Saint Stephen聖士提

General Information 一般資料

Originally one of the seven deacons or "servers" chosen to assist the Apostles, Stephen, d.原來其中的七個執事或"服務器"的選擇,以協助使徒,張鑑泉,四 AD c.36, became an important preacher and the first Christian martyr.專案c.36 ,成為一個重要的佈道者和第一基督教烈士。 According to Acts 6-7, Stephen's charge before the Sanhedrin that the Jews had persistently disobeyed God so enraged his Jewish audience that they stoned him to death.根據行為6-7 ,斯蒂芬的指控出庭公會表示,猶太人曾堅持不服從上帝,所以,激怒了他的猶太觀眾,他們用石塊砸向他死刑。 Parallels drawn with the crucifixion of Jesus make the story of Stephen's death important in Christian tradition.平行線劃十字架上的耶穌,使故事斯蒂芬的死重要,在基督教傳統。 Feast day: Dec. 27 (East); Dec. 26 (West).盛宴的日子: 12月27日(東部) , 12月26日(西) 。

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Bibliography 參考書目
Simon, Marcel, St. Stephen and the Hellenists in the Primitive Church (1958).西蒙( Marcel ,聖士提反灣及hellenists在簡陋的教堂( 1958年) 。


Stephen斯蒂芬

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Stephen was one of the seven deacons, who became a preacher of the gospel.斯蒂芬是其中的7名執事,誰成為傳道者的福音。 He was the first Christian martyr.他是第一個基督教的烈士。 His personal character and history are recorded in Acts 6.他的個人性格和歷史,是記錄在行為6 。 "He fell asleep" with a prayer for his persecutors on his lips (7:60). "他睡著了" ,以祈禱,為他的迫害者,他的嘴唇( 7:60 ) 。 Devout men carried him to his grave (8:2).虔誠的男性進行了他向他的墳墓( 8:2 ) 。 It was at the feet of the young Pharisee, Saul of Tarsus, that those who stoned him laid their clothes (comp. Deut. 17:5-7) before they began their cruel work.這是在腳的青年pharisee ,娑羅雙樹的塔爾蘇斯,那些石頭砸死他奠定了自己的衣服( comp. deut 。 17:5-7 ) ,然後,他們開始了殘酷的工作。 The scene which Saul then witnessed and the words he heard appear to have made a deep and lasting impression on his mind (Acts 22: 19, 20).現場,其中娑羅雙樹,然後目睹這幾個字,他聽到似乎已經作出了深刻而持久的印象,在他的心上(使徒行22 : 19 , 20 ) 。 The speech of Stephen before the Jewish ruler is the first apology for the universalism of the gospel as a message to the Gentiles as well as the Jews.講話的斯蒂芬前猶太統治者是第一道歉,為普世的福音,因為一個訊息,外邦人以及猶太人。 It is the longest speech contained in the Acts, a place of prominence being given to it as a defence.這是有史以來最長的講話中所載的行為,一個地方的突出正考慮將它作為抗辯理由。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


St. Stephen聖士提反灣

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

One of the first deacons and the first Christian martyr; feast on 26 December.第一個執事和第一基督教烈士;盛宴12月26日。

In the Acts of the Apostles the name of St. Stephen occurs for the first time on the occasion of the appointment of the first deacons (Acts 6:5).在行為的門徒的名字聖士提反出現了第一次會議之際,任命首位執事(使徒6時05分) 。 Dissatisfaction concerning the distribution of alms from the community's fund having arisen in the Church, seven men were selected and specially ordained by the Apostles to take care of the temporal relief of the poorer members.不滿有關分配施捨從社區的基金出現後,在教會裡,七名男子被選定並特意受戒由使徒,以照顧顳救濟貧苦。 Of these seven, Stephen, is the first mentioned and the best known.這7 ,張鑑泉,是第一個被提及和最具知名度的。

