Mithraism, Mithra mithraism ,密特拉

General Information 一般資料

Mithraism, the worship of the ancient Indo-Iranian god of light, Mithra, became early Christianity's most serious rival as the mystery cult rapidly spread from Syria and Anatolia throughout the western Mediterranean and into Gaul and Britain. mithraism ,崇拜古代印度和伊朗的神輕,密特拉,成為早期基督教的最嚴重的競爭對手 ,因為神秘邪教組織迅速蔓延,從敘利亞和安納托利亞整個西地中海,進入高盧和英國。 Its cultic origins remain obscure.其邪教的起源仍然模糊。

Although the Persian god Mithra, the chief ally of Ahura Mazda, the force of good in later Zoroastrianism, is identical with the Roman deity, Western worship of Mithra had few connections with Zoroastrianism apart from its emphasis on the eternal struggle between good and evil. 雖然波斯神密特拉,首席盟友的阿胡拉,馬自達,力量好,在後來zoroastrianism ,是完全相同的,與羅馬神看,西方崇拜密特拉很少有聯繫zoroastrianism除了它側重於永恆的鬥爭中的善和惡。 There were seven grades of initiation into the cult, completion of which conferred immortality.有7個年級的起始到了這個邪教組織,完成賦予不朽。 The most important ritual was the slaying of the bull, a reenactment of Mithra's killing of the cosmic bull of creation, which symbolized the conquest of evil and death.最重要的祭祀被殺害的牛市,一個重演的密特拉的殺害宇宙牛市的創作,象徵征服罪惡和死亡。 Astrology and sun worship also played a role in Mithraism.星象和太陽的崇拜,也起到了一定的作用,在mithraism 。

Introduced into the West in the 1st century AD by Roman soldiers who had fought against the Parthians, the cult remained particularly popular among the military--the god embodied such soldierly values as victory, courage, and loyalty--and merchant classes.引入西方在1世紀專案由羅馬士兵曾抗擊parthians ,這個邪教組織仍然特別受歡迎軍事-神,體現了這樣的軍人價值觀作為勝利,勇氣和忠誠-和商人階級。 Women were excluded from the cult.婦女被排除在邪教。 One of the most powerful religious movements in the Roman Empire by the 4th century, Mithraism, along with other non-Christian sects, suffered persecution after the conversion of Constantine and gradually died out.其中一個最強大的宗教運動,在羅馬帝國由4世紀, mithraism ,連同其他非基督教教派,遭受迫害後,轉換君士坦丁並逐漸凋謝。 Significantly, Mithra's birth was commemorated on December 25.顯著,密特拉的誕生,是為紀念12月25日。

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Bibliography: 參考書目:
Cumont, Franz, The Mysteries of Mithra, 2d rev.庫蒙, Franz ,印度的奧秘密特拉,二維馮智活。 ed., trans.版,跨。 by Thomas J. McCormack (1956); Hinnells, JR, ed., Mithraic Studies, 2 vols.由托馬斯j.麥考馬克( 1956年) ; hinnells , JR ,各版, mithraic研究, 2卷。 (1975); Laeuchli, Samuel, ed., Mithraism in Ostia: Mystery Religion and Christianity in the Ancient Port of Rome (1967); Vermaseren, MJ, Mithras: The Secret God, trans. ( 1975年) ; laeuchli ,薩穆埃爾,版, mithraism在Ostia :神秘的宗教和基督教在古代港口的羅馬( 1967 ) ; vermaseren ,兆焦耳, mithras :秘密上帝,跨。 by Therese and Vincent Megaw (1963); Wynne-Tyson, Esme, Mithras (1958; repr. 1985).由( Therese和鄭海泉megaw ( 1963年) ; wynne -泰森, esme , mithras ( 1958年; repr 。 1985 ) 。



Mithraism mithraism

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

A pagan religion consisting mainly of the cult of the ancient Indo-Iranian Sun-god Mithra.一異教徒的宗教為主的崇拜古代印度和伊朗的太陽神密特拉。 It entered Europe from Asia Minor after Alexander's conquest, spread rapidly over the whole Roman Empire at the beginning of our era, reached its zenith during the third century, and vanished under the repressive regulations of Theodosius at the end of the fourth century.它進入了歐洲,從亞洲輕微後,亞歷山大的征服,蔓延迅速,整個羅馬帝國在一開始我們的時代,達到了頂點,在三世紀,消失下鎮壓法規theodosius在去年底的第四個世紀。 Of late the researches of Cumont have brought it into prominence mainly because of its supposed similarity to Christianity.近來研究的庫蒙了,它突出了,主要是因為它的假定相似基督教。

