Nineveh尼尼微

General Information 一般資料

Nineveh, the capital of ancient Assyria, lies on the left bank of the Tigris River opposite present-day Mosul, Iraq.尼尼微,資本古代assyria ,就在於對左岸底格里斯河對面出席為期一天的摩蘇爾,伊拉克。 Prehistoric occupation of the site dates back to at least the 6th millennium BC.史前佔領該網站可以追溯到至少在第六屆公元前3000年。 Holding an important position on the main river crossing in the fertile northern Mesopotamian plain but only intermittently governed by local rulers, Nineveh was dominated in the 3d millennium BC by the Agade and Ur empires and in the 2d millennium by the Mitanni and Kassite empires.中佔有重要地位,就主要河流穿越,在肥沃的北方美索不達米亞平原,但只是斷斷續續地由當地統治者,尼尼微為主,在三維公元前3000年,由甲德和烏爾帝國,並在二維千年所米坦尼和卡賽人的帝國。

With the rise of Assyrian power in the late 2d millennium, the city became a royal residence and was finally established as the capital by King Sennacherib (r. 704-681 BC), who replanned the city and built for himself a magnificent palace.隨著崛起的亞述權力的時候,在後期的二維千年,該市成為英國皇家住所和最後被確立為首都國王sennacherib (傳譯704-681 BC )的,誰replanned市建成,為自己是一個宏偉的宮殿。 Sacked (612 BC) by the Medes, Nineveh declined, although occupation of the site continued through the Seleucid and Parthian periods until medieval times.被解職( 612 BC )的,由medes ,尼尼微下跌,但由於佔領的地盤繼續通過seleucid和帕提亞人時期,直到中世紀時代。

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Sennacherib's city wall, more than 12 km (7.5 mi) long, enclosed an area of about 700 ha (1730 acres); it was pierced by 15 great gates, five of which have been excavated. sennacherib的城牆,超過12公里( 7.5米)長,附上面積約700公頃( 1730英畝) ,它被射穿了15大閘門,其中五項已出土的。 The northern Nergal Gate, with its original flanking bull colossuses, has been restored.北部涅伽爾門,其原有的側翼牛市colossuses ,已經恢復。 Canals provided water to the city and to municipal gardens that were stocked with unusual plants and animals.運河的水提供給城市市政園林被儲存了不同尋常的植物和動物。 Sections of an aqueduct built by Sennacherib still stand at Jerwan, 40 km (25 mi) away.第一個興建的密封式輸水管道,由sennacherib仍站在jerwan 40公里( 25英里)以外。 The palaces of Sennacherib and his grandson Ashurbanipal stand at Kuyunjik, the citadel of the site.宮殿的sennacherib和他的孫子ashurbanipal站在kuyunjik ,大本營的地盤。 Their walls and doorways were lined with sculptured reliefs, many of which are now in the Louvre, Paris, and the British Museum, London (including Ashurbanipal's famous Lion Hunt reliefs, now in the British Museum).其牆壁和門被襯刻浮雕,其中有不少已經在盧浮宮,巴黎和大英博物館,倫敦(包括ashurbanipal著名的獅子狩獵浮雕,現在在大英博物館) 。 Sennacherib's palace comprised at least 80 rooms; the throne room suite, now partially restored, still contains some of its bas-reliefs depicting scenes of conquest. sennacherib的宮殿組成,至少有80間客房;寶座房套房,現已部分恢復,仍存在一些其下浮雕描繪的景象征服。 Archives of cuneiform tablets were found in both palaces, but the library of Ashurbanipal forms an unrivaled epigraphic source for current knowledge of Mesopotamian history.檔案館的楔形文字片被發現在這兩個宮殿,但圖書館的ashurbanipal形式無與倫比epigraphic來源,為目前所知的美索不達米亞的歷史。 One of the greatest treasures of ancient Mesopotamia, it contains more than 20,000 tablets and fragments, many of which are copies of ancient Mesopotamian texts such as the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh and the Babylonian Flood story; its subjects range from literature to religion, the sciences, and lexicography.其中一個最大的寶藏,古代美索不達米亞平原,它包含了超過20000片和碎片,其中有不少副本古代美索不達米亞的文本,如蘇美爾史詩吉爾格美斯史詩和巴比倫的洪水故事,其主題範圍從文學,宗教,科學和辭書編纂。

