Names of God - Elohim - YHWH - Yahweh - Adonai - Abba - Tetragrammaton姓名上帝-耶洛因- yh wh-雅威- ad on ai-雅伯金曲-耶和華

An early discussion by St. Jerome discussed these:早期討論聖杰羅姆討論過這些:

El, Elohim, Sabaôth, Eliôn, Asher yeheyeh, Adonai, Jah, JHVH, and Shaddai下午,耶洛因, sabaôth , eliôn ,阿什爾yeheyeh , adonai , jah , jhvh , shaddai

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Divine Names as Vehicles of Revelation神的名字作為汽車的啟示

Efforts to find the origins and significance of the Hebrew divine names in other ancient Near Eastern cultures have yielded generally disappointing results.努力尋找的起源及意義,希伯萊神的名字在其他古代近東文化,已經取得了普遍令人失望的結果。 One of the major reasons for this is that the ancient Hebrew theology invested these names with a uniqueness that renders investigation outside the narratives of the OT incapable of exploring fully their historical and religious significance.其中一個重要原因,這主要是因為古代希伯來神學投資這些名字與獨特性,使其調查外敘述部分城市旅遊局無能的探索,充分的歷史和宗教意義。

Basic to ancient Hebrew religion is the concept of divine revelation.基本以古代希伯來宗教的概念是神的啟示。 While God is conceived of as revealing his attributes and will in a number of ways in the OT, one of the most theologically significant modes of the divine self-disclosure is the revelation inherent in the names of God.而上帝是構思的,因為暴露了他的屬性,並會在若干方面,在職能治療,其中最顯著的theologically模式的神聖自我揭露的是啟示固有的名字神。

This aspect of divine revelation is established in the words of Exod.這方面的神聖啟示,是在既定的話exod 。 6:3, "I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob, as God Almighty, but by my name the Lord [Yahweh] I did not make myself known to them."選手: "我似乎亞伯拉罕,以撒和雅各,因為真主,但我的名,主[雅威] ,我沒有讓自己知道他們的" 。 According to classical literary criticism, the verse teaches that the name Yahweh was unknown to the patriarchs.根據古典文學批評,詩教這一名稱雅威是未知向patriarchs 。 Thus, an ideological conflict exists between the Priestly author and the earlier Yahwist, who frequently put the name Yahweh on the lips of the patriarchs.因此,意識形態的衝突之間存在的司鐸作者及早前yahwist ,往往把名字雅威對嘴唇的patriarchs 。

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However, the words "by my name Yahweh I did not make myself known to them" have a somewhat hollow ring if the name Yahweh is understood only as an appellative.但是,下列文字: "我的名字雅威,我沒有讓自己已知告訴他們"有一個有點靠不住的,虛偽的,如果名稱雅威了解,只是作為一個稱謂。 The reason for this is that Moses asks in Exod.這一現象的原因是,摩西詢問exod 。 3:13, "What is his name?" 3時13分, "什麼是他的名字" ? (mah-semo). (麻將semo ) 。 M. Buber has demonstrated that the syntax of this question does not connote an inquiry as to the name of God but an inquiry into the character revealed by the name.米布伯已經證明,語法,這個問題並不含意調查,以上帝的名義,但調查的性質透露真實姓名。 He says, "Where the word 'what' is associated with the word 'name' the question asked is what finds expression in or lies concealed behind that name" (The Revelation and the Covenant, p. 48).他說, "如果這個字是什麼' ,是與詞'名字'的問題,問的是什麼表現還是謊言背後隱藏著這個名字" (啟示和盟約,第48頁) 。 J. Motyer also concludes, "In every case where ma is used with a personal association it suggests enquiry into sort or quality or character, whereas mi expects an answer instacing individuals, or, as in the case of rhetorical questions, calling attention to some external feature" (The Revelation of the Divine Name, 19). j.莫提爾教授還得出結論, "在每一個案件中,馬,是用一台個人會提示查詢到排序或品質或特性,而宓期待一個答案instacing或個人,如在案件修辭問題,要求注意一些外部特徵" (啟示的神的名字, 19 ) 。

Exod. exod 。 14:4 also supports the view that the name Yahweh embodies aspects of God's character. 14時04分,也支持這一觀點,即名稱雅威方面體現了上帝的性格。 It says, "and the Egyptians will know that I am Yahweh."它說, "埃及人會知道我雅威" 。 It is hardly likely that the intent of this assertion is that they would learn only the name of the Hebrew God.這是絕不可能說的意圖,這種說法,他們會了解,只有名稱的希伯來文的上帝。

In the light of these observations, the use of the concepts of the name of God in the early narratives of the book of Exodus is far broader than simply the name by which the Hebrew God was known.在根據這些意見後,其使用的概念,以上帝的名義,在早期的敘述這本書的出埃及記的是甚廣,遠遠超過單純的名字,其中希伯來上帝是眾所周知的。 It has a strong element of divine self-disclosure within it.它具有強烈的元素神聖的自我披露。

The corpus of divine names compounded with el and a descriptive adjunct also support this concept.胼神聖的名字更加複雜與el和描述附屬物也支持這個概念。 The very fact that the adjunctive element is descriptive is an indication of its value as a source of theological content.非常事實,即輔助元素是描述性,是表明自己的價值作為來源的神學內容。

Typical of this type of name is el rot ("God who sees"; Gen. 16:13) and el olam ("God eternal"; Gen. 21:33).典型的這種類型的名字是下午腐( "上帝的人看見" ;將軍16:13 )和El olam ( "上帝永恆的" ;上將21時33分) 。 These el names sometimes emerge from a specific historical situation that illuminates their significance.這些下午的名字有時出現從一個特定的歷史情況,這說明了它們的意義。

