Jewish Articles of Faith猶太文章的信仰

General Information 一般資料


No Fixed Dogmas沒有固定的教條

In the same sense as Christianity or Islam, Judaism can not be credited with the possession of Articles of Faith. Many attempts have indeed been made at systematizing and reducing to a fixed phraseology and sequence the contents of the Jewish religion. 在同樣的意義,因為基督教或伊斯蘭教,猶太教不能貸藏物品的信念。多種嘗試,也確實取得了系統化,並減少一個固定用語和序列的內容猶太宗教。 But these have always lacked the one essential element: authoritative sanction on the part of a supreme ecclesiastical body.但是這些都始終缺乏一個基本要素:權威的制裁上的一個組成部分,最高法院的教會機構。 And for this reason they have not been recognized as final or regarded as of universally binding force.基於這個原因,他們並沒有被確認為最後還是視為具有普遍約束力的力量。 Though to a certain extent incorporated in the liturgy and utilized for purposes of instruction, these formulations of the cardinal tenets of Judaism carried no greater weight than that imparted to them by the fame and scholarship of their respective authors.雖然得到了一定程度的納入禮儀中,並用於教學用途,這些配方的樞機原理猶太教進行,沒有更大的重量比傳授給他們的名聲和獎學金完成各自的作者。

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None of them had a character analogous to that given in the Church to its three great formulas (the so-called Apostles' Creed, the Nicene or Constantinopolitan, and the Athanasian), or even to the Kalimat As-Shahadat of the Mohammedans.但是它們此前從來沒有一個人物相似,鑑於在教會其三個偉大的公式(即所謂傳道者'的信條, nicene或constantinopolitan ,以及亞他那修信經) ,或什至kalimat - shahadat的伊斯蘭教。 The recital of this "Kalimah" is the first of the five pillars of practical religion in Islam, and one converted to Islam must repeat it verbatim; so that among the conditions required of every believer with reference to confession is the duty to repeat it aloud at least once in a lifetime.演奏這個" kalimah "是其中的第一五大支柱實際宗教伊斯蘭教,並一改信伊斯蘭教,必須重複它逐字所以,其中所需要的條件的每一個信仰者參考供認是責無旁貸重複高喊至少在一生中只有一次。 None of the many summaries from the pens of Jewish philosophers and rabbis has been invested with similar importance and prominence.沒有眾多的摘要,從筆的猶太哲學家和拉比已投資具有類似的重要性,並突出了。 The reasons for this relative absence of official and obligatory creeds are easily ascertained.這種情況的原因相對缺乏官方和義不容辭的信條是很容易確定。

No Need for Creeds in Judaism沒有必要為信條,在猶太教

The remark of Leibnitz, in his preface to the "Essais de Theodicee," that the nations which filled the earth before the establishment of Christianity had ceremonies of devotion, sacrifices, libations, and a priesthood, but that they had no Articles of Faith and no dogmatic theology, applies with slight modification to the Jews.這句話的leibnitz ,他在序" essais德theodicee " ,即國家,其中,填補了地球之前,建立了基督教儀式的奉獻,犧牲, libations ,以及神職人員,但他們沒有文章的信仰和沒有教條式的神學,適用於輕度改裝猶太人。 Originally race-or perhaps it is more correct to say nationality-and religion were coextensive.本來種族或者是更正確的說,國籍和宗教的共存。 Birth, not profession, admitted to the religio-national fellowship.出生時,不專業,承認向religio -國家獎學金。 As long as internal dissension or external attack did not necessitate for purposes of defense the formulation of the peculiar and differentiating doctrines, the thought of paragraphing and fixing the contents of the religious consciousness could not insinuate itself into the mind of even the most faithful.只要內部分歧或外部攻擊並不需要為目的,國防部制定了特殊的,與眾不同的理論,思想,分段,並確定內容的宗教意識不能影射到自己的頭腦,連最忠實的。 Missionary or proselytizing religions are driven to the definite declaration of their teachings.宣教士或勸誘宗教正在驅車前往明確聲明他們的教誨。

The admission of the neophyte hinges upon the profession and the acceptance of his part of the belief, and that there may be no uncertainty about what is essential and what non-essential, it is incumbent on the proper authorities to determine and promulgate the cardinal tenets in a form that will facilitate repetition and memorizing.入學的新手取決於專業和接受他的一部分的信念,並有可能是任何不明確什麼是不可或缺的東西,非必要的,是有責任就妥善部門協商確定並頒布樞機原理在形式上,這將便利重複和死記硬背。 And the same necessity arises when the Church or religious fellowship is torn by internal heresies.和必要性,同時出現時,教會或宗教團契是由撕裂內部異端邪說。 Under the necessity of combating heresies of various degrees of perilousness and of stubborn insistence, the Church and Islam were forced to define and officially limit their respective theological concepts.下,有必要打擊異端邪說的不同程度的perilousness和頑固的堅持下,教會和伊斯蘭教被迫界定,並正式限制各自的神學觀念。

Both of these provocations to creed-building were less intense in Judaism.雙方的這些挑釁,以信仰建設是那麼激烈,在猶太教。 The proselytizing zeal, though during certain periods more active than at others, was, on the whole, neutralized, partly by inherent disinclination and partly by force of circumstances.該傳教的熱忱,雖然在某個時期更積極,比別人的,是,從總體上看,瓦解了,部分是由內在不願部分由力的情況而定。 Righteousness, according to Jewish belief, was not conditioned of the acceptance of the Jewish religion.義,根據猶太人的信仰,沒有條件的接受猶太宗教。 And the righteous among the nations that carried into practice the seven fundamental laws of the covenant with Noah and his descendants were declared to be participants in the felicity of the hereafter.和正義的國家之間進行實踐的七項基本法律的內容與挪亞和他的後裔被宣布為與會者在幸福的來世。 This interpretation of the status of non-Jews precluded the development of a missionary attitude.這種解釋的商地位的非猶太人排除開發一個傳教的態度。 Moreover, the regulations for the reception of proselytes, as developed in course of time, prove the eminently practical, that is, the non-creedal character of Judaism.此外,該規例,以便接收proselytes ,由於發達國家在隨著時間的推移,證明非常實用,那就是,非creedal性格的猶太教。

