Nun尼姑

General Information 一般資料

A nun is a member of a religious community of women ordinarily bound by the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.一名修女是一個宗教團體的成員社區的婦女通常受制於誓言貧窮,貞潔,服從。 Nuns are generally thought of as Christian, but the term is also used in other religions.修女們通常想到,作為基督徒,但該術語也用在其他宗教。 Roman Catholic church law uses nun to refer only to women with solemn vows and sister for those whose vows are not solemn.羅馬天主教教會法使用尼姑,以僅指婦女與莊嚴的誓言和妹妹對於那些發誓不嚴肅的。

Bibliography 參考書目
Campbell-Jones, Suzanne, In Habit (1979); Lieblich, Julia, Holy Women (1988).坎貝爾-瓊斯,蘇珊,在習慣( 1979年) ; lieblich ,朱莉婭,神聖的婦女( 1988 ) 。

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Nun尼姑

General Information 一般資料

A Nun is a member of a religious order for women, living in a convent under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.一名修女是一個宗教團體的成員,以便為婦女,生活在一個修道院下誓言貧窮,貞潔,服從。 Female monasticism occurs notably in Roman Catholicism, although it is not limited to that church or to Christianity.女修道生活發生顯著,在羅馬天主教,雖然它並不限於教會或基督教。 In Roman Catholicism the orders vary in the stipulations of the vows, some being permanent and others only for fixed periods of time.在羅馬天主教的命令不同,在規定的誓言,有的被永久等人,只有固定的時間。 The orders vary in dress, purpose, and rule, but all follow generally the same basic principles.命令的不同著裝,宗旨和規則,但都遵循大致相同的基本原則。 The nuns are devoted to a purely contemplative life or to a life of charity, including teaching and nursing.修女們正致力於一個純粹contemplative生命或生命的慈善活動,包括教學和護理課程。 The heads of convents are variously called abbesses, prioresses, and mothers superior, and a nun is generally addressed as "Sister."元首修道院是各種所謂abbesses , prioresses ,和母親的優越,和一個尼姑,一般稱為"姊妹" 。


Nuns修女

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

I. ORIGIN AND HISTORY一,起源和歷史

The institution of nuns and sisters, who devote themselves in various religious orders to the practice of a life of perfection, dates from the first ages of the Church, and women may claim with a certain pride that they were the first to embrace the religious state for its own sake, without regard to missionary work and ecclesiastical functions proper to men.該機構的修女和姐妹,投身於各種不同的宗教命令,以實踐人生完美的,日期從第一年齡的教會,而且婦女可以聲稱與某自豪說,他們第一次擁抱宗教的國家為自己的利益,而不考慮其傳教工作和宗教職能,妥善男子。 St. Paul speaks of widows, who were called to certain kinds of church work (1 Timothy 5:9), and of virgins (1 Cor., vii), whom he praises for their continence and their devotion to the things of the Lord.聖保祿談到寡婦,被稱為向某些種類的教會工作( 1蒂莫西5時09分) ,和處女( 1肺心病,七) ,其中他的謳歌他們的可控性和獻身東西的主。 The virgins were remarkable for their perfect and perpetual chastity which the Catholic Apologists have extolled as a contrast to pagan corruption (St. Justin, "Apol.", I, c. 15; Migne, "PG", VI, 350; St. Ambrose, "De Virginibus", Bk. I, C. 4; Migne, "PL", XVI, 193).該童女則顯著,為他們的完美和永恆的貞節,其中天主教辯護士有讚頌作為對比的異教腐敗(聖賈斯汀, " apol " ,我,長15人;米涅, "家長指引" ,六, 350 ,聖劉漢銓, "德virginibus " ,交通銀行,我,長4 ;米涅, "特等" ,第十六章, 193條) 。 Many also practiced poverty.許多國家還實行了貧困。 From the earliest times they were called the spouses of Christ, according to St. Athanasius, the custom of the Church ("Apol. ad Constant.", sec. 33; Migne, "PG", XXV, 639).從最早的時候它們被稱為配偶基督的,依照聖athanasius ,習俗教會( " apol 。專案常數" , 8044 。 33 ;米涅, "家長指引" ,二十五, 639 ) 。 St. Cyprian describes a virgin who had broken her vows as an adulteress ("Ep. 62", Migne, "PL", IV, 370).聖塞浦路斯描述了一個處女,他們打破了她的誓言作為一個姦婦(下稱"的EP 62 " ,米涅, "特等" ,第四, 370 ) 。 Tertullian distinguishes between those virgins who took the veil publicly in the assembly of the faithful, and others known to God alone; the veil seems to have been simply that of married women.戴爾都良區分那些處女了面紗,公開在大會上的忠誠,以及其他已知只有上帝;面紗似乎已被簡單地說,已婚婦女。 Virgins vowed to the service of God, at first continued to live with their families, but as early as the end of the third century there were community houses known as partheuones; and certainly at the beginning of the same century the virgins formed a special class in the Church, receiving Holy Communion before the laity.處女發誓要為天主服務,在第一,繼續與家人同住,但早在去年底的第三個世紀,有社區房子稱為partheuones ;當然在一開始的,同時世紀的處女組成了一支特殊的班級在教會裡,接受聖餐前俗人。 The office of Good Friday in which the virgins are mentioned after the porters, and the Litany of the Saints, in which they are invoked with the widows, shows traces of this classification.辦公室的好週五在其中的新婦是提及後,搬運工,以及一連串的聖人,在他們所援引與寡婦,顯示痕跡這種分類法。 They were sometimes admitted among the deaconesses for the baptism of adult women and to exercise the functions which St. Paul had reserved for widows of sixty years.它們有時也承認其中deaconesses為洗禮的成年婦女,並行使職能聖保祿已預留作寡婦的六十年。 When the persecutions of the third century drove many into the desert, the solitary life produced many heroines; and when the monks began to live in monasteries, there were also communities of women.當迫害的第三個世紀,許多驅車進入沙漠,孤獨的生活產生了許多英雄;當了和尚就開始住在寺廟中,也有社區的婦女。 St. Pachomius (292-346) built a convent in which a number of religious women lived with his sister.聖帕科米烏斯( 292-346 ) ,建立了一個修道院,其中一些宗教婦女生活與他的妹妹。 St. Jerome made famous the monastery of St. Paula at Bethlehem.聖杰羅姆取得了著名的楚布寺的聖保拉在伯利恆。 St. Augustine addressed to the nuns a letter of direction from which subsequently his rule was taken.聖奧古斯丁給尼姑一封信方向,從其後他的統治。 There were monasteries of virgins or nuns at Rome, throughout Italy, Gaul, Spain, and the West.有寺廟的處女或修女在羅馬,在整個意大利,高盧,西班牙,和西方。 The great founders or reformers of monastic or more generally religious life, saw their rules adopted by women.偉大的創始者或改革者的寺院或更普遍的宗教生活,看到了自己的規則,通過由婦女擔任。 The nuns of Egypt and Syria cut their hair, a practice not introduced until later into the West.修女們在埃及和敘利亞削減他們的頭髮,這種做法並沒有推出,直到後來到西方。 Monasteries of women were generally situated at a distance from those of men; St. Pachomius insisted on this separation, also St. Benedict.寺廟的婦女一般都坐落於距離從那些男子的聖帕科米烏斯堅持這種分離,也聖本篤。 There were, however, common houses, one wing being set apart for women and the other for men, more frequently adjoining houses for the two sexes.有,然而,共同的房子,其中一個機翼被選派為婦女和其他的男人,更頻密的房子毗鄰,為兩性關係。 Justinian abolished these double houses in the East, placed an old man to look after the temporal affairs of the convent, and appointed a priest and a deacon who were to perform their duties, but not to hold any other communication with the nuns. justinian取消這種雙重房子都在東部地區,放在一位老者看後顳國際事務中的修道院,並任命一名牧師和執事者履行其應盡的義務,但不舉行任何其他溝通與尼姑。 In the West, such double houses existed among the hospitallers even in the twelfth century.在西方,這種雙重房子之間存在hospitallers即使是在12世紀。 In the eighth and ninth centuries a number of clergy of the principal churches of the West, without being bound by religious profession, chose to live in community and to observe a fixed rule of life.在第八和第九世紀以來的一些神職人員的主要教堂的西面,沒有約束的宗教界人士,選擇居住在社區,並遵守一個固定的法治生活。 This canonical life was led also by women, who retired form the world, took vows of chastity, dressed modestly in black, but were not bound to give of their property.這個典型的生活是主導,也由婦女,退休,形成了世界代為誓言的貞潔,虛心穿著黑色的,但並不必然給他們的財產。 Continence and a certain religious profession were required of married women whose husbands were in Sacred Orders, or even received episcopal consecration.可控性,並帶有一定宗教界所需的已婚婦女,其丈夫在神聖的命令,或者甚至接到主教consecration 。