The Meaning of the Divine Names意思神聖的名字

Yahweh, Jehovah (LORD)雅威,耶和華(主)

Efforts to determine the meaning of the tetragrammaton (YHWH) through historical investigation have been rendered difficult by the paucity of informative data relative to the various forms of the name ya in historical sources outside the OT.努力來確定含義的耶和華( yhwh ) ,透過歷史考察已變得困難,缺乏翔實的數據,相對的各種形式的名稱婭在史料以外城市旅遊局。 For this reason the investigation has generally followed philological lines.基於這個原因,該調查已普遍遵循的語言學系。 GR Driver suggested that the form ya was originally an ejaculatory cry, "shouted in moments of excitement or ecstasy," that was "prologued to ya(h)wa(h), ya(h)wa(h)y, or the like."遺傳資源司機建議的形式亞原本是射精管哭的, "叫喊著,在瞬間的興奮或搖頭丸" ,即是" prologued以雅(八)佤族(八) ,雅(八)佤族(八體) Y ,或類似" He suggested further that the name Yahweh arose from the consonance of an extended form of ya with the "imperfect tense of a defective verb."他建議進一步指出姓名雅威是由一致的一個推廣形式的雅與"不完善的緊張,一個有缺陷的動詞" 。 Thus, he saw the origin of the name in a popular etymology and asserted that its original form was forgotten (ZAW 46:24).因此,他親眼看到了地名的由來,在流行語言,並聲稱其原來被遺忘(不遺餘力46:24 ) 。

Mowinckel proposed the theory that the tetragrammaton should be understood as consisting of the ejaculatory element and the third person pronoun hu,' meaning "O He!"莫溫克爾提出的理論,即耶和華應被理解為構成的射精管元素和第三人稱代詞胡'的含義劃" O他" !

Another approach to the problem is to understand the tetragrammaton as a form of paronomasia.另一種解決方法,是要通過認識耶和華是一種形式的paronomasia 。 This view takes account of the broad representation of the name ya in extrabiblical cultures of the second millennium BC The name Yahweh is thus understood as a quadriliteral form, and the relationship of the name of haya ("to be") in Exod.這種觀點考慮對廣泛代表性的名稱婭在extrabiblical文化的第二個千禧年卑詩省的名稱雅威因此理解為一個quadriliteral形式,與關係的名義haya ( "能" )在exod 。 3:14-15 is not intended to be one of etymology but paronomasia. 3:14-15不打算成為一個名詞,但paronomasia 。

The most common view is that the name is a form of a triliteral verb, hwy.最普遍的看法是,名字是一個形式的triliteral動詞,他們的。 It is generally regarded as a 3 p.它被普遍認為是一個3頁 Qal stem imperfect or a 3 p.堡幹不完善或3頁 imperfect verb in a causative stem.完美的發音在一個使役幹。 Another suggestion is that it is a causative participle with ay preformative that should be translated "Sustainer, Maintainer, Establisher."另一項建議是,它是一個使役participle同分preformative認為應譯成" sustainer ,維護者, establisher " 。

With regard to the view that the tetragrammaton is an elongated form of an ejaculatory cry, it may be pointed out that Semitic proper names tend to shorten; they are not normally prolonged.至於認為耶和華是一個細長的形式是射精管哭的,它可能需要指出的是,猶太人的專有名詞,往往縮短,他們一般都不會延長。 The theory that the name is paronomastic is attractive, but when appeal is made to the occurrences of forms of ya or yw in ancient cultures, several problems arise.該理論認為,名字是paronomastic是有吸引力的,不過,當上訴作出的發生形式的雅或中,最古老的文化,並出現若干問題。 It is difficult to explain how the original form could have lengthened into the familiar quadriliteral structure.這是很難解釋如何原來的版本,可以延長到熟悉quadriliteral結構。 Mowinckel's suggestion is attractive, but speculative.莫溫克爾的建議是有吸引力的,但投機性。 It is also difficult to understand how the name Yahweh could have such strong connotations of uniqueness in the OT if it is a form of a divine name that found representation in various cultures in the second millennium BC人們還很難理解如何名義雅威能有如此強大的內涵,氣質,在城市旅遊局,如果這是一種形式的神的名字,發現代表性,在各種文化在第二個千禧年公元前

The derivation of the tetragrammaton from a verbal root is also beset with certain difficulties.推導了耶和華從口頭上的根源,也是面臨一定的困難。 The root hwy on which the tetragrammaton would be based in this view is unattested in West Semitic languages before the time of Moses, and the form of the name is not consonant with the rules that govern the formation of lamed he verbs as we know them.從根本上他們對其中耶和華將設在這個看法是unattested在西閃族語言面前的時候,摩西,方式和名稱,是不符合規則的管轄形成lamed他動詞,因為我們知道他們。

It is evident that the problem is a difficult one.很顯然,這個問題是一個棘手的問題。 It is best to conclude that the use of etymology to determine the theological content of the name Yahweh is tenuous.最好是在得出結論認為,使用語言,以確定神學思想建設的內容,名稱雅威是牽強的。 If one is to understand the theological significance of the divine name, it can be only be determining the theological content with which the name was invested in Hebrew religion.如果一個人要了解神學意義神聖的名字時,它才能夠確定的神學內容與該名稱是投資在希伯萊宗教。

