Dominicans, Black Friars多米尼加人,黑方濟各會士

General Information 一般資料

The Order of Preachers (OP), or Dominicans, was founded (1215) by Saint Dominic during his preaching tours against the Albigenses in southern France.該命令的佈道者( OP )的,或者多米尼加人,成立( 1215年)由聖多明在他的說教考察團對比根斯派在法國南部。 The Dominicans were friars, receiving rigorous theological training in order to preach and answer objections against the Christian faith.多米尼加人方濟各會士,接受嚴格的神學訓練,以宣講,並回答反對基督教信仰。 They were to be poor and to travel on foot.他們分別是窮人和旅遊步行巡邏。 The first house of friars was established at Toulouse; approval was given by Pope Honorius III.第一屆眾議院方濟各會士成立,在圖盧茲;給予批准,由教宗honorius三。 Earlier, Dominic had founded (1206) a community of nuns at Prouille, composed partly of former Albigenses.此前,星已建( 1206 )一所社區的尼姑在prouille組成部分的前比根斯派。 Later in the century, the Dominican third order began among the laity; it eventually included many communities of nuns who followed the Dominican third order rule. 20世紀晚些時候,多米尼加三階之間開始俗人,它最終包括許多社區的修女其次是多米尼加三階統治。

The Dominicans, who were closely associated with the development of Scholasticism during the 13th century, were prominent at the great universities of Europe.在多米尼加人,他們密切相關的發展,士林哲學在13世紀,分別突出了偉大大學的歐洲。 Saint Thomas Aquinas was one of their most important representatives.聖托馬斯阿奎那是他們的一項最重要的代表。 In medieval England, the Dominicans, dressed in a white tunic and scapular with a large black cloak and hood, were called Black Friars.在中世紀的英格蘭,多米尼加人,身穿白色中山裝和肩胛一個大型黑斗篷和引擎蓋,被稱為黑方濟各會士。 During the Middle Ages they were often chosen to head the Inquisition to track down heretics and bring them to trial. Today, the pope's theologian is always a Dominican. Saint Catherine of Siena was a Dominican who exerted great influence on 14th-century church history.在中世紀,他們往往選擇在頭部的調查,以追查異端,並把他們送上法庭。 今天表示,教宗的神學家始終是多米尼加聖凱瑟琳錫耶納是一個多米尼加人施加了巨大的影響,對14世紀的教會歷史。 Other famous Dominicans include Savonarola, Pope Pius V, Fra Angelico, St. Martin de Porres, and St. Rose of Lima.其他著名的多米尼加人,包括savonarola ,教宗比約五,法蘭克福機場Angelico " ,聖馬丁德porres ,和聖玫瑰利馬。

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Cyprian Davis, OSB塞浦路斯戴維斯,定向結構刨花板

Bibliography參考書目
Bennet, R., Early Dominicans (1937; repr. 1971); Hinnebusch, W., The History of the Dominican Order, 2 vols.貝內特,傳譯,早期多米尼加人( 1937年; repr 。 1971年) ; hinnebusch ,總統,歷史上的多米尼加秩序, 2卷。 (1966-1973); Tugwell, Simon, ed., Early Dominicans: Selected Writings (1982). ( 1966年至1973年) ; tugwell ,西蒙,版,早在多米尼加人:選定著作( 1982年) 。


Dominicans多米尼加

General Information 一般資料

Introduction導言

Dominicans or Friars Preachers are members of the Order of Preachers, a Roman Catholic religious order founded in 1214 by Saint Dominic.多米尼加人或方濟各會士傳教士的成員,該命令的傳教士,一名羅馬天主教宗教秩序,成立於1214年,由聖多明。 With 16 disciples he founded the order at Toulouse, France, for the purpose of counteracting, by means of preaching, teaching, and the example of austerity, the heresies prevalent at the time.與16門徒他創立秩序法國圖盧茲,為了反制,即通過說教,教學,並舉例緊縮,異端邪說盛行的時候。 The order was formally recognized in 1216, when Pope Honorius III granted the Dominicans the necessary papal confirmation.該命令已正式承認,在1216時,教宗honorius三,授予多米尼加必要教皇確認。 He also granted them a number of special privileges, including the right to preach and hear confessions anywhere without obtaining local authorization.他還賦予他們一些特權,包括有權公開傳教和聽到招供任何未經當地批准。 The necessity for such an order had become apparent to Dominic during his early attempts, about 1205, to convert the Albigenses; it was at that time that he resolved to devote his life to the evangelization of the heretical and the uneducated.有必要為這種命令已經可以明顯看出,以星,在他的早期嘗試中,約有1205 ,轉換比根斯派,它是在這個時候,他決心投入自己的一生福音聖邪教和未受過教育。

Preachers and Upholders of Orthodoxy傳教士和upholders的正統

The Dominicans insisted on absolute poverty, rejecting the possession of community property and becoming, like the Franciscans, a mendicant order.多米尼加堅持絕對貧困,拒絕了藏社區物業,並成為像濟,乞討秩序。 It was not until 1425 that permission to hold property was granted to certain houses by Pope Martin V; it was extended to the entire order by Pope Sixtus IV in 1477.但直到1425年,允許持有財產被給予一定的住房由羅馬教皇馬丁五是擴大到整個秩序教皇Sixtus的四, 1477 。 The first Dominican house was founded at the Church of Saint Romain in Toulouse, from which, in 1217, Dominic sent some of his disciples to spread the movement elsewhere in France as well as to Spain.第一多米尼加家創建於教會的聖羅曼在圖盧茲,從這裡,在1217年,多米尼克派他的一些弟子傳播運動在別處法國以及西班牙。 Within six years the order was also introduced into England, with the founding of a house in Oxford.六年內,該命令還介紹到英國,成立一所房子,在牛津。 In England the Dominicans acquired the name of Black Friars from the habit they wore outside the friary when preaching and hearing confessions, a black coat and hood over a white woolen tunic.在英國是多米尼加人在購買域名的黑方濟各會士,從習慣,他們穿著外friary當說教和聽覺的供述中,一個黑色外套罩在一個白色毛紡中山裝。 By the end of the century 50 friaries were functioning in England, and the order had houses in Scotland, Ireland, Italy, Bohemia, Russia, Greece, and Greenland.到去年底,在本世紀50 friaries運作,在英格蘭,並命令已房子在蘇格蘭,愛爾蘭,意大利,波西米亞,俄羅斯,希臘和格陵蘭。

In accordance with the declared purpose of their foundation, the Dominicans have always been known as dedicated preachers and as combatants against any departure from the teaching of the Roman Catholic church. In the latter capacity they were entrusted with the supervision of the Inquisition as an ecclesiastical enterprise, and even in Spain, after the Inquisition became virtually a department of civil government, a Dominican was usually at its head.根據已宣布的目的,他們的基金會,多米尼加人,一直被稱為專用傳教士和作為戰鬥反對任何偏離教學的羅馬天主教會, 在後者的能力,他們被委託監督的宗教裁判所作為一個教會企業甚至在西班牙之後,宗教裁判所,幾乎成了一個部門的文官政府,多米尼加通常是在其頭部。 The office of master of the sacred palace, the pope's personal theologian, created for St. Dominic in 1218 and subsequently endowed with great privileges by Pope Leo X, has always been held by a member of the order.該辦公室掌握的神聖宮殿,教皇的個人和神學家,創造了聖星,在1218年和隨後賦有很大的特權,由羅馬教皇利奧十,一直是由一成員國的秩序。 After 1620, one of the duties of the position was to allow or forbid the printing of all religious books.之後, 1620年,其中一項職務的立場是允許或禁止印刷的所有宗教書籍。