Compliance with certain rites - baptism, circumcision, and sacrifice - is the test of the would-be convert's faith.遵守一定的禮儀-的洗禮,割禮,並犧牲-是考驗了將要轉換的信念。 He is instructed in the details of the legal practice that manifests the Jew's religiosity, while the profession of faith demanded is limited to the acknowledgement of the unity of God and the rejection of idolatry (Yorei De'ah, Germ, 268, 2).他指示,在細節中的法律實踐中,體現了猶太人的宗教性,而法律界的信仰要求,只限於承認該國的統一的神和拒絕偶像崇拜( yorei de'ah ,胚芽, 268 , 2 ) 。 Judah ha-Levi ("Cuzari," i. 115) puts the whole matter very strikingly when he says:猶大公頃-利維(下稱"庫扎裡, "一115 )把整件事情非常驚人時,他說:

"We are not putting on an equality with us a person entering our religion through confession alone [Arabic original, bikalamati =by word]. We require deeds, including in that term self-restraint, purity, study of the Law, circumcision, and the performance of other duties demanded by the Torah." "我們不是在演戲,對一個平等的,與我們的人進入我們的宗教,通過供認,僅[阿拉伯文原著, bikalamati =字] ,我們需要的事蹟,其中包括在這一任期內自我約束,自我純潔,規律的研究,割禮,並要求履行其他職責所要求的律法" 。
For the preparation of the convert, therefore, no other method of instruction was employed than for the training of one born a Jew.為籌備該轉換,因此,沒有其他的教學方法是受僱於比為培訓一出生猶太人。 The aim of teaching was to convey a knowledge of the Law, obedience to which manifested the acceptance of the underlying religious principles; namely, the existence of God and the holiness of Israel as the people of his covenant.教學目的,是要傳達一種知識和法律知識,以服從,這體現了接受基本的宗教原則,即存在上帝和聖潔的以色列作為人的身份盟約。

The controversy whether Judaism demands belief in dogma or inculcates obedience to practical laws alone, has occupied many competent scholars. Moses Mendelssohn, in his "Jerusalem," defended the non-dogmatic nature of Judaism, while Low, among others, (see his "Gesammelte Schriften," i. 31-52, 433 et seq. 1871) took the opposite side. 爭議是否要求猶太教的信仰教條或inculcates服從實際僅憑法律,已被佔領,很多能幹的學者。摩西門德爾松,在他的"耶路撒冷" ,捍衛了非教條式的性質,猶太教,而低等等, (見他的" gesammelte schriften , "一, 31-52 , 433頁起。 1871 )則持相反的一面。 Low made it clear that the Mendelssohnian theory had been carried beyond its legitimate bounds.低很明確地表示mendelssohnian理論已經進行超出其合法的範圍內。 The meaning of the word for faithful and belief in Hebrew [ emunah ] had undoubtedly been strained too far to substantiate the Mendelssohnian thesis.語意為忠誠和信仰,在希伯來語[ emunah ]無疑一直很緊張太遠,以充實mendelssohnian論文。 Underlying the practice of the Law was assuredly the recognition of certain fundamental and decisive religious principles culminating in the belief in God and revelation, and likewise in the doctrine of retributive divine justice.基本的做法,該法是穩妥地承認某些根本性和決定性的宗教原則終於在信仰上帝的啟示,同樣地,在學說的報復性的神聖正義。

Evolution of Judaism演化猶太教

The modern critical view of the development of the Pentateuch within the evolution of Israel's monotheism confirms this theory. The controversy of the Prophets hinges on the adoption by the people of Israel of the religion of YHWH, that excluded from the outset idolatry, or certainly the recognition of any other deity than YHWH as the legitimate Lord of Israel; that, in its progressive evolution, associated YHWH the concepts of holiness, justice, and righteousness; and that which culminated in the teaching of God's spirituality and universality. 現代關鍵期的發展對pentateuch內部的演變以色列的一神教證實了這一理論。爭議的先知取決於通過了以色列人民的宗教信仰yhwh ,即排除從一開始就盲目崇拜,還是肯定承認任何其他的神,比yhwh為合法耶和華以色列的,即在其逐步演變,相關yhwh的概念,聖潔,公義,正義,並認為這最終導致在教學中的上帝的靈性和普遍性。 The historical books of the Bible, as recast in accordance with these latter religious ideas evince the force of a strong and clearly apprehended conviction concerning the providential purpose in the destinies of earth's inhabitants, and more especially in the guidance of Israel.歷史書籍的聖經,因為改寫按照這後者的宗教思想表現出力量,是一個強有力的和明確逮捕定罪關於天賜的目的,在命運的地球上的居民,特別是在國家指導的以色列。

Discussions and Dogmatism Disfavored討論和教條主義disfavored

The Psalms and Wisdom books manifest the predominance of definite religious beliefs.詩篇和智慧的書籍,體現了絕對優勢的明確的宗教信仰。 To say that Judaism is a barren legalistic convention, as Mendelssohn avers, is an unmistakable exaggeration.說,猶太教是一個荒蕪的法律性公約,因為孟德爾遜avers ,用意顯然言過其實。 The modicum of truth in his theory is that throughout Biblical Judaism, as in fact throughout all later phases of Jewish religious thinking and practice, this doctrinal element remains always in solution.該點點道理,他的理論是,在整個聖經猶太教,因為事實上在整個後期的猶太宗教的思維和實踐,這一學說的因素,仍然始終在溶液中。 It is not crystallized into fixed phraseology or rigid dogma.這不是凝結成固定用語,或僵化的教條。 And, moreover, the ethical and practical implications of the religion are never obscured. ,而且,倫理和實際影響的宗教從來都不是模糊了。 This is evidenced by the Biblical passages that, in the opinion of many, partake of the nature of Articles of Faith, or are of great value as showing what, in the opinion of their respective authors, constitutes the essence of religion.這一點體現在聖經中的段落,在許多人認為,參予何種性質的物品的信仰,或者是具有極大的價值為證明什麼,在民意各自的作家,構成了實質的宗教。 Among these the most noteworthy are Deut.其中最值得一提的是deut 。 vi.六。 4; Isa., xlv. 4 ;伊薩,四十五。 5-7; Micah vi. 5-7 ;彌迦六。 8; Ps. 8 ;聚苯乙烯。 xv.; Isa.十五;伊薩。 i.一。 16, 17; xxxiii. 16 , 17 ;三十三。 15. 15 。

