Garden of Eden伊甸園

General Information 一般資料

In the Bible, the Garden of Eden was the original home of Adam and Eve.在聖經中,伊甸園是原來在家的亞當與夏娃。 It was a well-watered garden with beautiful trees.這是一個良好的澆水花園與美麗的樹木。 Also called Paradise, Eden symbolized the unbroken harmony between God and humankind before the first sin, after which, according to Genesis 3, Adam and Eve were expelled from the garden.也稱為天堂,伊甸園象徵著綿延不絕的和諧與上帝和人類面前的第一單,之後,根據成因3 ,亞當和夏娃被逐出後花園。


Eve除夕夜

General Information 一般資料

According to the Bible, Eve was the first woman--the mother of Cain, Abel, and Seth.據聖經中,夏娃是第一個女人-母親的該隱,亞伯,和S eth。 God created her from the rib of Adam to be his wife.上帝創造她從肋骨的亞當是他的妻子。 She and Adam lived in the Garden of Eden until they were expelled for eating the forbidden fruit from the tree of knowledge (Genesis 2-4).她和亞當生活在伊甸園,直到被開除吃禁果,從樹的知識(創2-4 ) 。


E'den e'den

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Eden: delight.伊甸:喜悅。 (1.) The garden in which our first parents dewlt (Gen. 2: 8-17). ( 1 ) ,花園,使我們的第一次家長dewlt (創2 : 8-17 ) 。 No geographical question has been so much discussed as that bearing on its site.沒有地域的問題已獲得了這麼多的討論,因為這關係到它的網站。 It has been placed in Armenia, in the region west of the Caspian Sea, in Media, near Damascus, in Palestine, in Southern Arabia, and in Babylonia.它被安置在亞美尼亞,在該地區西部的里海,在媒體,大馬士革附近,在巴勒斯坦,在南部阿拉伯,並在巴比倫王國。 The site must undoubtedly be sought for somewhere along the course of the great streams the tigris and the Euphrates of Western Asia, in "the land of Shinar" or Babylonia.網站必須無疑徵求沿線某處過程中的偉大河流的底格里斯河和幼發拉底河的西亞,在"土地的示拿地"或巴比倫王國。 The region from about lat.該地區從約北緯 33 degrees 30' to lat. 33度30 '至北緯 31 degrees, which is a very rich and fertile tract, has been by the most competent authorities agreed on as the probable site of Eden. 31度,這是一個內容十分豐富和肥沃的呼吸道,一直由最主管機關同意,因為有可能網站的伊甸園。 "It is a region where streams abound, where they divide and re-unite, where alone in the Mesopotamian tract can be found the phenomenon of a single river parting into four arms, each of which is or has been a river of consequence." "這是一所在地區的溪流比比皆是,在那裡分化和重新團結起來,而僅在美索不達米亞道,可以發現這一現象的一個單一河臨別分為四個武器,每一個是或曾經是一條河流的後果" 。 Among almost all nations there are traditions of the primitive innocence of our race in the garden of Eden.其中幾乎所有國家,有傳統的原始清白的,我們比賽中的伊甸園。

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This was the "golden age" to which the Greeks looked back.這是"金色年華" ,而希臘人往前發展。 Men then lived a "life free from care, and without labour and sorrow. Old age was unknown; the body never lost its vigour; existence was a perpetual feast without a taint of evil. The earth brought forth spontaneously all things that were good in profuse abundance."男人則住著一個"生活,免於照顧,並沒有勞動和哀悼之意。歲年齡不詳;身體永遠失去了它的活力;生存是一個永恆的盛宴,沒有污點的邪惡。地球帶來了自發的所有事情都是好的豐富的豐度" 。 (2.) One of the markets whence the merchants of Tyre obtained richly embroidered stuffs (Ezek. 27:23); the same, probably, as that mentioned in 2 Kings 19:12, and Isa. ( 2 )其中的市場何時會有商家的輪胎得到了豐富繡東西( ezek. 27:23 ) ;一樣的,也許,因為這提到,在2國王19時12分,和ISA 。 37:12, as the name of a region conquered by the Assyrians. 37:12 ,由於名稱的一個地區征服了亞述人。 (3.) Son of Joah, and one of the Levites who assisted in reforming the public worship of the sanctuary in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29:12). ( 3 )的兒子joah ,其中一個利未人在協助改革公共崇拜的聖殿中的時候, hezekiah ( 2人權中心。 29:12 ) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


Garden of Eden伊甸園

Advanced Information 先進的信息

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray 來自:主頁聖經研究評論詹姆斯米灰色

Genesis Chapter 2成因第2章

The Garden Located該園位於

vv.維維。 8-14. 8-14 。 What name is given to the locality of the garden?什麼名字,是考慮到各地的園林? In which section of that locality was it planted?在其中的一段當地是種植? What expression in verse 9 shows God's consideration for beauty as well as utility?怎樣表達韻文9顯示了上帝的考慮,美容以及公用事業? What two trees of life planted?什麼兩棵樹的生命種植? What geographical feature of verse 10 accentuates the historical character of this narrative?有什麼地域特點的韻文十凸顯歷史的特色,這敘事? Observe how this is further impressed by the facts which follow, viz: the names of the rivers, the countries through which they flow, and even the mineral deposits of the latter. Note: (a) the use of the present tense in this description, showing that the readers of Moses' period knew the location; (b) it must have been an elevated district, as the source of mighty rivers; (c) it could not have been a very luxuriant or fruitful locality, else why the need of planting a garden, and where could there have been any serious hardship in the subsequent expulsion of Adam and Eve?觀察一下,這是進一步的印象事實跟進,即:姓名,河流,國家通過這些流量,甚至礦藏的後者。 備註: (一)利用現有的緊張,在此說明,顯示該讀者的摩西'時期知道位置; (二)必須是被高架區,作為源的浩蕩江河; (三)已經不能為一個非常繁茂的或富有成果的地方,否則,為何需要的種植園,並在可能有任何嚴重的困境,在此後驅逐亞當和夏娃?

It is used to be thought that "Eden" was a Hebrew word meaning pleasure, but recent explorations in Assyria indicate that it may have been of Accadian origin meaning a plain, not a fertile plain as in a valley, but an elevated and sterile plain as a steppe or mountain desert. Putting these things together, the place that would come before the mind of an Oriental was the region of Armenia where the Euphrates and the Tigris (or Hiddekel) take their rise.它是用來被認為"伊甸園"是一個希伯來字,意思是高興,但最近的探索,在assyria表明,它可能已被亞加底亞的原產地是指平原,而不是一個肥沃的平原作為一個山谷中,但高架及無菌平原作為草原或山地沙漠, 把這些東西在一起,地點,將前心中的東方是這一地區的亞美尼亞那裡幼發拉底河和底格里斯河(或hiddekel )帶崛起。 There are two other rivers taking their rise in that region, the Kur and the Araxes, thence uniting and flowing into the Caspian Sea, but whether these are identical with the Pison and Gihon of the lesson can not yet be determined. Science now corroborates this location of Eden in so far as it teaches (a) that the human race has sprung from a common centre, and (b) that this centre is the table-land of central Asia. 還有兩條河流,以自己的崛起,在這一地區, kur和阿拉克斯,進而團結和流入里海,但究竟這些是相同的,與pison和由基紅的教訓,還不能確定。科學的,現在證實了這所在地的伊甸園中,所以對於它教導(一)表示,人類已經異軍突起,從一個共同的中心,和( b )表示,這個中心是表-中亞的大地上。