Hence in the ninth century the list of women vowed to the service of God included these various classes: virgins, whose solemn consecration was reserved to the bishop, nuns bound by religious profession, deaconesses engaged in the service of the church, and wives or widows of men in Sacred Orders.因此,在第九世紀名單中的婦女發誓要為天主服務的,包括這些不同的班級:處女,其莊嚴consecration是保留給主教,修女約束宗教界, deaconesses從事服務性的教會,和妻子或寡婦男人在神聖的命令。 The nuns sometimes occupied a special house; the enclosure strictly kept in the East, was not considered indispensable in the West.修女們有時佔有特殊房子;圈地嚴格信守在東部地區,並沒有考慮不可缺少的,在西方。 Other monasteries allowed the nuns to go in and out.其他寺廟允許尼姑去和流出。 In Gaul and Spain the novitiate lasted one year for the cloistered nuns and three years for the others.在高盧和西班牙的novitiate歷時一年,為cloistered修女和三年為別人。 In early times the nuns gave Christian education to orphans, young girls brought by their parents, and especially girls intending to embrace a religious life.早期的修女了基督教育孤兒,年輕女孩帶來了他們的父母,尤其是女孩子有意樹立的宗教生活。 Besides those who took the veil of virgins of their own accord, or decided to embrace the religious life, there were others who were offered by their parents by their parents before they were old enough to be consulted.除了那些上台面紗的處女他們自己的協議,或者決定後,去擁抱宗教生活中,還有其他的人提供了他們的父母,由他們的父母面前,他們年齡較大,要廣泛徵詢公眾意見。 In the West under the discipline in force for several centuries, these oblates were considered as bound for life by the offering made by their parents.在西方國家,根據紀律部隊幾百年了,這些獻主會被視為必然,為生活所提供取得他們的父母。 The profession itself might be expressed or implied.法律界本身,可能明示或暗示。 One who put on the religious habit, and lived for some time among the professed, was herself considered as professed.誰把人民的宗教習慣,生活了一段時間當中,自稱被自己視為自稱。 Besides the taking of the veil and simple profession there was also a solemn consecration of virginity which took place much later, at twenty-five years.除了採取面紗,並簡單界也有一個莊嚴的consecration處女發生多後,在二十五年。 In the thirteenth century, the Mendicant Orders appeared characterized by a more rigorous poverty, which excluded not only private property, but also the possession of certain kinds of property in common.在13世紀,乞討訂單出現的特點進行更嚴格的貧困,而被排除,不僅私人財產,而且還擁有某些種類的共同財產。 Under the direction of St. Francis of Assisi, St. Clare founded in 1212 the Second Order of Franciscans.的指導下,聖方濟各的阿西西,聖克萊爾成立於1212查詢二階濟。 St. Dominic had given a constitution to nuns, even before instituting his Friars Preachers, approved 22 December, 1216.聖星給予了憲法,以修女,即使面前提起他的方濟各會士傳教士,批准了1216年12月22日。 The Carmelites and the Hermits of St. Augustine also had corresponding orders of women; and the same was the case with the Clerks Regular dating from the sixteenth century, except the Society of Jesus.該carmelites和隱士的聖奧古斯丁,也有相應的命令婦女和相同的情況與此辦事員經常可以追溯到16世紀中,除社會上的耶穌。

From the time of the Mendicant Orders, founded specially for preaching and missionary work, there was a great difference between the orders of men and women, arising from the strict enclosure to which women were subjected.從時間的乞討命令,成立了專門為說教和傳教工作,有很大的差異,常規的男性和女性,因嚴格圈地而婦女受到的。 This rigorous enclosure usual in the East, was imposed on all nuns in the West, first by bishops and particular councils, and afterwards by the Holy See.這種嚴格的外殼通常都在東部地區,是強加給所有修女在西方國家,首先是由主教和特別議會,然後由教廷。 Boniface VII (1294-1309) by his constitution "Periculoso", inserted in Canon Law [c.博尼法斯七( 1294年至1309年) ,由他的憲法" , periculoso " ,插在教會法[長 un, De statu regularium, in VI (III, 16)] made it an inviolable law for all professed nuns; and the Council of Trent (sess. XXV, De Reg. et Mon., c. v) confirmed that constitution.聯合國,德statu regularium ,在六(三, 16 ) ]使其成為一個不可侵犯的法律,所有自稱尼姑;安理會的遄達( sess.二十五,德條例等星期一,三五)確認憲法。 Hence it was impossible for religious to undertake works of charity incompatible with the enclosure.因此,這是不可能的,為宗教進行工程的慈善活動,不符合附文。 The education of young girls alone was permitted to them, and that under somewhat inconvenient conditions.教育的年輕女孩,僅允許他們,並表示,根據有點不方便條件。 It was also impossible for them to organize on the lines of the Mendicant Orders, that is to say to have a superior general over several houses and members attached to a province rather than to a monastery.它也不可能為他們組織起來就行了乞討命令,那就是說有一個優於一般超過幾間房屋和委員重視的一個省,而不是一個修道院。 The difficulty was sometimes avoided by having tertiary sisters, bound only by simple vows, and dispensed from the enclosure.困難之處在於:有時是可以避免因大專姐妹,只受簡單的誓言,並配發由圈地。 The Breviary commemorates the services rendered the Order of Mercy by St. Mary of Cervellione.該breviary紀念所提供的服務秩序,決不手軟,由聖瑪麗的切爾韋廖內。 St. Pius V took more radical measures by his constitution "Circa pastoralis", of 25 May, 1566.聖比約v採取更激進的措施,由他的憲法" , circa pastoralis " , 1566年5月25日。 Not only did he insist on the observance of the constitution of Boniface VIII, and the decree of the Council of Trent, but compelled the tertiaries to accept the obligation of solemn vows with the pontifical enclosure.他不但堅持對遵守憲法的博尼法斯八,和理事會法令遄達,但迫使tertiaries接受義務的莊嚴誓言與聖座附文。 For nearly three centuries the Holy See refused all approbation to convents bound by simple vows, and Urban VIII by his constitution "Pastoralis" of 31 May, 1631 abolished an English teaching congregation, founded by Mary Ward in 1609, which had simple vows and a superior general.將近三個世紀,羅馬教廷拒絕了所有的讚許,以修道院的約束,簡單的誓言,與城市第八,由他的憲法" , pastoralis " , 1631年5月31日取消了英語教材聚集,創辦瑪麗沃德在1609年,其中有簡單的誓言和優於一般。

This strictness led to the foundation of pious associations called secular because they had no perpetual vows, and leading a common life intended for their own personal sanctification and the practice of charity, eg the Daughters of Charity, founded by St. Vincent de Paul.這種鬆緊導致的基礎虔誠協會所謂的世俗的,因為他們已經沒有永恆的誓言,和領導共同生活的打算,為自己的個人成聖和實踐的慈善活動,例如女兒的慈善機構,創辦聖文森特德保羅。 The constitution of St. Pius V was not always strictly observed; communities existed approved by bishops, and soon tolerated by the Holy See, new ones were formed with the sanctions of the diocesan authorities.憲法的聖比約五獲得並不總是嚴格遵守;社區存在的,由批准的主教,並盡快不能容忍的,由羅馬教廷,新的形成與制裁的教區當局。 So great were the services rendered by these new communities to the poor, the sick, the young, and even the missions, that the Holy See expressly confirmed several constitutions, but for a long time refused to confirm the congregations themselves, and the formula of commendation or ratification contained this restriction citra tamen approbationem conservatorii (without approbation of the congregation).這麼偉大的人所提供的服務,這些新社區的貧困者,患病者,青少年,甚至使命,即教廷明確確認,幾部憲法,但在相當長的時間拒絕證實該教會本身,以及公式表彰或批准這方面的內容限制斯特拉僅approbationem conservatorii (無認同眾) 。 As political difficulties rendered less easy the observance of solemn vows, especially for women, the Holy See from the end of the eighteenth century declined to approve any new congregations with solemn vows, and even suppressed in certain countries, Belgium and France, all solemn professions in the old orders of women.由於政治上的困難,變得那麼容易遵守莊嚴的誓言,特別是對婦女而言,教廷從十八世紀末以來拒絕批准任何新的畢業典禮,與莊嚴的誓言,甚至打壓,在某些國家,比利時和法國,都莊嚴專業在舊的命令婦女。 The constitution of Benedict XIV, "Quamvis justo" of 30 April, 1749, on the subject of the Congregation of English Virgins was the prelude to the legislation of Leo XIII, who by his constitution "Conditae" of 8 December, 1900, laid down the laws common to congregations with simple vows, dividing these into two great classes, congregations under diocesan authority, subject to the bishops, and those under pontifical law.憲法本篤十四, " quamvis justo " , 1749年4月30日,關於這一主題的會眾的英語新婦是前奏的立法利奧十三世,他的憲法" , conditae " , 1900年12月8日,訂下法律共同的畢業典禮簡單的誓言,這些劃分成兩個偉大的階級,教友下拔萃權力,但須以主教,以及聖座下的法律。

