Saint James (James the Great)聖詹姆斯(詹姆斯大)

General Information 一般資料

Together with his brother Saint John, Saint James was among the first disciples called by Jesus (Matt. 4:21).連同他的哥哥聖約翰,聖詹姆斯是最早的弟子稱為耶穌。 ( 4時21分) 。 These sons of Zebedee, called the Boanerges ("Sons of Thunder"), joined the brothers Peter and Andrew, also fishermen by trade, in a close inner circle around Jesus.這些子弟兵zebedee ,被稱為boanerges ( "兒子的雷聲" ) ,加入兄弟彼得和安德魯,還漁民按行業,在一個緊密的內在圈靠近耶穌。 James, Peter, and John were the only disciples present, for example, at the Transfiguration (Luke 9) and near Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane.詹姆斯,彼得,約翰是唯一的弟子,目前,舉例來說,在變形(路加福音9 )和近耶穌在花園gethsemane 。 James was martyred under Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12).詹姆斯是烈屬,希律下agrippa我(行為12 ) 。 According to legend, his bones were taken to Spain, and his shrine at Santiago de Compostela was one of the most important pilgrimage centers in the Middle Ages.根據傳說,他的骨頭被帶到西班牙,和他的靖國神社,在聖地亞哥-德是其中最重要的朝聖中心,在中世紀。 Feast day: Apr. 30 (Eastern); July 25 (Western).盛宴的日子: 4月30日(東區) ; 7月25日(西部) 。

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Saint James (James the Lesser or James the Less or James the Little)聖詹姆斯(詹姆斯較輕或宋楚瑜較差或宋楚瑜小)

General Information 一般資料

Saint James the Lesser was the Apostle James, son of Alphaeus and disciple of Jesus (Mark 3:18).聖雅各較輕的,是使徒詹姆斯,兒子阿爾菲厄斯和弟子耶穌(馬克3時18分) 。 His mother, Mary, was one of the women at the crucifixion and at the tomb (Matt. 10:3; 27:56, Mark 15:40; 16:1; Acts 1:13).他的母親,瑪麗,是其中一名女子,在曠野裡,並在墓。 ( 10時03分; 27:56 ,馬克15:40 ; 16:1 ;行徑1:13 ) 。 This James is sometimes identified with James the "brother of Jesus," although this and other identifications are unproven.這個詹姆斯是確定的,有時與詹姆斯"的兄弟耶穌, "雖然這和其他鑑別工作尚未可知。 Feast day: Oct. 9 (Eastern); May 3 (Western, since 1969).盛宴的日子: 10月9日(東區) , 5月3日(西部,自1969年以來) 。


Saint James聖詹姆斯

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


St. James the Greater聖雅各福群會更大

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

(Hebrew Yakob; Septuagint Iakob; NT Greek Iakobos; a favourite name among the later Jews). (希伯來語yakob ; septuagint iakob ;新台幣希臘語iakobos ;喜愛的名字,後來猶太人) 。

The son of Zebedee and Salome (Cf. Matthew 27:56; Mark 15:40; 16:1).兒子zebedee和莎樂美(參見馬太27:56 ;大關15:40 ; 16:1 ) 。 Zahn asserts that Salome was the daughter of a priest. zahn聲稱,莎樂美是女兒的一名牧師。 James is styled "the Greater" to distinguish him from the Apostle James "the Less", who was probably shorter of stature.詹姆斯是風格的"大" ,以辨別他從使徒詹姆斯"越少" ,他們可能是更短的地位。 We know nothing of St. James's early life.我們一無所知的聖雅各福群會的早期生活。 He was the brother of John, the beloved disciple, and probably the elder of the two.他的兄弟約翰,我可愛的弟子,恐怕也是老的兩個。

His parents seem to have been people of means as appears from the following facts.他的父母似乎已經被人的手段似乎從下列事實。

Zebedee was a fisherman of the Lake of Galilee, who probably lived in or near Bethsaida (John 1:44), perhaps in Capharnaum; and had some boatmen or hired men as his usual attendants (Mark 1:20). zebedee是一名漁民,該湖加利利人,他們大概住在或接近bethsaida (約翰1時44分) ,也許在capharnaum ;了一些船夫或僱用男性作為他一貫的服務員(馬克1:20 ) 。

Salome was one of the pious women who afterwards followed Christ and "ministered unto him of their substance" (cf. Matthew 27:55, sq.; Mark 15:40; 16:1; Luke 8:2 sq.; 23:55-24:1).莎樂美是其中一個最虔誠的婦女事後其次是基督" ministered祂的其實質內容" (見馬太27:55 ,平方;大關15:40 ; 16:1 ;路加福音8:2平方米; 23時55分-24:1 ) 。