Contributions to the Church and the Arts捐款給教會和藝術

Dominicans have held many high church offices; four popes - Innocent V, Benedict XI, Pius V, and Benedict XIII - and more than 60 cardinals have belonged to the order.多米尼加雙方進行了多次高教會辦事處;四名教皇-無辜五,本篤席,比約五,和本篤十三-和6 0多樞機主教都屬於這個秩序。 Apart from their specific work, the Dominicans have done much to aid and foster the development of art.除了他們的具體組織實施工作,多米尼加已為此做了許多援助和促進發展的藝術。 Their cloisters have produced such distinguished painters as Fra Angelico and Fra Bartolommeo.他們迴廊產生了這樣的傑出畫家,因為法蘭克福機場Angelico "和FRA的bartolommeo 。 Their contributions to literature have been chiefly in theology and philosophy, and they have produced outstanding writers such as St. Thomas Aquinas and St. Albertus Magnus.他們的貢獻,文學一直主要是在神學和哲學,以及它們產生的優秀作家,如聖托馬斯阿奎那和聖: Albertus馬格納斯。 The important medieval encyclopedia Speculum Majus was the work of a Dominican, Vincent of Beauvais (died before 1264).重要中世紀百科全書speculum金魚草被的工作,多米尼加,聖文森特的beauvais (死於1264年前) 。 Also Dominicans were the German mystics Meister Eckhart, Johannes Tauler, and Heinrich Suso, as well as the Italian preacher and religious reformer Savonarola.多米尼加人,也分別在德國神秘大師艾克哈,約翰內斯tauler ,王俠suso ,以及作為意大利傳教士和宗教改革者savonarola 。 In the later Middle Ages the order was equaled in influence only by the Franciscans, the two orders sharing much power in the church and often in the Roman Catholic states and arousing frequent hostility on the part of the parochial clergy, whose rights often seemed to be invaded by the friars.在後來的中世紀該命令是在持平的影響,只能由方濟會,這兩項命令分享大的權力,在教會裡,而且往往在羅馬天主教的國家,並引起了頻繁的敵意,對部分的狹隘的神職人員,他們的權利往往似乎被侵占,由方濟各會士。 The Dominicans played the leading part in the evangelization of South America; the first American saint, Rose of Lima, was a nun of the Third Order of Dominicans.多米尼加發揮了主導作用,在福傳事業的南美洲;第一的美國聖,玫瑰利馬,是一個尼姑的三階的多米尼加人。 In 1805 the Dominicans introduced their order into the United States.在1805年的多米尼加人介紹,他們為了進入美國。 Missionary work still remains one of the important Dominican functions.傳教工作仍然是一個重要的多米尼加職能。

Auxiliary Orders輔助命令

An order of Dominican nuns was founded by Dominic in 1205, before the male branch of the order was established.命令多米尼加修女是由多米尼克在1205 ,前男科的命令成立。 They nevertheless called themselves the Second Order of St. Dominic.然而它們的人稱自己是二階聖星。 In 1220, to provide a constant supply of lay defenders of the church against the assaults of the Albigenses and other militant innovators, Dominic established the Militia of Jesus Christ and pledged its members to defend the church with arms and their possessions.在1220名,以提供一個穩定供應奠定捍衛教會對毆打的比根斯派和其他激進的革新者,星確立了民兵的耶穌基督,並保證其成員捍衛教會與武器和他們的財物。 In the late 13th century it joined with the Brothers and Sisters of the Penance of St. Dominic, another lay group vowed to piety, which was under the direction of the First Order.在13世紀晚期,它加入了與兄弟姐妹們的懺悔聖星,又奠定集團發誓要虔誠,這是指導下的第一個命令。 The new body was called the Third Order of St. Dominic.這一新的機構,被稱為三階聖星。

Today the head of the entire order is the master general, whose term of office is 12 years; his residence is at Santa Sabina, in Rome.今天的首長,整個秩序,是主人一般,他們的任期是12年,他的住宅是在聖砂地,在羅馬。 The order is organized into geographic provinces, each with a provincial at its head.該命令是有組織納入地理省,每一個省在其頭部。 The chief apostolate of the order is educational.行政使徒的命令是教育性。 The Dominicans therefore retain their original characteristics as teachers and upholders of orthodoxy.多米尼加,因此保留其原有特色和師生upholders的正統。


Saint Dominic聖多明

General Information 一般資料

Saint Dominic, bc1171, d.聖多明, bc1171 ,四 Aug. 6, 1221, was the founder of the Dominicans. 1221年8月6日,當時的創始人之一,多米尼加人。 A Castilian from a family of minor nobility, he received a clerical education and in his early 20s became a canon at the cathedral of Osma. 1 castilian從一個家庭的小貴族,他收到了一名文員的教育和在他20歲出頭,成為佳能在大教堂的osma 。 Here he was ordained a priest at about the age of 28 and was named assistant prior of the chapter of canons.在這裡他被祝聖司鐸在大約28歲時,被任命為助理之前,該章的大砲。 Dominic accompanied his bishop to Denmark on a diplomatic mission in 1203 and again in 1205.星陪同他的主教,以丹麥對外交代表團,在第1203和再1205 。 Traveling through southern France, they saw the problems caused by the Albigenses and the military and religious efforts made to suppress their heresy.穿過法國南部,他們看到了問題,造成了比根斯派和軍方和宗教所作的努力,以鎮壓異端。 With his bishop, Dominic began (c.1206) to preach to both the Albigenses and another dissident group, the Waldenses.與他的主教,多米尼克開始( c.1206 ) ,以宣揚既比根斯派和另一組的持不同政見者,瓦勒度派。 He adopted the life-style of simplicity and poverty that these groups practiced.他通過生活方式的簡單和貧窮的是,這些團體實行。

After ten years of preaching, Dominic gathered around him a community of preachers, who would be both poor and learned in theology.經過十年的說教,星聚集在他的周圍社區的傳教士,他們將是既窮據悉,在神學。 This was the beginning (1215) of the religious order that bears his name.這是一開始( 1215年)的宗教秩序,以他的名字命名。 Earlier he had organized (1206) women converts from the Albigensian movement into a religious community, the beginning of the Dominican nuns.此前,他曾組織( 1206 )婦女皈依從albigensian運動變成一個宗教社會,開始多米尼加尼姑。 In an inaccurate tradition, Dominic is also credited with instituting the popular devotion of the Rosary.在一個不準確的傳統,多米尼克也是貸實行全民奉獻的玫瑰。 In art, he is often pictured receiving a rosary from the Virgin Mary.在藝術,他常常一圖在接受念珠,從聖母瑪利亞。 Feast day: Aug. 8 (formerly Aug. 4).盛宴的日子: 8月8日(前身為8月4日) 。

Cyprian Davis, OSB塞浦路斯戴維斯,定向結構刨花板

Bibliography參考書目

Vicaire, Marie-Humbert, Saint Dominic and His Times, trans.維凱爾,瑪麗-洪博達,聖多明我和他的時代,跨國的。 by Kathleen Pond (1964).由凱瑟琳池( 1964 ) 。


