Mahayana Buddhism大乘佛教

General Information 一般資料

Introduction導言

Mahayana Buddhism (Sanskrit for "Greater Vehicle"), along with Theravada Buddhism, are the two principal branches of Buddhist belief. 大乘佛教 (梵語為"大汽車" ) ,隨著theravada佛教,是兩個主要分支的佛教信仰。 Mahayana originated in India and subsequently spread throughout China, Korea, Japan, Tibet, Central Asia, Vietnam, and Taiwan.大乘起源於印度,後來傳遍整個中國,韓國,日本,西藏,中亞,越南和台灣。 Followers of Mahayana have traditionally regarded their doctrine as the full revelation of the nature and teachings of the Buddha, in opposition to the earlier Theravada tradition, which they characterize as the Lesser Vehicle ( Hinayana ).追隨者的大乘有傳統上被認為是它們的學說作為全部啟示的性質和佛陀的教誨,反對較早theravada傳統,他們形容為較輕車輛( 小乘 ) 。

In contrast to the relative conservatism of earlier Buddhist schools, which adhered closely to the recognized teachings of the historical Buddha, Mahayana embraces a wider variety of practices, has a more mythological view of what a Buddha is, and addresses broader philosophical issues.相比之下,以相對保守的較早的佛教學校,堅持密切公認的教義歷史佛陀,大乘包含了一個更多元化的做法,有更多的神話鑑於一個什麼樣的佛像,和地址更廣泛的哲學問題。

Two major Mahayana schools arose in India: Madhyamika (Middle Path) and Vijñanavada (Consciousness Only; also known as Yogachara ).兩大大乘學校出現在印度: 中觀 (中間路線)和vijñanavada (只意識,也稱為yogachara ) 。 With the spread of Mahayana Buddhism beyond India, other indigenous schools appeared, such as Pure Land Buddhism and Zen .與蔓延的大乘佛教超越印度外,其他土著學校出現了,如淨土宗禪宗

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Origins and Development起源與發展

The most probable forerunners of Mahayana were the Mahasanghikas (Followers of the Great Assembly), a liberal branch of the Buddhist community that broke away from the more conservative mainstream some time before the reign of Indian king Ashoka in the 3rd century BC.最有可能的先輩的大乘人mahasanghikas (追隨者的偉大大會) ,一個自由分行佛教界認為,衝破了較為保守的主流,前一段時間一直對印度國王阿蘇迦在3世紀公元前。 Mahayana thinkers of later periods categorized the Mahasanghikas as one of the 18 schools of Hinayana Buddhism, but when Mahayana first emerged, it resembled Mahasanghika in several areas of doctrinal interpretation.大乘思想家的後期劃分為mahasanghikas之一, 18所學校的小乘佛教,不過,當大乘首次出現,它類似於mahasanghika在若干領域的理論解釋。 The most significant Mahayana innovation was the view of the Buddha as a supernatural being who assumed a transformation body (nirmana-kaya) to be born as the historical Buddha.最顯著的大乘創新是鑑於佛陀作為神靈的人,擺出一副轉化體( nirmana -克耶邦)將出生的,因為歷史佛祖。

Precisely when and where Mahayana arose in India is unclear, but its origin can be traced to between the 2nd century BC and the 1st century AD.正是在何時何地出現了大乘佛教在印度是不明確的,但它的起源可以追溯至二世紀和公元前一世紀的廣告。 The early growth of Mahayana was promoted by Indian philosopher Nagarjuna, who founded the Madhyamika school.早期生長的大乘晉升為印度哲學家nagarjuna ,創立了中觀學校。 His influential writings provide some of the most persuasive early formulations of Mahayana.他的有影響的著作提供了一些最有說服力的早期配方的大乘。 The Madhyamika school proliferated into a number of sects, and was carried to China in the early 5th century by Buddhist missionary Kumarajiva, who translated Nagarjuna's work into Chinese.在中觀學校繁衍成若干教派,並進行了以中國在5世紀初,由佛教傳教鳩摩羅什,誰翻譯nagarjuna的工作成中文。 By 625 Madhyamika had reached Japan by way of Korea, though everywhere it remained more influential among the scholarly elite than the common people.由625名觀已達到日本的方式,韓國,雖然到處仍具有影響力之間的學術精英比普通百姓。