St. John was personally known to the high-priest (John 18:16); and must have had wherewithal to provide for the Mother of Jesus (John 19:27).聖約翰是親自向高牧師(約翰18時16分) ,而且必須有必要的資源,以提供給母親的耶穌(約翰19時27分) 。

It is probable, according to Acts 4:13, that John (and consequently his brother James) had not received the technical training of the rabbinical schools; in this sense they were unlearned and without any official position among the Jews.這是可能的,根據行為, 4時13分,約翰(和他的弟弟詹姆斯)卻沒有得到技術培訓,猶太教學校,在這個意義上,他們unlearned並沒有任何官方的立場,其中猶太人。 But, according to the social rank of their parents, they must have been men of ordinary education, in the common walks of Jewish life.但是,根據社會秩其父母,他們必須是被男人的一般教育,在社會各界共同的猶太人生命。 They had frequent opportunity of coming in contact with Greek life and language, which were already widely spread along the shores of the Galilean Sea.他們頻繁的機會來接觸到希臘的生活和語言,它已廣為傳播,沿海岸的伽利略大海。

Relation of St. James to Jesus有關的聖雅各福群會,以耶穌

Some authors, comparing John 19:25 with Matthew 28:56 and Mark 15:40, identify, and probably rightly so, Mary the Mother of James the Less and of Joseph in Mark and Matthew with "Mary of Cleophas" in John.一些作者認為,比較約翰19時25分與馬修28:56和Mark 15:40 ,識別,並可能這樣做是正確的,瑪麗的母親詹姆斯較少和約瑟夫馬克和馬修與"瑪麗的cleophas "在約翰。 As the name of Mary Magdalen occurs in the three lists, they identify further Salome in Mark with "the mother of the sons of Zebedee" in Matthew; finally they identify Salome with "his mother's sister" in John.正如其名佑magdalen發生在三個名單,他們進一步找出莎樂美在馬克與"母親的兒子zebedee "馬修;最後,他們確定與莎樂美" ,他的母親的妹妹"在約翰。 They suppose, for this last identification, that four women are designated by John 19:25; the Syriac "Peshito" gives the reading: "His mother and his mother's sister, and Mary of Cleophas and Mary Magdalen."他們猜想,為了這最後的鑑定,這4名婦女都指定由約翰19時25分;敘利亞文" peshito "給人的內容如下: "他的母親和他的母親的妹妹,和瑪麗的cleophas和瑪麗magdalen " 。 If this last supposition is right, Salome was a sister of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and James the Greater and John were first cousins of the Lord; this may explain the discipleship of the two brothers, Salome's request and their own claim to the first position in His kingdom, and His commendation of the Blessed Virgin to her own nephew.如果這最後的假設是正確的,莎樂美是一個姐姐的祝福聖母瑪利亞,和詹姆斯更廣泛和約翰首次堂兄弟的主,這或許可以解釋作門徒的兩兄弟,莎樂美的要求和自身的要求,以第一位置在他的王國,他的表揚小聖,以她自己的侄兒。 But it is doubtful whether the Greek admits of this construction without the addition or the omission of kai (and).但是,這是令人懷疑是否希臘語也承認,這方面的建設如果沒有添加或遺漏啟(和) 。 Thus the relationship of St. James to Jesus remains doubtful.因此,相關的聖雅各福群會,以耶穌仍然是一個疑問。