Jah, Yah jah ,閻

This shorter form of Yahweh occurs twice in Exodus (15:2 and 17:15).這較短的形式雅威兩度出現在出埃及記( 15時02分和17:15 ) 。 The former passage is echoed in Isa.前者通過了雄渾的迴響,在伊薩。 12:2 and Ps. 12:2和PS 。 118:14. 118:14 。 It also occurs numerous times in the formula haleluya ("praise yah").它也發生過無數次在F1 haleluya (下稱"贊閻" ) 。 Its use in early and late poetic passages and its formulaic function in the Hallel psalms suggest that this form of Yahweh is a poetic stylistic device.其使用在早期和晚期的詩歌通道及其公式化的功能在hallel詩篇表明,這種形式的雅威是一個詩的文體設備。

The compounding of yah with Yahweh in Isa.複合的閻與雅威在伊薩。 12:2 (yah yhwh) indicates a separate function for the form yah, but at the same time an identification of the form with Yahweh. 12:2 (閻yhwh ) ,顯示一個單獨的函數形式,閻,但在同一時間,一個鑑定的形式與雅威。

Yahweh Seba'ot ("Lord of Hosts")雅威seba'ot ( "耶和華的東道主" )

The translation "He creates the heavenly hosts" has been suggested for this appellative.翻譯" ,他創造了天堂的主人, "曾有人建議,為這一稱謂。 It is based on the assumption that Yahweh functions as a verbal form in a causative stem.這是基於這樣的假設:雅威職能作為一個以口頭方式表述一個使役幹。 This conclusion is rendered difficult by the fact that the formula occurs in the expanded form yhwh elohe sebaot ("Yahweh God of hosts"), which attributes the function of a proper name to Yahweh.這個結論是,使困難的事實,即出現公式,在擴大的形式yhwh elohe sebaot ( "雅威上帝的東道主" ) ,其中屬性的功能,適當的名稱,以雅威。 The word seba'ot means "armies" or "hosts."字seba'ot手段, "兩軍"或"主持人" 。 It is best to understand Yahweh as a proper name in association with the word "armies."這是最好的了解雅威作為一個適當的名義聯同字"兩軍" 。

Elohim耶洛因

The root of Elohim is El (el).根耶洛因是下午(星期六) 。 The form elohim is a plural form commonly understood as a plural of majesty.形式耶洛因是一個複數形式理解為一個多元的陛下。 While the word occurs in Canaanite ('l) and Akkadian (ilu[m]), its etymology is uncertain.而這個詞出現在canaanite ( ' l )和阿卡德文( ilu [米] ) ,其詞源是不確定的。 In the OT the word is always construed in the singular when it denotes the true God.在城市旅遊局二字永遠是詮釋,在奇異時,它指的真神。 In the Pentateuch the name elohim connotes a general concept of God; that is, it portrays God as the transcendent being, the creator of the universe.在pentateuch名稱耶洛因蘊含一個總的概念上帝的,這就是它描繪了上帝超越目前,宇宙的創造者。 It does not connote the more personal and palpable concepts inherent in the name Yahweh.它沒有內涵更為個人和明顯的固有觀念,在名稱雅威。 It can also be used to apply to false gods as well as to judges and kings.它也可以被用來申請假神,以及法官和國王隊。

El下午

El has the same general range of meaning as Elohim.下午有相同的一般範圍的意義,因為耶洛因。 It is apparently the root on which the plural form has been constructed.這顯然是扎下了根,其中複數形式已建成。 It differs in usage from Elohim only in its use in theophoric names and to serve to contrast the human and the divine.它不同於在使用從耶洛因不僅在於其使用theophoric名字,並以對比的人力和神聖。 Sometimes it is combined with yah to become Elyah.有時,它是結合閻成為elyah 。

El Elyon ("God Most High")下午elyon ( "上帝最高級" )

The word 'elyon, an adjective meaning "high," is derived from the root 'lh ("to go up" or "ascend").字' elyon ,一個形容詞,意思是"高" ,是源自於同根生' ,黃體生成素(簡稱"去"或"消業" ) 。 It is used to describe the height of objects (II Kings 15:35; 18:17; Ezek. 41:7) as well as the prominence of persons (Ps. 89:27) and the prominence of Israel as a nation (Deut. 26:19; 28:1).這是用來形容高度的物體(二國王15:35 ; 18時17分; ezek 。 41:7 ) ,以及突出的人(詩篇89:27 )和突出的以色列作為一個國家( deut 。 26:19 ; 28:1 ) 。 When used of God it connotes the concept of "highest."當用於神的,它蘊含的概念, "最高" 。

The name El Elyon occurs only in Gen. 14: 18-22 and Ps.姓名下午elyon只發生在將軍14 : 18-22和PS 。 78:35, although God is known by the shorter title Elyon in a significant number of passages. 78:35 ,雖然上帝是眾所周知的,由短標題elyon在相當多的旅費。

There is a superlative connotation in the word 'elyon.有一個文字的內涵字' elyon 。 In each case in which the adjective occurs it denotes that which is highest or uppermost.在每一個案件中,涉案的形容詞的出現,它意味著這是最高或最上部。 In Deut.在deut 。 26:19 and 28:1 the superlative idea is apparent in the fact that Israel is to be exalted above the nations. 26:19和28:1最高級的想法是明顯的事實,那就是以色列要開天闢地以上。 The use of the word in I Kings 9:8 and II Chr.使用這個詞在王9時08分和第二人權委員會。 7:21 may not seem to reflect a superlative idea, but there is, as CF Keil suggests, an allusion to Deut. 7點21分就顯得不反映文字的想法,但也存在,作為比照的Keil顧名思義,暗指deut 。 26:19 and 28:1, where the superlative idea exists. 26:19和28:1 ,而最高級的想法存在。 The superlative is also evident in the use of the word in Ps.最高級也很明顯,在使用這個詞在PS 。 97:9, where it connotes Yahweh's supremacy over the other gods. 97:9 ,而它蘊含雅威的優勢戰勝了其他眾神。