St. Dominic聖星

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

Founder of the Order of Preachers, commonly known as the Dominican Order; born at Calaroga, in Old Castile, c.創辦該命令的傳教者,即俗稱的多米尼加秩序;出生於calaroga ,在舊卡斯蒂利亞,長 1170; died 6 August, 1221. 1170年,死於1221年8月6日。 His parents, Felix Guzman and Joanna of Aza, undoubtedly belonged to the nobility of Spain, though probably neither was connected with the reigning house of Castile, as some of the saint's biographers assert.他的父母,菲利克斯古斯曼法官和喬安娜的字,無疑是屬於貴族的西班牙,雖然可能既不是與執政眾議院卡斯蒂利亞,由於部分聖人的傳記作者斷言。 Of Felix Guzman, personally, little is known, except that he was in every sense the worthy head of a family of saints.對菲利克斯古斯曼法官,我個人來說,所知甚少,除表示,他在每一種意義上當之無愧的頭一個家庭的聖人。 To nobility of blood Joanna of Aza added a nobility of soul which so enshrined her in the popular veneration that in 1828 she was solemnly beatified by Leo XII.以貴族的血液喬安娜的字增加了一個貴族的靈魂,因為這樣可以使她體現在流行的敬仰說,在1828年,她鄭重宣福由利奧十二。 The example of such parents was not without its effect upon their children.一個例子,如家長不無效果後,他們的子女。 Not only Saint Dominic but also his brothers, Antonio and Manes, were distinguished for their extraordinary sanctity.不僅聖多明而且是他的兄弟,安東尼奧和Manes認為,被尊敬,他們不平凡的神聖性。 Antonio, the eldest, became a secular priest and, having distributed his patrimony to the poor, entered a hospital where he spent his life ministering to the sick.安東尼奧,最年長者,成為一個世俗的牧師,並散發他的世襲財產給窮人,進入了醫院,但他用他的生命服事給生病了。 Manes, following in the footsteps of Dominic, became a Friar Preacher, and was beatified by Gregory XVI. Manes認為,在以下的腳步,多米尼克,成為弗萊爾佈道者,並宣福是由格雷戈里十六。

The birth and infancy of the saint were attended by many marvels forecasting his heroic sanctity and great achievements in the cause of religion.出生率和嬰兒的聖出席了許多奇蹟預測他的英雄的神聖和偉大成就,在事業的宗教。 From his seventh to his fourteenth year he pursued his elementary studies tinder the tutelage of his maternal uncle, the archpriest of Gumiel d'lzan, not far distant from Calaroga.從他的第七至第十四他今年他便去追尋初等研究打火監護他的舅, archpriest的古米耶爾-l zan,而不是遙遠,從c alaroga。 In 1184 Saint Dominic entered the University of Palencia.在1184年聖多明進入大學palencia 。 Here he remained for ten years prosecuting his studies with such ardour and success that throughout the ephemeral existence of that institution he was held up to the admiration of its scholars as all that a student should be.他在這裡停留了十年起訴他的研究,這種激情和成功,在整個短暫的存在,該機構他被關押起來,以敬佩的,其學者都認為,學生應該的。 Amid the frivolities and dissipations of a university city, the life of the future saint was characterized by seriousness of purpose and an austerity of manner which singled him out as one from whom great things might be expected in the future.中frivolities和耗散的一個大學城,生命的未來聖特點是嚴肅的目的和緊縮的方式把他作為一個人而偉大的東西,可以預料在未來。 But more than once he proved that under this austere exterior he carried a heart as tender as a woman's.但更不只一次證明了他就是根據這項緊縮外,他進行了心臟和投標作為一個女人的。 On one occasion he sold his books, annotated with his own hand, to relieve the starving poor of Palencia.有一次,他出售他的書,註明他自己的手,以緩解正在挨餓的窮人palencia 。 His biographer and contemporary, Bartholomew of Trent, states that twice he tried to sell himself into slavery to obtain money for the liberation of those who were held in captivity by the Moors.他的傳記作家和當代,巴爾多祿茂一世的遄達,國家兩次試圖將其出售全身心地投入到奴役獲得金錢,為解放那些在圈養的,由沼澤。 These facts are worthy of mention in view of the cynical and saturnine character which some non-Catholic writers have endeavoured to foist upon one of the most charitable of men.這些事實,都是值得一提的看法玩世不恭和saturnine字符,其中一些非天主教作家一直在努力foist後,其中一個最慈善的男人。 Concerning the date of his ordination his biographers are silent; nor is there anything from which that date can be inferred with any degree of certainty.有關日期,他的統籌他的傳記作者是無聲的,也不是有什麼從該日起,可以推斷出與任何程度的確定性。 According to the deposition of Brother Stephen, Prior Provincial of Lombardy, given in the process of canonization, Dominic was still a student at Palencia when Don Martin de Bazan, the Bishop of Osma, called him to membership in the cathedral chapter for the purpose of assisting in its reform.據沉積的弟弟斯蒂芬,事先省的倫巴第,由於在這一過程中的封聖,星仍是一個學生在palencia當唐馬丁德bazan ,這位主教的osma ,打電話給他的成員在主教堂為目的協助其改革。 The bishop realized the importance to his plan of reform of having constantly before his canons the example of one of Dominic's eminent holiness.主教意識到重要性,以他的改革計劃後,不斷在他門炮為例,其中一星的知名成聖。 Nor was he disappointed in the result.他也不失望的結果。 In recognition of the part he had taken in converting its members into canons regular, Dominic was appointed sub-prior of the reformed chapter.在承認部分,他已採取轉換其成員到門炮,經常化,星被任命為小組事先對改革後的篇章。 On the accession of Don Diego d'Azevedo to the Bishopric of Osma in 1201, Dominic became superior of the chapter with the title of prior.關於加入的唐迭戈-金之向b ishopric的o sma在1 201多米尼克成為卓越的一章,與標題之前。 As a canon of Osma, he spent nine years of his life hidden in God and rapt in contemplation, scarcely passing beyond the confines of the chapter house.作為佳能的osma ,他花了9年的他的生命隱藏在上帝和rapt在沉思,幾乎沒有及格超越局限的一章。