His life and apostolate他的生活和牧靈

The Galilean origin of St. James in some degree explains the energy of temper and the vehemence of character which earned for him and St. John the name of Boanerges, "sons of thunder" (Mark 3:17); the Galilean race was religious, hardy, industrious, brave, and the strongest defender of the Jewish nation.伽利略出身的聖雅各福群會在一定程度上解釋了能源的鍛煉和各黨派的性格贏得了他和聖約翰的名字boanerges , "兒子的雷聲" (馬克3點17分) ;伽利略種族宗教,哈,勤勞,勇敢和最強烈的維護者猶太民族。 When John the Baptist proclaimed the kingdom of the Messias, St. John became a disciple (John 1:35); he was directed to "the Lamb of God" and afterwards brought his brother James to the Messias; the obvious meaning of John 1:41, is that St. Andrew finds his brother (St. Peter) first and that afterwards St. John (who does not name himself, according to his habitual and characteristic reserve and silence about himself) finds his brother (St. James).當施洗約翰宣告了英國的messias ,聖約翰成為門徒(約翰1時35分) ,他是導演,以"上帝的羔羊" ,並隨後帶同他的弟弟詹姆斯向messias ;顯而易見的含義約翰一日: 41歲,是聖安德魯認定他的弟弟(聖彼得)首先表示,事後聖約翰(誰不自己的名字,據他的習慣和特點,儲備和沉默約本人在內)的認定,他的弟弟(聖雅各福群會) 。 The call of St. James to the discipleship of the Messias is reported in a parallel or identical narration by Matthew 4:18-22; Mark 1:19 sq.; and Luke 5:1-11.號召,聖雅各福群會向門徒的messias報導,在一個平行或相同的敘事由Matthew 4:18-22 ;馬克1:19平方米;路加福音5:1-11 。 The two sons of Zebedee, as well as Simon (Peter) and his brother Andrew with whom they were in partnership (Luke 5:10), were called by the Lord upon the Sea of Galilee, where all four with Zebedee and his hired servants were engaged in their ordinary occupation of fishing.兩個兒子zebedee ,以及西門(彼得)和他的弟弟安德魯的人,他們分別在合作協議(路加福音17:10 ) ,被稱為是基督後,加利利湖畔,那裡所有四個與zebedee和他僱用的公務員從事平凡的佔領捕魚。 The sons of Zebedee "forthwith left their nets and father, and followed him" (Matthew 4:22), and became "fishers of men".兒子zebedee "隨即離開了他們的英語教師和父親,並跟隨他" (馬太4時22分) ,並成為"漁民的男人" 。 St. James was afterwards with the other eleven called to the Apostleship (Matthew 10:1-4; Mark 3:13-19; Luke 6:12-16; Acts 1:13).聖雅各福群會於事後與其他11名被召往apostleship (馬太10:1-4 ;馬克3:13-19 ;路加福音6:12-16 ;行徑1:13 ) 。 In all four lists the names of Peter and Andrew, James and John form the first group, a prominent and chosen group (cf. Mark 13:3); especially Peter, James, and John.在所有四個名單上的名字彼得和安德魯,詹姆斯和約翰,組成第一集團,一個突出的,並且選擇組(參見馬克13時03分) ,尤其是彼得,詹姆斯,和約翰。 These three Apostles alone were admitted to be present at the miracle of the raising of Jairus's daughter (Mark 5:37; Luke 8:51), at the Transfiguration (Mark 9:1; Matthew 17:1; Luke 9:28), and the Agony in Gethsemani (Matthew 26:37; Mark 14:33).這三個門徒,僅被錄取擬出席股東的奇蹟提高jairus的女兒(馬克5:37 ;盧克8時51分) ,在變形(馬克9:1 ;馬修17時01分;路加福音9時28分) ,和煩惱蓋特塞馬尼(馬太26:37 ;大關14:33 ) 。 The fact that the name of James occurs always (except in Luke 8:51; 9:28; Acts 1:13 -- Greek Text) before that of his brother seems to imply that James was the elder of the two.事實的名義出現的詹姆斯始終(除在盧克8時51分; 9時28分;行徑1:13 -希臘文) ,然後說,他的弟弟似乎暗示詹姆斯是老的兩個。 It is worthy of notice that James is never mentioned in the Gospel of St. John; this author observes a humble reserve not only with regard to himself, but also about the members of his family.它是值得的公告說,詹姆斯從未提及要在福音的聖約翰;筆者觀察了謙虛儲備,不僅對於自己,而且也為家庭成員。 Several incidents scattered through the Synoptics suggest that James and John had that particular character indicated by the name "Boanerges," sons of thunder, given to them by the Lord (Mark 3:17); they were burning and impetuous in their evangelical zeal and severe in temper.幾件事,分散通過synoptics建議詹姆斯和約翰曾表示,尤其是性格表示,由一家名為" boanerges , "兒子的一聲驚雷,給他們主(馬克3時17分) ,他們被焚燒和浮躁,在他們的福音的熱誠和嚴重的脾氣。 The two brothers showed their fiery temperament against "a certain man casting out devils" in the name of the Christ; John, answering, said: "We [James is probably meant] forbade him, because he followeth not with us" (Luke 9:49).兩兄弟現出火熱的氣質,對"某男子鑄造出魔鬼" ,名義上是基督;約翰,回答說: "我們[詹姆斯可能是指:不准他,因為他followeth沒有與我們" (路加福音9日: 49 ) 。 When the Samaritans refused to receive Christ, James and John said: "Lord, wilt thou that we command fire to come down from heaven, and consume them?"當撒瑪利亞會拒絕接受基督,詹姆斯和約翰說: "主啊,祢說,我們指揮火從天降臨,並消耗" ? (Luke 9:54; cf. 9:49). (路加福音9時54分;比照9時49分) 。

His martyrdom他的殉難

On the last journey to Jerusalem, their mother Salome came to the Lord and said to Him: "Say that these my two sons may sit, the one on thy right hand, and the other on thy left, in thy kingdom" (Matthew 20:21).在最後的旅程到耶路撒冷,他們的母親莎樂美來到了主,對他說: "說,這就是我的兩個兒子,可坐,一個對你的右手,另一對你的離開,在你的王國" (馬太20 : 21 ) 。 And the two brothers, still ignorant of the spiritual nature of the Messianic Kingdom, joined with their mother in this eager ambition (Mark 10:37).和兩個兄弟,仍是無知的精神性質的救世主,英國,加入了與他們的母親在這方面急於野心(標記10:37 ) 。 And on their assertion that they are willing to drink the chalice that He drinks of, and to be baptized with the baptism of His sufferings, Jesus assured them that they will share His sufferings (Mark 5:38-39).以及他們斷言,他們是願意喝chalice ,他喝的,並可以與洗禮的洗禮,他的苦難,耶穌保證,他們將分享他的苦難(馬克5:38-39 ) 。