The Pure Land school of Mahayana, based on the 1st-century Sukhavativyuha Sutra (Pure Land Sutra; a sutra is a writing that purports to record a discourse of the Buddha), was established in China in the 4th century by Chinese scholar Huiyuan, who formed a devotional society for meditating on the name of Amitabha Buddha (Buddha of Infinite Light). 淨土學大乘的基礎上,第1世紀無量壽經(淨土經文;經文是一個書面說明意圖來記錄話語大佛) ,是在中國設立的,在4世紀由中國學者匯源,誰形成了靈學會沉思的名字彌陀佛(佛陀的無限輕) 。 This sect grew and spread through the 6th and 7th centuries, especially among the common people.本節長大繁育,然後通過第6次和第7次百年來,特別是普通百姓。

The Vijñanavada (Consciousness Only) school maintained that consciousness alone is real.vijñanavada (意識) ,學校堅持認為意識僅是真實的。 Vijñanavada first arose in India about the 4th century and was taken to China two centuries later by Chinese monk and pilgrim Xuanzang (Hsuan-tsang). vijñanavada第一次出現在印度大約4世紀,被帶到中國兩個世紀後,由中國僧人和朝聖者玄奘(璇曾) 。 A Japanese disciple, Dosho, who arrived to study with him in 653, conveyed it to Japan.一位日本弟子, dosho ,抵達學習與他在653個,運送到日本。 A native Chinese Mahayana school, Avatamsaka (Huayan in Chinese), was established in the 7th century by Chinese monk Dushun around a Chinese translation of its basic text, the Avatamsaka Sutra (Garland Sutra).土生土長的中國大乘學校, avatamsaka (華燕中文) ,成立於公元7世紀,中國僧人dushun左右中文譯本的,其基本文本, avatamsaka經文(加蘭經文) 。 The school reached Korea in the late 7th century, and between 725 and 740 was carried to Japan, where it was known as Kegon.學校達成了韓國在晚7世紀之間,以及725和740進行了以日本,它被稱為華嚴。 Another important Chinese school, the Tiantai (Tendai in Japanese), was founded by Chinese monk Zhiyi, who organized the entire Buddhist canon around the cardinal Mahayana scripture, the Saddharmapundarika Sutra (Lotus Sutra).另一項重要的中文學校,天台宗(天台宗日語) ,是由中國僧人志毅,世衛組織組織整個佛教佳能左右樞機大乘經文, saddharmapundarika經(法華經) 。 This school became very influential in China and Korea, and also in Japan, where it served as a means for introducing Pure Land doctrines.這所學校成了非常有影響力,在中國和韓國,並在日本,它是作為一種手段,引入淨土教義。

The Mahayana school called Dhyana (Sanskrit for "meditation"; known in Chinese as Chan and in Japanese as Zen ) was supposedly introduced into China in 520 by Indian monk Bodhidharma, but actually arose from cross-fertilization between Mahayana and Chinese Daoism (Taoism). Chan split into a number of schools and was introduced into Korea and into Japan in the 7th century, though its full development occurred later.大乘學校所謂的禪宗 (梵語為"打坐" ;眾所周知,在中國,作為和在日本作為禪宗 ) ,是假定傳入中國,在520個印度僧人菩提達摩,但實際上產生的,從兩岸之間的施肥大乘與中國道家(道教) 。陳分成了一些學校,並介紹到韓國和日本後,在公元7世紀,但其充分發展後,發生了。 Zen and Pure Land both spread into Vietnam (under Chinese rule at the time) in the 6th century.禪宗和淨土都蔓延到越南(中國統治下,在時間)在50-59世紀。 Beginning in the 7th century the Indian form of Mahayana Buddhism was gradually introduced into Tibet (see Lamaism / Tibetan Buddhism).一開始,在公元7世紀,印度的大乘佛教是逐步推行到西藏(見喇嘛教/藏傳佛教) 。