In 1203 Alfonso IX, King of Castile, deputed the Bishop of Osma to demand from the Lord of the Marches, presumably a Danish prince, the hand of his daughter on behalf of the king's son, Prince Ferdinand.在1203年阿方索九,國王的卡斯蒂利亞, deputed主教osma要求,從主的遊行,想必一名丹麥王子的手,他的女兒代表國王的兒子,王儲費迪南。 For his companion on this embassy Don Diego chose Saint Dominic.他的同伴就這個使館唐迭戈選擇了聖多明。 Passing through Toulouse in the pursuit of their mission, they beheld with amazement and sorrow the work of spiritual ruin wrought by the Albigensian heresy.途經圖盧茲,在追求自己的使命,他們看到驚奇和悲傷的工作精神,破壞所造成的albigensian異端。 It was in the contemplation of this scene that Dominic first conceived the idea of founding an order for the purpose of combating heresy and spreading the light of the Gospel by preaching to the ends of the then known world.這是在沉思的這一幕星首先就構想在建國命令為打擊邪教,傳播福音的光,由說教向兩端當時已知世界。 Their mission having ended successfully, Diego and Dominic were dispatched on a second embassy, accompanied by a splendid retinue, to escort the betrothed princess to Castile.他們的使命結束了成功,圣迭戈和星被派往關於第二個大使館,伴隨著燦爛的侍從,護送公主訂婚到卡斯蒂利亞。 This mission, however, was brought to a sudden close by the death of the young woman in question.這個使命,然而,被帶到突然關閉,由死亡的年輕女子在質詢。 The two ecclesiastics were now free to go where they would, and they set out for Rome, arriving there towards the end of 1204.兩個ecclesiastics現在免費去那裡,他們將和他們啟程前往羅馬,抵達接近年底時的1204年。 The purpose of this was to enable Diego to resign his bishopric that he might devote himself to the conversion of unbelievers in distant lands.這項議案的目的是讓迭戈辭去bishopric ,他可能在立志報國的轉化信的,在遙遠的國度。 Innocent III, however, refused to approve this project, and instead sent the bishop and his companion to Languedoc to join forces with the Cistercians, to whom he had entrusted the crusade against the Albigenses.無辜第三,但是,拒絕批准這個項目,而是派主教和他的同伴到朗格多合力與cistercians ,給誰,他已委託十字軍東征對比根斯派。 The scene that confronted them on their arrival in Languedoc was by no means an encouraging one.現場看到,他們面臨著對他們的到來,在朗格多,倒也不是一個令人鼓舞的。 The Cistercians, on account of their worldly manner of living, had made little or no headway against the Albigenses.該cistercians ,就到他們的世俗的方式生活,取得了很少或根本沒有進展,對比根斯派。 They had entered upon their work with considerable pomp, attended by a brilliant retinue, and well provided with the comforts of life.他們已經進入後,他們的工作取得相當隆重,參加的輝煌侍從,以及提供舒適的生活。 To this display of worldliness the leaders of the heretics opposed a rigid asceticism which commanded the respect and admiration of their followers.這種顯示器的世俗領導人對異教徒反對僵化的禁慾主義,其中指揮了尊重和敬佩他們的追隨者。 Diego and Dominic quickly saw that the failure of the Cistercian apostolate was due to the monks' indulgent habits, and finally prevailed upon them to adopt a more austere manner of life.迭戈和星很快看到了失敗的修道院中使徒,是由於僧人'姑息習慣,並最終說服他們採取更緊縮的方式生活。 The result was at once apparent in a greatly increased number of converts.其結果是,在一次明顯的一個很大的數目增加轉換。 Theological disputations played a prominent part in the propaganda of the heretics.神學disputations發揮了突出的部分,在宣傳的異端。 Dominic and his companion, therefore, lost no time in engaging their opponents in this kind of theological exposition.星和他的同伴,因此,失去了,沒有時間搞自己的對手,在這樣的神學思想建設的論述。 Whenever the opportunity offered, they accepted the gage of battle.每當這個機會,他們接受了蓋奇的戰役。 The thorough training that the saint had received at Palencia now proved of inestimable value to him in his encounters with the heretics.徹底培訓聖接受過palencia現在事實證明了難以估量的價值,他在他的遭遇與異教徒。 Unable to refute his arguments or counteract the influence of his preaching, they visited their hatred upon him by means of repeated insults and threats of physical violence.無法反駁他的論點或抵制的影響,他的說教,他們已訪問了他們的仇恨後,他通過反复的侮辱和威脅的身體暴力。 With Prouille for his head-quarters, he laboured by turns in Fanjeaux, Montpellier, Servian, Béziers, and Carcassonne.與prouille為他的頭部四分之三,他辛勞輪流在方若,蒙彼利埃, servian , béziers , carcassonne 。 Early in his apostolate around Prouille the saint realized the necessity of an institution that would protect the women of that country from the influence of the heretics.在他早期的使徒左右prouille聖實現的必要性一個機構將保護婦女說,從國家的影響的異端。 Many of them had already embraced Albigensianism and were its most active propagandists.他們中的許多人已經接受了albigensianism和被其最活躍的宣傳員。 These women erected convents, to which the children of the Catholic nobility were often sent-for want of something better-to receive an education, and, in effect, if not on purpose, to be tainted with the spirit of heresy.這些婦女豎立修道院,而兒童的天主教貴族往往被派出為想要的東西,更要接受教育,並在生效,如果不是有目的的,要沾染上的精神異端。 It was needful, too, that women converted from heresy should be safeguarded against the evil influence of their own homes.這是需要的,也認為女性轉換成從異端應受保障,反對邪惡的影響,他們自己的家園。 To supply these deficiencies, Saint Dominic, with the permission of Foulques, Bishop of Toulouse, established a convent at Prouille in 1206.為了供應這些缺陷,聖多明徵得foulques主教,圖盧茲,建立了一個修道院,在prouille 1206 。 To this community, and afterwards to that of Saint Sixtus, at Rome, he gave the rule and constitutions which have ever since guided the nuns of the Second Order of Saint Dominic.這個社會的貢獻,以及事後表示,聖Sixtus的,在羅馬,他給了法治和憲法,其中有自導修女二階聖多明。

The year 1208 opens a new epoch in the eventful life of the founder.今年1208年打開一個新的時代,在這個多事的生活中的創始人。 On 15 January of that year Pierre de Castelnau, one of the Cistercian legates, was assassinated. 1月15日表示,今年,皮埃爾德castelnau ,其中的修道院legates被暗殺。 This abominable crime precipitated the crusade under Simon de Montfort, which led to the temporary subjugation of the heretics.這一令人憎惡的犯罪沉澱討伐下,西蒙德montfort ,從而導致暫時征服的異教徒。 Saint Dominic participated in the stirring scenes that followed, but always on the side of mercy, wielding the arms of the spirit while others wrought death and desolation with the sword.聖多明我參加了悲壯的場面之後,但總是對的一邊,決不手軟,揮舞武器的精神,而另一些緊張得要命,死亡和荒涼與劍。 Some historians assert that during the sack of Béziers, Dominic appeared in the streets of that city, cross in hand, interceding for the lives of the women and children, the aged and the infirm.一些歷史學家認為,在一袋béziers ,星出現在街頭,該城,交叉在手,利益,為生活的婦女和兒童,老人和體弱者。 This testimony, however, is based upon documents which Touron regards as certainly apocryphal.這一證詞,但是,是基於文件touron視為當然猜測。 The testimony of the most reliable historians tends to prove that the saint was neither in the city nor in its vicinity when Béziers was sacked by the crusaders.證詞中最可靠的歷史學家往往以證明聖既不是在城市或在其附近時, béziers被解職,由十字軍。 We find him generally during this period following the Catholic army, reviving religion and reconciling heretics in the cities that had capitulated to, or had been taken by, the victorious de Montfort.我們發現他的,一般在這個時期之後,天主教軍隊,復興宗教和調和異端在城市中已經投降,或已採取了,戰勝國德montfort 。 It was probably 1 September, 1209, that Saint Dominic first came in contact with Simon de Montfort and formed with him that intimate friendship which was to last till the death of the brave crusader under the walls of Toulouse (25 June, 1218).這可能是1209年9月1日,即聖多明首先來到接觸西蒙德montfort ,並形成與他的親密友誼是直至死刑的勇敢鬥士,根據牆壁的圖盧茲( 1218年6月25日) 。 We find him by the side of de Montfort at the siege of Lavaur in 1211, and again in 1212, at the capture of La Penne d'Ajen.我們發現他的,由一方的德montfort在圍困拉沃爾在1211 ,並再次在1212 ,在捕獲的香格里拉penne -a jen。 In the latter part of 1212 he was at Pamiers labouring, at the invitation of de Montfort, for the restoration of religion and morality.在後者的一部分, 1212年,他在pamiers勞苦的邀請,於德montfort ,為恢復宗教和道德。 Lastly, just before the battle of Muret, 12 September, 1213, the saint is again found in the council that preceded the battle.最後,臨戰前的muret , 1213年9月12日,聖者,是又發現在安理會說,之前的戰鬥。 During the progress of the conflict, he knelt before the altar in the church of Saint-Jacques, praying for the triumph of the Catholic arms.在進度的衝突,他跪下前的祭壇上,在教會的聖-雅克,祈禱,為凱旋的天主教武器。 So remarkable was the victory of the crusaders at Muret that Simon de Montfort regarded it as altogether miraculous, and piously attributed it to the prayers of Saint Dominic.如此顯著的是勝利的十字軍在muret認為西蒙德montfort把它作為共有神奇的,並虔誠歸功於它祈禱聖多明。 In gratitude to God for this decisive victory, the crusader erected a chapel in the church of Saint-Jacques, which he dedicated, it is said, to Our Lady of the Rosary.在感謝上帝,為這一決定性勝利,十字軍矗立起一座小教堂,在教堂的聖-雅克,他總是盡心盡力,這是說,聖母玫瑰。 It would appear, therefore, that the devotion of the Rosary, which tradition says was revealed to Saint Dominic, had come into general use about this time.這樣看來,因此,在10年內,玫瑰,它的傳統,說是為了顯示聖多明,曾接觸到一般使用這個時間。 To this period, too, has been ascribed the foundation of the Inquisition by Saint Dominic, and his appointment as the first Inquisitor.這期間,也一直得益於該基金會的宗教裁判所聖多明,以及他被任命為第一砂鍋。 As both these much controverted questions will receive special treatment elsewhere in this work, it will suffice for our present purpose to note that the Inquisition was in operation in 1198, or seven years before the saint took part in the apostolate in Languedoc, and while he was still an obscure canon regular at Osma.由於這兩得多controverted問題都將得到特殊的待遇,在其他地方對這項工作,這就夠了,我們現在的目的,值得注意的是,這份調查是在行動中,第1198 ,或七年之前,聖參加了使徒在朗格多,而在他仍是一個晦澀的佳能定期在osma 。 If he was for a certain time identified with the operations of the Inquisition, it was only in the capacity of a theologian passing upon the orthodoxy of the accused.如果他是為某一個確定的時間,與業務的宗教裁判所,它只是在能力的神學家合格後,正統的被告人。 Whatever influence he may have had with the judges of that much maligned institution was always employed on the side of mercy and forbearance, as witness the classic case of Ponce Roger.什麼影響,他可能曾與法官的那麼多中傷機構一直受聘於一邊憐憫和寬容,作為見證經典案例龐塞羅傑。