Whatever controversies may have agitated Israel during the centuries of the Prophets and the earlier post-exilic period, they were not of a kind to induce the defining of Articles of Faith counteract the influences of heretical teaching.無論爭議可能有激動,以色列在幾百年的先知和先前後exilic期間,他們不是一類是誘使界定的文章信仰抗衡的影響邪說。 Dogmatic influences manifest themselves only after the Maccabean struggle for independence.教條主義的影響,表現出來後,才maccabean爭取獨立的鬥爭。 But even these differences were not far-reaching enough to overcome the inherent aversion to dogmatic fixation of principles; for, with the Jews, acceptance of principles was not so much a matter of theoretical assent as of practical conduct.但即使是這些分歧不影響深遠,足以克服內在的反感教條式的固定原則;為,與猶太人,接受原則,就沒有那麼多的事理論贊同,因為實際的行為。 Though Josephus would have the divisions between the Pharisees and the Sadducees hinge on the formal acceptance or rejection of certain points of doctrine - such as Providence, resurrection of the body, which for the Pharisees, was identical with future retribution -- it is the consensus of opinion among modern scholars that the differences between these two parties were rooted in their respective political programs, and implied in their respectively national and anti-national attitudes, rather than in their philosophical or religious dogmas.雖然約瑟夫將有分歧法利賽和撒都該人系於正式接受或拒絕某些點的學說-如普羅維登斯,復活的身體,為法利賽,是完全相同的,與未來的報應-這是共識民意之間的現代學者認為,區別這兩個政黨都是植根於各自的政治綱領,並暗示他們分別是國家和反民族的態度,而不是在自己的哲學或宗教教條。

If the words of Sirach (iii. 20-23) are to be taken as a criterion, the intensely pious of his days did not incline to speculations of what was beyond their powers to comprehend.如有的話西拉奇( iii. 20-23 ) ,以做為一個標準,在激烈虔誠的,他的日子並不傾向於猜測的是什麼超出了他們的權力,以理解的。 They were content to perform their, religious duties in simplicity of faith.它們的內容,以履行其宗教職責,在簡單的信念。 The Mishnah (Hag. 11. 1) indorsed this view of Sirach, and in some degree, discountenanced theosophy and dogmatism.該mishnah ( hag. 11 。 1 ) indorsed這一觀點的西拉奇的,在某些程度上, discountenanced theosophy和教條主義。 Among the recorded discussions in the schools of the Rabbis, dogmatic problems commanded only a very inferior degree of attention ('Er. 13b: controversy concerning the, value of human life; Hag. 12a: concerning the order of Creation).其中記錄的討論中,學校的拉比,教條化的問題,指揮若只是一個很劣勢的重視程度, ( '呃。 13B條:爭議有關,人的生命價值; hag 。 12 :關於秩序的建立) 。

Nevertheless, in the earliest Mishnah is found the citation of Abtalion against heresy and unbelief (Ab. i. 11 [12]); and many a Baraita betrays the prevalence of religious differences (Ber. 12b; 'Ab. Zarah 17a).不過,在最早mishnah發現引abtalion反對異端,不信者( ab.一11 [ 12 ] ) ;和很多baraita出賣流行的宗教差異( ber. 12 B條; '抗體。 zarah 17A條) 。 These controversies have left their impress upon the prayer-book and the liturgy.這些爭論都離開了他們留下深刻的印象後,祈禱書和禮儀。 This is shown by the prominence given to the Shema'; to the Messianic predictions in the Shemoneh-Esreh (the "Eighteen Benedictions"), which emphasized the belief in the Resurrection; and, finally, to the prominence given to the Decalogue -- though the latter was again omitted in order to counteract the belief that it alone had been revealed (Tamid v. 1; Yer. Ber. 6b; Bab. Ber. 12a).這表現突出給予該架構' ;救世主的預言,在shemoneh - esreh ( " 18 benedictions " ) ,其中強調信仰的復活,以及最後向突出以十誡-雖然後者是再次省略,以抗衡認為它僅被發現( tamid訴1層。誤碼率。 6B型; 2000年銀行業。誤碼率。 12 ) 。 These expressions of belief are held to have originated in the desire to give definite utterance and impressiveness to the corresponding doctrines that were either rejected or attenuated by some of the heretical schools.這些言論信仰的舉行,都起源於慾望,讓一定的話語與impressiveness給相應的學說要么拒絕或衰減一些邪教學校。 But while the se portions of the daily liturgy are expressive of the doctrinal contents of the regnant party in the synagogue, they were not cast into the form of catalogued Articles of Faith.不過,雖然本身的部分日常禮儀中都表現的教義內容的regnant黨在猶太教堂,他們並不暗淡的形式編目條款的信念。

The first to make the attempt to formulate them was Philo of Alexandria. The influence of Greek thought induced among the Jews of Egypt the reflective mood. 第一,使試圖制定,他們是斐洛亞歷山大。的影響,希臘思想誘導其中猶太人的埃及反射的心情。 Discussion was undoubtedly active on the unsettled points of speculative belief; and such discussion led, as it nearly always does, to a stricter definition of the doctrines.討論中,無疑是積極的就不了了之點,投機性的信念;這種討論導致了,因為它幾乎總是那樣,以較嚴格的定義學說。 In his work "De Mundi Opificio," lxi., Philo enumerates five articles as embracing the chief tenets of Mosaism:在他的作品"世界之德opificio , " LXI的, 斐洛列舉了五篇文章,作為概括性的行政原理mosaism :

  1. God is and rules; 上帝是和規則;
  2. God is one 上帝是一個
  3. The world was created; 世界是創造;
  4. Creation is one; 創作就是一個;
  5. God's providence rules Creation. 上帝的普羅維登斯規則創造。