II.二。 VARIOUS KINDS OF NUNS各種修女

(1) As regards their object they may be purely contemplative, seeking personal perfection by close union with God; such are most of the strictly enclosed congregations, as Premonstratensian Canonesses, Carmelites, Poor Clares, Collettines, Redemptoristines; or they may combine this with the practice of works of charity, foreign missions, like the White Sisters of Cardinal Lavigerie, and certain Franciscan Tertiaries; the eduction of young girls, like the Ursulines and Visitandines; the care of the sick, orphans, lunatics, and aged persons, like many of the congregations called Hospitallers, Sisters of Charity, Daughters of St. Vincent de Paul, and Little Sisters of the Poor. ( 1 )對於自己的對象,他們可能純contemplative ,尋求個人的完善緊密聯盟與上帝,這樣的是大部分的嚴格封閉的畢業典禮,因為premonstratensian canonesses , carmelites ,窮人clares , collettines , redemptoristines ;或他們可能結合起來,這與實踐工程的慈善機構,外國使團,像白修女樞機拉維熱裡,以及某些濟tertiaries ;教育的年輕女孩一樣,於蘇林和visitandines ;照顧有病的孤寡老人,孤兒狂人,以及年齡的人一樣,很多的教友所謂hospitallers ,慈善修女,女兒的聖文森特德保羅,和小姐妹的窮人。 When the works of mercy are corporal, and above all carried on outside the convent, the congregations are called active.當工程的慈悲是下士,而且首先進行外修道院,教會被稱為活躍。 Teaching communities are classed rather among those leading a mixed life, devoting themselves to works which in themselves require union with God and contemplation.教學社區被歸類,而不是在這些領先的混合生活,投身工程,這本身就要求聯盟與上帝和沉思。 The constitution "Conditae" of Leo XIII (8 December, 1900) charges bishops not to permit sisters to open houses as hotels for the entertainment of strangers of both sexes, and to be extremely careful in authorizing congregations which live on alms, or nurse sick persons at their homes, or maintain infirmaries for the reception of inform persons of both sexes, or sick priests.憲法" conditae "利奧十三世( 1900年12月8日)的收費主教不會准許姐妹打開房子作為酒店娛樂的陌生人,無論男女,並需特別小心,在授權的畢業典禮,其中居住於施捨,或護士生病人在自己的家園,或是維持療養院用來接收通知的人,不論男女,或病假神父。 The Holy See, by its Regulations (Normae) of 28 June, 1901, declares that it does not approve of congregations whose object is to render certain services in seminaries or colleges for male pupils, or to teach children or young people of both sexes; and it disapproves their undertaking the direct care of young infants, or lying-in women.教廷中,其規則( normae ) 1901年6月28日,聲明,它不批准的教會,其目的是使某些服務,在神學院或學院為男性學生,或教導兒童或青少年,不分男女;它不贊成他們的事業直接照顧年幼的嬰兒,或產婦。 These services should be given only in exceptional circumstances.這些服務應考慮只在特殊情況下。

(2) As regards their origin, congregations are either connected with a first order or congregation of men, as in the case of most of the older congregations, Carmelites, Poor Clares, Dominicans, Reformed Cistercians of La Trappe, Redemptoristines etc., or are founded independently, like the Ursulines, Visitandines, and recent institution. ( 2 )至於其出身,教友都是涉嫌與一階或聚集的男人,因為在案件多數的老年人的畢業典禮, carmelites ,窮人clares ,多米尼加人,改革後cistercians的La Trappe ; , redemptoristines等,或是建立在獨立的,像於蘇林, visitandines ,和最近的機構。 In the regulations of 28 June, 1901, Art.在規定的1901年6月28日,藝術。 19, 52, the Holy See no longer approves of double foundations, which establish a certain subordination of the sisters to similar congregations of men. 19 , 52 ,羅馬教廷不再核准的雙重基礎上,確立了一定的從屬關係的修女們類似的畢業典禮的男人。 (3) As regards their juridical condition, we distinguish (a) nuns properly so-called, having solemn vows with papal enclosure, whose homes are monasteries; (b) nuns belonging to the old approved orders with solemn vows, but taking only simple vows by special dispensation of the Holy See; (c) sisters with simple vows dependent on the Holy See; (d) sisters under diocesan government. ( 3 )至於其法律條件下,我們區分(一)修女妥善,所以所謂的,有莊嚴的誓言與羅馬教皇圈地,其院是寺廟; (二)修女屬於舊核准命令與莊嚴的誓言,但只限於簡單誓言是由特殊的教廷; (三)與姐妹簡單誓言依賴於羅馬教廷; (四)姐妹下拔萃政府。 The house of sisters under simple vows, and the congregations themselves are canonically called conservatoria.眾議院的姐妹們下簡單的誓言,和教友本身canonically所謂conservatoria 。 These do not always fulfil all the essential conditions of the religious state.這些並不總是符合所有必要條件的宗教國家。 Those which do are more correctly called religious congregations than the others, which are called piae congregationes, piae societates (pious congregations or pious societies.) Nuns of the Latin Church only are considered here.那些做的是更正確的所謂宗教集會比其他人,其中被稱為piae congregationes , piae societates (虔誠的教友或虔誠社團) 。尼姑的拉丁教會只被認為是在這裡。

III.三。 NUNS PROPERLY SO CALLED尼姑妥善所謂

Nuns properly so-called have solemn vows with a strict enclosure, regulated by pontifical law which prevents the religious from going out (except in very rare cases, approved by the regular superior and the bishop), and also the entrance of strangers, even females, under pain of excommunication.尼姑妥善那些所謂有莊嚴的誓言與嚴格的外殼,調節宗座法律禁止宗教,從走出去(除非在非常罕見的情況下,通過經常性的優勢和主教) ,也門口的陌生人,甚至女性根據疼痛的禁教。 Even admission to the grated parlor is not free, and interviews with regulars are subject to stringent rules.即使被接納為梯度會客,是不是免費的,採訪的常客都受到嚴格的規則。 Though some mitigations have been introduced partly by local usage, partly (in the case of certain convents in America) by express concession of the Holy See.雖然有些減輕已經實施,部分由地方使用,這部分是(在某些修道院在美國)所表達讓步的羅馬教廷。 The building should be so arranged that the inner courts and gardens cannot be overlooked from outside, and the windows should not open on the public road.建築物應如此安排黨內法院及花園,是不容忽視的是來自境外,窗戶不應公開對市民的道路。 By the fact of their enclosure, these monasteries are independent of one another.由以下事實,他們圈地,這些寺廟都相互獨立。 At the head of the community is a superior often called the abbess, appointed for life by the chapter, at least outside Italy, for in Italy, and especially in the two Sicilies, the constitution "Exposcit debitum" (1 January, 1583) of Gregory XIII requires that hey should be re-elected every three years (see "Periodica de Religiosis", n. 420, vol. 4, 158).在總的社會是一個優於通常被稱為住持,終身任職,由章,至少在外面意大利,因為在意大利,尤其是在兩西西里王國,憲法" exposcit debitum " ( 1583年1月1日)格雷戈里第十三要求嘿,應重新當選每3年(見" periodica德religiosis " , 12月31日420 ,第4卷158頁) 。 The election must be confirmed by the prelate to whom the monastery is subject, the pope, the bishop,or the regular prelate.選舉必須確認,由總主教向誰修道院是受,教皇,主教,或經常主教。 The bishop presides over the ballot, except in the case of nuns subject to regulars, and he has always the right to be present at the election.主教主持的投票中,除在案件修女受到的常客,他一直有權出席選舉。 The president collects the votes at the grating.總統收集選票,在光柵。 Without having jurisdiction, the abbess exercises authority over all in the house, and commands in virtue of their vows.未經有管轄權的,住持行使權力,所有在眾議院,並命令在憑藉自己的誓言。 Monasteries not exempt are subject to the jurisdiction of the bishop; exempt monasteries are placed, some under the immediate authority of the Holy See, others under that of a regular First Order.寺廟不能免除受管轄的主教;豁免寺院放置,有的根據即時的權威,羅馬教廷,別人下一個定期一階。 In the absence of any other formal direction, the Holy See is understood to delegate to the bishop the annual visitation of monasteries immediately subject to the pope, to the exclusion of other superiors.在沒有任何其他正式的方向,教廷了解,授予主教年度探視的寺廟,立即受到教宗,以排除其他的上司。 This visitation is made by the regular prelate in the case of monasteries dependent on a First Order; but the bishop has in all cases authority to insist on the maintenance of the enclosure, and to control the temporal administration; he also approves the confessors.這探視是由經常主教在案件寺廟依賴於一階,但主教已在所有情況下,管理局堅持維護圍牆,並控制顳管理;他又核准confessors 。