In the meantime, the saint's increasing reputation for heroic sanctity, apostolic zeal, and profound learning caused him to be much sought after as a candidate for various bishoprics.在此期間,聖日益增長的聲譽,為英雄的神聖性,使徒熱情,深刻學習,使他成為萬眾後,為候選人為各bishoprics 。 Three distinct efforts were made to raise him to the episcopate.三個截然不同作出了努力,以提高他的主教。 In July, 1212, the chapter of Béziers chose him for their bishop.今年7月, 1212 ,一章béziers提拔他為自己的主教。 Again, the canons of Saint-Lizier wished him to succeed Garcias de l'Orte as Bishop of Comminges.又比如,大砲聖利齊耶預祝他成功加西亞斯德l' orte作為主教科曼日。 Lastly, in 1215 an effort was made by Garcias de l'Orte himself, who had been transferred from Comminges to Auch, to make him Bishop of Navarre.最後,在1215年作出努力加西亞斯德l' orte自己,他們已被轉移,從科曼日至auch ,使他的主教納瓦爾。 But Saint Dominic absolutely refused all episcopal honours, saying that he would rather take flight in the night, with nothing but his staff, than accept the episcopate.但聖多明我絕對拒絕了所有主教榮譽,他說,他寧可在飛行夜,什麼也沒有了,但他的工作人員,在接受主教。 From Muret Dominic returned to Carcassonne, where he resumed his preaching with unqualified success.由MURET星返回carcassonne ,在那裡他恢復了他的說教與成功,不容置疑。 It was not until 1214 that he returned to Toulouse.但直到1214年,他返回圖盧茲。 In the meantime the influence of his preaching and the eminent holiness of his life had drawn around him a little band of devoted disciples eager to follow wherever he might lead.在這段時間的影響,他的說教和知名成聖他的生活模式,並得出在他的周圍小波段的專門弟子急於跟隨在何處,他可能領先。 Saint Dominic had never for a moment forgotten his purpose, formed eleven years before, of founding a religious order to combat heresy and propagate religious truth.聖多明我從來沒有一個時刻,忘記了他的目的,形成了十一年前,應建立一個沒有宗教秩序,打擊邪教,宣揚宗教真理。 The time now seemed opportune for the realization of his plan.時間,現在看來時機,為實現他的計劃。 With the approval of Bishop Foulques of Toulouse, he began the organization of his little band of followers.經批准的主教foulques的圖盧茲後,他開始安排他的小樂隊的追隨者。 That Dominic and his companions might possess a fixed source of revenue Foulques made him chaplain of Fanjeaux and in July, 1215, canonically established the community as a religious congregation of his diocese, whose mission was the propagation of true doctrine and good morals, and the extirpation of heresy.這星和他的同伴們可能擁有一個固定的收入來源, foulques使他成為牧師的方若,並在7月, 1215 , canonically成立了社區作為一種宗教的會眾,他教區的,其使命是傳播的真正教義和良好的職業道德,以及摘除的異端。

During this same year Pierre Seilan, a wealthy citizen of Toulouse, who had placed himself under the direction of Saint Dominic, put at their disposal his own commodious dwelling.在此同時,今年皮埃爾seilan ,一位十分富有的公民圖盧茲,曾置於自己的領導下聖多明付諸表決,在處置自己的commodious住所。 In this way the first convent of the Order of Preachers was founded on 25 April, 1215.這樣,第一修道院的秩序傳教士創建於1215年4月25日。 But they dwelt here only a year when Foulques established them in the church of Saints Romanus.但他們白景富在這裡只有一年的時候, foulques確立他們在教會中的聖人romanus 。 Though the little community had proved amply the need of its mission and the efficiency of its service to the Church, it was far from satisfying the full purpose of its founder.雖然小社會已充分證明了的需要,其使命與效率的服務,以教會,這是遠遠不能滿足全部的目的,其創辦人。 It was at best but a diocesan congregation, and Saint Dominic had dreamed of a world-order that would carry its apostolate to the ends of the earth.這是在最好的,而是由拔萃聚集,並聖多明我曾夢想的一個世界秩序,將進行它的使徒向兩端地球。 But, unknown to the saint, events were shaping themselves for the realization of his hopes.但是,不知聖,事件被塑造自己,為實現他的希望。 In November, 1215, an ecumenical council was to meet at Rome "to deliberate on the improvement of morals, the extinction of heresy, and the strengthening of the faith".在十一月, 1215 ,四海一家理事會,以滿足在羅馬" ,以故意,對改善道德,有文化,有滅絕的異端,並加強該信仰" 。 This was identically the mission Saint Dominic had determined on for his order.這是相同的使命聖多明我已決心對他的命令。 With the Bishop of Toulouse, he was present at the deliberations of this council.與主教圖盧茲,他出席了審議本會。 From the very first session it seemed that events conspired to bring his plans to a successful issue.從第一屆會議上,似乎事件的陰謀,使他的計劃,一個成功的問題。 The council bitterly arraigned the bishops for their neglect of preaching.安理會強烈提審主教們為他們忽視的說教。 In canon X they were directed to delegate capable men to preach the word of God to the people.在佳能x人為導演的代表,有能力的男子,以宣揚上帝的話要向人民負責。 Under these circumstances, it would reasonably appear that Dominic's request for confirmation of an order designed to carry out the mandates of the council would be joyfully granted.在這種情況下,將合理的,似乎星的要求確認的命令,旨在貫徹落實的任務,安理會將喜氣洋洋理所當然的。 But while the council was anxious that these reforms should be put into effect as speedily as possible, it was at the same time opposed to the institution of any new religious orders, and had legislated to that effect in no uncertain terms.不過,儘管會著急認為,這些改革應付諸實施,儘速,它是在同一時間,反對該機構的任何新的宗教命令,並已通過立法,即行生效毫不含糊。 Moreover, preaching had always been looked upon as primarily a function of the episcopate.此外,說教一直期待後,作為主要職能的主教。 To bestow this office on an unknown and untried body of simple priests seemed too original and too bold in its conception to appeal to the conservative prelates who influenced the deliberations of the council.賜給這個辦事處對未知和未經考驗的身體簡單的祭司似乎太原始,太大膽構想,呼籲保守派主教誰影響了安理會的審議。 When, therefore, his petition for the approbation of his infant institute was refused, it could not have been wholly unexpected by Saint Dominic.當,因此,他的請願書,為的讚許,他的嬰兒學會但遭到拒絕,它已經不能完全意想不到的,由聖多明。