But among the Tannaim and Amoraim this example of Philo found no followers, though many of their number were drawn into controversies with both Jews and non-Jews, and had to fortify their faith against the attacks of contemporaneous philosophy as well as against rising Christianity.但其中tannaim和亞摩蘭這個例子的斐洛沒有找到追隨者,儘管許多人對他們的人數被捲入爭論與猶太人和非猶太人,並以堅定的信念對攻擊的同時代哲學以及對崛起基督教。 Only in a general way the Mishnah Sanh.只有在一個普通的方式mishnah sanh 。 xi.十一。 1 excludes from the world to come the Epicureans and those who deny belief in resurrection or in the divine origin of the Torah.一日不包括從世界各地來epicureans和那些否認信仰復活或在神聖的起源律法。 R. Akiba would also regard as heretical the readers of Sefarim Hetsonim-certain extraneous writings (Apocrypha or Gospels)-and such persons that would heal through whispered formulas of magic.傳譯秋葉也將視為異端讀者sefarim hetsonim -某些外在因素的著作( apocrypha或福音) -這種人會癒合通過直犯嘀咕公式的魔術隊。

Abba Saul designated as under suspicion of infidelity those that pronounce the ineffable name of the Deity.雅伯金曲娑羅雙樹指定為涉嫌不忠的那些發音無法形容的名義天神。 By implication, the contrary doctrine and attitude may thus be regarded as having been proclaimed as orthodox.言下之意,相反理論和態度,可能因而被視為已被宣布為東正教。 On the other hand, Akiba himself declares that the command to love one's neighbor the fundamental the principle of the Law; while Ben Asa i assigns this distinction to the Biblical verse, "This is the book of the generations of man " (Gen. vi; Gen. R. xxiv).另一方面,關於秋葉自己宣稱的指揮,以愛一個人的鄰居根本的原則,依法而奔亞細安i委派這種區分,以聖經詩句, "這是一部深刻反映幾代人的人" (創六;將軍傳譯二十四) 。 The definition of Hillel the Elder in his interview with a would-be convert (Shab. 31a), embodies in the golden rule the one fundamental article of faith.定義hillel長輩,在他的訪談也會被轉換成( shab. 31 A條) ,體現了在金科玉律一個基本的信念。

A teacher of the third Christian century, R. Simlai, traces the development of Jewish religious principles from Moses with his 613 commands of prohibition and injunction, through David, who, according to this rabbi, enumerates eleven; through Isaiah, with six; Micah, with three; to Habakkuk who simply but impressively sums up all religious faith in the single phrase, "The pious lives in his faith" (Mak., toward end).教師的第三個世紀,基督教,傳譯simlai ,痕跡的發展,猶太人的宗教原則,由摩西與他的613指令的禁止和強制令,通過大衛,他們根據這一拉比,還列舉了11個,通過對以賽亞書,其中六人;彌迦,有三個;哈巴谷書的人簡單地,但令人印象深刻地總結了所有宗教的信仰在單句, "虔誠的生命在他的信仰" ( mak. ,對完) As the Halakhah enjoins that one should prefer death to an act of idolatry, incest, unchastity, or murder, the inference is plain that the corresponding positive principles were held to be fundamental articles of Judaism.由於哈拉哈責成人,要選擇死亡的行為,偶像崇拜,亂倫,不貞潔,還是以故意殺人罪,推理,顯而易見,相應的積極原則被認為是基本物品的猶太教。

The Decalogue as a Summary十誡作為一個摘要

From Philo down to late medieval and even modern writers, the Decalogue has been held to be in some way a summary of both the articles of the true faith and the duties derived from that faith. According to the Alexandrian philosopher the order of the Ten Words is not accidental. 從斐洛到中世紀晚期,甚至現代作家,十大任務已被認為是在以某種方式概述了兩個條款的真信仰和職責源自信仰,據以哲學家亞歷山大秩序的十個字是不是偶然的。 They divide readily into two groups: the first five summarizing man's relations to the Deity; the other five specifying man's duties to his fellows. Ibn Ezra virtually adopts this view.他們鴻溝隨時可分為兩類:一是在總結5人的關係,以神;其他五個指明人的職責,以他的研究員伊本以斯拉幾乎採用了這一觀點。 He interprets the contents of the Decalogue, not merely in their legal-ritual bearing but as expressive of ethico-religious principles.他這樣詮釋,內容十大項,而不是單純在其法律-禮儀軸承,但由於表達的ethico宗教原則。 But this view can be traced to other traditions.但這種觀點可以追溯到其他傳統。 In Yer.在也門里亞爾。 Ber.誤碼率。 6b the Shema' is declared to be only an epitome of the Decalogue. 6B型的架構' ,是被宣布為唯一的一個縮影十誡。 That in the poetry of the synagogal ritual this thought often dominates is well known.在詩歌的synagogal祭祀這種思想支配,往往是人所共知的。 No less a thinker than Saadia Gaon composed a liturgical production of this character and R. Eliezer ben Nathan of Mayence enriched the prayer-book with a piyyut in which the six hundred and thirteen commands are rubricated in the order of and in connection with the Decalogue.不低於思想家比saadia gaon了一禮儀生產的這種性格和R.埃利澤賁彌敦道的mayence豐富了祈禱書與piyyut其中613指令rubricated在秩序和涉嫌與十誡。

The theory that the Decalogue was the foundation of Judaism, its article of faith, was advocated Isaac Abravanel (see his Commentary on Ex. xx. 1); and in recent years by Isaac M. Wise of Cincinnati in his "Catechism" and other writings. 該理論認為十誡是基金會的猶太教,其文章的信仰,有人主張艾薩克abravanel (見他的評論對前第二十1 ) ,而且在近幾年由艾薩克米明智的辛辛那提在他的"問答"及其他著作。

The only confession of faith, however, which, though not so denominated, has found universal acceptance, forms a part of the daily liturgy, contained in all Jewish prayer-books.唯一供認的信念,不過,雖然沒有那麼計價一樣,已被普遍接受,形成了一個部分的日常禮儀中,包含所有的猶太人祈禱書籍。 ln its original form it read somewhat as follows: LN的,其原有的各種形式的閱讀有點如下:

"True and established is this word for us forever. True it is that Thou art our God as Thou wast the God of our fathers; our King as [Thou wast] the King of our fathers; our Redeemer and the Redeemer of our fathers; our Creator and the Rock of our salvation; our Deliverer and Savior -- from eternity is Thy name, and there is no God besides Thee." "真實而確立的是這個字,我們永遠如此,那就是,祢我們的上帝,因為你廢了我們祖先的上帝,我們的國王為[あ廢]國王的我們的父輩,我們的救贖主與救贖主,我們的父;我們的創造者和搖滾樂的拯救我們,我們的投遞和救世主-來自永恆的,是你的名字,並沒有上帝,除了你的" 。