The erection of a monastery requires the consent of the bishop, and (at least in practice nowadays) of the Holy See.豎立一座修道院必須徵得主教,以及(至少在實踐現今)的羅馬教廷。 The bishop, by himself, or in consultation with the regular superior, determines the number of nuns who can be received according to the amount of their ordinary revenues.這位主教的,由本人,或在徵詢經常優越,決定了有多少修女,可以得到按金額平凡的收入。 The recent Council of Bishop of Latin America, at Rome in 1899, required that the number should not be less than twelve.近期會主教拉丁美洲,在羅馬,在1899年,要求數量不應少於12個。 It is sometimes permitted to receive a certain number of supernumeraries who pay a double dowry, never less than four hundred crowns, and remain supernumeraries all their lives.而且有時是允許接收一定數量的編外人員,他們付出雙倍嫁妝,從來沒有少於400冠,並保持編外人員都自己的生活。 According to the decree of 23 May, 1659, candidates must be at least fifteen years old.根據這項法令, 1659年5月23日,候選人必須至少十五年歲。 The decree "Sanctissimus" of 4 January, 1910, annuls the admission to the novitiate or to any vows, if granted without the consent of the Holy See, of pupils expelled for any grave reason from a secular school, or for any reason whatever from any institution preparatory to the religious life, or of former novices or professed sisters expelled from their convents.該法令" sanctissimus " , 1910年1月4日, annuls輸入到novitiate或任何誓言,如果獲准無需徵得教廷,對學生開除任何嚴重的原因,從一個世俗的學校,或以任何理由,無論從任何機構籌備宗教生活,或前生手或自稱姐妹們驅逐出他們的修道院。 Professed sisters dispensed from their vows cannot, without the consent of the Holy See, enter any congregation, but the one they have quitted (see NOVICE; POSTULANT; "Periodica de Religiosis", n. 368, vol. 5, 98).自稱姐妹配發,從他們的誓言不能,未經他們同意,教廷,進入任何眾,但他們一個個都退出(見新手; postulant " ; periodica德religiosis " , 12月31日368 ,第5卷, 98號) 。 The admission is made by the chapter, but, before the clothing, and also before the solemn profession, it is the duty of the bishop, by himself or (if he is prevented) by his vicar-general or some person delegated by either of them, to inquire into the question of the candidate's religious vocation, and especially as to her freedom of choice.入學是由章,但之前,服裝,還收到了莊嚴的職業,這是義不容辭的主教,由本人或(如果他是阻止) ,由他的副主教幹事或一些人授予一方他們的聲音,查究的問題,候選人的宗教使命,特別是作為對她的選擇自由。 The candidate must provide a dowry of at least two hundred crowns unless the founder consents to accept a smaller sum.候選人必須提供一個嫁妝的至少200克朗,除非創始人同意接受一個較小的款項。 With certain exceptions, the dowry of choir sisters cannot be dispensed with; it must be paid before the clothing, and invested in some safe and profitable manner.除某些例外情況外,嫁妝的合唱團姐妹不能免除;必須支付前的衣服,並持續投資於一些安全和有利可圖的方式。 On solemn profession, it becomes the property of the convent, which has, however, no right of alienation; it is returned as a matter of equity to a religious who enters another order, or to one who returns to the world and is in want.在莊嚴的職業,它變成財產的修道院,其中有,但無權異化,它是歸僑作為一項公平的是一個宗教人士進入另一種秩序,或以一個人返回到世界,並正在想。

After the novitiate the religious cannot at first, according to the decree "Perpensis" of 3 May, 1902, take any but simple vows whether perpetual or for a year only, if it is customary to take annual vows.後novitiate宗教不能在第一,根據這項法令, " perpensis " , 1902年5月3日,採取任何簡單,但誓言是否永久或一年只,如果是習慣以每年誓言。 The admission to vows is made by the chapter, with the consent of the regular superior or the bishop.接納誓言是由章,徵得經常上司或主教。 Some writers hold that the bishop is bound, before this profession, to make a fresh inquiry into the vocation of the novice, and this inquiry does not dispense from that which the Council of Trent prescribes before solemn profession (see the answer of 19 January, 1909; "Periodica de Religiosis", n. 317, vol. 4, 341.) This period of simple vows ordinarily lasts for three years, but the bishop or the regular prelate may prolong it in the case of nuns who are under twenty-five years.有些作者認為,主教是必然,在此之前,專業,做出新的調查使命的新手,這項調查並不免除從其中安理會的遄明面前莊嚴專業(見答案1月19日, 1909年" ; periodica德religiosis " , 12月31日317 ,第4卷, 341 )這一段簡單的誓言通常為期三年,但主教或經常主教可能延長它在案件修女正在第二十五五年。 During this period, the religious keeps her property, but makes over the administration of it to any one she may choose.在這一時期,宗教維持其財產的損失,但使超過政府的,它的任何一個,她可以選擇。 She is bound to the rules and the choir, but not to the private recitation of the Divine Office; she can take part in chapters, except in those in which others are admitted to vows; she cannot be elected superior, mother-vicaress, mistress of novices, assistant, counsellor, or treasurer.她是必然的規則和合唱團,而不是向私人背誦的神明廳,她也可以參加各章,除那些在別人承認誓言,她不能當選優越,母親vicaress ,情婦的生手,助理員,輔導員,或司庫。 She participates in all the indulgences and spiritual privileges of those who have taken their solemn vows; and although the solemnly professed take precedence, once the solemn profession is made, the seniority is regulated by the date of simple profession, without regard to any delay in proceeding to solemn profession.她參加了所有indulgences和精神上的特權,那些已考慮他們的莊嚴誓言;雖然鄭重自稱優先考慮,一旦莊嚴界人士提出,論資排輩是受之日起簡單的專業,而不考慮是否有延誤程序中,以莊嚴的專業。 The dispensation of vows and dismissal of nuns are reserved to the Holy See.豁免的誓言和解僱的修女是預留給教廷。 The outward solemnity of profession takes place at the first simple profession, the other takes place without any solemnity.向外嚴肅界發生在第一次簡單的專業外,其他地方沒有任何嚴肅性。 Only the prelate or the ordinary can admit to the latter, but a consultative chapter is held, whose decision is announced by the superior.只有主教還是普通取予後者,但一個協商本章舉行,其宣布決定時,由上司。 Solemn profession carries with it the inability to possess property (except in case of a papal indult such as that enjoyed by Belgium and perhaps Holland), annuls a marriage previously contracted but not consummated, and creates a diriment impediment to any subsequent marriage.莊嚴界帶有無法擁有財產(不包括在案件教皇indult如說,所享有的比利時,也許荷蘭) , annuls結婚以前承包,而不是委託開發,並創造了一個diriment妨礙任何其後的婚姻。 Nuns are generally obliged to recite the Divine office, like religious orders of men; but the Visitandines and some monasteries of Ursulines recite only the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin, even in choir.尼姑是普遍的義務,以朗誦神聖的辦公室,像宗教命令的男人,但visitandines和一些寺廟於蘇林背誦只是小小的辦公室的小聖,即使是在合唱團。 The obligation of this office, even choral, does not bind under pain of mortal sin, as the Holy See has declared for the Ursulines; whether it can be omitted without venial sin depends apparently upon the constitutions.義務這個辦事處,甚至合唱,不具約束力,根據疼痛的大罪,作為教廷宣布為於蘇林;它是否可以被省略無venial單取決於顯然後的憲法。