Returning to Languedoc at the close of the council in December, 1215, the founder gathered about him his little band of followers and informed them of the wish of the council that there should be no new rules for religious orders.回到朗格結束時,安理會去年12月, 1215的創始人,收集有關他的小樂隊的追隨者,並通知了他們的意願,安理會不應該有新的規定,宗教命令。 Thereupon they adopted the ancient rule of Saint Augustine, which, on account of its generality, would easily lend itself to any form they might wish to give it.於是他們採取了古代法治的聖奧古斯丁,其中就考慮到它的通用性,很容易會借給自己,以任何形式,他們可能是想給它。 This done, Saint Dominic again appeared before the pope in the month of August, 1216, and again solicited the confirmation of his order.這一做,聖多明又出現之前,教宗在8月份, 1216並再次徵求了確認他的命令。 This time he was received more favourably, and on 22 December, 1216, the Bull of confirmation was issued.這個時候,他收到了更有利的,並於1216年12月22日,牛市的確認,簽發日期。

Saint Dominic spent the following Lent preaching in various churches in Rome, and before the pope and the papal court.聖多明我用了以下借給說教,在各教會在羅馬,和前教皇和教皇法庭。 It was at this time that he received the office and title of Master of the Sacred Palace, or Pope's Theologian, as it is more commonly called.正是在這個時候,他已經接到辦公室和頭銜大師的神聖宮殿,或教皇的神學家,因為這是較常見的所謂。 This office has been held uninterruptedly by members of the order from the founder's time to the present day.這個辦公室一直在不間斷地舉行,由委員組成,為了從創辦的時間到今天。 On 15 August, 1217, he gathered the brethren about him at Prouille to deliberate on the affairs of the order.於1217年8月15日,他收集了兄弟們對他在prouille ,商議事務的命令。 He had determined upon the heroic plan of dispersing his little band of seventeen unformed followers over all Europe.他已決心後,英雄的計劃分散他的小樂隊的十七年未信徒超過所有歐洲。 The result proved the wisdom of an act which, to the eye of human prudence at least, seemed little short of suicidal.結果證明是明智的行為,到眼睛的人的謹慎,至少,似乎很少短自殺。 To facilitate the spread of the order, Honorius III, on 11 Feb., 1218, addressed a Bull to all archbishops, bishops, abbots, and priors, requesting their favour on behalf of the Order of Preachers.為了有利於傳播秩序, honorius三,對1218年2月11日,處理了牛市向所有大主教,主教,方丈都很,先驗,要求他們贊成代表議事程序的傳教士。 By another Bull, dated 3 Dec., 1218, Honorius III bestowed upon the order the church of Saint Sixtus in Rome.另一牛市,日期為1218年12月3日, honorius三賜予後,為了教會聖徒Sixtus在羅馬。 Here, amid the tombs of the Appian Way, was founded the first monastery of the order in Rome.在此之際,該墓葬的阿庇安的方式,是創建了第一個修道院的命令在羅馬。 Shortly after taking possession of Saint Sixtus, at the invitation of Honorius, Saint Dominic began the somewhat difficult task of restoring the pristine observance of religious discipline among the various Roman communities of women.不久後,以藏聖Sixtus的邀請,於honorius ,聖多明我開始有點困難的任務,恢復原始遵守紀律,宗教之間的各種羅馬社區的婦女。 In a comparatively short time the work was accomplished, to the great satisfaction of the pope.在比較短的時間內工作完成之際,向偉大的滿意度的教宗。 His own career at the University of Palencia, and the practical use to which he had put it in his encounters with the Albigenses, as well as his keen appreciation of the needs of the time, convinced the saint that to ensure the highest efficiency of the work of the apostolate, his followers should be afforded the best educational advantages obtainable.他自己的職業生涯,在大學palencia ,並經實際使用,因為他已經把它放在他的遭遇與比根斯派,以及他渴望讚賞有需要的時候,說服聖表示,為確保效率最高的工作的使徒,他的信徒們應該得到最好的教育優勢索取。 It was for this reason that on the dispersal of the brethren at Prouille he dispatched Matthew of France and two companions to Paris.正是基於這個原因,就在疏散的弟兄,在prouille他派出馬修法國和兩位同伴前往巴黎。 A foundation was made in the vicinity of the university, and the friars took possession in October, 1217.基金會曾在附近的大學,和方濟各會士了藏在10月, 1217 。 Matthew of France was appointed superior, and Michael de Fabra was placed in charge of the studies with the title of Lecturer.馬修的法國被任命為上級,邁克爾德fabra被放置在負責這項研究的名稱講師。 On 6 August of the following year, Jean de Barastre, dean of Saint-Quentin and professor of theology, bestowed on the community the hospice of Saint-Jaques, which he had built for his own use. 8月6日的次年,讓德barastre ,院長聖昆丁和教授神學,賜予的,對社會安寧的聖- jaques ,這是他建造的,供其本人自用。 Having effected a foundation at the University of Paris, Saint Dominic next determined upon a settlement at the University of Bologna.經實現了基金會在巴黎大學,聖星明年確定後,解決在博洛尼亞大學。 Bertrand of Garrigua, who had been summoned from Paris, and John of Navarre, set out from Rome, with letters from Pope Honorius, to make the desired foundation.貝特朗的garrigua ,已召見,從巴黎,約翰納瓦拉載列從羅馬,與來信教宗honorius ,作出理想的基礎。 On their arrival at Bologna, the church of Santa Maria della Mascarella was placed at their disposal.對他們的到來,在博洛尼亞,教堂Santa Maria della mascarella被放置在其處置。 So rapidly did the Roman community of Saint Sixtus grow that the need of more commodious quarters soon became urgent.如此之快卻羅馬社會的聖徒Sixtus成長,這需要更多的commodious宿舍很快就成了緊迫。 Honorius, who seemed to delight in supplying every need of the order and furthering its interests to the utmost of his power, met the emergency by bestowing on Saint Dominic the basilica of Santa Sabina. honorius ,他們似乎樂於提供一切必要的秩序和促進其利益,以最大的權力,滿足了緊急賜予對聖多明大教堂的聖圓柏。