Mahayana thus was established as the dominant Buddhist school of East Asia by about the 7th century.大乘從而確立為主導的佛教學校,東亞大約公元7世紀。 Some Mahayana influences penetrated into Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and other Southeast Asian countries - for example, the great Cambodian monuments of Angkor Thum reflect a 12th-century Mahayana tradition.一些大乘的影響滲透到斯里蘭卡,印尼和其他東南亞國家-例如,偉大的柬埔寨古蹟吳哥窟的t hum反映1 2世紀大乘傳統。 These influences were later superseded by Theravada, Hinduism, and Islam.這些影響,後來被取代theravada ,印度教和伊斯蘭教。

Buddhism in China suffered persecution under the emperor Wuzong in 845, and subsequently was overshadowed by the state cult of Confucianism, but remained an integral part of Chinese life.佛教在中國遭受的迫害下,明武宗在845 ,隨後被蒙上了由國家崇拜儒家思想,但仍然是一個不可分割的一部分,中國人的生活。 In Korea, where the Zen school (known as Son in Korean) had become dominant, Mahayana flourished in the Koryo period (935-1392), but was restricted under the Yi dynasty (1392-1910).在韓國,凡禪宗學校(俗稱兒子在韓文版)已成為主導,大乘盛行,在高麗時期( 935-1392 ) ,但僅限於根據李朝( 1392-1910 ) 。 Japan supported a vibrant Mahayana culture, which after the 12th century gave rise to new Zen and Pure Land sects under such reformers as Japanese monks Dogen and Honen, as well as to Japan's only entirely indigenous Buddhist sect, Nichiren Buddhism.日本支持一個充滿活力的大乘文化,其中後, 12世紀產生了新的禪宗和淨土教派在這樣的改革者,因為日本僧人dogen和honen ,以及作為日本唯一的完全土著佛教教派中,日蓮佛法。 Japanese Mahayana lost much of its vitality in the Edo period (1600-1868), during which the Tokugawa shogunate used it for social control through registration of parishioners.日本大乘失去了不少活力,在江戶時期( 1600至1868年) ,在此期間德川幕府用它為社會控制通過登記的教友。 The anti-Buddhist policy of Japan's new rulers in the first decade following the Meiji Restoration of 1868 foreshadowed much of Mahayana's experience in the 20th century, in which Communist regimes in China, Vietnam, and North Korea prohibited worship, and in which the Chinese annexation of Tibet led to considerable persecution of Mahayana practitioners.反佛教的政策,日本新的統治者,在第一個十年以下明治維新後的1868年埋下許多大乘的經驗,在20世紀,在這共產主義政權在中國,越南,朝鮮等違禁崇拜,其中中國併吞西藏導致相當多的迫害大乘練習者。 The easing of doctrinaire Communism led to a revival of Mahayana in some of these areas.緩解教條的共產主義,導致死灰復燃大乘在上述某些領域。 Mahayana has also spread into new territory with the growing popularity in the West of Zen and other Mahayana schools.大乘也蔓延到新的版圖與日益普及,在西方的禪宗與其他大乘學校。