Stephen's life previous to this appointment remains for us almost entirely in the dark.斯蒂芬的生命前,以這一任命,仍是我們幾乎完全在黑暗中摸索。 His name is Greek and suggests he was a Hellenist, ie, one of those Jews who had been born in some foreign land and whose native tongue was Greek; however, according to a fifth century tradition, the name Stephanos was only a Greek equivalent for the Aramaic Kelil (Syr. kelila, crown), which may be the protomartyr's original name and was inscribed on a slab found in his tomb.他的名字是希臘語,並建議他是一個hellenist ,即其中一人猶太人,他們已經出生,在國外一些土地,其母語是希臘語,但根據第五世紀的傳統文化中,姓名stephanos只是一個希臘語當量該阿拉姆語克利勒( syr. kelila ,冠) ,這可能是protomartyr的原名稱,並刻有一板,發現在他的墳墓。 It seems that Stephen was not a proselyte, for the fact that Nicolas is the only one of the seven designated as such makes it almost certain that the others were Jews by birth.看來,斯蒂芬不是proselyte ,為事實,即尼古拉斯是唯一的七個指定為此類使得它幾乎可以肯定,其他則包括猶太人出生。 That Stephen was a pupil of Gamaliel is sometimes inferred from his able defence before the Sanhedrin; but this has not been proved.鑑泉是一個學生的加馬有時推斷出他的幹練前國防部審判廳,但這種情況並沒有得到證實。 Neither do we know when and in what circumstances he became a Christian; it is doubtful whether the statement of St. Epiphanius (Haer., xx, 4) numbering Stephen among the seventy disciples is deserving of any credence.我們也不知道什麼時候和在什麼情況下,他成了一名基督信徒,它是有疑問的陳述聖epiphanius ( haer. ,第二十條, 4 )號碼斯蒂芬其中有七十二弟子,是值得任何輕信。 His ministry as deacon appears to have been mostly among the Hellenist converts with whom the Apostles were at first less familiar; and the fact that the opposition he met with sprang up in the synagogues of the "Libertines" (probably the children of Jews taken captive to Rome by Pompey in 63 BC and freed hence the name Libertini), and "of the Cyrenians, and of the Alexandrians, and of them that were of Cilicia and Asia" shows that he usually preached among the Hellenist Jews.他的部作為執事似乎已大多之間hellenist轉換成與之使徒保羅起初不太熟悉;事實,那就是反對他會見擺出來,在猶太教會堂的" libertines " (可能是孩子們的猶太人採取圈養羅馬由pompey在63公元前獲釋因此得名利伯蒂尼) ,和"的cyrenians ,該alexandrians ,以及他們分別的基利家和亞洲" ,表明他通常會鼓吹之間hellenist猶太人。 That he was pre eminently fitted for that work, his abilities and character, which the author of the Acts dwells upon so fervently, are the best indication.他是前非常適合這項工作,他的能力和性格,而作者的行為整篇後,烈,是最好的說明。 The Church had, by selecting him for a deacon, publicly acknowledged him as a man "of good reputation, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom" (Acts 6:3).教會中,挑選他為執事,公開承認他是一個人"的良好聲譽,充滿著聖靈和智慧" (使徒行6:3 ) 。 He was "a man full of faith, and of the Holy Ghost" (vi, 5), "full of grace and fortitude" (vi, 8); his uncommon oratorical powers and unimpeachable logic no one was able to resist, so much so that to his arguments replete with the Divine energy of the Scriptural authorities God added the weight of "great wonders and signs" (vi, 8).他是"一名男子充滿了信心,和聖靈" (六,五) , "充滿了恩典和毅力" (六,八) ;他不平凡的演講權力和無懈可擊的邏輯,沒有人能夠抗拒,這麼多所以說,以他的論據充斥著神聖的能量聖經當局補充說:上帝的重量"的偉大奇蹟和標誌" (六,八) 。 Great as was the efficacy of "the wisdom and the spirit that spoke" (vi, 10), still it could not bend the minds of the unwilling; to these the forceful preacher was fatally soon to become an enemy.偉大的,因為當時的功效"的智慧和精神,以" (六, 10 ) ,但仍然無法彎曲的心中不願接受;這些有力的佈道者是致命不久將成為一個敵人。