Terrestrial Paradise陸地樂園

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

(paradeisos, Paradisus). ( paradeisos , paradisus ) 。

The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the scriptural Garden of Eden, the home of our first parents (Genesis 2).名稱由普選由於在基督教傳統對聖經的伊甸園,家中,我們首先家長說( 2 ) 。 The word paradise is probably of Persian origin and signified originally a royal park or pleasure ground.字天堂,可能是波斯出身標誌著原是皇家公園或遊樂場。 The term does not occur in the Latin of the Classic period nor in the Greek writers prior to the time of Xenophon.本術語不發生在拉丁美洲的古典時期,也沒有在希臘作家之前的時候,色諾芬。 In the Old Testament it is found only in the later Hebrew writings in the form (Pardês), having been borrowed doubtless from the Persian.在舊約,這是只有在稍後希伯來語寫作形式( pardês ) ,又被借來的,無疑來自波斯語。 An instructive illustration of the origin and primary meaning of the term appears in II Esdras (ii, 8) where "Asaph the keeper of the king's forest" (happerdês) is the custodian of the royal park of the Persian ruler.一個有啟發性的例子起源和初級一詞的含義似乎是在二埃斯德拉斯(二, 8 )凡" asaph蓄養的國王的森林" ( happerdês )是保管人的皇家公園的波斯統治者。 The association of the term with the abode of our first parents does not occur in the Old-Testament Hebrew.該協會的任期與居留權的,我們首先家長並不發生在舊遺囑希伯來語。 It originated in the fact that the word paradeisos was adopted, though not exclusively, by the translators of the Septuagint to render the Hebrew for the Garden of Eden described in the second chapter of Genesis.它起源於一個事實,這個詞paradeisos通過後,雖然不完全是由翻譯的septuagint使希伯來語為伊甸園形容,在第二章的成因。 It is likewise used in diverse other passages of the Septuagint where the Hebrew generally has "garden", especially if the idea of wondrous beauty is to be conveyed.它同樣採用的多種其他段落的septuagint那裡希伯來語一般具有"花園" ,特別是如果這個想法的驚異之美是要傳達。 Thus in Gen., xiii, 10, the "country about the Jordan" is described as a "paradise of the Lord" (rendering followed by the Vulgate).因此,在將軍, 13年, 10年, "國家對約旦" ,是形容為"天堂的上帝" (渲染其次是vulgate ) 。 Cf.比照。 Numbers, xxiv, 6 (Greek) where the reference is to the beautiful array of the tents of Israel, also Isaias, i, 30; Ezechiel, xxxi, 8, 9 etc. Those interested in speculation as to the probable location of the Scriptural Garden of Eden, the primeval home of mankind, are referred to the scholarly work of Friedrich Delitsch, "Wo lag das Paradies?"號碼, 24條,第6條(希臘)凡提到的是美麗的數組帳篷的以色列,也伊薩亞斯羅,我, 30條; ezechiel ,三十一,八,九等,有興趣的投機活動,以可能的地點聖經伊甸園,原始首頁的人類,是指學術工作的弗里德里希delitsch , "禾滯後之paradies " ? (Berlin, 1881). (柏林, 1881年) 。 In the New Testament period the word paradise appears with a new and more exalted meaning.在新約聖經時期一詞天堂似乎與一個新的和更崇高的意義。 In the development of Jewish eschatology which marks the post-Exilic epoch the word paradise or "Garden of God", hitherto mainly associated with the original dwelling-place of our first parents, was transferred to signify the future abode of rest and enjoyment which was to be the reward of the righteous after death.在發展的猶太末世標誌著後exilic劃時代字天堂或"花園的神" ,迄今主要是與原居住的地方,我們的第一家長,被移送意味著未來居留權的休息和享受的是被懸賞的正義後死亡。 The term occurs only three times in the New Testament, though the idea which it represents is frequently expressed in other terms, vg "Abraham's bosom" (Luke 16:22).任期僅發生3次,在新約聖經,雖然構想,它代表的是經常表示,在其他條款, vg "亞伯拉罕的胸懷" (路加福音16時22分) 。 The signification of the word in these remarkably few passages can be determined only from the context and by reference to the eschatological notions current among the Jews of that period.意義的字,在這些數顯通道才能確定,從上下文並參照本eschatological概念,目前除猶太人的這段時間。 These views are gathered chiefly from the Rabbinical literature, the works of Josephus, and from the apocryphal writings, notably the Book of Enoch, the Book of Jubilees, the Apocalypse of Baruch, etc. An inspection of these sources reveals a great confusion of ideas and many contradictions regarding the future paradise as also concerning the original Garden of Eden and the condition of our first parents.這些意見都聚集主要來自猶太教文學作品約瑟夫,並從猜測的著作,尤其是這本書的伊諾克,這本書的jubilees ,啟示baruch等檢查,上述消息人士披露了極大的混亂的想法和許多矛盾就未來的天堂,也涉及原伊甸園和我國國情的第一次家長。 The scanty references to Sheol which embody the vague eschatological beliefs of the Hebrews as expressed in the earlier Old Testament writings give place in these later treatises to elaborate theories worked out with detailed descriptions and speculations often of a most fanciful character.僅存參考sheol體現含糊eschatological信仰的希伯來人所表達的,在以前的舊約著作給地方,在這些後來論文闡述理論,制定了詳細的描述和揣測,常常是最幻想的性格。 As a sample of these may be noted the one found in the Talmudic tract "Jalkut Schim., Bereschith, 20".作為一個樣本,在這方面可能會注意到,一發現在talmudic道" jalkut schim , bereschith , 20 " 。 According to this description the entrance to paradise is made through two gates of rubies beside which stand sixty myriads of holy angels with countenances radiant with heavenly splendor.根據這一描述入口處的天堂,是透過兩個閘門紅寶石旁邊,其中納入第六十一不斷湧現,聖天使與countenances輻射合乎天理光彩。 When a righteous man enters, the vestures of death are removed from him; he is clad in eight robes of the clouds of glory; two crowns are placed upon his head, one of pearls and precious stones, the other of gold; eight myrtles are placed in his hands and he is welcomed with great applause, etc. Some of the Rabbinical authorities appear to identify the paradise of the future with the primeval Garden of Eden which is supposed to be still in existence and located somewhere in the far-distant East.當一個正義的人進入, vestures死因罷免了他,他是穿長袍八年的雲彩的榮耀;兩項冠都放在他的頭,其中一個珍珠和寶石外,其他的金牌;八年myrtles是擺在他的手裡,並歡迎他以極大的掌聲,等一些猶太教當局似乎確定天堂的前途與原始伊甸園,而應該是仍然存在,並位於某處遙遠東。 According to some it was an earthly abode, sometimes said to have been created before the rest of the world (IV Esdras iii, 7, cf. viii, 52); others make it an adjunct of the subterranean Sheol, while still others place it in or near heaven.據一些,這是一個俗世的居留權,有時說是已創造了前世界其餘地區(四埃斯德拉斯三,七,比照第八, 52歲) ,另作它的一個輔助的地下sheol ,而還有一些人把它擺在在或接近天堂。 It was believed that there are in paradise different degrees of blessedness.警方相信有天堂,有不同程度的幸福。 Seven ranks or orders of the righteous were said to exist within it, and definitions were given both of those to whom these different positions belong and of the glories pertaining to each ("Baba bathra", 75 a, quoted by Salmond, Hastings, "Dict. of the Bible", sv "Paradise").七個職級或訂單的正義據說同時存在,並定義都給予這些人,這些不同崗位所屬的榮耀與每一( "巴巴bathra " , 75 ,引用salmond ,黑斯廷斯, "字典的。聖經" , sv "天堂" ) 。 The uncertainty and confusion of the current Jewish ideas concerning paradise may explain the paucity of reference to it in the New Testament.不確定性和混亂,目前的猶太觀念天堂也許可以解釋缺乏提到它在新約聖經。 The first mention of the word occurs in Luke, xxiii, 43, where Jesus on the cross says to the penitent thief: "Amen I say to thee, this day thou shalt be with me in paradise".第一次提到這個詞出現在路加福音,二十三, 43 ,而耶穌在十字架上說,向懺悔小偷說: "阿門我說給你,這一天,你跟我在一起生活在天堂" 。 According to the prevailing interpretation of Catholic theologians and commentators, paradise in this instance is used as a synonym for the heaven of the blessed to which the thief would accompany the Saviour, together with the souls of the righteous of the Old Law who were awaiting the coming of the Redeemer.根據現行的解釋,天主教神學家和評論家,天堂,在這一點上,是用來作為別名為天堂的祝福哪個小偷會伴隨著救世主,加上亡靈,站在正義的舊法的人在等待未來的救世主。 In II Corinthians (xii, 4) St. Paul describing one of his ecstasies tells his readers that he was "caught up into paradise".在哥林多前書(十二, 4 ) ,聖保羅形容他的一個ecstasies告訴他的讀者,他是"趕上了進入天堂" 。 Here the term seems to indicate plainly the heavenly state or abode of the blessed implying possibly a glimpse of the beatific vision.這裡一詞似乎表明,顯然天朝國家或居留權的祝福暗示可能一瞥的beatific視野。 The reference cannot be to any form of terrestrial paradise, especially when we consider the parallel expression in verse 2, where relating a similar experience he says he was "caught up to the third heaven".參考,不能以任何形式的地面天堂,特別是當我們考慮平行表達韻文2 ,凡涉及類似的經歷,他說他是"趕上了給第三天堂" 。 The third and last mention of paradise in the New Testament occurs in the Apocalypse (ii, 7), where St. John, receiving in vision a Divine message for the "angel of the church of Ephesus", hears these words: "To him that overcometh, I will give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the paradise of my God."第三站,也是最後一提的天堂,在新約聖經出現在啟示錄(二, 7 ) ,在那裡聖約翰,在接受視覺神的訊息為"天使的教會的以弗所" ,聽到這句話: "給他這overcometh ,我會吃的生命樹,這是在天堂,我的上帝" 。 In this passage the word is plainly used to designate the heavenly kingdom, though the imagery is borrowed from the description of the primeval Garden of Eden in the Book of Genesis.在這段文字字,顯然是用來指定天國,雖然意象是借來的,從描述的原始伊甸園,在這本書的成因。

According to Catholic theology based on the Biblical account, the original condition of our first parents was one of perfect innocence and integrity.據天主教神學的基礎上,聖經的帳戶,原有的條件,我們首先家長是一個完美的清白和氣節。 By the latter is meant that they were endowed with many prerogatives which, while pertaining to the natural order, were not due to human nature as such--hence they are sometimes termed preternatural.由後者是意味著他們均擁有許多特權,而涉及到自然的秩序,並不是因為人性的,因為這樣的-因此,他們有時被稱為p reternatural。 Principal among these were a high degree of infused knowledge, bodily immortality and freedom from pain, and immunity from evil impulses or inclinations.其中主要是一個高度,充滿了知識,身體不死的,免於疼痛,並免於邪惡的衝動或傾向。 In other words, the lower or animal nature in man was perfectly subjected to the control of reason and the will.在換句話說,低於或動物性在人,是完全受到控制的原因和意志。 Besides this, our first parents were also endowed with sanctifying grace by which they were elevated to the supernatural order.此外,我們的第一個父母也是天賦sanctifying恩典,使他們提升到超自然的秩序。 But all these gratuitous endowments were forfeited through the disobedience of Adam "in whom all have sinned", and who was "a figure of Him who was to come" (Romans 5) and restore fallen man, not to an earthly, but to a heavenly paradise.但所有這些無端的禀賦則予以沒收透過抗命的後裔"的人都有罪" ,而這位"人物,他是來" (羅馬書5 ) ,恢復塌人,而不是一個俗世的,但一天上仙境。

According to Josephus (Ant. Jud., I, i, 3), the Nile is one of the four great rivers of paradise (Genesis 2:10 sqq.).據約瑟夫( ant. jud 。我,我, 3 ) ,尼羅河就是其中的4大河流的天堂(創2點10 sqq ) 。 This view, which has been adopted by many commentators, is based chiefly on the connection described between Gehon, one of the yet unidentified rivers, and the land of Cush, which, at least in later times, was identified with Ethiopia or modern Abyssinia (cf. Vulgate, Genesis 2:13).這一觀點,已通過的,許多評論家,是根據主要對涉嫌形容gehon之間,其中的,但身份不明的河流,以及土地的cush ,其中,至少在稍後的時間,被認定與埃塞俄比亞,還是現代阿比西尼亞(比照vulgate ,成因2時13分) 。 Modern scholars, however, are inclined to regard this African Cush as simply a colony settled by tribes migrating from an original Asiatic province of the same name, located by Fried.現代學者,但傾向於認為這是非洲cush只是一個殖民地定居的部落遷移,從原來的亞洲省的同一個名字,就位於油炸。 Delitsch (op. cit., 71) in Babylonia, and by Hommel ("Ancient Hebrew Tradition", 314 sqq.) in Central Arabia. delitsch (同前, 71歲)在巴比倫王國,並hommel ( "古希伯萊傳統" , 314 sqq ) ,在中央阿拉伯。