Organization組織

Within the Mahayana tradition, the notion of the sangha, or Buddhist monastic community, is much broader and less restrictive than in early Buddhism.與大乘的傳統文化中,這一概念的僧伽,或佛教寺院的社會,是更為廣泛和限制性較小,較早期的佛教。 Mahayana takes as its ideal the path of the bodhisattva - one who aspires to bodhi, or enlightenment.大乘需作為其理想的道路上的菩薩-一個人渴望菩薩,或啟迪。 Since this ideal can be pursued by both monks and lay believers, the Mahayana sangha includes both laity and monks.自從這個理想可以追求的兩名喇嘛奠定信徒,大乘僧伽既包括平信徒和僧侶。 Monks follow the rules of one of the Vinayas (prescriptions for monastic life) in the Tipitaka, the sacred canon of Theravada, but do so through the Mahayana interpretation.僧侶要遵守交通規則其中的vinayas (處方修道生活)在三藏,神聖佳能的theravada ,但這樣做的是通過大乘的解釋。 Monks also take a vow to strive to become a bodhisattva, and those who pursue the esoteric practices of Tantric Buddhism receive Tantric vows and initiations (see Tantra).和尚也採取發誓要力爭成為菩薩,而那些追求深奧的做法密宗佛教密宗接受誓言和項(見tantra ) 。

Although Mahayana monks generally follow the Buddhist rules of poverty and celibacy, some sects - notably the Japanese Shin sect of Pure Land Buddhism - permit clerical marriage.雖然大乘僧侶普遍遵循佛教的規則貧窮和獨身,一些教派-尤其是日本新光節淨土佛教-許可文書婚姻。 In pre-modern China, an aspiring monk was traditionally admitted on probation for one year before becoming a novice, often the limit of progress for those without government connections.在近代以前的中國,一個有抱負的和尚傳統上承認接受感化一年前成為新聞,往往限制的進展,為那些沒有政府的聯繫。 The unordained laity includes those who take the bodhisattva vow but who do not become monks: some may live as ordinary householders; others join religious communities with their own specific vows or Tantric initiations.該unordained俗人包括那些以菩薩發誓,但那些沒有成為僧侶:有人可能會活到普通農戶;他人加入宗教社團與自己的具體承諾或密宗項。

Relations between Mahayana sangha and governments have varied among countries with strong Mahayana traditions.關係大乘僧伽和政府有各種不同的國家之間具有強烈的大乘傳統。 In the early Tang (T'ang) dynasty in China (7th and 8th centuries), Buddhism was organized under the state, with a government commissioner for religion.我國早在唐代(唐朝) ,王朝在中國(第7次和第8次世紀) ,佛教是有組織的狀態下,同一個政府專員宗教。 However, beginning in 845, Chinese Buddhists were persecuted by the government.不過,一開始,在845名,中國佛教徒遭到迫害,由政府決定。 In Vietnam, after independence from Chinese rule was achieved in the 10th century, a Confucian bureaucracy continued to supervise monasteries.在越南,獨立後,由中國統治,是實現10世紀,儒家思想,官僚主義繼續監督寺廟。 In Japan, Buddhist temples were often powerful autonomous institutions with their own lands and armies of soldier-monks.在日本,佛教寺院往往被強大的自主機構,他們自己的土地上和軍隊中的士兵-僧侶。 After 1603 the Tokugawa regime took control of the temples and integrated them into the Japanese government.之後, 1603年德川政權,控制了寺廟,並綜合他們到日本政府。