James won the crown of martyrdom fourteen years after this prophecy, AD 44.詹姆斯奪得冠殉難十四年後,這個預言,專案44 。 Herod Agrippa I, son of Aristobulus and grandson of Herod the Great, reigned at that time as "king" over a wider dominion than that of his grandfather.希律agrippa ,我的兒子aristobulus和孫子希律偉大,在位時,當時為"國王" ,在一個更廣泛的Dominion比他的祖父。 His great object was to please the Jews in every way, and he showed great regard for the Mosaic Law and Jewish customs.他的偉大目的在於討好猶太人在以各種方式,而他表現出極大的方面多為馬賽克法和猶太人的習俗。 In pursuance of this policy, on the occasion of the Passover of AD 44, he perpetrated cruelties upon the Church, whose rapid growth incensed the Jews.根據這項政策,以紀念逾越節的專案44個,他所犯下的殘酷行為後,教會,其快速增長不彰的猶太人。 The zealous temper of James and his leading part in the Jewish Christian communities probably led Agrippa to choose him as the first victim.這個熱心的脾氣,詹姆斯和他的領導參加了猶太人的基督教社區,可能使agrippa選擇他作為第一個受害者。 "He killed James, the brother of John, with the sword." "他殺死了詹姆斯的兄弟約翰,與劍" 。 (Acts 12:1-2). (使徒行12:1-2 ) 。 According to a tradition, which, as we learn from Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., II, ix, 2, 3), was received from Clement of Alexandria (in the seventh book of his lost "Hypotyposes"), the accuser who led the Apostle to judgment, moved by his confession, became himself a Christian, and they were beheaded together.根據一項傳統,其中,因為我們從尤西比烏斯( hist. eccl 。第一,二,九,二,三) ,收到了克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞(在第七本書的,他失去了" hypotyposes " ) ,原告,他們帶領使徒來判斷,提出由他的供詞,成為自己是一個基督徒,他們被砍頭在一起。 As Clement testifies expressly that the account was given him "by those who were before him," this tradition has a better foundation than many other traditions and legends respecting the Apostolic labours and death of St. James, which are related in the Latin "Passio Jacobi Majoris", the Ethiopic "Acts of James", and so on.作為克萊門特證明明確表示,該帳戶給他, "那些人在他面前, "這個傳統,有較好的基礎,比其他許多傳統和傳說尊重教廷的勞苦和死亡的聖雅各福群會,是有關在拉丁語" passio雅可比majoris " , ethiopic行為"的詹姆斯" ,等等。

St. James in Spain聖雅各福群會在西班牙

The tradition asserting that James the Greater preached the Gospel in Spain, and that his body was translated to Compostela, claims more serious consideration.傳統聲稱詹姆斯更大宣揚福音,在西班牙,他的屍體被翻譯成孔波斯特拉,索賠更認真的考慮。 According to this tradition St. James the Greater, having preached Christianity in Spain, returned to Judea and was put to death by order of Herod; his body was miraculously translated to Iria Flavia in the northwest of Spain, and later to Compostela, which town, especially during the Middle Ages, became one of the most famous places of pilgrimage in the world.根據這一傳統,聖雅各福群會更大,因宣揚基督教在西班牙,回到了朱迪亞和付諸死刑的命令,被希律;自己的身體奇蹟般地轉化為iria ( Flavia在西北的西班牙,並在此後孔波斯特拉,其中城特別是在中世紀,成為其中最有名的地方朝聖,在世界上。 The vow of making a pilgrimage to Compostela to honour the sepulchre of St. James is still reserved to the pope, who alone of his own or ordinary right can dispense from it.該發誓的決策朝拜孔波斯特拉履行墳墓的聖雅各福群會仍是保留給教宗,他們僅他自己的,或一般的權利,可以免除來自它。 In the twelfth century was founded the Order of Knights of St. James of Compostela.在12世紀創立的順序騎士的聖雅各福群會的孔波斯特拉。

With regard to the preaching of the Gospel in Spain by St. James the greater, several difficulties have been raised:就以宣揚福音,在西班牙由聖雅各福群會更大,一些困難得到提高:

St. James suffered martyrdom AD 44 (Acts 12:2), and, according to the tradition of the early Church, he had not yet left Jerusalem at this time (cf. Clement of Alexandria, "Strom.", VI; Apollonius, quoted by Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." VI, xviii).聖雅各福群會遭受殉難廣告44條(行為12:2 ) ,並按照傳統的早期教會的,他還沒有離開耶路撒冷在這個時候(參見克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞, " strom " ,第六章; apollonius ,引用尤西比烏斯"的歷史。 eccl "六,十八) 。

St. Paul in his Epistle to the Romans (AD 58) expressed the intention to visit Spain (Romans 15:24) just after he had mentioned (15:20) that he did not "build upon another man's foundation."聖保祿在他的書中說,羅馬(公元58 )表示有意訪問西班牙(羅馬書15時24分)後,他所提到的( 15:20 )說,他並沒有"建立後,另一人的基礎" 。

The argument ex silentio: although the tradition that James founded an Apostolic see in Spain was current in the year 700, no certain mention of such tradition is to be found in the genuine writings of early writers nor in the early councils; the first certain mention we find in the ninth century, in Notker, a monk of St. Gall (Martyrol., 25 July), Walafried Strabo (Poema de XII Apost.), and others.論點當然silentio :雖然傳統詹姆斯成立一個使徒看到,在西班牙是當前在今年第700條,沒有一定提到這種傳統,就是要找到真正的著作早期作家,也不是在初期議會;第一某些提我們發現在第九世紀,在notker ,一名僧人聖膽( martyrol. , 7月25日) , walafried斯特拉博(版本德第十二apost件) ,及其他。

The tradition was not unanimously admitted afterwards, while numerous scholars reject it.傳統沒有得到一致的承認之後,雖然許多學者拒絕。 The Bollandists however defended it (see Acta Sanctorum, July, VI and VII, where other sources are given).該bollandists但是辯護(見學報sanctorum , 7月,第六和第七,而其他來源獲得) 。

The authenticity of the sacred relic of Compostela has been questioned and is still doubted.真偽神聖的遺跡孔波斯特拉一直質疑,我們還是毋庸置疑的。 Even if St. James the Greater did not preach the Christian religion in Spain, his body may have been brought to Compostela, and this was already the opinion of Notker.即使聖雅各福群會越大,沒有宣揚基督教在西班牙,他的屍體可能已被帶到孔波斯特拉,而這已是民意的notker 。 According to another tradition, the relics of the Apostle are kept in the church of St-Saturnin at Toulouse (France), but it is not improbable that such sacred relics should have been divided between two churches.根據另一種傳統,文物的使徒存放在教堂的聖- saturnin在圖盧茲(法國) ,但它並不是難以琢磨的,這種神聖的遺物,應已分為兩個教會。 A strong argument in favour of the authenticity of the sacred relics of Compostela is the Bull of Leo XIII, "Omnipotens Deus," of 1 November, 1884.一個強有力的論點,反對者的真實性神聖遺跡的孔波斯特拉是牛市的利奧十三世, " omnipotens deus " , 1884年11月1日。

Publication information Written by A. Camerlynck.出版信息寫甲卡梅蘭克。 Transcribed by Paul T. Crowley.轉錄的,由保羅湯匙柯勞利。 Dedicated to Mr. James Fogerty, Mr. James Horne, Mr. James Montemarano, and Mr. James Thomas and Families The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.致力於先生詹姆斯fogerty先生,詹姆斯霍恩先生,詹姆斯montemarano先生和詹姆斯托馬斯和家庭天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. nihil obstat , 1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


St. James the Less聖雅各福群會越少

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

THE IDENTITY OF JAMES身份詹姆斯

The name "James" in the New Testament is borne by several:命名為"詹姆斯" ,在新約聖經是應由幾個:

James, the son of Zebedee -- Apostle, brother of John, Apostle; also called "James the Greater".詹姆斯的兒子zebedee -使徒,兄弟約翰,使徒,也被稱為"詹姆斯越大" 。

James, the son of Alpheus, Apostle -- Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13.詹姆斯的兒子alpheus ,使徒-馬太1 0時0 3分;馬克3時1 8分;路加福音6 :15;行徑1 :13。

James, the brother of the Lord -- Matthew 13:55; Mark 6:3; Galatians 1:19.詹姆斯,兄弟的主-馬太1 3時5 5分;馬克選手;加拉太1 :19。

Without a shadow of doubt, he must be identified with the James of Galatians 2:2 and 2:9; Acts 12:17, 15:13 sqq.沒有影子的疑問,他必須確定與詹姆斯加拉太2:2和2點09分;行為13:36 2006年15時13 sqq 。 and 21:18; and I Corinthians 15:7.和21時18分;哥林多前書15時07分。