The bishop appoints the ordinary confessor, also the extraordinary or additional confessors of monasteries subject to him, and approves the confessor nominated by the regular prelate of a monastery subject to a First Order.主教任命普通懺悔,也是非同尋常的或額外的confessors的寺廟從屬於他,並核准懺悔提名,由經常主教的一個修道院受一階。 The approbation for one monastery is not valid for another.認同一個修道院,是不是有效期為另一種。 As a rule there should be only one ordinary confessor, who should be changed every three years.作為一項規則應該只有一個普通的懺悔,他們應該改變,每3年一次。 Since the Council of Trent (Sess. XXV De Reg., c. x), a confessor extraordinary should visit the monastery two or three times a year.由於安理會的遄達( sess.二十五德條例,長x )的,一個不平凡的懺悔應前往該教堂兩三倍一年。 Benedict XIV, by his Bull "Pastoralis" of 5 August, 1748, insisted on the appointment of a confessor extraordinary, and also on the provision of facilities for sick nuns.本篤十四,用他自己的牛" pastoralis " , 1748年8月5日,堅持要任命一位懺悔非凡,而且還依賴於所提供的設施,為患病的修女。 More recently, the decree "Quem ad modum" of 17 October, 1890, ordains that, without asking for any reason, a superior shall allow her subjects to confess to any priest among those authorized by the bishops, as often as they think it necessary for their spiritual necessities.最近,該法令"終止專案modum " , 1890年10月17日, ordains說,沒有要求任何理由,上級應讓她科目招供任何神父當中授權的主教們,因為往往是因為他們覺得有必要為他們的精神必需品。 Besides the ordinary or extraordinary confessors, there are additional confessors, of whom the bishop must appoint a sufficient number.除了普通的或不平凡的師,有額外師,其中主教必須委任足夠數目。 The ordinary confessor cannot be a religious except for monasteries of the same order as himself; and in that case the extraordinary confessor cannot belong to the same order.普通懺悔不能算是一個宗教除寺廟的,同時為了他自己,而且在這種情況下,不平凡的懺悔不能屬於同一秩序。 The same decree gives to confessors the exclusive right of regulating the communions of the nuns, who have the privilege of communicating daily since the decree "Sacra Tridentina" of 20 December, 1905 (see "Periodica de Religiosis", n 110, vol. 2, 66), and it forbids superiors to interfere unasked in questions of conscience.同一法令賦予confessors專用權的規範communions的修女們,他們有特權的日常溝通,因為該法令"骶tridentina " , 1905年12月20日(見" periodica德religiosis " , n 110 ,第2卷, 66 ) ,並嚴禁上級干涉unasked的問題,有良知的。 The subjects are free to open their minds to their superiors but the later must not, directly or indirectly, demand or invite such confidence.科目都是免費開放頭腦,他們的上級,但後來不能直接或間接要求或邀請信心。

IV.四。 NUNS OF THE OLD ORDERS WITHOUT SOLEMN VOWS修女的舊命令的莊嚴誓言

Since the French Revolution, various answers of the Holy See have gradually made it clear that neither in Belgium nor in France are there any longer monasteries of women subject to papal enclosure, or bound by solemn vows.自法國大革命,各種答案的羅馬教廷已逐步形成了明確表示,無論是在比利時,也不在法國是否有任何更長寺廟的婦女受教皇圈地,或約束莊嚴宣誓。 (Cf. for France the reply of the Penitentiary of 23 December, 1835; for Belgium the declaration of the Apostolic visitor Corselis of 1836; Bizzarri, "Collectanea, 1st ed., p. 504, note; Bouix, "De regularibus", vol. 2, 123 sq.). After long deliberation, the Sacred Congregation of Bishops and Regulars decided (cf. letter of 2 September, 1864, to the Archbishop of Baltimore) that in the United States nuns were under simple vows only, except the Visitandines of Georgetown, Mobile, Kaskaskia, St. Louis, and Baltimore, who made solemn profession by virtue of special rescripts. It added that without special indult the vows should be simple in all convents erected in the future. Since then the monastery of Kaskaskia has been suppressed. The Holy See permitted the erection of a monastery of Visitandines with solemn vows at Springfield (Missouri). According to the same letter, the Visitandines with solemn vows must pass five years of simple vows before proceeding to solemn profession (Bizzarri, "Collectanea", 1st ed., 778-91). Except in the case of a pontifical indult placing them in subjection to a first order these nuns are bound by the following rules: (a) The bishop has full jurisdiction over them; he may dispense from all constitutions not reserved to the Holy See, and from particular impediments to admission, but may not modify the constitutions. The vows are reserved to the Holy See, but the French bishops have received power to dispense from all vows except that of chastity. The bishop presides and confirms all elections, and has the right to require an account of the temporal administration. (b) The superior retains such power as is adapted to the vows and the necessities of community life. (c) The obligation of the Divine Office is such as imposed by the rule; the enclosure is of episcopal law. (d) The vow of poverty does not prevent the possession of property. As a rule, disposition of property "inter vivos" and by will cannot be licitly made without the consent of the superior or the bishop. Unless forbidden by the bishop, the superior may permit the execution of such instruments as are necessary for the purpose. (e) Indulgences and spiritual privileges (among which may be reckoned the use of a special calendar) remain intact. (f) In principle, the prelate of the First Order is without authority over the nuns. (參見為法國的答复監獄的1835年12月23日;比利時宣言使徒遊客corselis的1836年; bizzarri , "叢書,第1版,第504 ,請注意; bouix , "德regularibus "第2卷, 123平方米) ,經過長期醞釀,神聖聚集主教和常客決定(參見信1864年9月2日,以大主教巴爾的摩) ,在美國修女在簡誓言只,除該visitandines的喬治敦,移動,卡斯卡斯基亞,聖路易斯,巴爾的摩,他們進行了嚴正的行業憑藉特殊rescripts它補充說,如果不特別indult的誓言應該是簡單,在所有修道院豎立在未來,從此修道院卡斯卡斯基亞已被壓制。教廷准許豎立一座修道院的visitandines與莊嚴的誓言在斯普林菲爾德(密蘇里州) ,按同一封信中, visitandines與莊嚴的誓言一定要通過五年的簡單的誓言,然後才開始嚴肅的專業( bizzarri "叢書" ,第1版, 778-91 ) ,除了在一個宗座indult置他們於她們遭受的第一個命令,這些尼姑都受下列規定辦理: (一)主教有充分的管轄權;他可免除由所有的憲法並沒有預留給教廷,並從特定的障礙入學,但不得修改憲法。誓言是預留給教廷,但法國主教已接收功率,免除一切誓言除非貞潔。主教主持,並確認所有的選舉,並有權要求一個帳戶的時間管理。 (二)上級保留這種權力當作是適應了誓言和生活必需品的社區生活。 (三)義務的神聖辦公室等所統治;圈地是主教的規定。 (四)發誓貧窮並不妨礙擁有的財產。作為一項規則,財產的處置"生前" ,並通過將不能licitly沒有徵得上級或主教,除非所明令禁止的主教,上級可以允許執行這類文書是必要作此用途。 (五) indulgences和精神上的特權(其中,可算是使用一個特殊的日曆)維持不變。 ( F )在原則上,總主教的第一個命令是沒有權力修女。

V. RELIGIOUS CONGREGATIONS AND PIOUS SOCIETIES UNDER PONTIFICAL AUTHORITY五,宗教團體和虔誠社團根據宗座管理局

(a) Congregations (一)畢業典禮

Since the constitution "Conditae" of 8 December, 1900, and the Regulations of 28 June, 1901, we possess precise rules by which to distinguish the congregations governed by pontifical law.因為憲法" conditae " , 1900年12月8日,並規定1901年6月28日,我們擁有明確的規則,其中以分清畢業典禮由宗座法律。 Before formally approving a congregation and its constitutions, the Holy See is accustomed to give its commendation first to the intentions of its founders and the purpose of the foundation, and then to the congregation itself.在正式審批聚集和其憲法中,教廷是習慣於給予表彰先的意圖,其創始人和基金會的目的,然後向會眾本身。 The second decree of commendation has the effect of bringing the congregation into the number of those which are governed by pontifical law, and especially by the second part of the constitution "Conditae".第二項法令,表彰了效果,使聚集到其中有多少是由宗座法律,特別是第二部分的憲法" , conditae " 。 Bizzarri in his "Collectanea" gives a list of congregations so commended up to 1864 (1st ed., 864 sqq.). bizzarri在他的"叢書" ,讓名單的畢業典禮,所以讚揚了至1864年(第1版, 864 sqq ) 。 This approbation is not usually granted until the congregation has existed for some time under the authority of the bishop.這讚許,通常不是理所當然的,直到眾已存在了一段時間,根據權威的主教。 The congregations are constituted on the model of the newer religious orders, that is to say they group several houses, each governed by a local superior, under the indirect authority of a superior general; many, but not all, are divided into provinces.該教友都構成了對模型的新的宗教命令,也就是說,他們組的幾間房屋,每一個受當地優勢,根據間接的權威,上級一般;不少,但不是全部,分為省份。 Many form communities of tertiaries, who as such have a share in the spiritual privileges of the order to which they are affiliated.許多形式的社區tertiaries ,這樣有一個分享的精神特權的,以他們所關聯。 Except in the case of a special privilege, like that which places the Daughters of Charity under the Superior General of the Priests of the Mission (see decree of 25 May, 1888) the Holy See no longer permits a bishop, or the delegate of a bishop, or the superior general of a congregation of men to be superior over a congregation of sisters.除遇到特殊的特權一樣,把女兒的慈善機構,根據上級一般的祭司的使命(見法令, 1888年5月25日)羅馬教廷不再許可證的主教,或代表一個主教或上級一般的聚集男子將優於聚集姐妹。 Before the regulations of 1901 the rules of new congregations differed in many respects.以前的規定, 1901年的規則,新的畢業典禮不同,在許多方面。 The details of internal government which follow apply to newly established congregations rather than to older ones, like the Ladies of the Sacred Heart.詳情內部的政府,同樣適用於新成立的教會,而不是向舊的,像女士們的聖心。