Mahayana generally offers more hope of enlightenment for the lay believer than Theravada: the compassionate bodhisattvas can supposedly transfer their merit to worshippers; Zen is notoriously disdainful of the formalities of creed and hierarchy; the Pure Land is an interim paradise on the road to salvation attainable by the pious.大乘通常會提供更多的希望的啟示,為教友超過theravada :富有同情心,菩薩可以假定轉讓其優異善信;禪宗已是盡人皆知的蔑視手續的信條和等級;淨土,是一個臨時的天堂,對得救的道路可以實現由虔誠。 Consequently, Mahayana lay movements have abounded through the centuries.因此,大乘奠定運動abounded經過數百年。 Pure Land sects in particular tend to actively evangelize.淨土教派尤其傾向於積極教化。 In China, Pure Land groups were sometimes associated with secret societies and peasant revolts.在中國,淨土組有時同秘密社團和農民起義。 In Japan, Pure Land Buddhism became the people's version of Buddhism and periodically spawned millenarian movements (movements that looked for the establishment of an earthly paradise).在日本,淨土宗,成為人民版的佛教,並定期衍生出千禧年運動(運動,尋求建立一個人間天堂) 。 The Japanese Nichiren sect also focused on the common people and produced many lay societies of worshippers.日本日蓮節還側重於普通百姓,並產生了許多業外人士社團的信徒。 The extreme of Mahayana lay participation is perhaps Japan's Sôka Gakkai movement, an entirely lay group with definite secular aims and a policy of aggressive evangelization.極端的大乘奠定參與也許是日本的sôka學會運動,完全是打好小組與世俗明確的目標和政策的咄咄逼人的福傳工作。

Doctrine學說

Mahayana goes beyond the core doctrine contained in the Theravada Tipitaka in several important respects.大乘超越核心教義載於theravada三藏在幾個重要的方面。 It accepts as canonical other sutras not in the Tipitaka; this literature is known as the Buddhavacana (Revelation of the Buddha).它接受作為典型其他經典,而不是在三藏,這文學是眾所周知的,因為buddhavacana (啟示佛陀) 。 The most notable Buddhavacana texts are the Saddharmapundarika Sutra (Lotus of the Good Law Sutra, or Lotus Sutra), the Vimalakirti Sutra, the Avatamsaka Sutra (Garland Sutra), and the Lankavatara Sutra (The Buddha's Descent to Sri Lanka Sutra), as well as a collection known as the Prajñaparamita (Perfection of Wisdom).最顯著的buddhavacana文本是saddharmapundarika經文(荷花的好法經文,或法華經) , vimalakirti經文, avatamsaka經文(加蘭經) ,以及楞伽經(佛陀的後裔斯里蘭卡經文) ,以及作為一個收集稱之為prajñaparamita (完美的智慧) 。 The Lotus Sutra helps to explain the Mahayana view of Buddhist revelation through its rendition of one of the Buddha's sermons.該法華經有助於解釋大乘期的佛教啟示通過其移交之一,佛陀的說教。 In a parable, the Buddha shows how he grants provisional revelations appropriate to the limited faculties of particular beings, until finally they are ready to receive his full revelation.在一個寓言,佛祖顯示了他的臨時補助金啟示恰當有限院系的人,尤其是,直到最後,他們都願意接受他的全部啟示。 The sutra recounts how 5000 listeners depart in arrogance before the parable is preached, thus projecting the cause of schisms in thecommunity of the faithful back to the days of the Buddha.經重新計如何五千聽眾啟程囂張之前,寓言,是鼓吹過,因此,推算的事業分裂問題,在thecommunity的信徒回到了幾天的佛祖。