James, the son of Mary, brother of Joseph (or Joses) -- Mark 15:40 (where he is called ò mikros "the little", not the "less", as in the DV, nor the "lesser"); Matthew 27:56.詹姆斯的兒子,瑪麗的弟弟,約瑟夫(或作者) -馬克1 5:40(他是所謂ò小的"小" ,而不是"少" ,因為在D V等,也不是"小" ) ;馬修27:56 。 Probably the son of Cleophas or Clopas (John 19:25) where "Maria Cleophæ" is generally translated "Mary the wife of Cleophas", as married women are commonly distinguished by the addition of their husband's name.大概是兒子的cleophas或clopas (約翰19時25分) , "瑪麗亞cleophæ "一般是翻譯成"瑪麗的妻子cleophas " ,因為已婚婦女普遍尊敬,以加入其丈夫的名字。

James, the brother of Jude -- Jude 1:1.詹姆斯的兄弟裘德-裘德1 :1。 Most Catholic commentators identify Jude with the "Judas Jacobi", the "brother of James" (Luke 6:16; Acts 1:13), called thus because his brother James was beter known than himself in the primitive Church.大部分天主教評論家確定裘德與"猶大雅可比" , "哥哥的詹姆斯" (路加福音6時16分;行徑1:13 ) ,因此,所謂的,因為他的弟弟詹姆斯beter已知的,比他在簡陋的教堂。

The identity of the Apostle James (2), the son of Alpheus and James (3), the brother of the Lord and Bishop of the Church of Jerusalem (Acts 15, 21), although contested by many critics and, perhaps, not quite beyond doubt, is at least most highly probable, and by far the greater number of Catholic interpreters is considered as certain (see BRETHREN OF THE LORD, where the chief argument, taken from Galatians 1:19, in favour of the Apostleship of St. James the brother of the Lord, is to be found).身份使徒詹姆斯( 2 ) ,兒子alpheus和詹姆斯( 3 ) ,兄弟耶和華和主教的教會的耶路撒冷(使徒15 , 21 ) ,儘管有爭議,許多批評者,也許不大毫無疑問,至少是最可能的,並遠遠超過更大數量的天主教口譯員被認為是某些(見弟兄的主,凡首席說法,從加拉太1:19 ,在贊成該apostleship聖詹姆斯的兄弟主,是可以找到) 。 The objection moved by Mader (Biblische Zeitschrift, 1908, p. 393 sqq.) against the common statement that "Apostles" in Galatians 1:19 is to be taken strictly in the sense of the "Twelve" has been strongly impugned by Steinmann (Der Katholik, 1909, p. 207 sqq.).異議提出mader ( biblische : Zeitschrift , 1908年,第393 sqq )對共同聲明說: "使徒" ,在加拉太1:19 ,是採取嚴格意義上的" 12 "已被強烈非難的,由斯氏(明鏡katholik , 1909年,第207頁sqq ) 。 The James (5) of Jude 1:1 must certainly be identified with James (3), the brother of the Lord and the Bishop of Jerusalem.詹姆斯( 5 )的裘德1:1 ,一定要找出與詹姆斯( 3 ) ,兄弟耶和華和主教的耶路撒冷。 The identification of James (3), the brother of the Lord and James (4), the son of Mary, and probably of Cleophas or Clopas offers some difficulty.鑑定詹姆斯( 3 ) ,兄弟耶和華和詹姆斯( 4 ) ,兒子佑,並可能對cleophas或clopas提供了一些困難。 This identification requires the identity of Mary, the mother of James (Matthew 27:56; Mark 15:40), with Mary the wife of Cleophas (John 19:25), and, consequently, the identity of Alpheus (2) and Clopas (4).這個鑑定要求的身份瑪利亞的母親詹姆斯(馬太27:56 ;大關15:40 ) ,與瑪利亞的妻子cleophas (約翰19時25分) ,並,因此,身份alpheus ( 2 )及clopas ( 4 ) 。 As Clopas and Alpheus are probably not two different transcriptions of the same Aramaic name Halpai (see CLEOPHAS), it must be admitted that two different names have been borne by one man.作為clopas和alpheus可能並不兩種不同抄錄的同時阿拉姆語名字halpai (見cleophas ) ,但必須承認,兩個不同的名稱,已承擔的一名男子。 Indeed, there are several examples of the use of two names (a Hebrew and a Greek or Latin name) to designate the same person (Simon-Petrus; Saulus-Paulus), so that the identity of Alpheus and Cleophas is by no means improbable.事實上,有幾個例子,使用兩個名字(一希伯來語和希臘語或拉丁語名稱)指定同一人(西蒙- Petrus餐廳; saulus -鮑魯斯) ,使的身份alpheus和cleophas絕非是難以琢磨。