This statement dates probably from the days of the Hasmoneans (see Landshuth, in "Hegyon Leb").這份聲明的日期可能是從天的哈斯摩年王朝" (見landshuth ,在" hegyon黎巴嫩" ) 。

Saadia's, Judah ha-Levi's and Bahya's Creed saadia的,猶大公頃-利維和巴希耶的信條

In the stricter sense of the term, specifications in connected sequence, and rational analysis of Articles of Faith, did not find favor with the teachers and the faithful before the Arabic period.在嚴格的意義上來說,在規格連接序列,並作理性的分析文章的信仰,沒有找到討好教師和忠於前阿拉伯語時期。 The polemics with the Karaites on the one hand, and, on the other, the necessity of defending their religion against the attacks of the philosophies current among both Mohammedans and Jews, induced the leading thinkers to define and formulate their beliefs.該論戰與卡拉政府一方面,另一方面,必須捍衛自己的宗教反攻擊的哲學,目前都伊斯蘭教和猶太教徒,誘發領導思想家的界定,並制定自己的信仰。 Saadia's "Emunot we-Deot" is in reality one long ex position of the main tenets of the faithful. saadia的" emunot我們- deot " ,是在現實中的一個長期的特惠地位的主要原理信徒。 The plan of the book discloses a systematization of the different religious doctrines that, in the estimation of the author, constitute the sum total of his faith.計劃書中公開了一種系統化的不同宗教的教義認為,在估計的作者,構成的總和,他的信仰。 They are, in the order of their treatment by him, the following:他們是在為了自己的待遇由他時,以下幾點:
  1. The world is created; 世界正在形成;
  2. God is one and incorporeal; 上帝是一個和無形資產;
  3. belief in revelation (including the divine origin of tradition; 信仰的啟示 (包括神的起源的傳統;
  4. man is called to righteousness and endowed with all necessary qualities of mind and soul to avoid sin; 男子叫正義,並賦予了一切必要的素質,心態和靈魂,以避免單;
  5. belief in reward and punishment; 信仰的獎勵和處罰;
  6. the soul is created pure; after death it leaves the body; 靈魂,是創造純淨;去世後,它離開人體;
  7. belief in resurrection; 信仰在復活;
  8. Messianic expectation, retribution, and final judgment. 彌賽亞的期望,報應,並最終判決。

Judah ha-Levi endeavored, in his "Cuzari," to determine the fundamentals of Judaism on another basis.猶大公頃-利維努力,在他的"庫扎裡" ,以確定基本面猶太教的另一個基礎。 He rejects all appeal to speculative reason, repudiating the method of the Motekallamin.他拒絕一切上訴,對投機性,因此,批判的方法,該motekallamin 。 The miracles and traditions are, in their natural character, both the source and the evidence of the true faith.神蹟和傳統,在他們的天然風貌,無論是來源和證據的真信仰。 With them Judaism stands and falls.與他們站在猶太教和跌倒。 The book of Bahya ibn Pakuda ("Hobot ha-Lebabot"), while remarkable, as it is, for endeavoring to give religion its true setting as a spiritual force, contributed nothing of note to the exposition of the fundamental articles.這本書的巴希耶伊本pakuda ( " hobot夏lebabot " ) ,而顯著,因為它是,為努力讓宗教的真定作為一種精神力量,貢獻無關的字條給博覽會的基本條款。 It goes without saying that the unity of God, His government of the world, the possibilities of leading a divine life-which were never forfeited by man-are expounded as essentials of Judaism.不用說,團結上帝,他的政府在世界範圍內,有可能領導一個神聖的生命被永遠不會被沒收由人為闡述了作為必需品的猶太教。

Ibn Daud and Hananel ben Hushiel伊本daud和hananel賁hushiel

More interesting on this point is the work of R. Abraham ibn Daud (1120) entitled "Emnah Ramah" (The High Faithful).更有趣的關於這一點,是工作的傳譯亞伯拉罕的Ibn daud ( 1120 ) ,題為" emnah ramah " (高忠誠) 。 In the second division of his treatise he discourses on the principles of faith and the Law.在二師,他的論文,他的話語就原則的信仰和法律。 These principles are:這些原則是:

Less well known is the scheme of an African rabbi, Hananel b.那麼眾所周知的是該計劃的一個非洲拉比, hananel乙 Hushiel, about a century earlier, according to whom Judaism's fundamental articles number four: hushiel ,約在一個多世紀早些時候,根據猶太教的人的基本條款四:

The Thirteen Articles of Maimonides十三條邁蒙尼德

The most widely spread and popular of all creeds is that of Maimonides, embracing the thirteen articles. Why he chose this particular number has been a subject of much discussion. 最廣為傳播和流行的所有信條是,對邁蒙尼德,擁抱13條。他為什麼選擇這個號碼一直受到議論紛紜。 Some have seen in the number a reference to the thirteen attributes of God. Probably no meaning attaches to the choice of the number.有些人看到在一些參考,以13個屬性的上帝。大概沒有意義的重視,選擇該號碼。 His articles are:他的文章,分別是:
  1. The existence of God; 上帝存在;
  2. His unity; 他的團結;
  3. His spirituality; 他的靈性;
  4. His eternity; 他的永恆;
  5. God alone the object of worship; 上帝何況崇拜對象;
  6. Revelation through his prophets; 啟示通過他的先知;
  7. the preeminence of Moses among the Prophets; 受推崇的摩西之間的先知;
  8. God's law given on Mount Sinai; 真主的法律給予西乃山;
  9. the immutability of the Torah as God's Law; 變通的律法,因為神的法律;
  10. God's foreknowledge of men's actions; 上帝的foreknowledge男人的行動;
  11. retribution; 報應;
  12. the coming of the Messiah; 未來的彌賽亞;
  13. Resurrection. 復活。