Towards the end of 1218, having appointed Reginald of Orléans his vicar in Italy, the saint, accompanied by several of his brethren, set out for Spain.接近年底時的1218 ,具有任命( Reginald奧爾良他的副主教,在意大利,聖陪同他的幾個兄弟,而訂出的西班牙。 Bologna, Prouille, Toulouse, and Fanjeaux were visited on the way.博洛尼亞, prouille ,圖盧茲,方若與被訪對未來路向。 From Prouille two of the brethren were sent to establish a convent at Lyons.從prouille的兩個兄弟,分別被送往建立一個修道院,在里昂。 Segovia was reached just before Christmas.塞哥維亞達成了聖誕節前。 In February of the following year he founded the first monastery of the order in Spain.在次年2月,他創建了第一個修道院的命令在西班牙。 Turning southward, he established a convent for women at Madrid, similar to the one at Prouille.至於南下,他建立了一個修道院,為婦女在馬德里,一個類似在prouille 。 It is quite probable that on this journey he personally presided over the erection of a convent in connexion with his alma mater, the University of Palencia.這是很可能的,在這個征途上,他親自主持了豎立一個修道院就此與他的母校,大學palencia 。 At the invitation of the Bishop of Barcelona, a house of the order was established in that city.在邀請的主教,巴塞羅那,一所房子的命令成立,在這個城市。 Again bending his steps towards Rome he recrossed the Pyrenees and visited the foundations at Toulouse and Paris.再次彎曲他的步驟羅馬他recrossed比利牛斯山,並參觀了基金會在圖盧茲和巴黎。 During his stay in the latter place he caused houses to be erected at Limoges, Metz, Reims, Poitiers, and Orléans, which in a short time became centres of Dominican activity.訪問期間,他在後者的地方,他所造成的房子被豎立在利摩日,梅斯,蘭斯,普瓦捷,奧爾良,在較短的時間裡,成為中心的多米尼加活動。 From Paris he directed his course towards Italy, arriving in Bologna in July, 1219.從巴黎,他指揮他的,當然對意大利,抵達博洛尼亞今年7月, 1219 。 Here he devoted several months to the religious formation of the brethren he found awaiting him, and then, as at Prouille, dispersed them over Italy.他在這裡專門討論數個月來的宗教形成的弟兄,他發現等待他,然後,截至prouille ,分散他們超過意大利。 Among the foundations made at this time were those at Bergamo, Asti, Verona, Florence, Brescia, and Faenza.各基金會取得在這個時候被那些在貝加莫, Asti的,維羅納,佛羅倫薩,布雷西亞,並faenza 。 From Bologna he went to Viterbo.從博洛尼亞,他到維泰博。 His arrival at the papal court was the signal for the showering of new favours on the order.他在抵達羅馬教皇法院信號為洗澡新主張對秩序。 Notable among these marks of esteem were many complimentary letters addressed by Honorius to all those who had assisted the Fathers in their vinous foundations.其中值得注意的這些商標的自尊被許多互補信訪處理honorius向那些曾協助父親在其vinous基金會。 In March of this same year Honorius, through his representatives, bestowed upon the order the church of San Eustorgio in Milan.在3月的這一年honorius ,通過他的代表,賦予該命令教會的聖歐斯托希奧在米蘭。 At the same time a foundation at Viterbo was authorized.在同一時間,基金會在維泰博被認可。 On his return to Rome, towards the end of 1219, Dominic sent out letters to all the convents announcing the first general chapter of the order, to be held at Bologna on the feast of the following Pentecost.他返回羅馬,在接近年底時1219 ,星去信給所有修道院公佈第一章總的一聲令下,即將舉行的博洛尼亞對節日以下五旬。 Shortly before, Honorius III, by a special Brief, had conferred upon the founder the title of Master General, which till then he had held only by tacit consent.不久之前, honorius三,由一個特別簡短,已賦予創始人稱號大師一般,直到當時他只舉行,由默示同意。 At the very first session of the chapter in the following spring the saint startled his brethren by offering his resignation as master general.在第一屆的一章,在第二年春天聖錯愕他的兄弟提供辭去碩士一般。 It is needless to say the resignation was not accepted and the founder remained at the head of the institute till the end of his life.這是不用說了辭呈不被接受,並創辦人留在頭部的研究所到年底了他的命。

Soon after the close of the chapter of Bologna, Honorius III addressed letters to the abbeys and priories of San Vittorio, Sillia, Mansu, Floria, Vallombrosa, and Aquila, ordering that several of their religious be deputed to begin, under the leadership of Saint Dominic, a preaching crusade in Lombardy, where heresy had developed alarming proportions.盡快結束後,對該章的博洛尼亞, honorius三寫信給修道院和priories聖vittorio , sillia ,萬壽, floria ,瓦隆布羅薩,雕,訂購它們的若干宗教被deputed開始的領導下,聖星,鼓吹十字軍東征,在倫巴第,而異端制定了令人震驚的程度。 For some reason or other the plans of the pope were never realized.出於某種原因或其他計劃的教宗若望保祿二世一直沒有實現。 The promised support failing, Dominic, with a little band of his own brethren, threw himself into the field, and, as the event proved, spent himself in an effort to bring back the heretics to their allegiance to the Church.所承諾的支持,否則,多米尼克,帶著一絲帶他自己的弟兄們,全身心地投入到現場,並為事件證明,用自己的努力,帶回了異端,以效忠教會。 It is said that 100,000 unbelievers were converted by the preaching and the miracles of the saint.有消息稱, 10萬信的人轉為由說教和奇蹟的聖人。 According to Lacordaire and others, it was during his preaching in Lombardy that the saint instituted the Militia of Jesus Christ, or the third order, as it is commonly called, consisting of men and women living in the world, to protect the rights and property of the Church.據拉科代爾和其他人,那是在他的講道倫巴第表示,聖提起民兵的耶穌基督,或三階,因為這是俗稱,其中男性和女性生活在世界上,以保護他們的權利和財產該教堂。 Towards the end of 1221 Saint Dominic returned to Rome for the sixth and last time.接近年底時的1221聖多明回到羅馬為第六和最後一次。 Here he received many new and valuable concessions for the order.在此,他收到了許多寶貴的新的讓步,為秩序。 In January, February, and March of 1221 three consecutive Bulls were issued commending the order to all the prelates of the Church.在1月, 2月和3月, 1221年連續三年被公牛發出讚揚,以各主教的教會。 The thirtieth of May, 1221, found him again at Bologna presiding over the second general chapter of the order.第三十5月, 1221年,發現他又在博洛尼亞主持第二章一般的命令。 At the close of the chapter he set out for Venice to visit Cardinal Ugolino, to whom he was especially indebted for many substantial acts of kindness.在結束一章,他訂出的威尼斯參觀樞機ugolino ,給誰,他特別感激很多實質性的行為仁慈。 He had scarcely returned to Bologna when a fatal illness attacked him.他很少回到博洛尼亞時,一個致命的疾病襲擊了他。 He died after three weeks of sickness, the many trials of which he bore with heroic patience.他去世後, 3個星期的病假,也出現了許多試驗,其中他無端背負了英雄的忍耐力。 In a Bull dated at Spoleto, 13 July, 1234, Gregory IX made his cult obligatory throughout the Church.在牛市月在斯波萊托, 1234年7月13日,格雷戈里九大取得他的邪教組織義不容辭的整個教堂。