Publication information Written by James F. Driscoll.出版信息本書將會由詹姆斯樓driscoll 。 Transcribed by Robert B. Olson.轉錄羅伯特乙奧爾森。 Offered to Almighty God for David and Patricia Guin & Family The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.提供給全能的上帝大衛和Patricia guin &家庭天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. nihil obstat , 1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

HURTER, Theologioe Dogmaticoe Compendium, II (Innsbruck, 1893), 264-83; VON HUMMELAUER, Comment. hurter , theologioe dogmaticoe彙編,二(因斯布魯克, 1893 ) , 264-83 ;馮胡梅勞爾,發表評論。 in Genesim (Paris, 1895): Comment.在genesim (巴黎, 1895年) :發表評論。 in Cap.在Cap 。 ii; VIGOUROUX, Dict.二; vigouroux ,字典。 de la Bible, sv; GIGOT, Special Introduction to the Study of the Old Testament, Pt.德香格里拉聖經sv ; gigot ,特別介紹了這一研究的舊約,鉑。 I, 168 sqq.一, 168 sqq 。 (New York, 1901). (紐約, 1901年) 。


Eve除夕夜

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

(Hebrew hawwah). (希伯來語hawwah ) 。

The name of the first woman, the wife of Adam, the mother of Cain, Abel, and Seth.名字的第一位女性,妻子亞當,母親的該隱,亞伯,和Seth 。 The name occurs only five times in the Bible.名字只發生了5次聖經。 In Gen., iii, 20, it is connected etymologically with the verb meaning "to live": "And Adam called the name of his wife Eve [hawwah]: because she was the mother of all the living".在將軍,三, 20日,它是連接詞源與動詞,意思是"住" : "與亞當所謂的名義,他的妻子除夕[ hawwah ] :因為她是母親的全部生活" 。 The Septuagint rendering in this passage is Zoe (=life, or life-giver), which is a translation; in two other passages (Genesis 4:1 and 25) the name is transliterated Eua.該septuagint繪製這段話是我愛( =生活,還是生活的賜予者) ,這是一個翻譯,在其他兩個通道(創4:1和25 )的名字是譯音由美國。 The Biblical data concerning Eve are confined almost exclusively to the second, third, and fourth chapters of Genesis (see ADAM).聖經中有關數據前夕限於幾乎完全向第二,第三,第四章的成因(見亞當) 。

The first account of the creation (Gen. i, "P") sets forth the creation of mankind in general, and states simply that they were created male and female.第一帳戶的創造(創一, " P "字) ,提出了建立在人類一般,只是說,他們創造的男性和女性。 The second narrative (Genesis 2: "J") is more explicit and detailed.第二敘事(創2 : " J "型) ,是更為明確和詳細的。 God is represented as forming an individual man from the slime of the earth, and breathing into his nostrils the breath of life.上帝是派形成一個單獨的男子從泥中的地球,呼吸到他的鼻孔呼吸的生命。 In like manner the creation of the first woman and her relation to man is described with picturesque and significant imagery.同樣地創建了第一個婦女和她的關係,以男子的描述與風景如畫的和重大的意象。 In this account, in which the plants and animals appear on the scene only after the creation of man, the loneliness of the latter (Genesis 2:18), and his failure to find a suitable companion among the animals (Genesis 2:20), are set forth as the reason why God determines to create for man a companion like unto himself.在這個帳戶,其中的植物和動物出現在現場,只有在創造了人,是孤獨的,後者(創2時18分) ,以及他未能找到合適的伴侶之間的動物(成因2時20分) ,載為理由,為什麼神決定以創造男子為一本像祂自己。 He causes a deep sleep to fall upon him, and taking out one of the ribs, forms it into a woman, who, when she is brought to him, is recognized at once as bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh.他給我們製造了一種深度睡眠狀態,降臨他,並取出其中的排骨,形式,它成為一個女人,當她提起他,是公認的,一下子骨頭他的骨頭和肉他的血和肉。 A discussion of the arguments in favor of the historical, or the more or less allegorical character of this narrative would be beyond the scope of the present notice.討論的論點,主張的歷史原因,或較多或較少寓言性質的,這說明將超出本通知。 Suffice it to say that the biblical account has always been looked upon by pious commentators as embodying, besides the fact of man's origin, a deep, practical and many-sided significance, bearing on the mutual relationship established between the sexes by the Creator.可以說,聖經戶口一直期待後,由虔誠的評論員也體現了,除了一個事實,以人的出身,深厚,實際和許多片面的意義,同時對相互關係,建立了男女之間由造物主。

Thus, the primitive institution of monogamy is implied in the fact that one woman is created for one man.因此,加強原始性機構的一夫一妻制是隱含了一個事實,就是女人是創造一個男子。 Eve, as well as Adam, is made the object of a special creative act, a circumstance which indicates her natural equality with him, while on the other hand her being taken from his side implies not only her secondary rôle in the conjugal state (1 Corinthians 11:9), but also emphasizes the intimate union between husband and wife, and the dependence of the latter on the former "Wherefore a man shall leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they shall be two in one flesh."除夕夜,以及亞當,是對象的一個特殊的創意行為,這種情況表明,她自然的平等與他,而另一方面,她正從他身邊不僅意味著她的中學rôle在婚姻狀態( 1哥林多前書11時09分) ,但同時也強調了親密的聯盟夫妻之間,以及依賴關係,後者對前者的"人哪,有一個人離開父親和母親,並應cleave向他的妻子說:他們應兩個是在同一個肉" 。 The innocence of the newly created couple is clearly indicated in the following verse, but the narrator immediately proceeds to relate how they soon acquired, through actual transgression, the knowledge of good and evil, and with the sense of shame which had been previously unknown to them.無罪的新設立的夫婦明確表示,在下列詩句,但敘述者立即著手與他們如何盡快獲得通過實際的海侵,知識的善良與邪惡,並與羞恥感已被先前未知的,以他們。 In the story of the Fall, the original cause of evil is the serpent, which in later Jewish tradition is identified with Satan (Wisdom 2:24).在故事的秋天,原事業邪惡的是毒蛇,而在稍後的猶太傳統,是確定與撒旦(智慧2點24分) 。 He tempts Eve presumably as the weaker of the two, and she in turn tempts Adam, who yields to her seduction.他誘騙前夕,據推測為較弱的兩個,而她又誘騙亞當曾經屈服於她的誘惑。 Immediately their eyes are opened, but in an unexpected manner.隨即,他們的眼界打開,但在一個意想不到的方式。 Shame and remorse take possession of them, and they seek to hide from the face of the Lord.羞愧和悔恨佔有他們,他們試圖隱藏從表面上主。

For her share in the transgression, Eve (and womankind after her) is sentenced to a life of sorrow and travail, and to be under the power of her husband.她分享在海侵,除夕(和女性後,她)被判處終身的悲傷和travail ,並可以根據電源的丈夫。 Doubtless this last did not imply that the woman's essential condition of equality with man was altered, but the sentence expresses what, in the nature of things, was bound to follow in a world dominated by sin and its consequences.毫無疑問,這在過去並不意味著,這名婦女的基本條件的平等與男子變造的,但句子表達了什麼,在事情的性質,勢必跟進,在主宰世界,由單及其後果。 The natural dependence and subjection of the weaker party was destined inevitably to become something little short of slavery.自然的依賴與從屬的較弱的一方,是注定必然成為東西很少短期的奴役。 But if woman was the occasion of man's transgression and fall, it was also decreed in the Divine counsels, that she was to be instrumental in the scheme of restoration which God already promises while in the act of pronouncing sentence upon the serpent.但是,如果死者是一次以人的海侵和秋季,它也下令在神聖的律師指出,她是為了在該計劃的恢復真主已經許諾,而在該法的宣判刑期後,毒蛇。 The woman has suffered defeat, and infinitely painful are its consequences, but henceforth there will be enmity between her and the serpent, between his seed and her seed, until through the latter in the person of the future Redeemer, who will crush the serpent's head, she will again be victorious.該名女子已遭到失敗的命運,和無限痛苦的是它的後果,但是今後將有敵意,她與毒蛇之間,其種子和她的種子,直到通過後者在人的未來的救贖主,他將粉碎蛇的頭部,她將再次取得勝利。

Of the subsequent history of Eve the Bible gives little information.對以後的歷史上的除夕夜聖經給的資料很少。 In Gen., iv, 1, we read that she bore a son whom she named Cain, because she got him (literally, "acquired" or "possessed") through God--this at least is the most plausible interpretation of this obscure passage.在將軍,四, 1 ,我們讀到,她膛一個兒子,其中她名叫該隱的,因為她抓到(從字面上來看, "後天"或"具有" )透過上帝-這至少是最合理的解釋,這掩蓋通過。 Later she gave birth to Abel, and the narrative does not record the birth of another child until after the slaying of Abel by his older brother, when she bore a son and called his name Seth; saying: "God hath given me [literally, "put" or "appointed"] another seed, for Abel whom Cain slew".後來,她生下阿貝爾,並敘述不記錄誕生的另一個孩子後,才殺了亞伯由他的哥哥,當她膛一個兒子,並呼籲他的名字塞思庫;話說: "上帝祂所給予我的[從字面上來看, "把"或"委任" ]另一種子,為阿貝爾其中該隱轉換" 。

Eve is mentioned in the Book of Tobias (viii, 8; Sept., viii, 6) where it is simply affirmed that she was given to Adam for a helper; in II Cor., xi, 3, where reference is made to her seduction by the serpent, and in I Tim., ii, 13, where the Apostle enjoins submission and silence upon women, arguing that "Adam was first formed; then Eve. And Adam was not seduced, but the woman being seduced, was in the transgression".除夕是中提及這本書的托比亞斯(八, 8 ; 9月,第八條, 6 ) ,這是單純的肯定,她給亞當為一個幫手,在二,三房心,喜, 3 ,凡提到了她誘姦由蛇,並在I添。第一,二,十三,而使徒責成意見書和沉默後的婦女,說: "亞當最初形成的,然後除夕和亞當不是勾引,但該名女子被誘,是在海侵" 。