This creed Maimonides wrote while still a very young man; it forms a part of his Mishnah Commentary, but he never referred to it in his later works (See S. Adler, "Tenets of Faith and Their Authority in the Talmud," in his "Kobez 'al Yad," p. 92, where Yad ha-Hazakah, Issure Biah, xiv, 2, is referred to as proof that Maimonides in his advanced age regarded as fundamental of the faith only the unity of God and the prohibition of idolatry). It did not meet universal acceptance; but, as its phraseology is succinct, it has passed into the prayer-book, and is therefore familiar to almost all Jews of the Orthodox school. The successors of Maimonides, from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century-Nahmanides, Abba Mari ben Moses, Simon ben Zemah, Duran, Albo, Isaac Arama, and Joseph Jaabez-reduced his thirteen articles to three:這一信條邁蒙尼德寫了,而仍是一個很年輕的男子,它構成了他的部分mishnah評,但他從未提及在他晚年作品(見第阿德勒, "信條,並在其權力在塔木德經" ,在他的" kobez '亞得" ,第92頁,那裡亞得哈hazakah , issure biah ,第十四條,第2 ,被稱為證明邁蒙尼德在他年事已高視為基本的信念,只有團結的上帝,並禁止偶像崇拜) 。 它不符合普遍接受,但是,因為其用語,是簡潔的,它通過成為祈禱書,因此,熟悉幾乎所有猶太人的正統派。接班人邁蒙尼德,從第十三到15世紀- nahmanides ,雅伯金曲馬里文賁摩西,西蒙賁zemah ,杜蘭巴, albo ,艾薩克arama ,約瑟夫jaabez減少了他的13名文章之三:

Others, like Crescas and David ben Samuel Estella, spoke of seven fundamental articles, laying stress on free-will. On the other hand, David ben Yom-Tob ibn Bilia, in his "Yesodot ha- Maskil" (Fundamentals of the Thinking Man), adds to the thirteen of Maimonides thirteen of his own - a number which a contemporary of Albo (see "'Ikkarim," iii.) also chose for his fundamentals; while Jedaiah Penini, in the last chapter of his "Behinat ha-Dat," enumerated no less than thirty-five cardinal principles (see Low, "Judische Dogmen," in his "Gesammelte Werke," i. 156 et seq.; and Schechter, "Dogmas of Judaism," in "Studies of Judaism," pp. 147-181). 另一些國家如crescas和戴維本塞繆爾菱,談到了七項基本條款,注重對自由意志。另一方面,朱本贖罪-來的伊本bilia ,在他的"耶索多特夏maskil " (基本面的思想文) ,增加至13個的邁蒙尼德十三他自己的-多項,其中一個當代的a lbo(見" ' i kkarim, "三) ,也選擇了他的基本面,而j edaiah佩尼尼,在最後一章是他的" b ehinat夏多巴胺轉運體" ,列舉了不少於35紅衣主教原則(見低, " judische dogmen " ,在他的" gesammelte werke , "一, 156頁起。 ; Schechter已, "經文的猶太教" ,在"研究猶太教, "頁147-181 ) 。

In the fourteenth century Asher ben Jehiel of Toledo raised his voice against the Maimonidean Articles of Faith, declaring them to be only temporary, and suggested that another be added to recognize that the Exile is a punishment for the sins of Israel .在14世紀阿什爾賁傑希勒托萊多提出他的聲音對maimonidean文章的信仰,宣稱它們將只是暫時的,並建議另加上認識到,流亡是一種懲罰,為捷聯慣導系統的以色列。 Isaac Abravanel, his "Rosh Amanah," took the same attitude towards Maimonides' creed.艾薩克abravanel ,他的"羈絆amanah , "採取了同樣的態度對待邁蒙尼德'信條。 While defending Maimonides against Hasdai and Albo, he refused to accept dogmatic articles for Judaism, holding, with all the cabalists, that the 613 commandments of the Law are all tantamount to Articles of Faith.而捍衛邁蒙尼德對哈斯代和albo ,他拒不接受教條式的文章,為猶太教, 控股,與所有cabalists ,即613誡命的法律,都等同於文章的信仰。

In liturgical poetry the Articles of Faith as evolved by philosophical speculation met with metrical presentation.在禮儀詩詞文章的信念演變哲學投機會見格律介紹。 The most noted of such metrical and rhymed elaborations are the "Adon 'Olam," by an anonymous writer - now used as an introduction to the morning services (by the Sephardim as the conclusion of the musaf or "additional" service), and of comparatively recent date; and the other known as the "Yigdal," according to Luzzatto, by R. Daniel b.最指出,這種格律和聯綿交待,是" adon ' olam " ,是由一位匿名作者-現在被用作介紹早上服務(由s ephardim作為總結該m usaf或"額外"服務) ,以及較近期的日期和其他被稱為" yigdal , "根據luzzatto ,由R.丹尼爾乙 Judah Dayyan.猶大dayyan 。

Modern Catechisms現代catechisms

The modern catechisms abound in formulated Articles of Faith. These are generally intended to be recited by the candidates for confirmation, or to be used for the reception of proselytes (See Dr. Einhorn's "'Olat Tamid"). 現代catechisms比比皆是,在制定條款的信念,這些都是一般打算背誦,由考生確認,或者被用來接收proselytes (見博士艾因霍恩的" ' olat tamid " ) 。 The Central Conference of American Rabbis, in devising a formula for the admission of proselytes, elaborated a set of Articles of Faith.中央會議的美國拉比,在制定公式為接納proselytes ,闡述了一套條款的信念。 These modern schemes have not met with general favor - their authors being in almost all cases the only ones that have had recourse to them in practice.這些現代化計劃,並沒有得到普遍青睞-其作者被幾乎在所有情況下,只有那些已經訴諸他們在實踐中。 The points of agreement in these recent productions consist in:該協議要點,在最近的這些作品構成:

The declaration of principles by the Pittsburgh Conference (1885) is to be classed, perhaps, with the many attempts to fix in a succinct enumeration the main principles of the modern Jewish religious consciousness.原則聲明是由美國匹茲堡會議( 1885年) ,是被歸類,也許,與許多嘗試,以確定在一個簡潔的枚舉的主要原則現代猶太宗教意識。