ORIGIN原產地

The origin of the cult of Mithra dates from the time that the Hindus and Persians still formed one people, for the god Mithra occurs in the religion and the sacred books of both races, ie in the Vedas and in the Avesta.起源崇拜密特拉日期從時間表示,印度教徒和波斯人仍然形成一人,為神密特拉發生在宗教和神聖書籍的兩場比賽,即在vedas並在avesta 。 In Vedic hymns he is frequently mentioned and is nearly always coupled with Varuna, but beyond the bare occurrence of his name, little is known of him (Rigveda, III, 59).在吠陀聖歌他經常被提及的是,幾乎總是加上varuna ,但沒想到裸露的發生,他的名字,很少人知道他(指梨俱吠陀,三, 59 ) 。 It is conjectured (Oldenberg, "Die "Religion des Veda," Berlin, 1894) that Mithra was the rising sun, Varuna the setting sun; or, Mithra, the sky at daytime, Varuna, the sky at night; or, the one the sun, the other the moon. In any case Mithra is a light or solar deity of some sort; but in vedic times the vague and general mention of him seems to indicate that his name was little more than a memory. In the Avesta he is much more of a living and ruling deity than in Indian piety; nevertheless, he is not only secondary to Ahura Mazda, but he does not belong to the seven Amshaspands or personified virtues which immediately surround Ahura; he is but a Yazad, a popular demigod or genius. The Avesta however gives us his position only after the Zoroastrian reformation; the inscriptions of the Achaemenidae (seventh to fourth century BC) assign him amuch higher place, naming him immediately after Ahura Mazda and associating him with the goddess Anaitis (Anahata), whose name sometimes precedes his own. Mithra is the god of light, Anaitis the goddess of water. Independently of the Zoroastrian reform, Mithra retained his place as foremost deity in the north-west of the Iranian highlands. After the conquest of Babylon this Persian cult came into contact with Chaldean astrology and with the national worship of Marduk. For a time the two priesthoods of Mithra and Marduk (magi and chaldaei respectively) coexisted in the capital and Mithraism borrowed much from this intercourse. This modified Mithraism traveled farther north-westward and became the State cult of Armenia. Its rulers, anxious to claim descent from the glorious kings of the past, adopted Mithradates as their royal name (so five kings of Georgia, and Eupator of the Bosporus). Mithraism then entered Asia Minor, especially Pontus and Cappadocia. Here it came into contact with the Phrygian cult of Attis and Cybele from which it adopted a number of ideas and practices, though apparently not the gross obscenities of the Phrygian worship. This Phrygian-Chaldean-Indo-Iranian religion, in which the Iranian element remained predominant, came, after Alexander's conquest, in touch with the Western World. Hellenism, however, and especially Greece itself, remained remarkably free from its influence. When finally the Romans took possession of the Kingdom of Pergamum, occupied Asia Minor and stationed two legions of soldiers on the Euphrates, the success of Mithraism in the West was secured. It spread rapidly from the Bosporus to the Atlantic, from Illyria to Britain. Its foremost apostles were the legionaries; hence it spread first to the frontier stations of the Roman army.這是猜測( oldenberg , "死"宗教萬吠陀" ,柏林, 1894年)密特拉是旭日, varuna夕陽,或密特拉,天空在白天, varuna ,天空在夜間,或一太陽外,其他月亮,在任何情況下密特拉是一個光或太陽神的某種形式,但在吠陀倍含糊籠統提到他似乎表明,他的名字是多一點記憶,在他avesta多了一個生活的方式和執政神比印度虔誠;儘管如此,他不僅是次要的阿胡拉,馬自達,但他不屬於七個amshaspands或人格化美德立即包圍阿胡拉,他只不過是一個yazad一個相當受歡迎鴻鬱或天才。 avesta不過讓我們他的立場之後,才zoroastrian改造;題字的阿契美尼德帝國(第七上升至第四世紀BC )的指派他amuch較高的地方,他不點名後,立即阿胡拉馬自達和締他與女神anaitis ( anahata ) ,他的名字前面,有時他自己。密特拉是上帝的光, anaitis女神的水。獨立自主的zoroastrian改革,密特拉保留了自己的位置,作為首要神在西北部的伊朗高地後,征服巴比倫這波斯語邪教接觸到加爾丁占星術,並與國家崇拜的馬杜克。今後一個時期兩國priesthoods的密特拉及馬杜克(賢士和chaldaei )並存的資本及mithraism借來得多,從這個性交時,這修飾mithraism走更遠北西向,並成為國家的邪教的亞美尼亞,它的統治者,急欲索賠後裔從輝煌國王的過去,通過米德拉底特六世作為皇家名稱(以便五個國王的格魯吉亞,並eupator該博斯普魯斯海峽) 。 mithraism然後進入亞洲未成年人,特別是橋和Cappadocia的。這裡接觸到了phrygian邪教的attis和神母從它採用了一些想法和做法,但顯然不是毛淫穢的phrygian崇拜,這phrygian -加爾丁-印度-伊朗宗教,其中,伊朗的因素依然突出,來到後,亞歷山大的征服,在接觸到西方世界。希臘,然而,特別是希臘本身,仍然保持免費,從它的影響力,當最後羅馬人佔有了這些王國pergamum佔領了小亞細亞,並派駐兩個軍團的士兵在幼發拉底河,成功mithraism在西方是有擔保的,它迅速蔓延,從博斯普魯斯海峽到大西洋,從illyria前往英國,其首要的傳道人legionaries ,因此它的傳播第一以邊境站的羅馬軍隊。