As in the case of the other Old Testament personages, many rabbinical legends have been connected with the name of Eve.情況一如其他舊約人士時,許多猶太教傳說已與名稱的除夕夜。 They may be found in the "Jewish Encyclopedia", sv (see also, ADAM), and in Vigouroux, "Dictionnaire de la Bible", I, art.他們可能會發現,在"猶太百科全書" , sv (亦見,亞當) ,並在vigouroux , "詞典香格里拉聖經" ,我想,藝術。 "Adam". "亞當" 。 They are, for the most part, puerile and fantastic, and devoid of historical value, unless in so far as they serve to illustrate the mentality of the later Jewish writers, and the unreliability of the "traditions" derived from such sources, though they are sometimes appealed to in critical discussions.他們是,在大多數情況下,幼稚的神奇,並且毫無歷史價值的,除非在迄今為他們服務,以說明心態後來猶太作家,不可靠的"傳統" ,來自這些信息源,但他們有時呼籲,在關鍵的討論。

Publication information Written by James F. Driscoll.出版信息本書將會由詹姆斯樓driscoll 。 Transcribed by Dennis McCarthy.轉錄由丹尼斯麥卡錫。 For my godmother, Eva Maria (Wolf) Gomezplata The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.我的教母,長榮瑪麗亞(狼) gomezplata天主教百科全書,體積訴公佈1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. nihil obstat , 1909年5月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

PALIS in VIGOUROUX, Dictionnaire de la Bible, II, 2118; BENNETT in HASTINGS, Dict. palis在vigouroux ,詞典香格里拉聖經,二, 2118年;班尼特在黑斯廷斯,字典。 of the Bible, sv; Encyclopedia Biblica, sv Adam and Eve; GIGOT, Special Introduction to the Study of the Old Testament, Part I, p.對聖經sv ;百科全書biblica , sv亞當和夏娃; gigot ,特別介紹了這一研究的舊約部分,頁 162; Jewish Encyclopedia, sv, V, 275. 162 ;猶太百科全書, sv ,五, 275 。


Garden of Eden伊甸園

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

-Biblical Data: -聖經的數據:

Name given to the "earthly paradise" occupied by Adam and Eve before their fall through sin.名義給予的"人間天堂"佔領了亞當與夏娃之前,他們通過屬於單。 The word "Eden," perhaps an Assyrian loan-word, is of the same root as the Assyrian "edinu," synonymous with "ṣeru" (= field, depression; compare the Arabic "zaur," which is the name still given to the country south of Babylon and extending to the Persian Gulf; the nomadic tribes inhabiting it were called by the Assyrians "sabe edini") (see Delitzsch, "Wo Lag das Paradies?").用"伊甸園" ,也許是一個亞述貸一詞,是同根為亞述" edinu , "同義詞" ṣeru " ( =場,抑鬱症;比較阿拉伯語" zaur " ,它的名稱仍給予該國南部的巴比倫,並延伸至波斯灣;游牧民族的聚居,它被稱為是由亞述人" sabe edini " ) (見delitzsch , "禾滯後之paradies ? " ) 。 Its connection with the Hebrew word is of later origin.其涉嫌與希伯來字是後來的原產地。 Sprenger ("Das Leben und die Lehre des Mohammad," ii. 507) explains it through the Arabic "'adn." sprenger ( "直接查冊,生活und模具教萬穆罕默德, "二507 )解釋說,它是通過阿拉伯語"和" 。

Views of Delitzsch.意見delitzsch 。

The writer of the Biblical story of Eden (Gen. ii.-iii.) is evidently describing some place which he conceives to be on the earth; hence the exact details: "God planted a garden eastward, in Eden," etc. Many attempts have been made to determine the precise geographical location.作者對聖經故事的伊甸園(創ii. -三)顯然是形容有些地方他構思要對地球,因此,確切的細節: "上帝種植園東移,在伊甸園"等許多企圖已作出決定的確切地理位置。 The most ancienttradition, going back to Josephus and followed by most of the Church Fathers, makes Havilah equivalent to India, and the Pison one of its rivers, while Cush is Ethiopia and the Gihon the Nile.最ancienttradition的,可以追溯到約瑟夫和隨後的大部分教會的父親,使得哈腓拉相當於印度和pison之一,它的河流,而cush是埃塞俄比亞和由基紅尼羅。 A very popular theory places Eden in Babylonia.一個很流行的理論地方伊甸園在巴比倫王國。 Calvin made the Shaṭṭal-'Arab-formed by the union of the Tigris and Euphrates-the river that "went out of the garden"; but it is now known that in ancient times the two rivers entered the Persian Gulf separately.卡爾文作出shaṭṭal - 'arab成立的由聯盟的底格里斯河和幼發拉底河-河說, "走出去的花園" ,但現在是眾所周知,在遠古時代,兩條河流進入波斯灣地區分開。 Friedrich Delitzsch also places Eden in the country around Babylon and south of it, a country which was so beautiful in its luxuriant vegetation and abundant streams that it was known as "Kar-Duniash," or "garden of the god Duniash."弗里德里希delitzsch也是地方伊甸園在該國靠近巴比倫和南方的,一個國家是如此美麗,在其繁茂的植被和豐富的溪流中,它被稱為"家duniash " , "花園之神duniash " 。

Rawlinson even tried to show the identity of the names "Gan-Eden" and "Kar-Duniash."羅林森甚至試圖表明身份,姓名, "贛伊甸園" , "家duniash " 。 This region is watered practically by the Euphrates alone, which is here on a higher level than the Tigris.這一地區是澆水,實際上是由幼發拉底河獨自經營,是這裡一個更高的水平比底格里斯河。 The Pison and the Gihon are identified with two canals (they may originally have been river-beds) which branch out from the Euphrates just below Babylon.該pison和由基紅發現有兩個運河(他們可能原來已經河床) ,其中科從幼發拉底河僅低於巴比倫。 The former, to the west, is the Pallacopas, upon which Ur was situated, and Havilah is thus identified with the portion of the Syrian desert bordering on Babylonia, which is known to have been rich in gold.前者,到西部,是pallacopas後,其中的烏拉圭回合是坐落,哈腓拉,因此確定與部分敘利亞沙漠接壤的巴比倫王國,這是已知有豐富的金礦。 The latter, Gihon, is the Shaṭṭ al-Nil, which passes the ruins of the ancient Erech, while Cush is the Mat Kashshi, or the northern part of Babylonia proper.後者,由基紅,是shaṭṭ基地為零,其中合格廢墟的古埃雷克,而cush是墊kashshi ,或北部的巴比倫王國正確的。 Curiously enough, this region was also called "Meluḥa," which name was afterward transferred to Ethiopia.奇怪的,因此這一區域被人稱為" meluḥa , "這名字是後來移交給埃塞俄比亞。 Other Assyriologists (eg,Haupt, "Wo Lag das Paradies?" in "Ueber Land und Meer," 1894-95, No. 15) do not credit the Biblical writer with the definiteness of geographical knowledge which Delitzsch considers him to have had.其他assyriologists (如豪普特, "禾滯後之paradies "和" ueber土地und meer " , 1894年至1895年,第15號)沒有信用聖經作家與定性的地理知識,其中delitzsch認為他到了。

The Gilgamesh Epic.該吉爾格美斯史詩史詩。

A very natural theory, which must occur to any one reading the Babylonian Gilgamesh epic, connects Eden with the dwelling of Parnapishtim, the Babylonian Noah, at the "confluence of streams."一個很自然的理論,它必須出現於任何一個讀巴比倫吉爾格美斯史詩史詩,連接伊甸與住家的parnapishtim ,巴比倫的諾亞,在"合流的溪流" 。 This is supposed to have been in the Persian Gulf or Nar Marratim ("stream of bitterness"), into which emptied the four rivers Euphrates, Tigris, Kercha, and Karun (compare Jensen, "Kosmologie der Babylonier," p. 507, and Jastrow, "Religion of the Babylonians and Assyrians," p. 506).這是假定已在波斯灣或全美地產經紀商協會marratim ( "意識流苦味" ) ,把它掏空四大河流幼發拉底河,底格里斯河,凱爾查,並在卡倫(比較詹森, " kosmologie明鏡babylonier " ,頁507 , jastrow , "宗教的巴比倫人和亞述人, " 506頁) 。 It is probable, however, that the story as given in the Bible is a later adaptation of an old legend, points of which were vague to the narrator himself, and hence any attempt to find the precise location of Eden must prove futile.這是可能的,然而,這個故事既然在聖經中是一個後來改編的一個老傳說,點,其中模糊的,以敘述者本身,因此任何企圖找到確切位置的伊甸園必須證明是徒勞的。 Indeed, the original Eden was very likely in heaven, which agrees with the view on the subject held by the Arabs.事實上,原伊甸很可能在天上,其中同意這樣的看法,就這個問題舉行過由阿拉伯人。 Gunkel, in his commentary on Genesis, also adopts this view, and connects the stream coming out of Eden with the Milky Way and its four branches. gunkel ,在他的評論對成因,也採用了這種觀點,並連接流出來的伊甸園與銀河系及其四個分支機構。