The government of the congregations is vested in the general chapter, and in the superior general assisted by a council with certain rights reserved to the bishops, under protection and supreme direction of the Sacred Congregation of Religious.政府的畢業典禮,是既得利益者,在一般章,並在上級一般由一名會與某些權利保留給主教,下保護和最高人民法院的指示神聖眾的宗教。 This is the only competent Congregation since the reform of the Roman Curia by the constitution "Sapienti" of 29 June, 1908.這是唯一的主管聚集改革開放以來的羅馬教廷受到憲法" sapienti " , 1908年6月29日。 The general chapter includes in all cases the superior general, her counsellors, the secretary general, the treasurer general, and if the congregation is divided into provinces, the provincial superiors, and two delegates from each province, elected by the provincial chapter.一般章,包括在所有情況下,上級一般,她的輔導員,秘書長,司庫一般的,如果會眾分為省,省上級,並兩次代表從各個省,由民選產生的省篇章。 If there are no provinces, the general chapter includes (besides those mentioned above) all superiors of houses containing more than twelve nuns, accompanied by one religious under perpetual vows elected by all the professed sisters (including those under temporary vows) of such houses.如果沒有省,總章,包括: (除了上述的)所有上司的房子含有超過十二尼姑,伴隨著一個宗教下永恆的誓言選出所有自稱姐妹們(包括那些根據臨時誓言)的這種房子。 The less important houses are grouped among themselves for this election, or annexed to a principal house.較為次要的房子歸類它們之間關於本次選舉,或附上一個主要房子。 This chapter ordinarily meets every six or twelve years, being summoned by the superior general or mother vicaress; but an extraordinary meeting may be called on the occurrence in the vacancy in the office of superior, or for any other grave reason approved by the Holy See.這一章通常會見每6年或12年,被傳喚,由上級一般或母親vicaress ,但一次特別會議,可能被要求就發生在空缺在辦公室的優越,或因任何其他嚴重的原因批准,由羅馬教廷。 The general chapter elects by an absolute majority of votes in secret ballot the superior general, the counsellors or assistants general, the secretary general, and the treasurer general, and deliberates on important matters affecting the congregation.一般章當選,以絕對多數的選票,在無記名投票上級總體上看,輔導員或助理幹事,秘書長,司庫,並審議重大事項,影響眾。 In many cases especially when there is a question of modifying the constitutions, the permission and confirmation of the Holy See are required.在許多情況下,特別是當有是一個問題,修改憲法,准許,並確認了羅馬教廷規定。 The capitular decrees remain in force till the next chapter.該capitular法令繼續有效,直到下一個篇章。 The bishop as delegate of the Holy See, presides over the elections in person or by his representative.主教為代表的羅馬教廷,主持選舉的人或其代表。 After the ballot he declares the election valid, and announces the result.投票之後,他宣布選舉無效,並公佈結果。 The provincial chapter, composed of the provincial, the superiors of houses containing at least twelve nuns, and a delegate from each provincial house (as above) has no office, according to common law, but to depute two sisters to the general chapter.省委章組成的,由省,上級的房子至少包含12名尼姑,並代表由各省府(如上)沒有辦公室,根據普通法,但depute兩姐妹一般的篇章。

The superior general is elected for six or twelve years; in the former case she may be re-elected but for a third consecutive term of six years, or a second of twelve years, she must receive two-thirds of the votes, and the consent of the Holy See.上級一般是當選為6年或12年;在前者情況下,她連選可連任,但連續任期六年,或第二的十二年,她必須得到兩個三分之二的選票,以及徵得羅馬教廷。 She may not resign her office except with the consent of the Sacred Congregation, which has the power to depose her.她可能不會辭職,她的辦公室同意的除外神聖聚集,它有權罷免她。 The house in which she resides is considered the mother-house, and the permission of the Holy See is necessary for a change of residence.眾議院在她居住的,是考慮到母親家,並准許,教廷有必要改變居住地。 She governs the congregation according to the approved constitutions, and is bound to make a visitation either personally or by a deputy, to exercise a general control over the temporal administration, and to submit to the Sacred Congregation an official report countersigned by the ordinary of the principal house.她執政眾根據已通過的憲法,並必將作出探視親自出席或由代理行使一般控制權,顳政府,並提交給神聖聚集一份正式報告,並由普通的主家。 (See the instruction accompanying the decree of 16 July, 1906, "Periodica de Religiosis", n. 124, vol. 2, 128 sqq.). (見指示陪同的法令1906年7月16日, " periodica德religiosis " , 12月31日124 ,第2卷, 128 sqq ) 。 The superior general nominates to the different non-elective offices, and decides the place of residence of all her subjects.上級一般提名到不同的非選任職務,並決定了居住的地方,她的所有科目。 The counsellors general assist the superior general with their advice, and in many mattes the consent of the majority is required.輔導幹事協助優於一般同他們的意見,並在許多Mattes的同意,大多數人的需要。 Two of them must live with the superior general, and the rest must be accessible.他們二人必須住與上司一般,其餘必須接受。 According to the regulations of 1901, the approval of the general council is required for the erection and suppression of houses, the erection and transfer of novitiates, the erection of new provinces, the principal nominations, the retention of a local superior for longer than the usual term of office, the dismissal of a sister or novice, the deposition of a superior, mistress of novices or counsellor, the provisional appointment of a counsellor deceased or deprived of office, the nomination of a visitor not a member of the council, the choice of a meeting place of the general chapter, the change of residence of the superior general, the execution of all contracts, the auditing of accounts, all pecuniary engagements, the sale or mortgage of immovable property, and the sale of moveable property of great value.根據有關法規規定, 1901年,批准總理事會需要架設和制止住房,架設和轉讓novitiates ,豎立新的省份,主要的提名,保留一支當地優勢,為長於通常的任期內,解僱一個姐姐或新手,使沉積的優勢,情婦的生手或輔導員,臨時任命一名參贊去世或喪失的辦公室,提名一位旅客沒有安理會的一個成員,選擇會議地點一般章中,改變居住的上級一般,而執行的所有合同,審計的帳目時,所有的金錢訂婚,出售或抵押的不動產,以及出售動產的偉大價值。 For an election there must be a full meeting of the council, and provision must be made to replace any members who are prevented from attending.為選舉必須有一個充分的安理會會議,並提供必須作出更換任何委員,他們是無法參加。 In case of a tie, the superior has a casting vote.在相同的情況下,上級已投決定性的一票。