Mithraism was emphatically a soldier religion: Mithra, its hero, was especially a divinity of fidelity, manliness, and bravery; the stress it laid on good fellowship and brotherliness, its exclusion of women, and the secret bond amongst its members have suggested the idea that Mithraism was Masonry amongst the Roman soldiery. mithraism是強調軍人宗教:密特拉,它的英雄,尤其是一個神的忠誠, manliness ,勇敢;應力奠定了良好的團契和友愛,其排除在外的婦女,並秘密債券從其成員中曾建議想法這mithraism是砌築,其中羅馬soldiery 。 At the same time Eastern slaves and foreign tradesmen maintained its propaganda in the cities.在同一時間,東奴隸和外國商人繼續保持了宣傳的城市。 When magi, coming from King Tiridates of Armenia, had worshipped in Nero an emanation of Mithra, the emperor wished to be initiated in their mysteries.當賢士,從國王tiridates的亞美尼亞,曾供奉在Nero的一個洩漏的密特拉,皇帝想發起對他們的奧秘。 As Mithraism passed as a Phrygian cult it began to share in the official recognition which Phrygian worship had long enjoyed in Rome.作為mithraism通過作為phrygian邪教,它開始向份額,在官方承認的phrygian崇拜曾長期享有在羅馬。 The Emperor Commodus was publicly initiated.皇帝科莫多是公開發起的。 Its greatest devotee however was the imperial son of a priestess of the sun-god at Sirmium in Pannonia, Valerian, who according to the testimony of Flavius Vopiscus, never forgot the cave where his mother initiated him.其最大devotee不過是帝國父親是一個祭司的太陽神在錫爾繆姆在潘諾尼亞,纈草,他們根據證詞flavius vopiscus ,也沒有忘記過洞,他的母親對他發起的。 In Rome, he established a college of sun priests and his coins bear the legend "Sol, Dominus Imperii Romani".在羅馬,他成立了一個學院的孫神父和他的硬幣承擔傳奇"溶膠,主imperii吉普賽" 。 Diocletian, Galerius, and Licinius built at Carnuntum on the Danube a temple to Mithra with the dedication: "Fautori Imperii Sui". diocletian ,加利流,李錫尼興建carnuntum對多瑙河的寺院,密特拉與奉獻: " fautori imperii隋" 。 But with the triumph of Christianity Mithraism came to a sudden end.但隨著凱旋的基督教mithraism來到突然結束。 Under Julian it had with other pagan cults a short revival.朱利安下,它同其他異教邪教短期內復甦。 The pagans of Alexandria lynched George the Arian, bishop of the city, for attempting to build a church over a Mithras cave near the town.異教徒亞歷山大私刑喬治的阿里安主教,市,企圖建立一個教會的一個洞穴mithras鎮附近。 The laws of Theodosius I signed its death warrant.法律theodosius我簽名它的死刑令。 The magi walled up their sacred caves; and Mithra has no martyrs to rival the martyrs who died for Christ.賢士寨了自己的神聖洞穴和密特拉沒有烈士對手烈士殉難基督。