El Shaddai下午shaddai

The etymology of sadday is obscure.詞源的sadday是模糊不清。 It has been connected with the Akkadian sadu ("mountain") by some.它已與阿卡得sadu ( "山" )是由一些。 Others have suggested a connection with the word "breast," and still others have seen a connection with the verb sadad ("to devastate").有的建議他涉嫌與"乳癌" ,還有人看到他涉嫌與動詞sadad ( "蹂躪" ) 。 The theological significance of the name, if it can be understood fully, must be derived from a study of the various contexts in which the name occurs.神學意義的名稱,如能充分了解,都必須來自於研究各種語境中的名稱出現。

The name Shaddai frequently appears apart from El as a divine title.名稱shaddai經常出現的,除了由El作為一個神聖的稱號。

El-Eloe-Yisrael埃及eloe -選票

This appellation occurs only in Gen. 33:20 as the name of the altar that marked the place of Jacob's encounter with God.這個稱謂只發生在將軍33:20正如其名的祭壇上的標記取代雅各布的與天主相遇。 It denotes the unique significance of El as the God of Jacob.它包含了特殊的意義薩爾瓦多為上帝的雅各。

Adonai adonai

The root 'dn occurs in Ugaritic with the meanings "lord and father."根' DN的發生在烏加里特文與意義的"魔戒之父" 。 If the word originally connoted "father," it is not difficult to understand how the connotation "lord" developed from that.如果這個詞本來connoted "父親" ,由此不難理解為什麼內涵的"魔戒"的發展表示關注。 The basic meaning of the word in the OT is "lord."基本一詞的含義,在城市旅遊局,是"主" 。

Critical to the understanding of the meaning of the word is the suffix ay.關鍵的理解一詞的含義是後綴是。 It is commonly suggested that the ending is the first person possessive suffix on a plural form of 'adon ("my lord").人們普遍認為,該是結束的第一個人佔有後綴上的複數形式' adon ( "我的主" ) 。 This is plausible for the form adonay, but the heightened form adonay, which also appears in the Massoretic text, is more difficult to explain, unless it represents an effort on the part of the Massoretes "to mark the word as sacred by a small external sign."這是可行的,為形式adonay ,但高漲的形式adonay ,同時也出現在massoretic文本中,更難以解釋,除非它代表了一種努力,對部分的massoretes " ,以標誌詞作為神聖的一小外部登錄" 。

Attention has been drawn to the Ugaritic ending -ai, which is used in that language "as a reinforcement of a basic word," However, it is doubtful that this explanation should be applied in all cases.已提請注意該烏加里特文結束愛,這是在用這種語言" ,作為增援的一個基本詞, "不過,這是令人懷疑的這一解釋,應適用於所有情況。 The plural construction of the name is evident when the word occurs in the construct as it does in the appellation "Lord of lords" ('adone ha adonim) in Deut.複數施工的名字是顯而易見的,當這個詞出現在興建,因為它在稱謂的"主之主" ( '阿多內公頃adonim )在deut 。 10:17. 10時17分。 And the translation "my Lord" seems to be required in such vocative addresses as "my Lord Yahweh, what will you give me?"和翻譯"我的主" ,似乎需要在這樣的呼地址, "我的主雅威,請問你給我的" ? (Gen. 15:2; see also Exod. 4:10). (創15時02分,還見exod 。 4:10 ) 。

It appears, then, that it is best to understand the word as a plural of majesty with a first person suffixual ending that was altered by the Massoretes to mark the sacred character of the name.看來,那麼,最好是在了解這個詞作為一個多元的陛下以第一人稱suffixual結束,這是變造的,由massoretes標誌神聖品格的真實姓名。

Other Divine Names其他神的名字

The name Baali occurs only once, in Hos.名稱巴利只發生一次,在居者有其屋。 2:16 (AV; "My Baal," RSV) in a play on words. 2時16分(視聽, "我的巴力" ,呼吸道合胞病毒) ,在文字遊戲。 The word means "my husband," as does isi, the word with which it is paired.這個詞的意思是: "我的丈夫" ,作為是否ISI的,這個詞與它配對。

Ancient of Days is an appellation applied to God in Dan. 古老的天是一個稱謂適用於上帝丹。 7. 7 。 It occurs with other depictions of great age (vs. 9) to create the impression of noble venerability.它發生在與其他描寫的偉大時代(相對於9 ) ,以造成一種印象的崇高venerability 。

Abba is an alternate Aramaic term for "father." 雅伯金曲是一個候補阿拉姆語詞語, "爸爸" 。 It is the word that Jesus used to address God in Mark 14:36.它是一個字耶穌用來處理神標誌11:24 。 Paul pairs the word with the Greek word for "father" in Rom.保羅對這個詞與希臘語意為"父親"的光盤。 8:15 and Gal. 8:15和GAL 。 4:6.四比六。

The 'alep that terminates the form 'abba' functions as both a demonstrative and a vocative particle in Aramaic. ' alep即終止形式'雅伯金曲職能既是一種示範和呼粒子在阿拉姆語。 In the time of Jesus the word connoted both the emphatic concept, "the father," and the more intimate "my father, our father."在時間的耶穌字connoted都強調概念, "父親" ,以及更親密的"我的父親,我們的父親" 。

While the word was the common form of address for children, there is much evidence that in the time of Jesus the practice was not limited only to children.雖然這個詞是常見的形式,為解決兒童,有許多證據表明,在當時是猶太人的做法並不只限於兒童。 The childish character of the word ("daddy") thus receded, and 'abba' acquired the warm, familiar ring which we may feel in such an expression as "dear father."幼稚特徵字( "爸爸" ) ,從而逐漸減退,和'雅伯金曲'後天熱情,熟悉環,我們可能會覺得在這樣的一種表現為"親愛的爸爸" 。