The E-mashmash temple, dedicated to the goddess Ishtar, also stood on Kuyunjik; its series of superimposed structures, dating back to the 3d millennium BC, were maintained by successive rulers of Assyria and survived until at least AD 200.電子mashmash廟,奉獻給女神ishtar ,還站在kuyunjik ;一系列疊加結構,可遠溯至三維公元前3000年,均保持歷屆統治者assyria存活至少要到公元200 。 The imperial arsenal, built by Sennacherib's successor Esarhaddon (r. 680-669 BC), stands largely unexcavated at Nebi Yunus, a mound on the city wall 1.6 km (1 mi) south of Kuyunjik.帝國軍火庫,建成sennacherib的繼任者esarhaddon (傳譯公元前680-669 ) ,主張在很大程度上unexcavated在nebi尤納斯,一個土堆上城牆1.6公里( 1英里)以南kuyunjik 。 It is still covered by modern buildings, among them a mosque reputed to contain the tomb of Jonah.它仍是涵蓋現代建築,其中包括一所清真寺被譽為遏制墓約拿。

Nineveh was first surveyed in 1820; intermittent excavation by various expeditions took place from 1842 to 1931; more recent work, including some restoration, has been undertaken by the Iraq Department of Antiquities.尼尼微是第一次調查, 1820年;間歇性挖掘各種探險發生在1842年至1931年;較近期的工作,包括一些修復工作,一直由伊拉克古蹟部。

Kate Fielden凱特fielden

Bibliography 參考書目
Goodspeed, George S., A History of the Babylonians and the Assyrians (1978); Hancock, Percy SP, Mesopotamian Archaeology (1912; repr. 1977); Olstead, Albert T., History of Assyria (1923; repr. 1975); Thompson, R. Campbell, and Hutchinson, Richard W., A Century of Exploration at Nineveh (1929). goodspeed ,喬治在美因歷史巴比倫人和亞述人( 1978年) ;漢考克, ( Percy SP法,美索不達米亞考古學( 1912年; repr 。 1977 ) ; olstead ,何俊仁湯匙,歷史的assyria ( 1923年; repr 。 1975年) ;湯普森傳譯坎貝爾及Hutchinson說,理查德小,上百年的探索,在尼尼微( 1929 ) 。


Nin'eveh nin'eveh

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Nineveh is first mentioned in Gen. 10: 11, which is rendered in the Revised Version, "He [ie, Nimrod] went forth into Assyria and builded Nineveh."尼尼微是第一次提到在將軍10 : 11 ,這是在提供修訂版本, "他[即尼姆羅德竟然提出到assyria和builded尼尼微" 。 It is not again noticed till the days of Jonah, when it is described (Jonah 3:3;4:11) as a great and populous city, the flourishing capital of the Assyrian empire (2 Kings 19:36; Isa. 37:37).這是不是又注意到,直到天約拿時,它的描述(約拿3時03分; 4時11分)作為一個偉大的和人口最多的城市,蓬勃發展的資本亞述帝國( 2國王, 19時36分;伊薩37 : 37 ) 。 The book of the prophet Nahum is almost exclusively taken up with prophetic denunciations against this city.這本書的先知結果公佈在幾乎完全採取了與先知性的譴責針對這個城市。 Its ruin and utter desolation are foretold (Nah.1:14; 3:19, etc.).其破壞和徹底的荒涼是預言( nah.1 : 14 ; 3時19分,等等) 。 Zephaniah also (2:13-15) predicts its destruction along with the fall of the empire of which it was the capital. zephaniah也( 2:13-15 )預測,其銷毀隨著秋季的帝國,它是資本。 From this time there is no mention of it in Scripture till it is named in gospel history (Matt. 12:41; Luke 11:32).從這個時候,完全沒有提及,這在經文中,直至把它命名,在歷史上的福音。 ( 12時41分;盧克11時32分) 。