Mahayana attitudes toward Buddhist teachings are in part a consequence of the Mahayana view of the Buddha.大乘態度佛教的教義有一部分是一個後果,大乘觀佛的法身。 Whereas Theravadins regarded the Buddha as a supremely enlightened man, most Mahayana thought treats him as a manifestation of a divine being.而theravadins把佛像作為一個重千鈞開明的人,最大乘思想對待,他是一個表現神的福祉。 This view was formalized as the doctrine of the threefold nature, or triple body (trikaya), of the Buddha.這個觀點的是形式化作為學說的三重性質,或三聯體( trikaya ) ,佛的法身。 The Buddha's three bodies are known as the body of essence (dharmakaya), the sum of the spiritual qualities that make him Buddha; the body of communal bliss, or enjoyment body (sambhoga-kaya), a godlike form revealed to the Mahayana initiate during contemplation; and the body of transformation (nirmana-kaya), a mortal body that appears in the transient world of death and rebirth to lead sentient beings (beings that possess senses) to enlightenment.佛陀的三具屍體被稱為人體的本質( dharmakaya ) ,總和的精神特質,使他成佛;屍體公用極樂世界,或享受身體( sambhoga -克耶邦) ,一個神聖的形式透露給大乘期間發起沉思;和身體的轉變( nirmana -克耶邦) ,一個致命的身體會出現在短暫的世界中的死亡與重生,帶領感覺的人(被認為具有感官) ,以啟迪。 The body of communal bliss appears in various manifestations, notably that of the five cosmic Buddhas, the eternal Buddhas that comprise and sustain the cosmos: Vairocana, Aksobhya, Ratnasambhava, Amitabha (or Amida), and Amoghasiddhi.身體的公用布利斯出現在各種表現形式,尤其是在五間宇宙佛像,佛像永恆的組成和維持宇宙:毘盧遮那佛, aksobhya , ratnasambhava ,彌陀(或彌陀) ,並amoghasiddhi 。 The body of essence is seen as the universal ground of being, revealed for many Mahayana believers in the Lotus Sutra; other sects regard it as present within oneself and accessible through meditation.身體的本質被看作是普遍的地面被發現,對許多大乘信徒在法華經;其他宗派把它作為當前內部自己,並通過打坐。 The historical Buddha is believed to be one transformation body emanated by the body of essence.歷史佛陀相信是一個轉型的身體所產生的身體的本質。 Consequently, his teachings can be supplemented or superseded by further revelations.因此,他的教誨,可以補充或取代了進一步的揭露。

Mahayana posits an infinite number of Buddhas, or transformation bodies and enjoyment bodies of the essential Buddha, appearing in innumerable worlds to help sentient beings reach enlightenment.大乘posits無限多的佛像,或轉型,機構和團體享有的各項基本佛像,出現在無數次的世界,以幫助情而達成的啟迪。 These Buddhas are paralleled by bodhisattvas, enlightened beings who, through compassion, delay their final passage to the transcendent state of nirvana in order to labor on behalf of universal salvation.這些佛像是平行的菩薩,開明的人,他們通過同情心,延誤了他們的最後通過,以超越國家的涅槃,以勞動密集型代表普遍救贖。 A bodhisattva can transfer his supreme merit to others, and is thus regarded in Mahayana as superior to the arhat, the ideal Theravadin who has achieved enlightenment but can do little else for other beings.一菩薩可以轉讓自己的最高價值,以他人的,因此,這是不把大乘優越於該羅漢,最理想theravadin誰取得了啟示,但可以做的很少,否則其他的人。 A Mahayana worshipper can aspire to become a bodhisattva, rising through ten stages of perfection, and approaching ever closer to Buddha's body of essence, until finally bodhisattva and essential Buddha are one.一大乘媚能夠渴望成為菩薩,上漲10個階段的完善,並接近以往任何時候都更接近佛的身體的本質,直到最後菩薩和必要的佛像是一。 Certain bodhisattvas are themselves worshipped as virtual deities.某菩薩,是自己崇拜的虛擬神佛。 These include Avalokiteshvara (Guanyin in China, where he came to be regarded as the female protector of women, children, and sailors), the personification of compassion, and Maitreya (the only bodhisattva also recognized by Theravadins), the future Buddha who waits in the Tsuhita Heaven to be reborn and lead all beings to enlightenment.這些措施包括avalokiteshvara (觀音,在中國,在那裡他來到被視為女性保護者的婦女,兒童和水手) ,人格化的同情心,以及彌勒(唯一菩薩也承認theravadins ) ,未來佛,他們在等待該tsuhita天上投胎,並導致所有的人以啟迪。 Even the Buddha Amitabha, creator of the Pure Land who leads mortals to his paradise, began as a monk who became a bodhisattva.甚至佛祖阿彌陀佛,創造淨土的人,導致凡人給他的天堂,開始了作為一名僧人,他們成了菩薩。