The Karaites are not behind the Rabbinites in the elaboration of Articles of Faith. The oldest instances of the existence of such articles among them are found in the famous word by Judah ben Elijah Hadassi, "Eshkol ha-Kofer." 該卡拉不是背後rabbinites在擬訂條款的信念。歷史最悠久的事例存在這樣的文章,其中發現在著名的詞,猶大賁利亞hadassi , "埃什科爾夏kofer " 。 In the order there given these are the articles of the Karaite:該命令有鑑於這是文章的karaite :

  1. God is the Creator of all created beings;上帝是造物主的一切創造;
  2. He is premundane and has no peer or associate;他是premundane ,也沒有同行或準;
  3. the whole universe is created;整個宇宙,是創造;
  4. God called Moses and the other Prophets of the Biblical canon;所謂上帝摩西和其他先知的聖經佳能;
  5. the Law of Moses alone is true;摩西的律法,單是真實的;
  6. to know the language of the Bible is a religious duty;了解語言的聖經是一項宗教責任;
  7. the Temple at Jerusalem is the palace of the world's ruler;廟方在耶路撒冷是故宮的世界的統治者;
  8. belief in Resurrection contemporaneous with the advent of the Messiah;信仰的復活與同時代的來臨,彌賽亞;
  9. final judgment;最後判決;
  10. retribution.報應。

The number ten here is not accidental. 人數十年在這裡,不是偶然的。 It is keeping with the scheme of the Decalogue. Judah Hadassi acknowledges that he had predecessors in this line, and mentions some of the works on which he bases his enumeration. 這是符合該計劃的十誡。猶大hadassi承認,他的前任曾在這條線,並提到有些工程對他的基地,他枚舉。 The most succinct cataloguing of the Karaite faith in articles is that by Elijah Bashyatzi (died about 1490).最簡潔的編目的karaite信仰的文章,是由以利亞bashyatzi (死於約1490 ) 。 His articles vary but little from those by Hadassi, but they are put with greater philosophical precision (see Jost, "Geschichte des Judenthums," ii. 331).他的文章各有不同,但很少從這些由hadassi ,但他們把更多的哲學精度(見約斯特, "歷史館萬judenthums , "二331 ) 。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Schlesinger, German translation of 'Ikkarim (especially introduction and annotations), xvi-xliii.施萊辛格,德語翻譯' ikkarim (尤其是介紹和說明) , 16 -四十三。 620 et seq ., 640 et seq.; Low, Gesammelte Werke , i. 620 頁起 , 640頁起。低, gesammelte werke ,一。 31-52, 133-176; Jost, Gesh. 31-52 , 133-176 ;約斯特, gesh 。 des Judenthums und Seiner Sekten ; Hamburger, Realencyclopadie, sv Dogmen ; Rappoport, Biography of Hananel; Schechter, The Dogmas of Judaism , in Studies in Judaism , pp 147-181; J. Aub. Ueber die Glaubens-Symbole der Mosaischen Religion ; Frankel's Zeitschrift fur die Religiosen Interessen des Judenthums , 1845, 409, 449; Creizenach, Grundlehren des Israelitischen Glaubens , in Geiger's Wissensch. Zeitschrift fur Jud. 萬judenthums und圍網sekten ;漢堡包, realencyclopadie , sv dogmen ; rappoport , 傳hananel ; Schechter已,教條的猶太教 ,在研究,在猶太教 ,頁147-181的J.銀行保證。 ueber模具glaubens - symbole明鏡mosaischen宗教 ;弗蘭克爾的: Zeitschrift毛皮模具的興趣religiosen萬judenthums , 1845年, 409 , 449 ;克賴策納赫, grundlehren萬israelitischen glaubens ,在蓋格的wissensch 。 : Zeitschrift毛皮jud 。 Theologie , i. theologie ,一。 39 et seq ., ii. 39 段及以下各段 ,二。 6 8, 255. 8月6日, 255 。


the Shloshah-Asar Ikkarim該shloshah - asar ikkarim

the Thirteen Articles of Faith 13個條款的信仰

compiled from Judaism's 613 Commandments of Torah彙編了從猶太教的613誡命的律法

[Editor Note: These MODIFIED Articles of Faith are presented by Messianic Jews and they include references to Jesus (Yeshua)] [編者注:上述修改條款的信念是由救世主的猶太人和他們提及耶穌(耶穌) ]

The Thirteen Articles of Messianic Jewish Faith are as follows:十三條的救世主信仰猶太教分列如下:

  1. I believe with a perfect faith in the existence of the Creator, be He Blessed, who is perfect in every manner of existence and is the Fundamental Source of all that exists. 我相信,隨著一個完美的信念的存在,造物者,可他有福了,誰是十全十美,例如在地的存在,是根本之源都存在。
  2. I believe with a perfect faith in God's absolute and unparalleled Unity, His Echadness. 我相信,隨著一個完美的信仰上帝的絕對和空前的團結,他echadness 。
  3. I believe with a perfect faith in God's Essence, who is touch with the feelings of our infirmities. 我相信,隨著一個完美的上帝的信仰的本質,他們是聯繫感情,我們的毛病。
  4. I believe with a perfect faith in God's Eternity. 我相信,隨著一個完美的上帝的信仰的永恆。
  5. I believe with a perfect faith in the necessary to worship Him exclusively and no foreign counterfeit gods. 我相信,隨著一個完美的信仰在必要崇拜他完全沒有外國冒牌神。
  6. I believe with a perfect faith that God communicates with man through prophecy, and through His Son, Yeshua the Messiah, and His Holy Spirit. 我相信,隨著一個完美的信仰上帝,與男子透過預言,並通過他的兒子,耶穌是彌賽亞和他的聖靈。
  7. I believe with a perfect faith that the prophecy of Moses, The LORD thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him you shall lend an ear. That is our teacher Yeshua Messiah, and it is He to whom I shall lend my ear. 我相信,隨著一個完美的信念,即預言的摩西, 耶和華你的上帝會提出了祢先知,從中間的你,你的弟兄們,願祂對我說祂,你會借給一個耳朵,那就是我們的老師耶穌彌賽亞,這是他的人,我會借給我的耳朵。
  8. I believe with a perfect faith in the Divine origin of HaTorah - The Living Word. 我相信,隨著一個完美的信仰在神的起源hatorah -生活字。
  9. I believe with a perfect faith in the endurance of the Torah, it will always stand. 我相信,隨著一個完美的信仰在耐力的律法,我們黨永遠立於不敗之地。
  10. I believe with a perfect faith in Divine Omniscience and Divine Guidance of the Almighty One, Blessed be He. 我相信,隨著一個完美的信念,在神的無所不知和神聖的指導全能的一個,祝福被他的。
  11. I believe with a perfect faith in Divine reward and retribution. 我相信,隨著一個完美的信念,在神的獎勵和懲罰。
  12. I believe with a perfect faith in the arrival of the Yeshua Messiah a second time, and the Messianic age. 我相信,隨著一個完美的信念,在抵港的耶穌救世主第二個時間,而救世主時代。
  13. I believe with a perfect faith in the Resurrection of the dead. 我相信,隨著一個完美的信仰在死人的復活。