DOCTRINE學說

The first principle or highest God was according to Mithraism "Infinite Time"; this was called Aion or Saeculum, Kronos or Saturnus.第一個原則還是最高的神,是根據mithraism "無限時間" ,這是所謂的aion或saeculum , kronos或圖耳努斯。 This Kronos is none other than Zervan, an ancient Iranian conception, which survived the sharp dualism of Zoroaster; for Zervan was father of both Ormuzd and Ahriman and connected the two opposites in a higher unity and was still worshipped a thousand years later by the Manichees.這kronos莫過於zervan ,那是一個古老的伊朗構想中,其中存活急劇二元論zoroaster ; zervan是父親的兩個ormuzd和ahriman並連接兩個對立面,在一個更高的統一,並且仍在崇拜1000年後,由manichees 。 This personified Time, ineffable, sexless, passionless, was represented by a human monster, with the head of a lion and a serpent coiled about his body.這一人格化的時候,無法形容, sexless , passionless ,是代表了一個人的怪獸,頭一個獅子與蛇纏繞他的身體。 He carried a sceptre and lightning as sovereign god and held in each hand a key as master of the heavens.他進行了權杖和閃電作為主權上帝被關押在每個手中的一個關鍵,因為師父的蒼穹。 He had two pair of wings to symbolize the swiftness of time.他曾2雙翅膀,象徵著快捷的時間。 His body was covered with zodiacal signs and the emblems of the seasons (ie Chaldean astrology combined with Zervanism).他的屍體被覆蓋zodiacal標誌和徽章的季節(即加爾丁占星術結合zervanism ) 。 This first principle begat Heaven and Earth, which in turn begat their son and equal, Ocean.這第一條原則begat天地,這反過來又begat自己的親生兒子和平等,海洋。 As in the European legend, Heaven or Jupiter (Oromasdes) succeeds Kronos.作為在歐洲的傳奇,天堂或木星( oromasdes )成功kronos 。 Earth is the Speñta Armaiti of the Persians or the Juno of the Westerns, Ocean is Apam-Napat or Neptune.地球是speñta愛爾麥蒂的波斯人或160的西方人,海洋是apam -那婆特或海王星。 The Persian names were not forgotten, though the Greek and Roman ones were habitually used.波斯姓名沒有被遺忘,儘管希臘和古羅馬時期的人習慣於使用。 Ahura Mazda and Spenta Armaiti gave birth to a great number of lesser deities and heroes: Artagnes (Hercules), Sharevar (Mars), Atar (Vulcan), Anaitis (Cybele), and so on.阿胡拉馬自達和spenta愛爾麥蒂誕生了一個偉大的人數較少神和英雄: artagnes (大力士) , sharevar (火星) ,阿塔爾(火神) , anaitis (神母) ,等等。 On the other hand there was Pluto, or Ahriman, also begotten of Infinite Time.在另一方面,有冥王星,或ahriman ,也是造物主的無限時間。 The Incarnate Evil rose with the army of darkness to attack and dethrone Oromasdes.肉身邪惡玫瑰與陸軍黑暗的攻擊和擊垮oromasdes 。 They were however thrown back into hell, whence they escape, wander over the face of the earth and afflict man.然而,他們回复到地獄,何時他們逃脫,徜徉在地球的表面和折磨的人。 It is man's duty to worship the four simple elements, water and fire, air and earth, which in the main are man's friends.從根本上講,人的職責,以供奉四個簡單的元素,水與火,空氣,泥土,而這主要是人類的朋友。 The seven planets likewise were beneficent deities.七個行星同樣好意神佛。 The souls of men, which were all created together from the beginning and which at birth had but to descend from the empyrean heaven to the bodies prepared for them, received from the seven planets their passions and characteristics.亡靈的男人,而且他們都共同創造了從一開始就與它出生時,但已下降,從empyrean天上的機構準備對他們來說,收到來自全國七個星球他們的激情和特色。 Hence the seven days of the week were dedicated to the planets, seven metals were sacred to them, seven rites of initiation were made to perfect the Mithraist, and so on.因此, 7天的一周內被專門用於行星,七個金屬神聖的,他們七禮儀啟動了完善mithraist ,等等。 As evil spirits ever lie in wait for hapless man, he needs a friend and saviour who is Mithra.作為邪靈有史以來在於等待不幸的人,他需要一個朋友和救星誰是密特拉。 Mithra was born of a mother-rock by a river under a tree.密特拉出生在日本一個母親-岩一河下一棵樹。 He came into the world with the Phrygian cap on his head (hence his designation as Pileatus, the Capped One), and a knife in his hand.他來到融入世界與phrygian上限,他的頭(因此他被指定為pileatus ,上限一) ,並用刀在自己的手中。 It is said that shepherds watched his birth, but how this could be, considering there were no men on earth, is not explained.有消息稱,牧羊人觀看了他的誕生,但如何可以做到這一點,考慮到有沒有男人在地球上,是沒有解釋。 