This "exceeding great city" lay on the eastern or left bank of the river Tigris, along which it stretched for some 30 miles, having an average breadth of 10 miles or more from the river back toward the eastern hills.這個"超越大市"奠定於東方或河左岸底格里斯河,沿著它伸展為約30英里,有一個平均的寬度10英里或以上,從河回東部丘陵地帶。 This whole extensive space is now one immense area of ruins.這整個龐大的空間,現在是一個龐大面積的遺址。 Occupying a central position on the great highway between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean, thus uniting the East and the West, wealth flowed into it from many sources, so that it became the greatest of all ancient cities.佔據中心地位,對大公路之間的地中海和印度洋,因此,凝聚東方和西方,財富的流入,它從許多來源,因此它已成為最大的古代城市。 About BC 633 the Assyrian empire began to show signs of weakness, and Nineveh was attacked by the Medes, who subsequently, about BC 625, being joined by the Babylonians and Susianians, again attacked it, when it fell, and was razed to the ground.約公元前633亞述帝國開始顯示出疲軟跡象,尼尼微遭到了medes ,他們隨後,約公元前625名,正在參加由巴比倫人和susianians ,再次攻擊它,當它下跌,並於夷為平地。

The Assyrian empire then came to an end, the Medes and Babylonians dividing its provinces between them.亞述帝國,後來是一個句號, medes和巴比倫人劃分及其各省之間。 "After having ruled for more than six hundred years with hideous tyranny and violence, from the Caucasus and the Caspian to the Persian Gulf, and from beyond the Tigris to Asia Minor and Egypt, it vanished like a dream" (Nah. 2:6-11). "後經裁定為超過六百年與醜惡專制和暴力,從高加索和里海到波斯灣,並從跨越底格里斯河到小亞細亞和埃及,它消失了一樣,一個夢想" ( nah. 2時06分-11 ) 。 Its end was strange, sudden, tragic.它的盡頭是奇怪,突然,悲慘。 It was God's doing, his judgement on Assyria's pride (Isa. 10:5-19).這是上帝的旨意做時,他的判斷就assyria的驕傲(以賽亞10:5-19 ) 。 Forty years ago our knowledge of the great Assyrian empire and of its magnificent capital was almost wholly a blank.四十年前,我們的知識是偉大的亞述帝國和它的宏偉資本幾乎完全空白。 Vague memories had indeed survived of its power and greatness, but very little was definitely known about it.模糊的記憶確實存活,其權力和偉大,但很少有人肯定知道了。 Other cities which had perished, as Palmyra, Persepolis, and Thebes, had left ruins to mark their sites and tell of their former greatness; but of this city, imperial Nineveh, not a single vestige seemed to remain, and the very place on which it had stood was only matter of conjecture.其他城市已經滅亡了,因為巴爾米拉,波斯波利斯和底比斯,留下了廢墟中,以標誌自己的網站,並告訴了其原有的偉大,但這個城市,帝國尼尼微,而不是一個單一的痕跡似乎仍然存在,與地方上它經受了只是此事的猜測。