The conflict broke out when the cavillers of the synagogues "of the Libertines, and of the Cyreneans, and of the Alexandrians, and of them that were of Cilicia and Asia", who had challenged Stephen to a dispute, came out completely discomfited (vi, 9 10); wounded pride so inflamed their hatred that they suborned false witnesses to testify that "they had heard him speak words of blasphemy against Moses and against God" (vi, 11).衝突爆發時, cavillers的猶太教堂"的libertines ,該cyreneans ,該alexandrians ,以及他們分別的基利家和亞洲" ,他們提出了挑戰斯蒂芬,以發生糾紛,來到了完全discomfited (六, 10月9日) ;傷員自豪感,使發炎他們的仇恨,他們suborned虛假證人作證說: "他們聽到他說的話,褻瀆摩西和對上帝" (六, 11 ) 。

No charge could be more apt to rouse the mob; the anger of the ancients and the scribes had been already kindled from the first reports of the preaching of the Apostles.不收費,可以更容易振奮暴民;憤怒古人和文士已被點燃,已經從第一次報告的說教的使徒。 Stephen was arrested, not without some violence it seems (the Greek word synerpasan implies so much), and dragged before the Sanhedrin, where he was accused of saying that "Jesus of Nazareth shall destroy this place [the temple], and shall change the traditions which Moses delivered unto us" (vi, 12 14).斯蒂芬被逮捕,不無一些暴力事件,似乎(希臘字synerpasan意味著這麼多) ,並拖進之前審判廳,在那裡他被指控說: "拿撒勒的耶穌會破壞這個地方[廟] ,並應改變傳統摩西告訴了我們" (六, 12月14日) 。 No doubt Stephen had by his language given some grounds for the accusation; his accusers apparently twisted into the offensive utterance attributed to him a declaration that "the most High dwelleth not in houses made by hands" (vii, 48), some mention of Jesus foretelling the destruction of the Temple and some inveighing against the burthensome traditions fencing about the Law, or rather the asseveration so often repeated by the Apostles that "there is no salvation in any other" (cf. iv, 12) the Law not excluded but Jesus.毫無疑問,斯蒂芬曾由他的語言給出了一些理由的指責,他的指控顯然是歪曲為攻擊性話語歸功於他的聲明,表示"最高級從永遠不要在房子所作的手" (第七章, 48條) ,有些提及耶穌預言摧毀廟宇和一些inveighing對burthensome傳統擊劍有關法律,或者更確切地說,該asseveration所以經常反复,由傳道者說: "絕對不存在救贖,在任何其他" (參見四, 12 )法律沒有排除,但耶穌。 However this may be, the accusation left him unperturbed and "all that sat in the council...saw his face as if it had been the face of an angel" (vi, 15).不過,這可能是,這項指控給他留下不受干擾和"一切坐在安理會...看到他的臉,好像它一直面對一個天使" (六, 15 ) 。