The El-Amarna Tablets.埃爾-阿瑪爾納片。

Though there is no one Babylonian legend of the Garden of Eden with which the Biblical story can be compared as in the case of the stories of the Creation and of the Flood, there are nevertheless points of relationship between it and Babylonian mythology.雖然沒有一個巴比倫傳說中的伊甸園,與聖經中的故事,可以比較的情況正如故事的創造和洪水,有不過分的關係,它和巴比倫的神話。 On one of the tablets found at Tell el-Amarna, now in the Berlin Museum, occurs the legend of Adapa.對其中的片發現告訴埃及阿瑪爾納,現在在柏林博物館,出現了傳說中的阿達帕。 Adapa, the first man, is the son of the god Ea, by whom he has been endowed with wisdom, but not with everlasting life.達帕,第一名男子,是兒子的上帝環境中,他被賦予了智慧,而不是永恆的生命。 He lives in Eridu, and cares for the sanctuary of the god.他生活在埃利都,並關心聖殿的神。 One day while fishing in a calm sea the south wind suddenly arises and overturns his boat.一天捕魚,而在平靜的海面南方風突然出現,並推翻了他的船。 In his anger Adapa fights with the south wind and breaks his wings so that he can not blow for seven days.在他的憤怒達帕打架與南方風能和休息,在他的翅膀,使他不能刮了7天。 Anu, the god of heaven, hearing of this, summons Adapa before him.澳大利亞國立大學,上帝的天堂,聽覺及此,傳票達帕他面前。 Ea gives his son instructions as to his behavior before Anu; among other things he tells him: "Bread of death will they offer thee: eat not of it. Water of death will they bring thee: drink not of it."環境,讓他的兒子指示,以自己的行為之前,澳大利亞國立大學;除其他事項外,他告訴他: "麵包死亡的,他們將提供你:不能吃的。水死亡,將他們帶來的祢:酒後不要它" 。 Adapa does as he is told, but the bread and water Anu causes to be placed before him are of life, not of death.達帕是否因為他是對的,但麵包和水的澳大利亞國立大學的原因放在他面前的是生活方式,而不是死亡。 Thus Adapa loses his chance of eternal life.因此達帕失去他的機會,永恆的生命。 He puts on the garment, however, which is offered him, following Ea's instructions.他把對服裝,不過,這是他提供,繼EA的指示。 In this story the bread of life is parallel to the tree of life in the Biblical story.在這個故事的麵包的生活是平行的生命樹,在聖經中的故事。 It is probable that the water of life also formed a part of the original story, and that the river of Eden is a trace of it.這是有可能的生命之水,也形成了一部分原來的故事,並說河的伊甸園是一個微量的。 In Ezek.在ezek 。 xlvii.四十七。 6-12 and, with some variation, in Rev. xxii. 6-12 ,再加上有些變化,在牧師二十二。 1, 2 mention is made of a "river of water of life, . . . and on either side of the river was there the tree of life," showing that the water of life was associated with the tree of life.一日,二日一提的是,取得了一個"河的生命之水, … … 。及兩側河是有生命樹" ,這標誌著水的生活與生命之樹。

Further, in the Biblical story, as in the Adapa legend, man is prevented from eating the food of life through being told that it means death to him.此外,在聖經故事,因為在達帕傳說中,人是不讓吃的食物,生活被通知說,它意味著死亡給他。 "In the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die" (Gen. ii. 17); and it is Ea, who has formed man, who is the means of preventing him from attaining life everlasting, just as it is God who removes man from out of Eden "lest he put forth his hand and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever" (ib. iii. 22). "有一天你eatest因此你一定死" (創二17 ) ;這是環境因素,他們已經形成了人,誰是手段阻止他實現人生永恆的,只是因為它是上帝的人免職男子走出伊甸園" ,以免他提出了他的手,並採取同樣的生命樹,吃,住,為以往任何時候都" ( ib.三, 22 ) 。 Jastrow (lc) remarks that the Hebrew story is more pessimistic than the Babylonian, since God even begrudges man knowledge, which the Babylonian god freely gives him. jastrow (立法會)的話指出,希伯來語的故事,是較悲觀,比巴比倫的,因為上帝甚至begrudges男子知識,其中巴比倫的神自如地給他。 Adapa, who has been endowed with knowledge, puts on the garment given him by Anu, and Adam and Eve, after eating of the tree of knowledge, make for themselves garments of fig-leaves.達帕,他們被賦予了知識,把對服裝,讓他由澳大利亞國立大學,與亞當和夏娃後,吃樹上的知識,使自己的服裝無花果葉。

Schrader ("KAT" ii. 1, 523) calls attention to the possibility of associating the name "Adam" with "Adapa." schrader ( "吉"二, 1 , 523 )呼籲注意聯繫的可能性命名為"亞當"與"達帕" 。 The "garden of God," situated on the mountain, in Ezek. "花園的神" ,坐落於山腰,在ezek 。 xxviii.二十八。 13, 14, and the tall cedar in Ezek. 13 , 14 ,和高聳的杉樹在ezek 。 xxxi.三十一。 3, may have some connection with the cedar-grove of Khumbaba in the Gilgamesh epic and with the high cedar in the midst of the grove. 3 ,可能有一些涉嫌與雪松-格羅夫的khumbaba在吉爾格美斯史詩史詩,並與高雪松在一片的小樹林。 In this connection may be mentioned the attempt to associate Eden with the mountain in Iranian mythology, out of which rivers flow, or with the Indian mountain Maru with the four rivers (Lenormant).在這方面可能會提到企圖副總裁翁同山在伊朗神話中,其中河川流量,或與印度山丸與四水( lenormant ) 。 Jensen ("Keilschriftliche Bibliothek," vi.) places the "confluence of the streams" in the Far West, and associates the island with the Greek Elysium.詹森( " keilschriftliche圖書館, "六)地方"合流的溪流" ,在遠西,及聯營島與希臘elysium 。

Snake and Cherubim.蛇和基路伯。

The snake in the story is probably identical with the snake or dragon in the Babylonian story of the Creation.蛇在這個故事可能是完全相同的,與蛇或龍在巴比倫故事的創作風格。 In the British Museum there is a cylinder seal which has been supposed by Delitzsch, among others, to represent the Babylonian story of Eden (see illustration, Jew. Encyc. i. 174).在大英博物館裡有一缸密封已被假定由delitzsch等等,以代表巴比倫故事的伊甸園(見舉例說,猶太人。 encyc一174 ) 。 The seal represents two figures, a male and a female, seated on opposite sides of a tree, with handsstretched toward it; behind the woman is an up-right snake.印章代表著兩個數字,一男一女,坐在對面兩側樹木,與handsstretched走向;背後的女人,是一個了偏右的蛇。 This picture alone, however, is hardly sufficient basis for believing that the Babylonians had such a story.這張照片不過,單靠政府是難以有足夠的依據,以為巴比倫人有這樣一個故事。 The cherubim placed to guard the entrance to Eden are distinctly Babylonian, and are identical with the immense winged bulls and lions at the entrances to Babylonian and Assyrian temples.基路伯放在看守入口伊甸明顯巴比倫的,是完全相同的巨大翅膀的公牛和獅子在入口處巴比倫和亞述廟宇。 See Cherub.見與Cherub 。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Guttmacher, Optimism and Religionism in the Old and New Testaments, pp.古特馬赫,樂觀精神和religionism在舊約及新約,聚丙烯。 243-245, Baltimore, 1903 243-245 ,巴爾的摩, 1903

-In Rabbinical Literature: -在猶太教文獻:

The Talmudists and Cabalists agree that there are two gardens of Eden: one, the terrestrial, of abundant fertility and luxuriant vegetation; the other, celestial, the habitation of righteous, immortal souls.該talmudists和cabalists同意,有兩個花園的伊甸園:一,陸地,豐富的生育率和繁茂的植被,另一方面,天體,人煙正義的,不死的靈魂。 These two are known as the "lower" and "higher" Gan Eden.這兩個被稱為"低"和"較高"甘伊甸園。 The location of the earthly Eden is traced by its boundaries as described in Genesis.位置俗世的伊甸園,是源於它的疆界描述成因。

In 'Erubin 19a (comp. Rabbinovicz, "Variæ Lectiones," ad loc.) Resh Laḳish expresses himself to the following effect: "If the paradise is situated in Palestine, Beth-Shean [in Galilee] is the door; if in Arabia, then Bet Gerim is the door; and if between the rivers, Damascus is the door."在' erubin 19A條( comp. rabbinovicz , " variæ lectiones , "專案同上) 。 resh laḳish表示自己大意如下: "如果天堂,是坐落在巴勒斯坦,什麼顯[在加利利]是大門,如果在阿拉伯,然後投注熱林是大門;若之間的河流,是大馬士革門" 。 In another part of the Talmud (Tamid 32b) the interior of Africa is pointed out as the location of Eden, and no less a personage than Alexander the Great is supposed to have found the entrance of Gan Eden in those regions which are inhabited and governed exclusively by women.在另一部分的猶太法典( tamid 32 B條)內部的非洲是指出,由於地理位置的伊甸園,並沒有減弱的人物,比亞歷山大大帝是要找到入口甘伊甸園在這些地區居住和統治完全由婦女擔任。 Alexander, who desired to invade Africa, was directed to Gan Eden by the advice of the "elders of the South."亞歷山大,想要侵入非洲,是針對向甘伊甸園所諮詢的"長老的南方" 。

A baraita fixes the dimensions of Gan and of Eden by comparisons with Egypt, Ethiopia, etc.: "Egypt is 400 parasangs square, and is one-sixtieth the size of Cush [Ethiopia]. Cush is one-sixtieth of the world [inhabited earth], the Gan being one-sixtieth of Eden, and Eden one-sixtieth of Gehinnom. Hence the world is to Gehinnon in size as the cover to the pot" (Ta'an. 10a). 1 baraita固定尺寸的GaN和伊甸園通過比較與埃及,埃塞俄比亞等說: "埃及是400 parasangs廣場是一個第六十大小cush [埃塞俄比亞] 。 cush是一個60的世界[居住地球] ,甘被一個第六十伊甸園,伊甸園一60個欣嫩子谷,所以世界是gehinnon大小作為封面,以壺" ( ta'an 。 10A )為。 The same baraita in the Jerusalem Talmud defines the territory of Egypt as 400 parasangs square, equal to forty days' journey, ten miles being reckoned as a day's journey (Pes. 94a).同時baraita在耶路撒冷猶太法典界定領土埃及為400 parasangs平方米,相當於四十天'的征途上, 10英里被忽視的,因為每天的旅程( pes. 94 A ) 。

The Rabbis make a distinction between Gan and Eden.拉比加以區分GaN和伊甸園。 Samuel bar Naḥman says that Adam dwelt only in the Gan.塞繆爾酒吧naḥman說亞當白景富不僅在甘。 As to Eden-"No mortal eye ever witnesseth, O God, beside thee" (Isa. lxiv. 4, Hebr.; Ber. 34b).至於伊甸園- "沒有凡人眼睛永遠witnesseth ,上帝啊,你身旁" (以賽亞lxiv 。 4 ,黑布爾;誤碼率。 34 / B ) 。