In fulfilment of prophecy, God made "an utter end of the place."在實現的預言,上帝造"徹底結束的地方" 。 It became a "desolation."它成了"荒涼" 。 In the days of the Greek historian Herodotus, BC 400, it had become a thing of the past; and when Xenophon the historian passed the place in the "Retreat of the Ten Thousand," the very memory of its name had been lost.在幾天的希臘歷史學家希羅多德,公元前400個,它已成為過去的事;時,色諾芬歷史學家通過發生在"務虛會的萬, "很懷念它的名字已經遺失。 It was buried out of sight, and no one knew its grave.這是埋藏了視線,沒有人知道它的墳墓。 It is never again to rise from its ruins.這是永遠不會再上升,從一片廢墟。 At length, after being lost for more than two thousand years, the city was disentombed.在長度後,失去了以上二千年時,城市是disentombed 。 A little more than forty years ago the French consul at Mosul began to search the vast mounds that lay along the opposite bank of the river.多一點,比40年前的法國領事在摩蘇爾展開搜查廣大土堆奠定沿著銀行對面的河中。 The Arabs whom he employed in these excavations, to their great surprise, came upon the ruins of a building at the mound of Khorsabad, which, on further exploration, turned out to be the royal palace of Sargon, one of the Assyrian kings.阿拉伯人的人,他受僱於這些發掘工作,以他們的偉大,竟然來到廢墟的建築物在土堆的爾沙巴德,其中,對進一步探討,最終被證明在皇宮sargon之一,亞述國王隊。 They found their way into its extensive courts and chambers, and brought forth from its hidden depths many wonderful sculptures and other relics of those ancient times.他們發現,他們自己的方式,其廣泛的法院和法庭,並提出了從它的深處隱藏許多精彩的雕塑及其他文物的那些遠古時代。

The work of exploration has been carried on almost continuously by M. Botta, Sir Henry Layard, George Smith, and others, in the mounds of Nebi-Yunus, Nimrud, Koyunjik, and Khorsabad, and a vast treasury of specimens of old Assyrian art has been exhumed.工作的探索已進行了幾乎不斷由M.博塔先生亨利layard ,喬治‧史密斯,和其他人,在土堆的nebi -尤納斯,尼姆魯德, koyunjik ,爾沙巴德,以及廣闊的庫房標本的舊亞述人的藝術已被挖掘出來。 Palace after palace has been discovered, with their decorations and their sculptured slabs, revealing the life and manners of this ancient people, their arts of war and peace, the forms of their religion, the style of their architecture, and the magnificence of their monarchs.宮後,總統府已經發現,他們的裝飾品和其雕塑磚,揭示了生活和禮儀的這個古老的人,他們的藝術在戰爭與和平問題,形式的,他們的宗教,作風,他們的建築,壯麗,他們的君主。 The streets of the city have been explored, the inscriptions on the bricks and tablets and sculptured figures have been read, and now the secrets of their history have been brought to light.街道上的城市已經探索了,碑文就用磚頭和片劑和雕塑數字已經看過了,現在的秘密,他們的歷史已經向世人揭示了。 One of the most remarkable of recent discoveries is that of the library of King Assur-bani-pal, or, as the Greek historians call him, Sardanapalos, the grandson of Sennacherib (qv).其中一個最顯著的,最近新發現的是該圖書館的國王桿-巴尼-包括P AL,或者,正如希臘歷史學家們稱呼他, s ardanapalos,外孫s ennacherib(請參閱) 。

This library consists of about ten thousand flat bricks or tablets, all written over with Assyrian characters.這個文庫的約1.0萬單位,磚頭或藥片,所有書面超過與亞述字。 They contain a record of the history, the laws, and the religion of Assyria, of the greatest value.它們含有的紀錄,歷史,法律,宗教assyria ,最大的價值。 These strange clay leaves found in the royal library form the most valuable of all the treasuries of the literature of the old world.這些陌生粘土葉片發現,在皇家圖書館的形式最有價值的所有國庫券的文獻中的舊世界。 The library contains also old Accadian documents, which are the oldest extant documents in the world, dating as far back as probably about the time of Abraham.圖書館還載有舊亞加底亞的文件,這是最古老的現存文件,在世界上最早為大概的時候,亞伯拉罕。 (See SARGON.) "The Assyrian royalty is, perhaps, the most luxurious of our century [reign of Assur-bani-pa].. Its victories and conquests, uninterrupted for one hundred years, have enriched it with the spoil of twenty peoples. (見sargon ) , "亞述人的專利,也許,其中最名貴的,我們世紀的統治桿-巴尼-壩] ..其勝利和征服,不間斷地為百年,充實和豐富了它與溺愛的第二十一屆人民。