Another important Mahayana doctrine is the emptiness (sunyata) of all things.另一項重要的大乘論是空虛( sunyata )的所有東西。 In the formulation of Indian philosopher Nagarjuna, the familiar world of experience is the product of thought forms imposed on the Absolute, which is entirely unconditioned (not subject to limitations of any kind).在制訂印度哲學家nagarjuna ,熟悉世界的經驗,是產品的思想形式加諸於絕對的,這是完全無條件(不受到限制的任何種類) 。 These thought forms are the categories that reason creates in its attempt to apprehend the nature of reality.這些思想形式是類,因此造成了它試圖逮捕的性質現實。 Since all phenomena in the world of experience depend upon these constructs of reason, they are purely relative and therefore ultimately unreal.因為所有的現象,在世界上的經驗,取決於這些構造的原因,他們純粹是相對的,因此,最終是不現實的。 The Absolute, on the other hand, is empty in the sense that it is totally devoid of artificial conceptual distinctions.絕對的,但另一方面,是空的,在這個意義上講,它是完全沒有人工的概念區分。 This teaching was variously interpreted, with the Vijñanavada school maintaining that nothing exists outside the mind.這種教學,是各種不同的解釋,與vijñanavada學校堅持認為沒有存在外界頭腦。 The teaching's most influential version holds that there is an eternal, mutually sustaining dialectic between the Absolute and relative reality: although phenomena are false and void in absolute terms, they are true and real in relative terms.教學中的最有影響力的版本,認為是一個永恆的,相輔相成的辯證維持之間的絕對和相對的現實:儘管現象是虛假的和無效的,在絕對數量來看,他們是真正的和真實相對而言。 The Mahayana goal was to transcend these opposites in ultimate enlightenment.大乘目標是要超越這些對立的終極啟示。 This doctrine made Zen and other schools turn from the practice of renunciation and withdrawal to embrace the world in the belief that nirvana could be found within the transience (samsara) of ordinary life.這一學說所作的禪宗與其他學校把從實踐中的放棄和退出,去擁抱世界,相信涅槃,可以發現內部的瞬態(輪迴)的普通生活。

Within the Buddhist tradition, Mahayana has produced important innovations in three principal areas.按照佛教傳統,大乘已產生了重要的創新,在三個主要領域。 The first area concerns the spiritual goal of Buddhism.第一個領域涉及精神目標的佛法。 The ideal of the arhat (taught by the historical Buddha to his immediate disciples) was replaced in Mahayana by the bodhisattva ideal, regarded as superior and open to all followers.理想的羅漢(教所歷史佛陀以他的切身弟子)所取代,在大乘經菩薩理想,但被視為優越,開放給所有的信徒。 Every person who professes Mahayana Buddhism can take the bodhisattva vow, which expresses the aspiration to attain enlightenment just as the Buddha did and to help all beings on their way to nirvana.每個人自稱大乘佛教,可以採取菩薩發誓,它體現了心願,以達到啟示,正如佛陀當時並幫助所有的人對他們的方式來涅槃。 The bodhisattva path can be undertaken in either a monastic or a secular context, depending on individual circumstances.該菩薩路徑可以在無論是寺院還是一個世俗的背景下,視乎個別情況而定。

The second area of Mahayana innovation concerns the interpretation of the Buddha's nature.第二個方面的大乘創新關切詮釋佛陀的性質。 In addition to producing a systematic doctrine of the various Buddha bodies, Mahayana practitioners have accepted the existence of countless Buddhas who preside over countless universes.除了製作一個有系統的理論認識各種佛像機構,大乘練習者已經接受了存在的無數佛像,他們主持了無數的宇宙。 These divine beings are far different from the single supremely gifted yet mortal human sage whom Theravada Buddhists revere as the sole originator of their faith.這些神有很大的不同,從單一的重千鈞天才,但致命的人類先哲其中theravada佛教徒尊崇作為唯一的發端侮辱他們的信仰。