Identification of the Four Rivers.鑑定四大河流。

The Midrash (Gen. R. xvi. 7) identifies the "four heads" of the rivers with Babylon (Pison), Medo-Persia (Gihon), Greece (Hiddekel), Edom-Rome (Perat), and regards Havilah as Palestine.該midrash (創傳譯十六7 )確定的"四頭"的河流與巴比倫( pison ) , medo -波斯(由基紅) ,希臘( hiddekel ) ,益登-羅馬( perat ) ,並把哈腓拉,因為巴勒斯坦。 The Targum Yerushalmi translates "Havilah" by "Hindiki" ("Hindustan," or India), and leaves "Pison" untranslated.該targum yerushalmi翻譯"哈腓拉來" , " hindiki " (下稱"印度斯坦" ,或印度) ,以及葉" pison "未翻譯。 Saadia Gaon, in his Arabic translation, renders "Pison" the Nile, which Ibn Ezra ridicules, as "it is positively known that Eden is farther south, on the equator." saadia gaon ,在他的阿拉伯語翻譯,使" pison "尼羅河,而伊本以斯拉嘲弄,因為"這是積極眾所周知,伊甸是越走越南,對赤道" 。 Naḥmanides coincides in this view, but explains that the Pison may run in a subterranean passage from the equator northward. naḥmanides恰逢在這一觀點,但解釋說, pison可能運行在一個地下通道從赤道北上。 Obadiah of Bertinoro, the commentator of the Mishnah, in a letter describing his travels from Italy to Jerusalem in 1489, relates the story of Jews arriving at Jerusalem from "Aden, the land where the well-known and famous Gan Eden is situated, which is southeast of Assyria."俄巴底亞書的bertinoro ,評論員的mishnah ,在信中形容他的旅行,從意大利到耶路撒冷,在1489年,涉及的故事猶太人抵達耶路撒冷,由"亞丁,土地如知名和著名甘伊甸園坐落,是東南亞的assyria " 。 Jacob Safir, who visited Aden in 1865, describes it in his "Eben Sappir" (ii.3) as sandy and barren, and can not posssibly indorse the idea of connecting Aden with the Eden of Genesis.雅各布使者,他們參觀了亞丁,在1865年所形容的,在他的" Eben的sappir " (二.3 )為沙質和光禿禿的,並不能posssibly indorse的想法連接亞丁與伊甸社會福利的成因。 The opinions of the most eminent Jewish authorities point to the location of Eden in Arabia.意見最傑出的猶太當局點位置的伊甸園在阿拉伯。 The "four heads" or mouths of the rivers(= seas) are probably the Persian Gulf (east), the Gulf of Aden (south), the Caspian Sea (north), and the Red Sea (west). "四頭" ,或嘴巴的河流( =海洋)很可能是波斯灣地區(東部) ,亞丁灣(南區) ,里海(北) ,以及紅海(西) 。 The first river, Pison, probably refers to the Indus, which encircles Hindustan, confirming the Targum Yerushalmi.首河, pison ,大概是指以工業品,其中包圍印度斯坦,證實targum yerushalmi 。 The second river, Gihon, is the Nile in its circuitous course around Ethiopia, connecting with the Gulf of Aden.二河,由基紅,是尼羅河在其迂迴當然靠近埃塞俄比亞,與亞丁灣。 The third river, Hiddekel, is the Tigris, which has its course in the front () of Assur (= Persia), speaking from the writer's point of view in Palestine.第三河, hiddekel ,是底格里斯河,有其當然在前面( )的桿( =波斯) ,從作家的角度來看,在巴勒斯坦。 Some explain the difficulty of finding the courses of the rivers by supposing that since the Deluge these rivers have either ceased to exist, entirely or in part, or have found subterranean outlets.有些解釋很難找到課程的河流假設,由於洪水,這些河流已不復存在,完全或部分地,或發現有地下商舖。 Indeed, the compiler of the Midrash ha-Gadol expresses himself as follows: "Eden is a certain place on earth, but no creature knows where it is, and the Holy One, blessed be He! will only reveal to Israel the way to it in the days of the king Messiah" (Midr. ha-Gadol, ed. Schechter, col. 75).事實上,編譯器的midrash夏紅景天表示自己如下: "伊甸園是某一個地方在地球上,但沒有動物,也知道哪裡是,和聖一,有福被他!只會暴露給以色列的途徑,它在幾天的國王彌賽亞" ( midr.夏紅景天,教育署。 Schechter已,中校75段) 。

Earthly and Heavenly Gan Eden.塵世與天國甘伊甸園。

The boundary line between the natural and supernatural Gan Eden is hardly perceptible in Talmudic literature.邊界線之間的自然和超自然甘伊甸園,是很難感覺到的,在talmudic文學。 In fact, "Gan Eden and heaven were created by one Word [of God], and the chambers of the Gan Eden are constructed as those of heaven, and as heaven is lined with rows of stars, so Gan Eden is lined with rows of the righteous, who shine like the stars" (Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, pp. 13, 55).事實上, "幹Eden和天堂所創造的一個詞[上帝] ,且商會贛伊甸建造者的天堂,因為天堂是兩邊一排排顆星,所以甘伊甸園是兩邊一排排義人,誰照耀像顆星" ( aggadat shir夏shirim ,第13 , 55 ) 。 The leviathan disturbs the waters of the seas, and would have destroyed the life of all human beings by the bad breath of his mouth, but for the fact that he occasionally puts his head through the opening of Gan Eden, the spicy odor issuing from which acts as an antiseptic to his bad smell (BB75a).該利維坦擾亂水域的公海,並會毀了生活的所有的人所造成口臭的嘴,但對於他的事實,偶爾把他的頭部通過開放甘伊甸園,辛辣氣味簽發從哪個作為一種防腐劑,以他的臭氣( bb75a ) 。 Ḥiyya bar Ḥanina says that God had prepared for Adam ten canopies of various precious stones in Gan Eden, and quotes Ezek. ḥiyya酒吧ḥanina說,上帝已經準備亞當十大簷篷的各種寶石,在甘的伊甸園,並尋獲ezek 。 xxviii.二十八。 13 (BB 75a). 13 ( BB心跳在75 A ) 。 This, according to the Midrash, relates to the celestial Gan Eden.為此,根據該midrash ,涉及到的天體甘伊甸園。 The Zohar claims for everything on earth a prototype above (Yitro 82a).該佐哈爾索賠一切地球上的原型以上( yitro 82a ) 。 Naḥmanides also says that the narrative of Eden in Genesis has a double meaning, that besides the earthly Gan Eden and the four rivers there are their prototypes in heaven (Commentary to Gen. iv. 13). naḥmanides也說,敘事的伊甸園中的成因有雙重意義,除了俗世甘Eden和四個河流有他們的原型在天堂(評上將四13 ) 。 See Paradise.見天堂。

-In Arabic Literature: -在阿拉伯語文學:

The Arabic word for Eden is "'Adn," which, according to the commentators and lexicographers, means "fixed residence," ie, the everlasting abode of the faithful.阿拉伯文意為伊甸園是"和" ,其中,根據我的評論家和lexicographers ,是指"固定居所" ,即永恆居留權的信徒。 "'Adn," preceded by "jannat" (gardens), occurs ten times in the Koran (suras ix. 73, xiii. 23, xvi. 33, xviii. 30, xix. 62, xx. 78, xxxv. 30, xxxviii. 50, xl. 8, xli. 12), but always as the abode of the righteous and never as the residence of Adam and Eve, which occurs in the Koran only under the name of "jannah" (garden), although the Moslem commentators agree in callingit "Jannat'Adn "(the Garden of Eden). "並規定, "先" jannat " (花園) ,出現10倍,在可蘭經(章節九73 ,十三,二十三,十六, 33歲, 18 30 ,第19 , 62 , XX條78號,三十五, 30 ,三十八, 50歲,銷售。 8 ,四十一, 12 ) ,但總是因為居留權的正義和永遠作為官邸,亞當和夏娃,這是發生在古蘭經只是名義下的" jannah " (花園) ,雖然穆斯林評論家同意在callingit " jannat'adn " (伊甸園) 。 In sura ii.在蘇拉二。 23 occur the words: "And we have said to Adam: 'Stay with thy wife in the garden ["fi al-jannah"],'" which Baiḍawi explains: "The garden here is the 'Dar al-Thawab' [The House of Recompense], which is the fourth of the eight heavens." 23日發生的話: "我們已經說過,以亞當: '留在你的妻子在花園[ " Fi的基地jannah "],'"其中baiḍawi解釋說: "花園這裡是'達累斯薩拉姆基地thawab ' [眾議院賠償] ,這是第四次的八項老天爺" 。 According to the Koran, the gardens of Eden are in heaven, and form a part of the blissful abode of the believers.根據可蘭經,花園的伊甸園是在天上,形成部分的幸事居留權的教徒。 In sura ii.在蘇拉二。 23 it gives the command: "Announce that the believers will reside in delightful gardens," on which Baiḍawi remarks: "According to Ibn al-'Abbas, there are seven gardens, one of which is called 'Firdaus' [Paradise] and one "Adn' [Eden]." Hence there is a difficulty as to the Eden from which Adam was cast out. 23 ,它給人的命令: "宣布信教的人將居住在愉快的花園" ,對其中baiḍawi備註: "據伊本基地'abbas ,有7個花園,其中之一是所謂的' firdaus ' [天堂]和一個" ' [伊甸園] " ,因此是有困難,以伊甸社會福利從亞當被趕出去。