The hero-god first gives battle to the sun, conquers him, crowns him with rays and makes him his eternal friend and fellow; nay, the sun becomes in a sense Mithra's double, or again his father, but Helios Mithras is one god.英雄神給人的第一戰,太陽,征服他,無所不能,他與射線和使他成為他永恆的朋友和研究員;不僅如此,太陽變成在一定意義上密特拉的兩倍,或再次他的父親,但太陽神mithras就是上帝。 Then follows the struggle between Mithra and the bull, the central dogma of Mithraism.接著之間的鬥爭密特拉和牛氣沖天,中央教條的mithraism 。 Ahura Mazda had created a wild bull which Mithra pursued, overcame, and dragged into his cave.阿胡拉馬自達創造了一個野生牛市,其中密特拉追求形式,克服了,並拖進他的洞穴。 This wearisome journey with the struggling bull towards the cave is the symbol of man's troubles on earth.這個疲倦的旅程與掙扎的公牛,對洞窟是象徵人的麻煩,在地球上。 Unfortunately, the bull escapes from the cave, whereupon Ahura Mazda sends a crow with a message to Mithra to find and slay it.不幸的是,公牛逃出洞穴,在這種情況下阿胡拉馬自達傳達了一個烏鴉一個訊息,以密特拉找到斬。 Mithra reluctantly obeys, and plunges his dagger into the bull as it returns to the cave.密特拉勉強服從,並重挫,他的匕首進入牛市,因為它返回到洞窟。 Strange to say, from the body of the dying bull proceeds all wholesome plants and herbs that cover the earth, from his spinal marrow the corn, from his blood the vine, etc. The power of evil sends his unclean creatures to prevent or poison these productions but in vain.說也奇怪,從身體的亡者牛市的收益,都有益健康的植物和草本植物覆蓋大地,從他的脊椎骨髓玉米,從他的血液中畏縮不前,等權力的邪惡派他的不潔的動物,以防止或毒藥,這些製作,但不成功。 From the bull proceed all useful animals, and the bull, resigning itself to death, is transported to the heavenly spheres.從牛市進行一切有益的動物,牛氣沖天,辭職本身死刑,被運送到了天朝各個領域。 Man is now created and subjected to the malign influence of Ahriman in the form of droughts, deluges, and conflagrations, but is saved by Mithra.男子現正創造並受到了中傷的影響ahriman在形式上的旱災, deluges ,火災,但所節省的密特拉。 Finally man is well established on earth and Mithra returns to heaven.最後男子是已確定的地球和密特拉回到天堂。 He celebrates a last supper with Helios and his other companions, is taken in his fiery chariot across the ocean, and now in heaven protects his followers.他慶祝最後的晚餐,與太陽神和他的其他同伴,是在他的火氣戰車跨越大洋,現在在天上保護他的追隨者。 For the struggle between good and evil continues in heaven between the planets and stars, and on earth in the heart of man.為爭善良與邪惡繼續在天堂之間,行星和恆星,並在地球上,在心臟的男子。 Mithra is the Mediator (Mesites) between God and man.密特拉是調停者( mesites )人與上帝的。 This function first arose from the fact that as the light-god he is supposed to float midway between the upper heaven and the earth.這一功能首先出現,從一個事實,即當光之神,他是自由浮動之間的中間上部天地。 Likewise a sun-god, his planet was supposed to hold the central place amongst the seven planets.同樣,太陽神,他的這個星球本來是要舉行中央地方之間的七個星球。 The moral aspect of his mediation between god and man cannot be proven to be ancient.在道德方面,他的調停人與上帝的,不能證明是古代。 As Mazdean dualists the Mithraists were strongly inclined towards asceticism; abstention from food and absolute continence seemed to them noble and praiseworthy, though not obligatory.作為mazdean二元論了mithraists強烈傾向禁慾主義;票棄權,從食品和絕對控他們看來,崇高和值得讚賞,但並非強制性的。 They battled on Mithra's side against all impurity, against all evil within and without.他們爭奪對密特拉的方反對一切雜質,對一切邪惡內部和外部。 They believed in the immortality of the soul, sinners after death were dragged off to hell; the just passed through the seven spheres of the planets, through seven gates opening at a mystical word to Ahura Mazda, leaving at each planet a part of their lower humanity until, as pure spirits, they stood before God.他們認為,在靈魂,罪人死亡後,被拖進小康地獄;剛剛通過七個方面的行星,通過七門開在一個神秘的詞來阿胡拉馬自達,留下每一個星球的一部分,其低直到人類,為純酒精,他們站在上帝面前。 At the end of the world Mithra will descend to earth on another bull, which he will sacrifice, and mixing its fat with sacred wine he will make all drink the beverage of immortality.在去年底的世界密特拉將降臨地球,另一個牛市,而他將犧牲,並攪拌,其脂肪與神聖的酒,他將盡一切喝飲料的永生。 He will thus have proved himself Nabarses, ie "never conquered".他因此將證明自己是nabarses ,即"從未被征服" 。