The Theological Significance of the Divine Names神學意義神聖的名字

Yahweh雅威

The parallel structure in Exod.平行結構exod 。 3:14-15 supports the association of the name Yahweh with the concept of being or existence. 3:14-15支持該協會的名稱,雅威理念與正在或存在。 It says, "I AM has sent me to you" (vs. 14; "The LORD has sent me to you" (vs. 15). The name "I AM" is based on the clause "I AM WHO I AM" found in 3:14 which, on the basis of the etymology implied here, suggests that Yahweh is the 3.p. form of the verb 'ehyeh (I am).它說, "我已經派我到你" (而不是14個, "主派我到你們這裡來" (相對於15 ) 。命名為"我" ,是基於對該條條文,即"我就是我"發現,在3時14分,在此基礎上的語言暗示,在此,建議雅威是3.p.形式的動詞' ehyeh (我) 。

The clause 'ehyeh'aser 'ehyeh has been translated in several ways, "I am that I am" (AV), "I am who I am" (RSV, NIV), and "I will be what I will be" (RSV margin).該條款' ehyeh'aser ' ehyeh已被翻譯成幾種方式, "我是我" (影音) , "我就是我" ( RSV的,為證) ,和"我會什麼,我會" (呼吸道合胞病毒保證金) 。 Recently the translation "I am (the) One who is" has been suggested.最近翻譯: "我(的)一個人,是"有人提議。 The latter translation has much in its favor grammatically and fits the context well.後者翻譯有很多對它有利而文法,並符合語境。

The main concern of the context is to demonstrate that a continuity exists in the divine activity from the time of the patriarchs to the events recorded in Exod.主要關注的背景下,是表明某種連續性存在,在神聖的活動,從時間的patriarchs向事件記錄在exod 。 3. 3 。 The Lord is referred to as the God of the fathers (vss. 13, 15, 16).耶和華是被稱為神的父親( vss. 13 , 15 , 16 ) 。 The God who made the gracious promises regarding Abraham's offspring is the God who is and who continues to be.神親自作出殷勤許諾對於亞伯拉罕的子孫,是上帝誰是誰繼續保持。 The affirmation of vs. 17 is but a reaffirmation of the promise made to Abraham.肯定比17 ,只不過是重新確認所作出的承諾,以亞伯拉罕。 The name Yahweh may thus affirm the continuing activity of God on behalf of his people in fealty to his promise.名稱雅威因而可能申明繼續活動的上帝代表他的人民的忠誠,以他的諾言。

Jesus' application of the words "I am" to himself in John 8:58 not only denoted his preexistence but associated him with Yahweh.耶穌的應用的話, "我" ,以自己在約翰8時58分,不僅包含他的preexistence但相關他雅威。 Jesus was the fulfillment of the promise given to Abraham, the fulfillment of which Abraham anticipated (John 8:56).耶穌是履行該承諾給予亞伯拉罕,圓滿其中亞伯拉罕預期(約翰8時56分) 。

In the Pentateuch, Yahweh denotes that aspect of God's character that is personal rather than transcendent.在pentateuch ,雅威是指這方面的上帝的品格,是個人,而不是超越。 It occurs in contexts in which the covenantal and redemptive aspects of God predominate.它發生在語境中,其中covenantal和救贖方面上帝為主。 Cassuto says, "The name YHWH is employed when God is presented to us in His personal character and in direct relationship to people or nature; and 'Elohim, when the Deity is alluded to as a Transcendental Being who exists completely outside and above the physical universe" (The Documentary Hypothesis, p. 31).卡蘇托說, "名字yhwh是受僱當上帝向我們介紹他的個人品格和在直接關係到人民或性質; '耶洛因,當神看,是暗示作為一個先驗的人,存在著完全不在以上物理宇宙" (紀錄片假說,第31頁) 。 This precise distinction does not always obtain outside the Pentateuch, but Yahweh never loses its distinct function as the designation of the God of Israel.這個精確的區分並不總是得到外pentateuch ,但雅威從來沒有失去其獨特的職能,作為指定神的以色列。

The name Yahweh Sabaoth appears for the first time in Israel's history in connection with the cult center at Shiloh (1 Sam. 1:3).名稱雅威sabaoth看來,為第一次在以色列的歷史,他涉嫌與邪教中心希洛( 1薩姆。 1:3 ) 。 It is there that the tent of meeting was set up when the land of Canaan had been subdued by the Israelites (Josh. 18:1).它的存在表示,在帳篷裡的會議上成立的時候,土地的迦南已被制服以色列人( josh. 18:1 ) 。 The name apparently had its origin in the period of the conquest or the postconquest period.名稱顯然有其原產地在這段期間的征服或postconquest時期。 It does not occur in the Pentateuch.它不發生在pentateuch 。

It is possible that the name was attributed to Yahweh as a result of the dramatic appearance to Joshua of an angelic being called the "commander of the host of Yahweh" at the commencement of the conquest (Josh. 5:13-15).這是有可能的名稱是由於雅威由於戲劇性的外觀,以約書亞的一種天使般的被稱為"指揮官所在的雅威" ,在展開征服( josh. 5:13-15 ) 。 The name would thus depict the vast power at Yahweh's disposal in the angelic hosts.姓名,因此,描繪了廣闊的權力雅威的處置,在天使的主持人。