The secretary general keeps the minutes of proceedings, and has charge of the archives.秘書長存有分鐘的法律程序,並已收取的檔案。 The treasurer general administers the property of the whole congregation.掌櫃一般管理的財產,整個會眾。 The provinces and the houses have also their own property.各省和房子也自己的財產。 The Holy See insists that the safes containing valuables shall have three locks, the keys of which shall be kept by the superior, the treasurer, and the oldest of the counsellors.羅馬教廷方面堅持認為保險櫃含有貴重物品須有三把鎖,鑰匙,其中應保存由優越,司庫,以及最古老的輔導員。 In her administration the treasurer must be guided by the complicated rules of the recent instruction "inter ca" of 30 July, 1909, which refer especially to pecuniary engagements.在她的管理庫必須遵循複雜的規則最近指示"跨鈣" , 1909年7月30日,其中提到,尤其是金錢上的接觸。 The consent of the Holy See is required before any liability can be incurred exceeding ten thousand francs, and in case of smaller liabilities than this but still of any considerable amount, the superiors must take the advice of their councils.徵得教廷前,須承擔任何法律責任,可招致超過10000法郎,並在案件較小的負債比,但仍然有任何相當大的款項,上級必須考慮的意見,他們的議會。 A council should at once be appointed if there is none already existing (cf. "Periodica de Religiosis", n. 331, vol. 5, 11 sqq.).安理會應立即予以任命,如果有任何已經存在(參見" periodica德religiosis " , 12月31日第331 ,第5卷, 11 sqq ) 。 The bishop must test the vocation of postulants before they take the veil, and before profession; he presides over chapters of election, permits or forbids collections from door to door; is responsible for the observance of partial enclosure, such as is compatible with the objects of the congregation.主教必須測試的天職postulants之前,他們採取了面紗,和以前的專業,他主持的章節選舉,准許或禁止藏品從門到門;負責為紀念局部封閉,如兼容對象的會眾。 No house can be established without his consent.沒有房子可以建立在未經他同意的。 To him also belongs the supreme spiritual direction of the communities, and the nomination of the chaplain and confessors.他也屬最高精神方向,以社區,以及提名的牧師和confessors 。 The Holy See reserves to itself the vows, even temporary ones.教廷儲備,以自己的誓言,即使是臨時工。 The dismissal of a professed sister under perpetual vows must be ratified by the Holy See.撤銷一名自稱妹妹下永恆的誓言必須得到批准,由羅馬教廷。 The dismissal of a novice or of a professed sister under temporary vows is within the power of the general council, if justified by grave reasons; but this dismissal does not relieve from vows for which recourse must be had to the Holy See.解僱一個新手還是一個自稱姐姐暫時誓言是內部的權力總理事會,如果有道理嚴重的原因,但這個被解僱並不免除從誓言,為追索權,其中還必須考慮到羅馬教廷。 The Holy See alone can authorize the suppression of houses, the erection or transfer of a novitiate, the erection of a province, the transfer of a mother-house, and any important alienations of property, and borrowings above a certain sum.教廷僅可以授權抑制房屋,架設或轉讓有novitiate ,豎立的一個省,移交母親家,以及任何重要alienations的財產,而借款超過某一數目。

The Holy See permits, though it does not make obligatory, the division of a community into choir sisters or teaching sisters, and lay sisters.教廷許可證,但不作強制規定,分工,社區成為合唱團姐妹或教學姐妹,並奠定姐妹。 Though not opposed to the formation of associations which help the work of the congregation and have a share in its merits, it forbids the establishment of new third orders.雖然不反對成立協會,協助工作,該會眾,並分享其可取之處,它禁止成立新的第三個訂單。 A period of temporary vows should precede the taking of perpetual vows.一個時期臨時誓言應先考慮的永恆誓言。 Such is the general law.這是一般規律。 At the expiration of the term, temporary vows must be renewed.在任期屆滿,暫時誓言要延續。 The vow of poverty does not generally forbid the acquisition and retention of rights over property, but only its free use and disposal.該發誓的貧困一般不禁止採集,並保留權利財產,但只有它的免費使用和處置。 A dowry is generally required, of which the community receives the income only, until the death of the sister, and the fruits of their labours belong entirely to the congregation.嫁妝通常要求,其中社區獲得的收入只,直到去世,妹妹,和他們努力的成果勞動力屬於完全眾。 The vow of chastity creates only a prohibitory impediment to marriage.該發誓的貞潔創造只是一個禁止性障礙婚姻。 The bishops generally regulate the confessions of the religious under simple vows, by the same rules as those of nuns in strict enclosure; but in public churches sisters may go to any approved confessor.主教們普遍規範的供述中的宗教,根據簡單的誓言,由同一規則,因為這些修女在嚴格封閉,但在公共教會姐妹們,可前往任何批准的懺悔。 In all that concerns communions and direction of conscience, the decrees "Quem ad modum" and "Sacra Tridentina" apply to these congregations as well as to monasteries of nuns.在所有表示關切communions和方向的良心,該法令"終止專案modum " , "骶tridentina "適用於這些教友以及作為寺廟的尼姑。 These religious congregations have not generally any obligation of choir, but recite the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin and other prayers.這些宗教團體沒有普遍的任何義務合唱團,但朗誦,小廳小聖和其他祈禱。 They are bound to make a daily meditation of at least half an hour in the morning, sometimes of another half hour in the evening, and an annual retreat of eight days.他們必然要做出每天打坐的至少一個半小時是在上午,有時是另一半小時,在晚上,和一個年度務虛會八天。

(b) Pious societies (二)虔誠社團

Pious societies, which can only be called congregations by a wide extension of the word, are those which have no perpetual vows, such as the Daughters of Charity, who are free for one day in each year, or those which, if they have perpetual vows, have no outward sign by which they can be recognized: this single fact is sufficient to deprive them of the character of religious congregations (see answer of 11 August, 1889, "De Religiosis Institutis", vol. 2, n. 13).虔誠的社團,而這只能被稱為畢業典禮由一個廣泛的延伸字,是那些已經沒有永恆的誓言,如女兒的慈善機構,他們是免費為一天,在每一年,或在那些,如果他們有永恆誓言,並沒有向外簽署,由它們可以被認可:這一事實足以剝奪了他們的性格宗教團體(見回答的1889年8月11日, "德religiosis institutis " ,第2卷, 12月31日13 ) 。

VI.六。 DIOCESAN CONGREGATIONS教區教友

For a long time the bishops had great latitude in approving new congregations, and gave canonical existence to various charitable institutions.在相當長的時間主教,具有重大的緯度在審批新的畢業典禮,並作了典型存在的各種慈善機構。 In order to avoid an excessive increase in their number, Pius X by his Motu Proprio "Dei Providentis" of 16 July, 1906, required the previous authorization of the Sacred Congregation before the bishop could establish, or allow to be established any new diocesan institution; and the Sacred Congregation refuses to authorize any new creation except after approval of the title, habit, object, and work of the proposed community, and forbids that any substantial change should be made without its authority.為了避免過多增加他們的人數,比約x的,他頒布" dei providentis " , 1906年7月16日,需不需要事先批准的神聖眾前主教可以建立或允許建立任何新的教區機構;和神聖聚集拒絕授權任何新的創造,除經批准的名稱,習性,對象,工作和建議,並禁止任何重大變動,應取得其權威。 Notwithstanding that pontifical intervention, the congregation remains diocesan.儘管羅馬教皇的干預,會眾仍然拔萃。 The bishop approves the constitutions only in so far as they are in accordance with the rules approved by the Holy See.主教批准的憲法,只有在這樣遠,因為他們是按照規則,經羅馬教廷。 As it remains diocesan we may conclude that the Roman disciplinary decrees do not affect it unless this is clearly stated.因為它仍是拔萃我們可以得出結論,羅馬紀律條令並不影響它,除非這是清楚說明。 Diocesan congregations have the bishop as their first superior.教區教友都主教為第一優越。 It is his duty to control admissions, authorize dismissals, and dispense from vows, except that one reserved to the Holy See, the absolute and perpetual vow of chastity.這是他的職責,以控制招生,授權解僱,並免除從誓言,除1預留給教廷,絕對和永恆的誓言的貞潔。 He must be careful not to infringe the rights acquired by the community.他必須小心行事,不要侵犯其權利後天由社區來承接。 Not only does he preside over elections but he confirms or annuls them, and may in case of necessity depose the superior, and make provision for filling the vacancy.他不僅主持選舉,但他證實或annuls他們,並可能在必要時廢黜了性能優越,並作出規定,為填補這一空缺。 These congregations are sometimes composed of houses independent of one another; this is frequently the case with Sisters Hospitallers, and sometimes several houses and local superiors are grouped under one superior general.這些教友有時組成的房子相互獨立,這是經常的情況與姐妹hospitallers ,有時幾間房屋和當地上級歸入一個優於一般。 Some of the congregations are confined to one diocese, while others extend to several dioceses: in the latter case, each diocesan ordinary has under him the houses in his dioceses with power to authorize or suppress them.部分的教友都局限在一個教區,而其他佔用幾個教區:在後一種情況下,每一個教區普通已根據他的房子在他的教區與權力授權或打壓他們。 The congregation itself depends on the concurrence of the bishops in whose dioceses any houses are situated; and this concurrence is necessary for its suppression.眾本身取決於對競合的主教們在其教區任何房屋位於;這種競合是必要的,其鎮壓。 Such is the common law of the constitution "Conditae".這就是普通法的憲法" conditae " 。 Before it can spread into another diocese, a diocesan congregation must have the consent of the bishop to whom it is subject, and often by agreement among bishops a real superiority is reserved to the bishop of the diocese of origin.之前,它可以傳播到另一教區,教區會眾必須徵得主教的人,這是受,而且往往通過協議當中主教一個真正的優勢是保留給主教教區的原籍國。 As to the laws by which they are governed, a great number of congregations, especially those devoted to the care of the sick in hospitals, follow the rule of St. Augustine and have special constitutions; others have only constitutions peculiar to themselves; others again form communities of tertiaries.由於有關法規,使他們是一個很大的數目的畢業典禮,特別是那些專門照顧有病在醫院,遵循法治的聖奧古斯丁,並有特殊的憲法;他人只有憲法特有的本身;別人形成社區tertiaries 。 The curious institution of Beguines still flourishes in a few cities of Belgium.好奇學會beguines仍然盛行,在少數城市的比利時。