WORSHIP崇拜

There were seven degrees of initiation into the mithraic mysteries.有七度的起爆到mithraic謎團。 The consecrated one (mystes) became in succession crow (corax), occult (cryphius), soldier (miles), lion (leo), Persian (Perses), solar messenger (heliodromos), and father (pater).該consecrated一( mystes )成為在繼承烏鴉( corax ) ,隱匿( cryphius ) ,士兵(英里) ,舞獅(低地球軌道) ,波斯語( perses ) ,太陽能信使( heliodromos ) ,以及父親(父親) 。 On solemn occasions they wore a garb appropriate to their name, and uttered sounds or performed gestures in keeping with what they personified.在莊嚴的場合,他們身穿的服裝,適合於他們的名字,並說出了聲音或手勢的表現符合他們的人格化。 "Some flap their wings as birds imitating the sound of a crow, others roar as lions", says Pseudo-Augustine (Quaest. Vet. N. Test. In PL, XXXIV, 2214). "有些瓣翅膀,鳥類模仿聲音的烏鴉,但其他的轟鳴聲獅" ,說:偽奧古斯丁( quaest.審核。 12月31日測試。特等,三十四, 2214 ) 。 Crows, occults and soldiers formed the lower orders, a sort of catechumens; lions and those admitted to the other degrees were participants of the mysteries.烏鴉, occults官兵組成較低的訂單,一種新慕道者;獅子和那些承認對方學位與會者的奧秘。 The fathers conducted the worship.父親進行崇拜。 The chief of the fathers, a sort of pope, who always lived at Rome, was called "Pater Patrum" or Pater Patratus." The members below the degree of pater called one another "brother," and social distinctions were forgotten in Mithraic unity. The ceremonies of initiation for each degree must have been elaborate, but they are only vaguely known -- lustrations and bathings, branding with red-hot metal, anointing with honey, and others. A sacred meal was celebrated of bread and haoma juice for which in the West wine was substituted. This meal was supposed to give the participants super-natural virtue. The Mithraists worshipped in caves, of which a large number have been found. There were five at Ostia alone, but they were small and could perhaps hold at most 200 persons. In the apse of the cave stood the stone representation of Mithra slaying the bull, a piece of sculpture usually of mediocre artistic merit and always made after the same Pergamean model. The light usually fell through openings in the top as the caves were near the surface of the ground. A hideous monstrosity representing Kronos was also shown. A fire was kept perpetually burning in the sanctuary. Three times a day prayer was offered the sun toward the east, south, or west according to the hour. Sunday was kept holy in honour of Mithra, and the sixteenth of each month was sacred to him as mediator. The 25 December was observed as his birthday, the natalis invicti, the rebirth of the winter-sun, unconquered by the rigours of the season. A Mithraic community was not merely a religious congregation; it was a social and legal body with its decemprimi, magistri, curatores, defensores, and patroni. These communities allowed no women as members. Women might console themselves by forming associtions to worship Anaitis-Cybele; but whether these were associated with Mithraism seems doubtful. No proof of immorality or obscene practices, so often connected with esoteric pagan cults, has ever been established against Mithraism; and as far as can be ascertained, or rather conjectured it had an elevating and invigorating effect on its followers. From a chance remark of Tertullian (De Praescriptione, xl) we gather that their "Pater Patrum" was only allowed to be married once, and that Mithraism had its virgines and continentes; such at least seems the best interpretation of the passage. If, however, Dieterich's Mithras's liturgy be really a liturgy of this sect, as he ably maintains, its liturgy can only strike us as a mixture of bombast and charlatanism in which the mystes has to hold his sides, and roar to the utmost of his power till he is exhausted, to whistle, smack his lips, and pronounce barbaric agglomerations of syllables as the different mystic signs for the heavens and the constellations are unveiled to him.行政的父親,是一種教宗,他們一直生活在羅馬,被稱為"父親patrum "或父親patratus "成員低於一定程度的父親所謂的一個又一個"兄弟" ,與社會的區別被遺忘在mithraic團結該儀式的啟動為每度必須是被闡釋,但他們只是含糊地稱為-l ustrations和b athings,品牌與紅鐵水, a nointing與蜂蜜等。肩負著神聖的膳食是慶祝的麵包和h aoma汁這在西方葡萄酒取代了,這飯本來是要請他參加超級自然的美德。 mithraists崇拜在山洞裡,其中有一大批已發現有五口單,但它們小,並可能或許持有最多200人,在apse的洞窟站在石頭代表性的密特拉殺牛氣沖天,一塊雕刻通常平庸的藝術價值,並始終作出後,同時pergamean模式。輕通常下跌透過開口頂部為山洞靠近地面。醜惡的怪物代表kronos也可見一斑。失火被關在永恆燃燒的聖殿。每日3次祈禱是提供太陽對東,南,西,或按一小時。週日被關在神聖光榮的密特拉,並第十六每個月的是神聖的,以他作為調解人。 12月25日被觀察到,因為他的生日,陳百祥invicti ,重生的冬季蓀, unconquered由嚴酷的季節。 mithraic社區不僅是一個宗教會眾,這是一個社會和法律機構,其decemprimi , magistri , curatores ,保衛,並帕特羅尼這些社區,讓沒有女性成員,她們可能會安慰自己,形成associtions崇拜anaitis -神母,但這些病例是否與mithraism似乎令人懷疑。沒有證據證明是不道德或色情行為,所以往往與深奧異教邪教組織的時候,都建立了對mithraism ;據可稽考,或者更確切地說,猜測,它有提升和振興的影響及其追隨者,從機會的言論,戴爾都良(德praescriptione ,四十) ,我們聚在一起,他們的"父親patrum "只准結婚,有一次,並mithraism有其virgines和continentes ;此類至少看來最好的解釋通過。但是,如果dieterich的mithras的禮儀中予以真是一個禮儀中的這一節,因為他出色地保持著它的禮儀中,只能罷工,我們作為一個混合bombast和charlatanism其中mystes已舉辦他的兩岸,轟鳴聲,以最大的權力,直到他精疲力竭,以哨子,好像覺得他的嘴唇,並宣稱野蠻群的音節,因為不同的神秘標誌,老天爺和星座的火箭彈和迫擊砲彈給他。