The association of this name with the ark of the covenant in I Sam.該協會的這一名稱與方舟的盟約在I薩姆。 4:4 is significant in that Yahweh is enthroned above the angelic figures known as the cherubim (II Sam. 6:2). 4時04分的意義,就在於雅威是enthroned以上天使數字稱為基路伯(二山姆。 6時02分) 。 Because the name was associated with the ark of the covenant, David addressed the people in that name when the ark was recovered from the Philistines (II Sam. 6:18).因為這個名字與方舟的盟約,大衛講話的人在這名字的時候,方舟,是從philistines (二山姆。 6:18 ) 。 The name is often associated with the military activities of Israel (I Sam. 15:2-3; II Sam. 5:10).該名稱通常是與軍事活動的以色列(我心。 15:2-3 ;二,三。 17:10 ) 。

The almighty power of Yahweh displayed in this name is manifested in the sphere of history (Pss. 46:6-7; 59:5).至高無上的權力,雅威顯示,在這個名字就是體現在球的歷史( pss. 46:6-7 ; 59:5 ) 。 His power may be displayed in the life of the individual (Ps. 69:6) as well as the nation (Ps. 80:7).他的權力,可能會顯示在個人生活(詩篇69:6 ) ,以及作為民族(詩篇80:7 ) 。 Sometimes he is simply referred to as "the Almighty."有時他乾脆稱為"法力無邊"

The military connotation of the name was not lost, even in the eighth century, for Isaiah appeals to that name to depict the hosts of heaven that accompany Yahweh in his intervention in history (Isa. 13:4).軍事內涵的名字是不會喪失,即使是在8世紀,為以賽亞書呼籲這名字描繪主持人天堂伴隨雅威在他的干預,在歷史上(以賽亞書13:4 ) 。

Elohim耶洛因

This is the more general name for God.這是更普遍的名稱為上帝。 In the Pentateuch, when used as a proper name, it most commonly denotes the more transcendental aspects of God's character.在pentateuch ,當其被用作一個適當的名字時,它最常見的是指更先驗方面上帝的性格。 When God is presented in relation to his creation and to the peoples of the earth in the Pentateuch, the name Elohim is the name most often used.當上帝是在關係到他的創作,並以人民的地球在pentateuch ,人名耶洛因是名字最常用。 It is for this reason that Elohim occurs consistently in the creation account of Gen. 1:1-2:42 and in the genealogies of Genesis.正是出於這個原因,耶洛因不斷發生,在建立帳戶的將軍1:1-2:42 ,在族譜的成因。 Where the context takes on a moral tone, as in Gen. 2:4bff., the name Yahweh is used.在上下文,就在道義上的調子,因為在將軍2時04 bff ,名稱雅威使用。

Throughout Genesis and the early chapters of Exodus elohim is used most often as a proper name.整個成因,並儘早章節逃亡耶洛因,是最常用的是一個適當的名稱。 After Exod.經過exod 。 3 the name begins to occur with increasing frequency as an appellative, that is, "the God of," or "your God." 3名字開始出現的次數越來越作為一個稱謂,那就是"財神" ,或是"你的上帝" 。 This function is by far the most frequent mode of reference to God in the book of Deuteronomy.這個功能是目前最常見的模式參考,以上帝在這本書的申命記。 When used in this fashion the name denotes God as the supreme deity of a person or people.使用時,在這個時尚的名字是指上帝作為最高神的一個人或人民。 Thus, in the frequent expression, "Yahweh your God," Yahweh functions as a proper name, while "God" functions as the denominative of deity.因此,在頻繁的表達, "雅威你的上帝, "雅威職能作為一個適當的名稱,而"上帝"的職能為denominative的神。

The appellative elohim connotes all that God is.該稱謂耶洛因蘊含所有上帝。 As God he is sovereign, and that sovereignty extends beyond Israel into the arena of the nations (Deut. 2:30, 33; 3:22; Isa. 52:10).作為上帝,他是一個主權及主權範圍超出以色列進入舞台上的國家(申命記2:30 , 33 ; 3時22分;伊薩。 52:10 ) 。 As God to his people he is loving and merciful (Deut. 1:31; 2:7; 23:5; Isa. 41:10, 13, 17; 49:5; Jer. 3:23).作為上帝,以他的人,他是愛和慈悲(申命記1時31分; 2時07分; 23時05分;伊薩。 41:10你, 13日, 17日; 49:5 ;哲。 3時23分) 。 He establishes standards of obedience (Deut. 4:2; Jer. 11:3) and sovereignly punishes disobedience (Deut. 23:21).他確立了標準的順從(申命記4時02分;哲。 11時03分)和sovereignly處罰抗命(申命記23時21分) 。 As God, there is no one like him (Isa. 44:7; 45:5-21).作為上帝,沒有一個像他一樣(以賽亞書44:7 ; 45:5-21 ) 。

The same connotations obtain in the use of the shorter form el.同樣的內涵,獲得在使用較短的形式下午。 He is the God who sees (el ro i; Gen. 16:13) and he is el the God of Israel (Gen. 33:20).他是上帝的人看到(滾裝;將軍16:13 ) ,他是下午的神,以色列(創33:20 ) 。

As El Elyon, God is described in his exaltation over all things.薩爾瓦多elyon ,上帝是在形容他的提升超過所有的東西。 There are two definitive passages for this name.有兩個明確的通道,為這個名字。 In Ps.在PS 。 83:18 Yahweh is described as "Most High over the earth," and Isa. 83:18雅威說成是"最高級超過地球" ,和ISA 。 14:14 states, "I will ascend above the heights of the clouds, I will make myself like the Most High." 14時14分, "我將繼承皇位以上高峰的雲層,我會在自己最喜歡的高" 。