Publication information Written by Arthur Vermeersch.出版信息書面亞瑟vermeersch 。 Transcribed by Michael T. Barrett.轉錄由龍田巴雷特。 Dedicated to the memory of women religious throughout the ages The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.為紀念婦女宗教在整個歷史上,天主教百科全書,體積十一。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. nihil obstat , 1911年2月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

Historical: BESSE, Les Moines d'Orient anterieurs au concile de Chalchedoine (451) (Paris, 1900); le Monachisme Africain, IV-VI, 5 (Paris, sd); BUTLER, The Lausiac Hist.歷史: besse ,就業輔導組得梅因-東方a nterieurs凹c oncile德c halchedoine( 4 51) (巴黎, 1 900年) ;樂m onachisme非洲,四,六,五(巴黎,職務) ;巴特勒, l ausiac歷史。 of Palladus (Cambridge, 1898); DE BUCK-TINNEBROECK, Examen Historicum et canonicum libri RD Verhoeven, De Regularium et Saecularium iuribus et officiis, I (Ghent, 1847); DUCHESNE, les origines du culte chretien (Paris); FUNK, Lehrbuch der Kirchengesch.對palladus (劍橋, 1898年) ;德扯皮tinnebroeck , historicum的審查等canonicum書路verhoeven ,德regularium等saecularium iuribus等officiis ,我(根特, 1847年) ; duchesne ,就業輔導組origines杜culte克雷蒂安(巴黎) ;畏縮, lehrbuch明鏡kirchengesch 。 (Paderborn, 1898); GASQUET, Saggio storico della Costituzione monastica (Rome, 1896); HEIMBUCHER, Die Orden und Kongregationen der Katholischen Kirche (3 vol., Paderborn, 1896-1908); HELYOT, Hist. (帕德博恩, 1898年) ;賽, saggio storico della costituzione宗教(羅馬, 1896年) ; heimbucher ,模具勳章und kongregationen明鏡katholischen kirche ( 3卷,帕德博恩, 1896年至1908年) ; helyot ,歷史。 des ordres monastiques, religieux et militaires (8 vol., Paris, 1714-19); LADEUZE, Etude sur le cenobitisme Pakhomien pendant le Iv siecle et la premiere moitie du V (Louvain, 1898); MARIN, Les Moines de Constantinople depuis la fondation de la ville jusqu'a la mort de Photius (Paris, 1897), (cf. Pargoire infra); MARTENE, Commentarius in regulam SP Benedicti, De antiquis monachorum ritibus; PARGOIRE, Les debuts du monachisme a Constantinople in Revue des uestions historiques (vol. 65, 1899); SCHIEWIETZ, Das morgenlandische Monchtum (Mainz, 1904); SPREITZENHOFEZ, Die Entwicklung des alten monchtums in Italien von seiner ersten Anfangen bis zum Auftreten des h.萬ordres monastiques , religieux等軍事( 8卷,巴黎, 1714年至1719年) ;拉德茲,練習曲sur樂cenobitisme pakhomien吊墜樂四世紀末等香格里拉首演moitie杜五(魯汶, 1898年) ;馬林,就業輔導組得梅因德君士坦丁堡depuis香格里拉德基金會香格里拉市jusqu'a死亡photius (巴黎, 1897年) , (參見帕瓜爾紅外線) ; martene , commentarius在regulam sp benedicti ,德antiquis monachorum ritibus ;帕瓜爾,就業輔導組亮相杜monachisme 1君士坦丁堡雜誌在萬uestions historiques (第一卷65 , 1899 ) ; schiewietz之morgenlandische monchtum (美因茨, 1904年) ; spreitzenhofez ,模具entwicklung萬alten monchtums在意大利馮圍網ersten anfangen之二zum auftreten萬每小時 Benedict (Vienna, 1894); THOMASSIN, Vetus et nova Ecclesiae disciplina, I, 1, 3; WILPERT, Die Gottgeweihten Jungfrauen in der ersten Jahrhunderten der Kirche (Freiburg im Br., 1892); Doctrinal, besides the general works of the classical authors: BASTIEN, Directoire canonique a l'usage des Congregations a voeux simples (Maredsous, 1911); BATTANDIER, Guide canonique pour les Constitutions des Instituts a voeux simples (4th ed., Paris, 1908); BOUIX, Tractatus de iure regularium (2 vols., Paris, 1856); PELLIZARIUS, Tractatus de Monialibus (1761); PIAT, Praelectiones iuris Regularium (2 vol., Tournai, 1898); ROTARIUS, Theologia moralis regularum, 3 vols.; TAMBURINI, De iure abbatissarum et aliarum Monialium; VERMEERSCH in De Religiosis Institutis et Personis 2 vols.本篤(維也納, 1894年) ; thomassin ,老等新ecclesiae紀律,我, 1 , 3 ; wilpert ,模具gottgeweihten jungfrauen在明鏡ersten jahrhunderten明鏡kirche (弗賴堡的IM溴, 1892年) ;教義上,除了一般的作品經典作者: 。 Bastien , directoire canonique一l'用法萬教友一德輔簡單(馬利蘇斯, 1911年) ; battandier ,引導canonique傾訴憲法就業輔導組萬與語言一德輔簡單(第四版,巴黎, 1908年) ; bouix , tractatus法律上regularium (第2卷,巴黎, 1856年) ; pellizarius , tractatus德monialibus ( 1962 ) ; piat , praelectiones iuris regularium ( 2卷, tournai , 1898年) ; rotarius , theologia莫拉利斯regularum , 3卷; tamburini ,法律上abbatissarum等aliarum monialium ; vermeersch在De religiosis institutis等personis兩卷。 (1st vol., 3nd ed., 1907; 2nd vol., 4th ed., 1910); De Religiosis et Missionariis Periodica, ab anna 1905. (第1卷, 3nd版, 1907年;第2卷,第4版, 1910年) ;德religiosis等missionariis periodica , AB間安娜1905 。


Listing of Women's Orders上市婦女的訂單

General Information 一般資料

We have tried to include locations and affiliations.我們曾嘗試包括地點和背景。 We hope to some day add a sentence or two describing the specific focus of each Order.我們希望有一天,加上兩句話描述具體的焦點,每一個命令。 Assistance on all this is appreciated!援助對所有這一切,欣賞!

NOTE: We believe these above all to be Catholic.注:我們認為,上述這些都被天主教。 Please inform us of others which we have not yet included, or errors in this listing.請告知我們,其他人,其中,我們還沒有計算在內,或者錯誤,在此上市。 Several Nuns have told us that even the central Catholic Church does not seem to have a complete listing!幾個尼姑都告訴我們,即使是中央天主教會似乎並沒有一個完整的上市! There are many groups which are very small, a handful of individuals.有許多團體都非常小,極少數人的個人。

There are also non-Catholic Orders:也有一些非天主教的命令:


For a while, we optimistically thought that we were going to be able to collect a reasonably complete listing.一個時期以來,我們樂觀地以為,我們將會能夠收集一個合理完整的清單。 We have realized that is far beyond our abilities!我們已經意識到,是遠遠超出了我們的能力! The Roman Catholic Church seems to have listings that include several thousand different groups of Nuns, but we have every indication that there may be more than a thousand others that they do not list.羅馬天主教會似乎已經上市,其中包括數千名不同群體的尼姑,但我們有種種跡象表明,有可能會超過一千別人認為他們不清單。 So we have conceded that we are incapable of assembling such a listing!因此,我們必須承認,我們沒有能力裝配這種上市!


Also, see:此外,見:
Religious Orders 宗教命令
Franciscans
Jesuits 耶穌會士
Benedictines benedictines
Trappists trappists
Cistercians cistercians
Christian Brothers 基督教兄弟
Carmelites carmelites
Discalced Carmelites discalced carmelites
Augustinians 奧古斯丁會士
Dominicans 多米尼加
Marist Brothers 聖母兄弟

Monasticism 修道
Convent 修道院
Friars 方濟各會士
Ministry 財政部
Major Orders 大訂單
Holy Orders 神聖的訂單


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


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The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在