Sargon has taken what remained to the Hittites; Sennacherib overcame Chaldea, and the treasures of Babylon were transferred to his coffers; Esarhaddon and Assur-bani-pal himself have pillaged Egypt and her great cities, Sais, Memphis, and Thebes of the hundred gates.....Now foreign merchants flock into Nineveh, bringing with them the most valuable productions from all countries, gold and perfume from South Arabia and the Chaldean Sea, Egyptian linen and glass-work, carved enamels, goldsmiths' work, tin, silver, Phoenician purple; cedar wood from Lebanon, unassailable by worms; furs and iron from Asia Minor and Armenia" (Ancient Egypt and Assyria, by G. Maspero, page 271). The bas-reliefs, alabaster slabs, and sculptured monuments found in these recovered palaces serve in a remarkable manner to confirm the Old Testament history of the kings of Israel. The appearance of the ruins shows that the destruction of the city was due not only to the assailing foe but also to the flood and the fire, thus confirming the ancient prophecies concerning it. sargon採取了什麼仍是赫梯; sennacherib克服chaldea和寶物巴比倫被轉移到他的庫房; esarhaddon和桿-巴尼-帕爾自己有搶劫埃及和她的偉大城市,高等,孟菲斯,和底比斯的百年蓋茨.....現在,中外客商湧到尼尼微,並帶來他們最寶貴的製作來自所有國家,黃金和香料,從南阿拉伯及加爾丁禮海,埃及亞麻和玻璃的工作,刻漆,金飾工作,錫,銀,腓尼基紫色;雪松木從黎巴嫩撤軍,無懈可擊,由蠕蟲;皮草和鐵由小亞細亞和亞美尼亞" (古埃及和assyria ,由G. maspero日,第271號) 。震驚浮雕,雪花石膏磚,雕塑紀念碑發現在這些回收的宮殿擔任某一出色的方式,以確認舊約歷史上的國王的以色列。外觀遺址表明,摧毀整個城市的原因不僅是給調戲的敵人,而且要做好抗洪搶險和消防,從而證實了古讖有關。

"The recent excavations," says Rawlinson, "have shown that fire was a great instrument in the destruction of the Nineveh palaces. Calcined alabaster, charred wood, and charcoal, colossal statues split through with heat, are met with in parts of the Nineveh mounds, and attest the veracity of prophecy." "最近發掘, "羅林森說, "表明火災是一個很好的工具,在破壞尼尼微宮殿。煅燒雪花石膏,被燒焦的木材,木炭,龐大的雕像是通過分裂與熱量,都是見了部分尼尼微塚,並證明真實性的預言" 。 Nineveh in its glory was (Jonah 3:4) an "exceeding great city of three days' journey", ie, probably in circuit.尼尼微在其榮耀(約拿3時04分)的"超越大市的3天之旅" ,即可能是在電路。 This would give a circumference of about 60 miles.這提供了圓周約60英里。 At the four corners of an irregular quadrangle are the ruins of Kouyunjik, Nimrud, Karamless and Khorsabad.在四個角落的一個不規則的四邊形是廢墟kouyunjik ,尼姆魯德, karamless和爾沙巴德。 These four great masses of ruins, with the whole area included within the parallelogram they form by lines drawn from the one to the other, are generally regarded as composing the whole ruins of Nineveh.這四大群眾的廢墟,整個地區包括平行四邊形,他們所制定的路線,從一至另一方面,通常被視為構成整個遺址的尼尼微。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


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