RELATION TO CHRISTIANITY有關基督教

A similarity between Mithra and Christ struck even early observers, such as Justin, Tertullian, and other Fathers, and in recent times has been urged to prove that Christianity is but an adaptation of Mithraism, or at most the outcome of the same religious ideas and aspirations (eg Robertson, "Pagan Christs", 1903).相似之處密特拉和基督擊中就算是早期的觀察員,如賈斯汀,戴爾都良,以及其他教父,最近一個時期一直呼籲,以證明基督教不過是一個適應的mithraism ,或最多的成果,同時宗教思想和願望(如羅伯遜, "異教的基督" , 1903年) 。 Against this erroneous and unscientific procedure, which is not endorsed by the greatest living authority on Mithraism, the following considerations must be brought forward.針對這種錯誤的,不科學的程序,這是沒有表示贊同,由在世的最偉大的權威mithraism ,以下考慮,也必須提前。 (1) Our knowledge regarding Mithraism is very imperfect; some 600 brief inscriptions, mostly dedicatory, some 300 often fragmentary, exiguous, almost identical monuments, a few casual references in the Fathers or Acts of the Martyrs, and a brief polemic against Mithraism which the Armenian Eznig about 450 probably copied from Theodore of Mopsuestia (d. 428) who lived when Mithraism was almost a thing of the past -- these are our only sources, unless we include the Avesta in which Mithra is indeed mentioned, but which cannot be an authority for Roman Mithraism with which Christianity is compared. ( 1 )我們的知識就mithraism還很不完善;約600簡短碑文,大多是奉獻,約有300名往往殘缺不全,微細,幾乎相同的紀念碑,有幾個散提到,在父親或行為的先烈,並簡要論戰對mithraism其中亞美尼亞eznig約450大概是抄襲西奧多的摩普綏提亞(四428 )的人住的時候, mithraism幾乎是過去的事-這是我們唯一的消息來源,除非我們包括a vesta中密特拉的確提過,但不能是一個權力機構,為羅馬mithraism與基督教相比。 Our knowledge is mostly ingenious guess-work; of the real inner working of Mithraism and the sense in which it was understood by those who professed it at the advent of Christianity, we know nothing.我們的知識大多是巧妙猜工作;了真正的黨內工作的mithraism和責任感,在它被理解為是由那些自稱它的來臨,基督教,我們一無所知。 (2) Some apparent similarities exist; but in a number of details it is quite probable that Mithraism was the borrower from Christianity. ( 2 )一些明顯的相似性存在,但在一些細節上,是相當有可能mithraism是借款人從基督教。 Tertullian about 200 could say: "hesterni sumus et omnia vestra implevimus" ("we are but of yesterday, yet your whole world is full of us").戴爾都良約200名,可以說: " hesterni sumus等OMNIA公司vestra implevimus " (下稱"我們正,但到昨日為止,但你對整個世界充滿了我們" ) 。 It is not unnatural to suppose that a religion which filled the whole world, should have been copied at least in some details by another religion which was quite popular during the third century.這不是違反自然規律去假定一個宗教填補了整個世界,都應當被複製,至少在某些細節,是由另一種宗教,這是頗為流行的在第三個世紀。 Moreover the resemblances pointed out are superficial and external.此外相似之處指出,是表面的和外來的。 Similarity in words and names is nothing; it is the sense that matters.相似字和名稱是什麼,它是意義上的事宜。 During these centuries Christianity was coining its own technical terms, and naturally took names, terms, and expressions current in that day; and so did Mithraism.在這幾個世紀基督教鑄幣了自己的技術條件和自然的名稱,術語,並表達目前在這一天,所以沒有mithraism 。 But under identical terms each system thought its own thoughts.不過,根據相同的條件,每個系統思考自己的想法。 Mithra is called a mediator; and so is Christ; but Mithra originally only in a cosmogonic or astronomical sense; Christ, being God and man, is by nature the Mediator between God and man.密特拉是所謂的調停人;等,是基督,但密特拉原先只有在一個cosmogonic或天文學意義;基督,是神與人,是由大自然之間的調停人與上帝。 And so in similar instances.因此,在類似的例子。 Mithraism had a Eucharist, but the idea of a sacred banquet is as old as the human race and existed at all ages and amongst all peoples. mithraism了聖體聖事,但理念的一個神聖的宴會一樣古老的人類,存在於各年齡和各人民。 Mithra saved the world by sacrificing a bull; Christ by sacrificing Himself.密特拉挽救了世界犧牲牛市;基督犧牲自己。 It is hardly possible to conceive a more radical difference than that between Mithra taurochtonos and Christ crucified.這是幾乎不可能設想,一個更激進的差異比之間的密特拉taurochtonos和耶穌被釘十字架。 Christ was born of a Virgin; there is nothing to prove that the same was believed of Mithra born from the rock.基督出生在日本一個處女和有沒有什麼證明,同時被認為的密特拉出生,從岩石中。 Christ was born in a cave; and Mithraists worshipped in a cave, but Mithra was born under a tree near a river.基督出生在一個洞穴; mithraists崇拜在一個山洞,但密特拉生於下一棵樹附近的一條河流。 Much as been made of the presence of adoring shepherds; but their existence on sculptures has not been proven, and considering that man had not yet appeared, it is an anachronism to suppose their presence.雖然取得了在場的崇拜牧羊人,但它們的存在對雕塑卻並未得到證實,並認為,這名男子還沒有出現,這是一個時代錯誤地假設他們的存在。 (3) Christ was an historical personage, recently born in a well known town of Judea, and crucified under a Roman governor, whose name figured in the ordinary official lists. ( 3 )耶穌是一個歷史人物,最近出生在一個眾所周知的鎮朱迪亞,與被釘十字架下的羅馬總督,他的名字揣摩,在普通的官員名單。 Mithra was an abstraction, a personification not even of the sun but of the diffused daylight; his incarnation, if such it may be called, was supposed to have happened before the creation of the human race, before all history.密特拉是一個抽象的,人格化甚至沒有的太陽,而是瀰漫白天,他的化身,如它可稱為,本來是要發生之前,創造人類之前,這些都已成為歷史。 The small Mithraic congregations were like masonic lodges for a few and for men only and even those mostly of one class, the military; a religion that excludes the half of the human race bears no comparison to the religion of Christ.小mithraic教友一樣濟客棧了幾年,而男子只有甚至那些大多是一個階級,軍隊;宗教排斥一半的人類負有無法相比,以宗教的真理。 Mithraism was all comprehensive and tolerant of every other cult, the Pater Patrum himself was an adept in a number of other religions; Christianity was essential exclusive, condemning every other religion in the world, alone and unique in its majesty. mithraism是所有綜合性和包容每一個其他邪教,父親patrum自己是一個善於在許多其他宗教的;基督教是必不可少的專訪,譴責一切其他宗教,在世界上僅和其獨特的陛下。