On the whole, although there is no full evidence for the identity of James (2), the son of Alpheus, and James (3), the brother of the Lord, and James (4), the son of Mary of Clopas, the view that one and the same person is described in the New Testament in these three different ways, is by far the most probable.就整體而言,雖然目前還沒有充分證據的身份詹姆斯( 2 ) ,兒子alpheus ,和詹姆斯( 3 ) ,兄弟的主,和詹姆斯( 4 ) ,兒子佑的clopas ,認為是一個與同一人所描述的是在新約聖經,在這三個不同的方式,是目前最有可能的。 There is, at any rate, very good ground (Galatians 1:19, 2:9, 2:12) for believing that the Apostle James, the son of Alpheus is the same person as James, the brother of the Lord, the well-known Bishop of Jerusalem of the Acts.因此,在任何速率,非常好的地面(加拉太1:19 , 2時09分, 2時12分) ,以為使徒詹姆斯,他們兒子的alpheus是同一人詹姆斯的兄弟主井眾所周知主教在耶路撒冷的行為。 As to the nature of the relationship which the name "brother of the Lord" is intended to express, see BRETHREN OF THE LORD.至於這種關係的性質,其中命名為"兄弟主" ,是有意表達,見弟兄的主。

JAMES IN THE SCRIPTURES詹姆斯在念經

Had we not identified James, the son of Alpheus with the brother of the Lord, we should only know his name and his Apostleship.如果我們沒有發現詹姆斯,他們兒子的alpheus同兄弟的主,我們應該只知道他的名字和他的apostleship 。 But the identity once admitted, we must consequently apply to him all the particulars supplied by the books of the New Testament.但身份一旦被接納,我們一定要因此適用於他的所有細節,由書籍的新約聖經。 We may venture to assert that the training of James (and his brother Jude), had been that which prevailed in all pious Jewish homes and that it was therefore based on the knowledge of the Holy Scripture and the rigorous observance of the Law.我們可以大膽斷言,培訓詹姆斯(和他的兄弟猶大書) ,已被認為瀰漫在所有虔誠的猶太家園,並表示,因此,它的基礎上,知識是神聖的經文和嚴格遵守的法律。 Many facts point to the diffusion of the Greek language and culture throughout Judea and Galilee, as early as the first century BC; we may suppose that the Apostles, at least most of them, read and spoke Greek as well as Aramaic, from their childhood.許多事實表明,以傳播希臘語言和文化在整個朱迪亞和加利利地區,早在公元前一世紀,我們可以假設認為使徒,至少他們大部分,閱讀和以希臘語以及阿拉姆語,從他們的童年。 James was called to the Apostolate with his brother Jude; in all the four lists of the Apostles, he stands at the head of the third group (Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:16; Acts 1:13).詹姆斯被稱為向使徒與他的兄弟猶大書,在所有四個名單的使徒,他站在元首的第三組(馬太10時03分;馬克3時18分;盧克6時16分;行徑1:13 ) 。 Of James individually we hear no more until after the Resurrection.詹姆斯的個人,我們沒有聽到更多直到復活之後。 St. Paul (1 Corinthians 15:5-7) mentions that the Lord appeared to him before the Ascension.聖保羅(哥林多前書15:5-7 )提到,上帝出現在他面前時前阿森松。