Baidawi says on sura ii.巴大維說,對蘇拉二。 23: "Some people have thought that this Eden was situated in the country of the Philistines, or between Persia and Karman. God created it in order to put Adam to the test." 23 : "有些人以為這處伊甸園是坐落在該國的philistines之間,或波斯和卡門。上帝創造的,它為了使亞當向考試" 。 Mohammed Ṭahir ("Majma' al-Biḥar, " p. 225), speaking of the tradition that the rivers Jaiḥun and Jaiḥan are rivers of the garden ("al-jannah"), says: "The terms are figurative, implying that faith extended to those regions and made them rivers of paradise."穆罕默德ṭahir ( " majma ' biḥar " ,第225頁) ,講傳統,河流jaiḥun和jaiḥan是大江大河的花園(下稱"基地jannah " ) ,說: "條件是形象化的,言下之意是信仰延伸到這些地區,並取得了他們的河流天堂" 。 In another place (ib. p. 164) he says: "The four rivers, Siḥan [Jaxartes], Jaiḥan [Gihon], Furat [Euphrates], and Nil [Nile], are rivers of paradise."在另一個地方( ib.第164頁)他說: "四水, siḥan [ jaxartes ] , jaiḥan [由基紅] ,該黨[幼發拉底河] ,及零[尼羅河] ,是大江大河的天堂" 。 Abu Mohammed Mu'afa al-Shaibani, author of the "Uns al-Munḳaṭi'in," states the following tradition: "When God created the Garden of Eden, He created in it that which the eye had never seen before, that which the ear had never heard of before, and that which had never been desired before by man's heart."阿布穆罕默德mu'afa基地-謝巴尼,作者"了UNS基地munḳaṭi'in , "規定如下傳統: "當上帝創造了伊甸園,他創造了在它那眼睛從沒有見過的,那耳朵從來都沒有聽說過,而且其中從未想要的,才由人的心" 。 There is another tradition that God, having created the Garden of Eden, ordered it to speak.另外還有一個傳統,就是神,創造了伊甸園,命令他們說話。 The garden pronounced the following words: "There is no God besides Allah."該園突出了以下的話: "沒有神,除了安拉" 。 The garden was ordered to speak a second time, and it added: "The faithful will be happy."該花園被勒令作第二次發言,並補充說: "教友們會很高興" 。 After a third order it said: "Misers or hypocrites will never enter me."經過三階它說: "吝嗇鬼或偽君子絕不會進入我" 。 Wahb ibn Munabbah says: "There is a tradition that the Garden of Eden has eight gates, the porters of which must not let anybody come in before those who despise earthly things and prefer those of heaven."瓦哈巴伊本munabbah地說: "有一個傳統,伊甸園有八個門,搬運工,其中必須不要讓任何人進來之前,那些蔑視俗世的事物,喜歡那些升天" 。 According to one tradition the tree of life was a stalk of wheat-which in the days of Adam grew to the size of a tree-a vine, a fig-tree, or a "tree that whoever eats of it grows young again" (Baiḍawi, Commentary on Koran, sura ii. 33).據一位傳統的生命樹是一個稈小麥-這在以後的幾天亞當增長,以規模樹-一種畏縮不前, A圖樹,抑或是"樹說,誰吃的,它長大的青年再次"( baiḍawi ,評古蘭經,蘇拉二33 ) 。 Weil, in "Biblische Legenden der Propheten," gives some interesting traditions in regard to Eden and Satan.韋伊,在" biblische legenden明鏡propheten " ,給出了一些有趣的傳統,對於伊甸園裡的撒旦。

Emil G. Hirsch, Mary W. Montgomery, Solomon Schechter, Judah David Eisenstein, M. Seligsohn埃米爾g.赫希,小瑪麗蒙哥馬利,索羅門Schechter已,猶大大衛艾森斯坦,米seligsohn
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版1901年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Hughes, Dictionary of Islam, sv Eden; D'Herbelot, Bibliothèque Orientale, i.休斯,字典的伊斯蘭教, sv伊甸園; -埃貝洛,國家圖書館,東方,一。 166; Mohammed Ṭahir, Majma' at-Biḥar, pp. 166個;穆罕默德ṭahir , majma ' - biḥar頁。 164, 225; A. Geiger, Judaism and Islam, pp. 164 , 225 ;甲蓋格,猶太教和伊斯蘭教,聚丙烯。 32, 33, Madras, 1878 32 , 33 ,馬德拉斯, 1878年


Eve除夕夜

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

-Biblical Data: -聖經的數據:

The wife of Adam.妻子亞當。 According to Gen. iii.據將軍三。 20, Eve was so called because she was "the mother of all living" (RV, margin, "Life" or "Living"). 20日,除夕夜是如此命名是因為她"的母親,所有生活" (風疹病毒,保證金, "生命"或"住" ) 。 On the ground that it was not "good for man to be alone" God resolved to "make him an help meet for him" (ib. ii. 18), first creating, with this end in view, the beasts of the field and the fowl of the air and then bringing them unto Adam.在地面上,這是不是"好,為人類單獨的"上帝決心"使他成為幫助滿足他" ( ib.二18 ) ,首先創建,達到這個目的來看,獸的場雞的空氣,然後將他們所不欲,亞當。 When Adam did not find among these a helpmeet for himself, Yhwh caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, and took one of his ribs, from which He made a woman, and brought her unto the man (ib. ii. 22).當亞當,沒有找到,其中一helpmeet為自己, yhwh造成一種深度睡眠狀態,降臨他,並做出了他的肋骨,他從那裡取得了一名女子,並帶她所不欲,該名男子( ib.二22 ) 。 Upon seeing her, Adam welcomed her as "bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh" (ib. ii. 23), declaring that she should be called "ishshah" because she was taken out of "ish" (man.)當看到她,亞當歡迎她為"骨我的骨頭和肉我的肉身" ( ib.二23 ) ,聲稱她應稱為" ishshah " ,因為她完全是出於"原位雜交" ( man. )

Dwelling in the Garden of Eden with Adam, Eve is approached and tempted by the serpent.住在伊甸園與亞當,夏娃是接近和誘惑毒蛇。 She yields to the reptile's seductive arguments, and partakes of the forbidden fruit, giving thereof to her husband, who, like her, eats of it.她產量向爬蟲類動物的誘人的論點,並參與大的禁果,使捐獻給丈夫,世界衛生組織,她一樣,吃的。 Both discover their nakedness and make themselves aprons of figleaves.既發現自己的裸做出自己的圍裙的figleaves 。 When God asks for an accounting Adam puts the blame on Eve.當上帝要為一個會計亞當把責任推到除夕。 As a punishment, the sorrows of conception and childbirth are announced to her, as well as subjection to her husband (ib. iii. 16).作為一種懲罰手段,辛酸觀和生育宣布,她的,以及遭受丈夫( ib.三, 16 ) 。 Driven out of Eden, Eve gives birth to two sons, Cain and Abel; herself naming the elder in the obscure declaration "I have gotten a man with the help of Yhwh" (ib. iv. 1, RV).逐出伊甸園,夏娃生了兩個兒子,該隱和亞伯;自己命名的長輩,在模糊的宣言: "我已經得到了一名男子的幫助下yhwh " ( ib.四, 1 , RV )的。 Later, after the murder of Abel, she bears another son, to whom she gives the name "Seth," saying that he is given to her by Yhwh as a compensation for Abel (ib. iv. 25).後來,由於謀殺亞伯,事關她的另一個兒子,給誰,她的名字"塞思庫" ,並表示這是送給她的,由yhwh作為補償阿貝爾( ib.四25 ) 。

-In Rabbinical Literature: -在猶太教文獻:

Eve was not created simultaneously with Adam because God foreknew that later she would be a source of complaint.除夕夜,是沒有創造的同時,亞當因為上帝foreknew說,後來,她將是一個來源的投訴。 He therefore delayed forming her until Adam should express a desire for her (Gen. R. xvii.).因此,他的延遲成形,她直到亞當應該表達一個願望,為她(創傳譯十七) 。 Eve was created from the thirteenth rib on Adam's right side and from the flesh of his heart (Targ. Pseudo-Jonathan to Gen. ii. 21; Pirḳe R. El. xii.).除夕夜被創造的,從第十三肋骨亞當的右側,從肉體的,他的心( targ.偽喬納森以將軍二, 21個; pirḳe傳譯下午十二) 。 Together with Eve Satan was created (Gen. R. xvii.).再加上除夕撒旦創造(創傳譯十七) 。 God adorned Eve like a bride with all the jewelry mentioned in Isa.神飾前夕就像一個新娘與所有珠寶中提到的伊薩。 iii.三。 He built the nuptial chamber for her (Gen. R. xviii.).他修建了婚商會為她(創傳譯十八) 。 According to Pirḳe R. El.據pirḳe傳譯下午。 xii., as soon as Adam beheld Eve he embraced and kissed her; her name , from , indicates that God () joined them together (see also Ab. RN xxxviii.).十二,盡快亞當看到前夕,他擁抱並親吻了她,她的名字,從表明,神( )加入它們放在一起(也見抗體。氡三十八) 。 Ten gorgeous "ḥuppot" (originally, "bridal chambers"; now, "bridal canopies"), studded with gems and pearls and ornamented with gold, did God erect for Eve, whom He Himself gave away in marriage, and over whom He pronounced the blessing; while the angels danced and beat timbrels and stood guard over the bridal chamber (Pirḳe R. El. xii.).十大華麗" ḥuppot " (原來, "新娘商會" ,現在, "新娘簷篷" ) , studded與寶石和珍珠裝飾的黃金,並豎立上帝為除夕,其中他自己放棄了在婚姻中,而超過他宣判祝福,而天使共舞,並擊敗timbrels ,站在守衛洞房( pirḳe傳譯下午十二) 。

