manipulate the dharmas so as to suspend the action of karma and thereby to achieve nirvana.該theravadin奮鬥操縱dharmas等,以暫緩行動的因果報應,從而達到涅槃。 Theravada is therefore less a philosophical doctrine than an almost scientific discipline, although it depends on a complex cosmology of cyclical, multiple worlds and an involved scheme of reincarnation. theravada是為準,所以是一種哲學學說比幾乎學科,儘管它取決於一個複雜的宇宙論的週期性的,多重的世界,並參與計劃的輪迴。


Also, see:此外,見:
Buddhism 佛教

Mahayana Buddhism 大乘佛教

Lamaism 喇嘛教

Zen Buddhism

Tantra tantra


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