Stephen's answer (Acts 7) was a long recital of the mercies of God towards Israel during its long history and of the ungratefulness by which, throughout, Israel repaid these mercies.斯蒂芬的回答(使徒7 )是一個長期演奏的神的慈悲,對以色列在其悠久的歷史和有關ungratefulness其中,在整個以色列歸還這些慈悲。 This discourse contained many things unpleasant to Jewish ears; but the concluding indictment for having betrayed and murdered the Just One whose coming the Prophets had foretold, provoked the rage of an audience made up not of judges, but of foes.這一話語包含了許多不愉快的事情向猶太耳,但結論起訴書後,背叛和謀殺的正義,其未來先知們曾預言,挑起了風靡一時的觀眾彌補了沒有法官的問題,而是敵人。 When Stephen "looking up steadfastly to heaven, saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God", and said: "Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of man standing on the right hand of God" (vii, 55), they ran violently upon him (vii, 56) and cast him out of the city to stone him to death.斯蒂芬時, "看,堅定不移地升天,看見神的榮耀,耶穌站在正確的上帝之手" ,並說: "看哪,我看老天爺開,而兒子的男子站在正確的上帝之手" (第七章, 55條) ,他們猛烈然後,他(指七, 56 ) ,並投出他的城市,以石頭將他打死。 Stephen's stoning does not appear in the narrative of the Acts as a deed of mob violence; it must have been looked upon by those who took part in it as the carrying out of the law.斯蒂芬的石塊砸死沒有出現在敘事的,作為一個契約的暴民暴力,它必須是被期待後,由那些參加過它作為貫徹該法。 According to law (Leviticus 24:14), or at least its usual interpretation, Stephen had been taken out of the city; custom required that the person to be stoned be placed on an elevation from whence with his hands bound he was to be thrown down.依法治國(利未記24:14 ) ,或者至少是其一貫的解釋,張鑑泉已經採取了走出城市;習俗規定的人將石塊放在海拔何時與他的手被綁在他將被拋擲下來。 It was most likely while these preparations were going on that, "falling on his knees, he cried with a loud voice, saying: "Lord, lay not this sin to their charge" (vii, 59). Meanwhile the witnesses, whose hands must be first on the person condemned by their testimony (Deuteronomy 17:7), were laying down their garments at the feet of Saul, that they might be more ready for the task devolved upon them (vii, 57). The praying martyr was thrown down; and while the witnesses were thrusting upon him "a stone as much as two men could carry", he was heard to utter this supreme prayer: "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit" (vii, 58). Little did all the people present, casting stones upon him, realize that the blood they shed was the first seed of a harvest that was to cover the world.這是最有可能的,而這些準備工作正在進行, "落在他的膝蓋,他哭了同一個響亮的聲音,他們說: "主啊,不在於這個罪過,他們負責" (第七章, 59條) ,同時目擊者稱,那些雙手首先必須對人的譴責,他們的證詞(申命記17時07分) ,分別放下了服裝上的腳娑羅雙樹,那他們可能會更樂意為任務下放後,他們(七, 57 ) 。祈求是烈士投擲下來;而證人被衝斷他的"一石多為兩名男子,可進行" ,他是聽到說出這個最高禱告說: "主耶穌,接受我的靈魂" (第七章, 58條) 。沒想到所有人,目前,鑄造石頭後,他認識到,他們血液中棚是第一種子的收穫,那就是讓覆蓋世界。

The bodies of men stoned to death were to be buried in a place appointed by the Sanhedrin.該機構的男人石頭打死被埋葬在一個地方,由公會。 Whether in this instance the Sanhedrin insisted on its right cannot be affirmed; at any rate, "devout men" -- whether Christians or Jews, we are not told -- "took order for Stephen's funeral, and made great mourning over him" (vii, 2).無論是在這個例如公會堅持其權利不能予以肯定;無論如何, "虔誠的男人" -無論是基督徒或猶太教徒,沒有告訴我們- "了,為了斯蒂芬的葬禮,並取得了很大悼念他" (七, 2 ) 。 For centuries the location of St. Stephen's tomb was lost sight of, until (415) a certain priest named Lucian learned by revelation that the sacred body was in Caphar Gamala, some distance to the north of Jerusalem.數百年來的位置,聖士提反灣的李鄭屋漢墓已拋諸腦後,直到( 415 )某神父叫喬治據悉,由啟示神聖的屍體在caphar gamala ,有些距離,到北方的耶路撒冷。 The relics were then exhumed and carried first to the church of Mount Sion, then, in 460, to the basilica erected by Eudocia outside the Damascus Gate, on the spot where, according to tradition, the stoning had taken place (the opinion that the scene of St. Stephen's martyrdom was east of Jerusalem, near the Gate called since St. Stephen's Gate, is unheard of until the twelfth century). The relics were then exhumed and carried first to the church of Mount Sion, then, in 460, to the basilica erected by Eudocia outside the Damascus Gate, on the spot where, according to tradition, the stoning had taken place (the opinion that the現場的聖士提反灣的殉難是耶路撒冷東部,靠近門口的所謂自聖士提反灣的大門,是絕無僅有的,直到12世紀) 。 The site of the Eudocian basilica was identified some twenty years ago, and a new edifice has been erected on the old foundations by the Dominican Fathers.該網站的eudocian大教堂是確定了一些20年前,一個新的大廈已豎立於舊地基多米尼加父親。

The only first hand source of information on the life and death of St. Stephen is the Acts of the Apostles (6:1-8:2).唯一的第一手信息來源,對生命和死亡的聖士提反灣,是行為的使徒( 6:1-8:2 ) 。

Publication information Written by Charles L. Souvay.出版信息書面查爾斯屬蘇韋。 Transcribed by Bonnie A. Brooks.轉錄由邦妮甲布魯克斯。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. nihil obstat , 1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


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