However, in the majority of cases the attributes of this name are indistinguishable from other usages of El or Elohim.然而,在大多數情況下屬性這個名字是無法區分的其他慣例薩爾瓦多或耶洛因。 He fixed the boundaries of the nations (Deut. 32:8).他固定的邊界的國家(申命記32:8 ) 。 He effects changes in the creation (Ps. 18:13).他的影響變化,在創造(詩篇18:12 ) 。 El Shaddai occurs most frequently in the Book of Job, where it functions as a general name for the deity.下午shaddai發生最頻繁,在這本書的工作,而其作用是作為一個普通的名字,為神。 As El Shaddai, God disciplines (Job 5:17); he is to be feared (Job 6:14); he is just (Job 8:3); he hears prayer (Job 8:5); and he creates (Job 33:4).薩爾瓦多shaddai ,上帝學科(工作5時17分) ,他是為了怕(職務6時14分) ,他是剛剛(求職8點03分) ;他聽到祈禱(求職8時05分)和他創建(求職33:4 ) 。

This name occurs six times in the patriarchal narratives.這個名字出現的6倍,在重男輕女的敘述。 In most of those instances it is associated with the promise given by God to the patriarchs.在大多數的這些事例中,它是與承諾給予上帝給patriarchs 。 Yet the name is often paired with Yahweh in the poetic material, and thus shares the personal warmth of that name.然而,名字是經常搭配雅威在詩意的素材,因此股價個人溫暖的名字。 He is known for his steadfast love (Ps. 21:7) and his protection (Ps. 91:9-10).他知道他堅定的愛(詩篇21時07分)和他的保護(詩篇91:9-10 ) 。

The root of Adonai means "lord" and, in its secular usage, always refers to a superior in the OT.根adonai意思是"上帝" ,並在其世俗的用法,總是指的是一個優越的,在城市旅遊局。 The word retains the sense of "lord" when applied to God.這個詞保留的責任感"主"的時候,適用於神。 The present pointing of the word in the Massoretic text is late; early manuscripts were written without vowel pointing.目前指向這個詞在massoretic文本已晚;早期手稿是寫在沒有元音指向。

In Ps.在PS 。 110:1 the word is pointed in the singular, as it usually is when it applies to humans rather than God. 110:1一詞,是指在奇異,因為它通常是當它適用於人類,而不是上帝。 Yet Jesus used this verse to argue for his deity.然而耶穌用了這首詩辯稱他的神。 The pointing is Massoretic, and no distinction would be made in the consonantal texts.指向是massoretic ,並沒有區分會在consonantal文本。 Since the word denotes a superior, the word must refer to one who is superior to David and who bears the messianic roles of king and priest (vs. 4).自從這個詞是指上級字必須是指一個人,是優於大衛和誰承擔救世主的角色,國王和牧師(而不是4 ) 。

The name Abba connotes the fatherhood of God.名稱雅伯金曲蘊含了父親的上帝。 This is affirmed by the accompanying translation ho pater ("father") which occurs in each usage of the name in the NT (Mark 14:36; Rom. 8:15; Gal. 4:6).這是肯定的隨行翻譯何的父親( "父親" ) ,其中發生在每一個使用該名稱在新台幣(馬克14:36 ;光碟。 8:15 ;加爾。 4:6 ) 。

The use of this name as Jesus' mode of address to God in Mark 14:36 is a unique expression of Jesus' relationship to the Father.使用這個名字,因為耶穌'的模式解決,以上帝的標誌11:24是一個獨特的表達耶穌的關係,以父親的。 Jeremias says, "He spoke to God like a child to its father, simply, inwardly, confidently. Jesus' use of abba in addressing God reveals the heart of his relationship with God" (The Prayers of Jesus, p. 62). jeremias說, "他談到上帝就像一個孩子的父親,簡單地說,內心,信心十足。耶穌的使用雅伯金曲在處理上帝揭示的核心,他與天主的關係" (祈禱的耶穌,第62頁) 。

The same relationship is sustained by the believer with God.同一關係,是由信徒與上帝。 It is only because of the believer's relationship with God, established by the Holy Spirit, that he can address God with this name that depicts a relationship of warmth and filial love.這不僅是因為信仰的關係,與神,成立了由聖靈,他才能解決上帝與這個名字描繪關係的溫暖與孝順。

In a sense the relationship designated by this name is the fulfillment of the ancient promise given to Abraham's offspring that the Lord will be their God, and they his people (Exod. 6:7; Lev. 26:12; Jer. 24:7; 30:22).在一定意義上的關係,指定由這個名字是圓滿的古代許諾給亞伯拉罕的子孫說,耶和華將他們的神,他們自己的人民( exod. 6時07分;列弗。 26:12 ;哲。 24:7 ; 30:22 ) 。

TE McComiskey德麥可米斯基
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
WF Albright, From Stone Age to Christianity; W. Eichrodt, Theology of the OT,I, 178ff.; L. Koehler, OT Theology; J. Schneider et al., NIDNTT, II, 66ff.; G. Oehler, Theology of the OT; M. Reisel, The Mysterious Name of YHWH; HH Rowley, The Faith of Israel; H. Schultz, OT Theology, II, 116ff.; T. Vriezen, An Outline of OT Theology; H. Kleinknecht et al., TDNT, III, 65ff. WF號奧爾布賴特,從石器時代到基督教;總統艾希羅特,神學的職能治療,我, 178ff 。 ;屬克勒,城市旅遊局神學的J.施耐德等人, nidntt ,二, 66ff 。 ; g. oehler ,神學職能治療;米reisel ,神秘的名稱yhwh ;個HH rowley ,信仰,以色列;每小時舒爾茨,城市旅遊局神學,二, 116ff 。 ;湯匙vriezen ,概述了城市旅遊局神學;每小時kleinknecht等人, tdnt ,三, 65ff 。