It is the custom of many Congregations to recite the Thirteen Articles of Faith given by Moses Maimonides.這是習俗,許多教友朗誦十三條的信仰所給予的摩西邁蒙尼德。 However, as Messianic Believers we need to state clearly that "we have an understand of these his principles, but in a new way."不過,由於救世主的信徒,我們必須明確指出, "我們有一個理解他的這些原則,但在一個新的途徑" 。

Maimonides was a great teacher just like Moses was a great teacher, but Yeshua was the greatest of all teachers, the one prophet greater then Moses himself.邁蒙尼德是一位偉大的老師就像摩西是一個偉大的教師,但耶穌是最大的教師,一個更大的先知摩西,然後自己。 It was given to Yeshua to codify the Scriptures for us, we need not look to Rabbinical Judaism for that.它給耶穌編纂會念經,為我們,我們沒有必要期待猶太教猶太教表示讚賞。

Rabbinical Judaism can teach us much, yes, I will not deny that, but it can also lead you astray from the teaching of Messiah Yeshua as well. We should all be like the noble Bereans, (Acts 17:11) who in the Synagogue heard the speakers, received the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the Scriptures daily, to see whether what they heard was so. These brothers and sisters were called "noble" for a good reason, and that reason was - with readiness of mind they knew the Word of God is chief over all.猶太教猶太教可以教我們很多,是的,我不否認,但它也可以把你引入歧途,從教學的救世主耶穌,以及我們都應該像崇高bereans , (使徒行17:11 )誰在猶太教堂聽到的發言後,收到了詞與所有願意觀念的更新,並搜查了,每天念經,看看是否有什麼,他們曾聽到有人這麼這些兄弟姐妹,被稱為"貴族" ,為一個好理由,並認為理由是-準備就緒銘記他們知道上帝的話,是行政所有。 Believers in Messiah Yeshua must never forget that fact!信徒在基督耶穌決不能忘記這一事實! It is the hope that if your Messianic Fellowship does use the Thirteen Articles of Faith you might want to use these instead of those of Moses Maimonides.它是希望,如果你的救世主金是否使用13個條款的信仰,你可能想利用這些不是那些摩西邁蒙尼德。

FYI Note: fyi注意:

The number thirteen is the last winding in the Tzitzit, it stands for God's Oneness and Love.人數13名,是去年纏繞在tzitzit ,它站在上帝的統一性和愛。 When all the other windings have been tied on the Tzitzit, what you have is a picture of God as "One" (Echad), and God as "Love" and that is the best Article of Faith we can claim.當所有其他繞組有被捆綁就tzitzit ,你是一個圖片上帝的作為"一" ( echad ) ,與神為"愛"這是最好的信念,我們可以索賠。 To know your God as "One" and that He is "Love" brings one to want to Worship Him with all that is in you.知道你的上帝,因為"一" ,並說他是"愛" ,帶來了一個想要以崇拜他的一切,這就是你。 By the way, there are three ways of tying the Tzitzit, but the Ashkenazi way is the oldest form we are told, and would be the best one to use.由途徑,有三種方式綁tzitzit ,但德系的方法是最古老的形式告訴我們,並會是最好的人利用。

Let me end with a Psalm of Praise from the Name of God.最後,請允許我以詩篇讚美來自上帝的名義。 Verses one, and two are from the Septuagint, be sure to meditate on them.小詩之一,以及兩個分別來自septuagint ,請務必打坐對他們的影響。 The Septuagint predates what we use today, and was used by the followers of Yeshua Messiah.該septuagint早,我們今天所使用的,是用信徒們的耶穌救世主。

138:1 - A Psalm of David 138:1 -詩篇大衛。

I will praise thee with my whole heart: will I sing praise unto You before the angels (gods- elohim); for you have heard all the words of my mouth.我會讚美你與我的整個心:我會不會唱讚美你們面前的天使(神-耶洛因) ,而你所聽到的所有的話,我的嘴。
2 I will worship toward thy Holy Temple, and praise Your Name on account of your Mercy and your Truth; for you have magnified your Holy Name above everything.二,我會崇拜,對你的聖殿,和讚美你的姓名,帳號,你的善心和你的真理;你有放大您神聖的名字放在高於一切的。
3 In the day when I cried you answered me, and strengthened me with strength in my soul. 3 ,在一天的時候,我哭了,你回答我,並加強與我的實力在我的靈魂。
4 All the kings of the earth shall praise thee, O LORD, when they hear the words of your mouth. 4所有國王的地球應讚美你,哦,主啊,當他們聽其言,你的嘴。
5 Yes, they shall sing in the ways of the LORD: for great is the Glory of the LORD.五是的,他們會唱歌的方式主:偉大的,是榮耀上帝。
6 Though the LORD be high, yet has he respect unto the lowly: but the proud he knows afar off. 6雖然主很高,但他尊重祂卑微:但驕傲的,他知道遠方的小康。
7 Though I walk in the midst of trouble, you will revive me: you shall stretch forth your hand against the wrath of my enemies, and your right hand shall save me.七,雖然我走在複雜多變的麻煩,你會復甦對我說:你應舒展了你的手對激怒我的仇敵,你的右手會救我!
8 The LORD will perfect that which concerneth me: your Mercy, O LORD, stands forever: forsake not the works of your own hands. 8日,耶和華必完美那concerneth我說:你的憐憫,主啊,站在永遠:放棄不是作品,你自己的手中。 AGI


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