Publication information Written by JP Arendzen.出版信息書面由JP arendzen 。 Transcribed by John Looby.轉錄約翰looby 。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.天主教百科全書,體積十, 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. nihil obstat , 1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

CUMONT, "Notes sur un temple Mithraique d'Ostie" (Ghent, 1891); IDEM, "Textes et Monuments figures relat. Aux Mysteres de Mithra" (2 vols., Brussels, 1896-1899); IDEM, "Les Mysteres de Mithra" (2nd., Paris, 1902), tr.庫蒙, "注sur聯合國廟mithraique -o stie" (根特, 1 891年) ;同上" ,文本等古蹟數字相對。輔助m ysteres德密特拉" ( 2卷,布魯塞爾, 1 896年至1 899年) ;同上, "就業輔導組m ysteres德密特拉" ( 2nd. ,巴黎, 1902年)的TR 。 McCormack (London, 1903); IDEM, "Religions Orientales dans le Paganisme Romain" (Paris, 1906); MARTINDALE, "The Religion of Mithra" in "The Month" (1908, Oct., Nov., Dec.); IDEM, "The Religion of Mithra" in "Lectures on the Hist. Of Religions", II (CTS, London, 1910); DILL, "Roman Society from Nero to M. Aurelius" (London, 1904); ST.-CLAIR-TISDALL, "Mythic Christs and the True"; DIETERICH, Eine Mithrasliturgie (Leipzig, 1903); RAMSAY, "The Greek of the early Church and the Pagan Ritual" (Edinburgh, 1898-9); BLOTZER, "Das hedn. Mysterienwesen und die Hellenisierung des Christenthums" in "Stimmen aus Maria-Laach" (1906-7); ALES, "Mithraicisme et Christianisme" in "Revue Pratique d'Apologétique" (Pris, 1906-7); WEILAND, "Anklange der christl. Tauflehre an die Mithraischen Mystagogie" (Munich, 1907); GASQUET, "Essai sur le culte et les mysteres de Mithra" (Paris, 1890.麥考馬克(倫敦, 1903年) ;同上, "宗教orientales dans樂paganisme羅曼" (巴黎, 1906年) ;馬丁, "宗教的密特拉" , "月" ( 1908年10月, 11月, 12月) ;同上"宗教的密特拉" ,在"講學於歷史。宗教" ,第二章(華視,倫敦, 1910年) ;迪爾, "羅馬社會,從Nero的,以米奧勒" (倫敦, 1904年) ,聖-克萊爾- tisdall , "神話基督和真正的" ; dieterich , eine mithrasliturgie (萊比錫, 1903年) ;拉姆齊, "希臘的早期教會和異教儀式" (愛丁堡, 1898-9 ) ; blotzer "之hedn 。 mysterienwesen und模具hellenisierung萬christenthums "中的" stimmen澳大利亞瑪麗亞- laach " ( 1906-7 ) ;麥芽啤酒, " mithraicisme等christianisme "中的"實用雜誌-a pologétique" ( p ris, 1 906-7) ; w eiland, " a nklange明鏡c hristl。 t auflehre一個模具mithraischen mystagogie " (慕尼黑, 1907年) ;賽, " essai sur樂culte等就業輔導組mysteres德密特拉" (巴黎, 1890 。


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