Then we lose sight of James till St. Paul, three years after his conversion (AD 37), went up to Jerusalem.那麼我們忽略詹姆斯聖保祿,三年後,他的轉換(公元37 ) ,上升至耶路撒冷。 Of the Twelve Apostles he saw only Peter and James the brother of the Lord (Galatians 1:19; Acts 9:27).的十二使徒,他只看見彼得和詹姆斯的兄弟主(加拉太1:19 ;行為9時27分) 。 When in the year 44 Peter escaped from prison, he desired that news of his release might be carried to James who held already a marked preeminence in the Church of Jerusalem (Acts 12:17).當在今年44彼得從監獄逃脫,他想要的消息證實他的獲釋可能進行詹姆斯持已是一個明顯超群,在教堂的耶路撒冷(使徒12時17分) 。 In the Council of Jerusalem (AD 51) he gives his sentence after St. Peter, declaring as Peter had done, that the Gentile Christians are not bound to circumcision, nor to the observance of the ceremonial Mosaic Law, but at the same time, he urged the advisability of conforming to certain ceremonies and of respecting certain of the scruples of their Jewish fellow-Christians (Acts 15:13 sqq.).在安理會的耶路撒冷(公元51 )他給他的判決後,聖彼得大教堂,宣布由於彼得做了,該gentile基督徒不一定要割包皮,也必須遵行的禮儀鑲嵌法,但在同一時間內,他要求宜符合一定的儀式和尊重一定的顧忌自己的猶太同胞基督徒(使徒15時13 sqq ) 。 On the same occasion, the "pillars" of the Church, James, Peter, and John "gave to me (Paul) and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we should go unto the Gentiles, and they unto the circumcision" (Galatians 2:9).在同一場合, "支柱"的教會,詹姆斯,彼得,約翰, "給我(保羅)和巴納巴斯了右手的獎學金;我們應該去祂外邦人的,而他們所不欲,包皮環切術" (加拉太2時09分) 。 He publicly commended the great charter of Gentile freedom from the Law, although he still continued the observance in his own life, no longer as a strict duty, but as an ancient, most venerable and national custom, trusting to "be saved by the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ" (Acts 15:11).他公開讚揚了大憲章的gentile免於法律,但他仍繼續遵守在自己的生活中,不再是作為一個嚴格的責任,但作為一個古老的,最古老和民族習俗,信任,以"救恩典的主耶穌基督" (使徒15時11分) 。 When afterwards some came from James to Antioch and led Peter into dissimulation (Galatians 2:12), his name was used by them, though he had given them no such commandment to enforce their interpretation of the concordat which, on his proposal, had been adopted at the Council of Jerusalem.當事後一些來自塗謹申安提和帶領彼得到分化(加拉太2時12分) ,他的名字是他們所使用的,雖然他已經給了他們沒有這樣的誡命,去執行自己的詮釋協約,對他的提議,已被通過在安理會的耶路撒冷。 When St. Paul after his third missionary journey paid a visit to St. James (AD 58), the Bishop of Jerusalem and "the elders" "glorified the Lord" and advised the Apostle to take part in the ceremonies of a Nazarite vow, in order to show how false the charge was that he had spoken of the Law as no longer to be regarded.當聖保羅後,他第三次傳教之旅拜訪了聖雅各福群會(公元58 ) ,這位主教在耶路撒冷和"長老" , "讚美主" ,並建議使徒來參加這項儀式,一個把拿細耳人發誓,為了顯示如何虛假電荷的是,他談到了法律不再被視為。 Paul consented to the advice of James and the elders (Acts 21:1 sqq.).保羅同意的意見,詹姆斯和長輩(使徒21時01 sqq ) 。 The Epistle of St. James reveals a grave, meek, and calm mind, nourished with the Scriptures of the Old Testament, given to prayer, devoted to the poor, resigned in persecution, the type of a just and apostolic man.該墳墓的聖雅各福群會揭示了墳,溫和,冷靜的態度,滋養與聖經的舊約,給祈禱,專門向窮人辭職,在迫害,類型的公正和使徒的人。

JAMES OUTSIDE OF THE SCRIPTURES詹姆斯之外念經

Traditions respecting James the Less are to be found in many extra-canonical documents, especially Josephus (Antiq., XX, ix, 1), the "Gospel according to the Hebrews" (St. Jerome, De vir. ill., II), Hegesippus (Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", II, xxiii), the pseudo-Clementine Homilies (Ep. of Peter) and Recognitions (I, 72, 73), Clement of Alexandria (Hypot., vi, quoted by Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", II, i).傳統的尊重詹姆斯較少,是可以找到很多課外的典型文件,特別是約瑟夫( antiq. , XX條,第九條, 1 ) , "福音根據希伯來人" (聖杰羅姆,德源。病患,二) , hegesippus (尤西比烏斯"的歷史。 eccl 。 " ,第二章二十三) ,偽克萊門泰頌歌( ep.彼得)及型錄(一, 72 , 73 ) ,克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞( hypot. ,六,引述尤西比烏斯"的歷史。 eccl "第一,二,一) 。 The universal testimony of Christian antiquity is entirely in accordance with the information derived from the canonical books as to the fact that James was Bishop of the Church of Jerusalem.普遍的證詞基督教古物,是完全按照該信息來自典型的書籍,以事實詹姆斯主教教堂的耶路撒冷。 Hegesippus, a Jewish Christian, who lived about the middle of the second century, relates (and his narrative is highly probable) that James was called the "Just", that he drank no wine nor strong drink, nor ate animal food, that no razor touched his head, that he did not anoint himself or make use of the bath, and lastly that he was put to death by the Jews. hegesippus ,一個猶太人基督徒,他們大約生存中的第二個世紀,是關乎(和他的敘事,是極有可能) ,詹姆斯被稱為"公正" ,即他沒有喝葡萄酒,也沒有強有力的飲料,也吃動物性食物,即沒有剃刀觸及他的頭部,他不傅油自己或使用該浴,最後,他把死刑的猶太人。 The account of his death given by Josephus is somewhat different.該帳戶他的死因作出的約瑟夫是有點不同。 Later traditions deserve less attention.後來傳統值得較少受到關注。

Publication information Written by A. Camerlynck.出版信息寫甲卡梅蘭克。 Transcribed by WGKofron.轉錄由wgkofron 。 With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.與感謝聖瑪麗教堂,美國俄亥俄州阿克倫城天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. nihil obstat , 1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

For bibliography see EPISTLE OF SAINT JAMES; Protoevangelium Jacobi and Liturgy of St. James.為參考書目見墳墓的聖詹姆斯; protoevangelium Jacobi與禮儀中的聖雅各福群會。


Also, see:此外,見:
Epistle of James 書信詹姆斯

Apostles 使徒


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