The third area of Mahayana innovation covers doctrine and philosophy.第三方面的大乘創新涵蓋理論和哲學。 Early Buddhists rejected the existence of any permanent self or soul (atman) and taught the no-soul (anatman) theory.早期佛教徒拒絕存在任何永久性自我或靈魂(阿特曼) ,並教無魂( anatman )理論。 However, they also accepted the reality of the elements (dharmas) of existence.然而,他們也接受了這個現實的要素( dharmas )的存在。 A famous example of this duality is the early Buddhist parable of the cart: the components of a cart exist, but the cart itself, being a mere concept, does not exist.一個著名的例子,這種雙重性,是早期佛教寓言的購物車:組成一個購物車存在,但車本身,作為一個純粹的概念,是不存在的。 Similarly, the components or aggregates of living beings exist, but the single permanent entity (atman) postulated as uniting them does not.同樣,部件或聚集體的生物存在,但單永久實體(阿特曼)的假設,因為他們團結到沒有。 The Mahayana sutras and their interpreters rejected this realistic and limited interpretation.大乘經典,以及他們的口譯員拒絕了這一現實的和有限的解釋。 They reaffirmed the nonexistence of the soul, but also denied the existence of the components.他們重申,不存在性的靈魂,而且也否認存在的組件。 They argued that since there is no permanent foundation beneath or within all things, the things themselves do not and indeed cannot exist.他們認為,既然沒有永久地基下方,或在所有的事情,事情本身並不確實不能存在。 This doctrinal position is encapsulated in Madhyamika school's doctrine of sunyata, discussed earlier.這一理論的立場是包覆在中觀學的學說sunyata ,前面所討論的。 The concept of emptiness in its basic scope means that all things and their characteristics are deprived (empty) of reality and individual existence.這個概念的空虛,在它的基本範圍,也就是說,所有的東西和他們的特徵是被剝奪(空)的實際和個人的存在。 In its mystic dimensions, emptiness is seen as a meditational process through which one purges one's mind.在其神秘的尺寸,空虛,被視為是meditational過程中,通過其中一大清洗一個人的心。 The Vijñanavada school of Mahayana also accepted this notion, but for the purposes of spiritual practices taught that the mind alone exists and that the whole external world is an illusion projected by the mind.該vijñanavada學校的大乘也接受了這一概念,但為施行精神實踐告訴我們,思想單獨存在,並表示,整個外部世界,這是一種幻想,預計所銘記。 The dispelling of that illusion through meditation was presented as the path to enlightenment.消除這種錯覺,透過打坐是作為道路的啟迪。 In order to retain the basic assumption of Buddhism, the Vijñanavada school taught that after a full realization of the nature of all things, the mind dissolves in emptiness.為了保存基本假設的佛教, vijñanavada學校教導後,充分體現了大自然的一切事物,心溶化在空虛。

A final important Mahayana teaching, never embodied in a formal school but nonetheless permeating all layers of the Mahayana approach, concerns the Buddha nature (tathagata-garbha) of all living beings and their capacity to become Buddhas.最後一個重要大乘教學中,從來沒有體現在一個正規的學校,但卻滲透到所有層的大乘辦法,涉及佛性(如來- garbha )的所有生物,以及其能力,成為佛。 Although certain isolated texts taught that some living beings are barred from deliverance, Mahayana Buddhism maintains that any sentient thing can gain Buddhahood-that gods, humans, and animals alike have the seeds of Buddha nature within them.雖然某些孤立的文本告訴我們一些生活的人都是被禁止的解脫,大乘佛教主張任何感覺的東西,可以得到成佛,即神,人類與動物的,都對種子的佛性之內。


Also, see:此外,見:
Buddhism 佛教

Theravada Buddhism theravada佛教

Lamaism 喇嘛教

Zen Buddhism

Tantra tantra


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