Samael, prompted by jealousy, picked out the serpent to mislead Eve (Yalḳ., Gen. xxv.; comp. Josephus, "Ant." i. 1, § 4; Ab. RN i.), whom it approached, knowing that women could be more easily moved than men (Pirḳe R. El. xiii.).薩麥爾,促使妒忌,挑選出毒蛇誤導除夕( yalḳ. ,將軍二十五;可比。約瑟夫, "螞蟻" ,一, 1 ,第4款;抗體。氡一) ,其中接近,明知婦女可以更容易提出高於男性( pirḳe傳譯下午第十三) 。 Or, according to another legend, the serpent was induced to lead Eve to sin by desire on its part to possess her (Soṭah 9; Gen. R. xviii.), and it cast into her the taint of lust (; Yeb. 103b; 'Ab. Zarah 22b; Shab. 146a; Yalḳ., Gen. 28, 130).或者,根據另一種傳說,蛇是誘發領導除夕單慾望但其必須具備的,她( soṭah 9 ;將軍傳譯十八) ,並鑄就了她的污點,情慾( ; yeb 。 103b ; '抗體。 zarah 22 B條;沙巴。 146a ; yalḳ ,上將28日, 130 ) 。 Profiting by the absence of the two guardian angels (Ḥag. 16a; Ber. 60b), Satan, or the serpent, which then had almost the shape of a man (Gen. R. xix. 1), displayed great argumentative skill in explaining the selfish reasons which had prompted God's prohibition (Pirḳe R. El. lc; Gen. R. xix.; Tan., Bereshit, viii.), and convinced Eve by ocular proof that the tree could be touched (comp. Ab. RN i. 4) without entailing death.營利因缺少兩個護衛天使( ḥag. 16A條;誤碼率。 60b ) ,撒旦,或是毒蛇,當時幾乎形狀的一名男子(創傳譯十九1 ) ,表現出極大的追根究底技巧講解自私的理由,促使了上帝的禁令( pirḳe傳譯下午。信用證;將軍傳譯十九;火炭, bereshit ,八) ,並深信前夕,由眼證據證明該樹能感動( comp.抗體。氡一, 4 )在不導致死亡。 Eve thereupon laid hold of the tree, and at once beheld the angel of death coming toward her (Targ. Pseudo-Jon. to Gen. iii. 6).除夕於是奠定舉行的樹,並在一次看到了死亡天使未來走向她( targ.偽瓊。將軍三6 ) 。 Then, reasoning that if she died and Adam continued to live he would take another wife, she made him share her own fate (Pirḳe R. El. xiii.; Gen. R. xix.); at the invitation of the serpent she had partaken of wine; and she now mixed it with Adam's drink (Num. R. x.).然後,推理,如果她的死亡與亞當繼續生活,他將會採取另一種妻子,她使他分享她自己的命運( pirḳe傳譯下午。十三;將軍傳譯十九) ;邀請,於毒蛇,她partaken的葡萄酒;她現在混合,它與亞當的飲料( num.傳譯十) 。 Nine curses together with death befell Eve in consequence of her disobedience (Pirḳe R. El. xiv.; Ab. RN ii. 42). 9詛咒一起死亡降臨前夕的後果,她抗命( pirḳe傳譯下午第十四;抗體。氡二42 ) 。

Eve became pregnant, and bore Cain and Abel on the very day of (her creation and) expulsion from Eden (Gen. R. xii.).除夕夜懷孕,並且承擔該隱和亞伯,就在當天(她的創作和)被驅逐出伊甸園(創傳譯十二) 。 These were born full-grown, and each had a twin sister (ib.).這些出生全職長大,每次都進行了孿生姐妹( ib. ) 。 Cain's real father was not Adam, but one of the demons (Pirḳe R. El. xxi., xxii.).該隱的真實父親是不是亞當,但其中一個惡魔( pirḳe傳譯下午。二十一,二十二) 。 Seth was Eve's first child by Adam.塞思庫是除夕夜的第一個孩子,由亞當。 Eve died shortly after Adam, on the completion of the six days of mourning, and was buried in the Cave of Machpelah (Pirḳe R. El. xx.).除夕不久後傷重不治亞當,就完成了6天的哀悼,並被埋在塌方的machpelah ( pirḳe傳譯下午第二十) 。 Comp.可比。 Adam, Book of亞當,帳簿

-In Arabic Literature: -在阿拉伯語文學:

Eve is a fantastic figure taken from the Jewish Haggadah.除夕是一個神奇的數字,從猶太haggadah 。 In the Koran her name is not mentioned, although her person is alluded to in the command given by Allah to Adam and his "wife," to live in the garden, to eat whatever they desired, but not to approach "that tree" (suras ii. 33, vii. 18).在可蘭經她的名字都沒有提及,雖然她的人是暗示在指揮給予阿拉亞當和他的"妻子說: "住在花園裡,吃什麼,他們期望的,但這並不代表辦法" ,樹" (章節二, 33 ,七18 ) 。 According to Mohammedan tradition, Eve was created out of a rib of Adam's left side while he was asleep.據穆罕默德的傳統,除夕夜被創造出來的肋骨的亞當的左側,而他睡了。 Riḍwan, the guardian of paradise, conducted them to the garden, where theywere welcomed by all creatures as the father and mother of Mohammed. riḍwan ,守護者的天堂,進行了他們的花園,那裡theywere歡迎所有的動物,作為父親和母親的穆罕默德。

Iblis, who had been forbidden to enter paradise and was jealous of Adam's prerogative, wished to entice him to sin. iblis ,他們被禁止進入天堂,是嫉妒亞當的特權,希望誘使他罪過。 He asked the peacock to carry him under his wings, but, as the bird refused, he hid himself between the teeth of the serpent, and thus managed to come near Adam and Eve.他詢問孔雀進行他根據他的翅膀,但是,正如鳥拒絕了,他躲在之間牙齒的毒蛇,因此設法接近亞當和夏娃。 He first persuaded Eve to eat of the fruit, which was a kind of wheat that grew on the most beautiful tree in the garden, and she gave some to Adam.他首先說服了除夕吃的水果,這是一個種小麥的增長對最美麗的樹木在園林的,她舉了一些亞當。 Thereupon all their ornaments fell from their bodies, so that they stood naked.於是所有首飾下跌,從自己的身體,讓他們站在赤身裸體。 Then they were expelled from the garden.然後,他們被驅逐出園。 Adam was thrown to Serendib (Ceylon), and Eve to Jidda (near Mecca).亞當被投擲到serendib (錫蘭) ,並除夕jidda (麥加附近) 。

Although Adam and Eve could not see each other, they heard each other's lamentations; and their repentance restored to them God's compassion.雖然亞當和夏娃卻看不到對方,他們聽到對方的悲嘆;及其悔罪恢復他們的上帝的憐憫。 God commanded Adam to follow a cloud which would lead him to a place opposite to the heavenly throne, where he should build a temple.神將亞當以跟隨雲這將導致他的一個地方,對面的,天上的寶座,在那裡他要蓋廟。 The cloud guided him to Mount Arafa, near Mecca, where he found Eve.雲引導他走上arafa ,麥加附近,在那裡他發現了除夕。 From this the mount derived its name.從這個掛載導出其名稱。 Eve died a year after Adam, and was buried outside Mecca, or, according to others, in India, or at Jerusalem.除夕去世一年後,亞當,被掩埋外麥加,或根據其他人,在印度,還是在耶路撒冷。

Emil G. Hirsch, Solomon Schechter, Hartwig Hirschfeld埃米爾g.赫希,索羅門Schechter已, hartwig hirschfeld
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版1901年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Weil, Biblische Legenden der Muselmänner.韋伊, biblische legenden明鏡muselmänner 。

-Critical View: -批評的看法:

The account of the creation of woman-she is called "Eve" only after the curse-belongs to the J narrative.該賬戶的開設女性,她就是所謂的"除夕夜"後,才詛咒-屬於在J敘事。 It reflects the naive speculations of the ancient Hebrews on the beginnings of the human race as introductory to the history of Israel.它反映了天真揣測的古代希伯來人就開始人類介紹,以歷史上的以色列。 Its tone throughout is anthropomorphic.它的整個基調是擬人。 The story was current among the people long before it took on literary form (Gunkel, "Genesis," p. 2), and it may possibly have been an adaptation of a Babylonian myth (ib. p. 35).故事是當前人民內部長時間,才接手的文學形式( gunkel , "起源" ,第2頁) ,它可能已經適應一個巴比倫神話( ib.第35頁) 。 Similar accounts of the creation of woman from a part of man's body are found among many races (Tuch, "Genesis," notes on ch. ii.); for instance, in the myth of Pandora.類似的賬戶開設女子從一部分人的屍體被發現其中許多種族( tuch , "成因" ,對CH二) ;例如,在神話的潘多拉。 That woman is the cause of evil is another wide-spread conceit.那個女人,是導致邪惡的是另一種廣泛蔓延自負。 The etymology of "ishshah" from "ish" (Gen. ii. 23) is incorrect ( belongs to the root ), but exhibits all the characteristics of folk-etymology.詞源" ishshah " ,從"原位雜交" (創二23 ) ,是不正確(屬於根) ,而所有展品的特點,民俗語源。 The name , which Adam gives the woman in Gen. iii.該名稱,即亞當給該名女子在將軍三。 20, seems not to be of Hebrew origin. 20 ,但似乎不被希伯萊起源。 The similarity of sound with explains the popular etymology adduced in the explanatory gloss, though it is WR Smith's opinion ("Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia," p. 177) that Eve represents the bond of matriarchal kinship ("ḥayy").相似的聲音說明了流行的語言引證在解釋性光澤,雖然這是西鐵史密斯的意見(下稱"親情和婚姻,在早期阿拉伯, "頁177 )表示,除夕代表以認同感為紐帶的母系親屬關係( " ḥayy " ) 。 Nöldeke ("ZDMG" xlii. 487), following Philo ("De Agricultura Noe," § 21) and the Midrash Rabbah (ad loc.), explains the name as meaning "serpent," preserving thus the belief that all life sprang from a primeval serpent. nöldeke ( " zdmg "四十二, 487 ) ,以下斐洛(簡稱"德農觀察的" ,第21條)和midrash rabbah (公元同上) ,解釋了名字的含義: "毒蛇" ,保存,因此,相信所有生命的源泉,從遠古時代蛇。 The narrative forms part of a culture-myth attempting to account among other things for the pangs of childbirth, which are comparatively light among primitive peoples (compare Adam; Eden, Garden of; Fall of Man).敘事形式的一個組成部分,文化的神話,企圖帳戶中的其他事,因為不堪分娩,這是比較輕其中原始民族(比較亞當;伊甸,勵馨;秋季男子) 。 As to whether this story inculcates the divine institution of Monogamy or not, see Gunkel, "Genesis," p.至於是否有這個故事inculcates神聖機構一夫一妻制與否,見gunkel , "成因" ,頁 11, and Dillmann's and Holzinger's commentaries on Gen. ii. 11 ,並dillmann的和holzinger的評論將軍二。 23-24. 23-24 。


Also, see:此外,見:
Original Sin 原罪
Adam 亞當

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