Tetragrammaton耶和華

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Tetragrammaton is the designation for the four (tetra) letters (grammata) in the Hebrew Bible for the name of the God of Israel, yhwh.耶和華是指派為四(四)字母( grammata )在希伯來語聖經為名稱的神,以色列, yhwh 。 The name was God's particular revelation to Moses and the Israelites (Exod. 6:2-3).名字是上帝的啟示,特別是摩西和以色列人( exod. 6:2-3 ) 。 It signifies that the God of Israel, unlike pagan deities, is present with his people to deliver them, to fulfill his promises to them, and to grant them his blessings. The pronunciation of the tetragrammaton yhwh was lost when the Jews avoided its usage for fear of descrating the holy name (cf. Exod. 20:7). In OT times the name was pronounced and was at times used in theophoric names, which can be recognized in our Bibles by the prefixes Jo- or Jeho- (cf. Jonathan and Jehoiada) and the suffix -jah (Adonijah).它標誌著神的以色列,不像異教神,是目前同他的人,拯救他們,以兌現自己的承諾,向他們,並給予他們祝福。讀音的耶和華yhwh時丟失猶太人迴避自己在使用恐懼descrating聖名(參見exod 。 20時07分) 。斯塔德邁爾倍姓名宣判,並於次使用的theophoric名稱,它可以被認可我們的聖經,是由前綴李若或jeho - (參見Jonathan和耶何耶大)和後綴- jah (多尼雅) 。 The pronunciation fell into disuse after the Exile when the Jews began to pay careful attention to the practice of the law.讀音落入廢棄後,流亡海外的時候,猶太人開始小心留意實踐相抵觸。

The translators of the Septuagint consistently avoided the name and substituted the title Kyrios ("Lord"). 翻譯的septuagint迴避的名字,並以標題kyrios ( "上帝" ) 。 This reflects the Jewish practice of reading Adonai (Heb. adonay) "Lord" for yhwh or reading Elohim (Heb. elohim) in place of the Hebrew compound yhwh adonay to avoid the duplication of adonay. The vowels of adonay (aoa) were placed under the tetragrammaton to remind the reader that he was not to pronounce yhwh but instead was to read the word as adonay.這反映了猶太人的做法,讀adonai (希伯來書adonay )的"魔戒"為yhwh或閱讀耶洛因(希伯來書耶洛因) ,以取代現時希伯來語複合yhwh adonay避免重複adonay 。元音adonay (迎角)分別置於根據耶和華提醒讀者表示,他不表態yhwh反而被閱讀Word作為adonay 。 Christians who were unaware of this substitution read the vowels as if they actually belonged to yhwh, which resulted in the English form "YeHoWaH" or JeHoVaH" (the a of adonay having been reduced to e under the y of yhwh). 基督信徒們不知道,這種替代讀元音,因為如果他們真的屬於yhwh ,這就導致在英文表格" yehowah "或耶和華" (甲adonay已減少到e根據Y的yhwh ) 。

The ASV of 1901 adopted the practice of using the name "Jehovah", whereas most English versions continued the established practice of translating the tetragrammaton by LORD (capital letters) to distinguish it from "Lord" (Adonai).該功1901年採取的做法是使用化名"耶和華" ,而多數的中英文版本繼續既定慣例的翻譯耶和華勳爵(大寫字母) ,以區別於從"耶和華" ( adonai ) 。 Many scholars accept the widely held opinion that the tetragrammaton is a form of the root hyh ("be") and should be pronounced as "Yahweh" ("He who brings into being"; cf. Exod. 3:12, "I will be with you" and "I will be who I will be", vs. 14).許多學者接受普遍認為耶和華也是另一種形式的根源hyh ( " " ) ,並應發音為"雅威" (下稱"他的人帶來福祉" ;比照exod 。 3時12分, "我會與你"和"我一定會的人,我會" ,與14 ) 。 Regardless of the editorial decision of substituting LORD for yhwh or of using the divine name "Yahweh," the reader must keep in mind that LORD, Yahweh, or yhwh is the name of God that he revealed to his ancient people.不論編輯部決定以耶和華為yhwh或用神的名字"雅威" ,讀者必須記住,主啊,雅威,或yhwh是,以上帝的名義,他透露了他的古代人。 In reading the text of the OT, one should develop a feeling for the usage of the name itself over against such usages as "God" or "Lord" (Exod. 3:15; 6:3; Pss. 102:16, 22; 113:1-3; 135:1-6; 148:5, 13).在閱讀文字的職能治療,一應制定一個感覺,為使用這一名稱本身對這種用法,因為"神"或"上帝" ( exod. 3:15 ;選手; PSS的。 102:16 , 22 ; 113:1-3 ; 135:1-6 ; 148:5 , 13 ) 。 The Messiah has a name, Jesus, so the God of the OT has revealed himself by a name yhwh and a blessing is lost when no attention is paid to the difference in usage of a title and the actual name of the God of Israel.彌賽亞有一個名字,耶穌,所以上帝的城市旅遊局透露自己的名字, yhwh和祝福遺失時,沒有注意的是,以差異使用一個名稱與實際名稱神的以色列。

Let them praise the name of the LORD, for his name alone is exalted; his splendor is above the earth and the heavens.讓他們讚美主的名字,為他的名字,單是開天闢地的,他的輝煌是在地球上空與蒼穹。

WA Van Gemeren華客貨車gemeren
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)


Also, see:此外,見:
God 上帝
Arguments for the Existence of God 論據為上帝存在

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