The life of St. Dominic was one of tireless effort in the, service of god.生命的聖星是一個不懈的努力,在服務的上帝。 While he journeyed from place to place he prayed and preached almost uninterruptedly.雖然他旅地方他祈禱,並鼓吹幾乎不間斷。 His penances were of such a nature as to cause the brethren, who accidentally discovered them, to fear the effect upon his life.他penances人的這樣一種性質,以引起弟兄,他們偶然發現了他們的聲音,害怕影響他的生命。 While his charity was boundless he never permitted it to interfere with the stern sense of duty that guided every action of his life.而他的慈善事業是無限的,他從來沒有允許它干擾與斯特恩職責意識指導一切行動聽他的生命。 If he abominated heresy and laboured untiringly for its extirpation it was because he loved truth and loved the souls of those among whom he laboured.如果他abominated異端,並努力不懈,其摘除,那是因為他熱愛真理和愛的亡靈,那些其中他的辛勞。 He never failed to distinguish between sin and the sinner.他還從未失敗過,以區分罪和罪人。 It is not to be wondered at, therefore, if this athlete of Christ, who had conquered himself before attempting the reformation of others, was more than once chosen to show forth the power of God.這是不容質疑的,因此,如果這個運動員的基督,他們已經征服了自己,才能改造別人,更不止一次地選擇顯示了上帝的力量。 The failure of the fire at Fanjeaux to consume the dissertation he had employed against the heretics, and which was thrice thrown into the flames; the raising to life of Napoleone Orsini; the appearance of the annals in the refectory of Saint Sixtus in response to his prayers, are but a few of the supernatural happenings by which God was pleased to attest the eminent holiness of His servant.失敗的大火方若食用了論文,他曾聘請反對異端,並先後三次被扔進火焰;提高生命的拿波洛恩奧西尼;外表而載入史冊,在refectory聖Sixtus的回應他祈禱,但也有少數的超自然現象,其中神高興地證明了著名的成聖他的僕人。 We are not surprised, therefore, that, after signing the Bull of canonization on 13 July, 1234, Gregory IX declared that he no more doubted the saintliness of Saint Dominic than he did that of Saint Peter and Saint Paul.我們並不感到驚訝,因此,在後,簽署牛氣沖天的冊封於1234年7月13日,格雷戈里九宣稱,他不懷疑saintliness聖多明我比他表示,聖彼得和聖保羅。

Publication information Written by John B. O'Connor.出版信息撰稿年11月,奧康納。 Transcribed by Martin Wallace, OP.轉錄馬丁華萊士,作品。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.天主教百科全書,體積訴公佈1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. nihil obstat , 1909年5月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約


Order of Preachers秩序的佈道者

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

As the Order of the Friars Preachers is the principal part of the entire Order of St. Dominic, we shall include under this title the two other parts of the order: the Dominican Sisters (Second Order) and the Brothers of Penitence of St. Dominic (Third Order).由於該命令的方濟各會士傳教士是主要的一部分,整個秩序的聖星,我們應包括根據這個稱號其他兩個部分的順序為:多米尼加姐妹(二階)和兄弟的懺悔聖星(三階) 。 First, we shall study the legislation of the three divisions of the order, and the nature of each.首先,我們將研究這些法例的三個師的一聲令下,和大自然的每一個。 Secondly, we shall give an historical survey of the three branches of the order.其次,我們應當給予歷史調查的3家分行,該命令。

I. LEGISLATION AND NATURE一,立法和性質

In its formation and development, the Dominican legislation as a whole is closely bound up with historical facts relative to the origin and progress of the order.在它的形成和發展,多米尼加的法律作為一個整體是息息相關,與歷史事實相對的起源和進步的秩序。 Hence some reference to these is necessary, the more so as this matter has not been sufficiently studied.因此一些參考這些是必要的,更何況這件事並沒有得到充分的研究。 For each of the three groups, constituting the ensemble of the Order of St. Dominic, we shall examine: A. Formation of the Legislative Texts; B. Nature of the Order, resulting from legislation.三年中的每群體,他們構成了樂團的命令聖星,我們應審查:甲形成的法律文本;乙性質的一聲令下,所造成的立法。

A. FORMATION OF THE LEGISLATIVE TEXTS答:形成的法律文本

In regard to their legislation the first two orders are closely connected, and must be treated together.對於其立法前兩個命令是緊密相連的,必須處理一起。 The preaching of St. Dominic and his first companions in Languedoc led up to the pontifical letters of Innocent III, 17 Nov., 1205 (Potthast, "Reg., Pont., Rom.", 2912).該鼓吹的聖星和他的同伴首次在朗格率領多達宗座信件的無辜第三, 1205年11月17日(波特哈斯特, "分級規定, pont ,光碟" , 2912年) 。 They created for the first time in the Church of the Middle Ages the type of apostolic preachers, patterned upon the teaching of the Gospel.他們創造的,為第一次在教堂的中世紀的類型宗座傳教者,一經圖案教學的福音。 In the same year, Dominic founded the Monastery of Prouille, in the Diocese of Toulouse, for the women whom he had converted from heresy, and he, made this establishment the centre of union of his missions and of his apostolic works (Balme-Lelaidier, "Cartulaire ou Histoire Diplomatique de St. Dominic", Paris, 1893, I, 130sq.; Guiraud, "Cart. de Notre Dame de Prouille," Paris, 1907, I, CCCXXsq).在同一年內,星創辦修道院prouille ,在教區圖盧茲,為婦女的人,他轉化,從異端的,他作此設立該中心的聯盟,他的使命和他的使徒工程( balme -勒萊迪耶" cartulaire歐歷史和外交德聖星" ,巴黎, 1893年,我和130sq ; guiraud , "車。德聖母德prouille , "巴黎, 1907年,我和cccxxsq ) 。 St. Dominic gave to the new monastery the Rule of St. Augustine and also the special Institutions which regulated the life of the Sisters, and of the Brothers who lived near them, for the spiritual and temporal administration of the community.聖星送給新寺法治的聖奧古斯丁,也特別機構,規範了生活的姐妹們,和兄弟住在附近,為精神文明建設和顳政府的社會。 The Institutions are edited in Balme, "Cart."該機構是在剪輯balme , "購物車" 。 II, 425; "Bull. Ord. Præd.", VII, 410; Duellius, "Misc.", bk.二, 425 " ;牛市。霍德。 præd " ,第七章, 410 ; duellius , "雜項" ,交通銀行。 I (Augsburg, 1723), 169; "Urkundenbuch der Stadt.", I (Fribourg, Leipzig, 1883), 605.我(奧格斯堡, 1723年) ,共有169個; " urkundenbuch明鏡stadt " ,我(弗里堡,萊比錫, 1883年) , 605 。 On 17 Dec., 1219, Honorius III, with a view to a general reform among the religious of the Eternal City, granted the monastery of the Sisters of St. Sixtus of Rome to St. Dominic, and the Institutions of Prouille were given to that monastery under the title of Institutions of the Sisters of St. Sixtus of Rome.於1219年12月17日, honorius三,以期一般改革當中,宗教的永恆之城,授予修道院的修女聖Sixtus的羅馬聖星,和各院校的prouille給這寺的名稱下機構的修女聖Sixtus的羅馬。 With this designation they were granted subsequently to other monasteries and congregations of religious.這個指定他們分別獲准隨後到其他寺廟和教會的宗教。 It is also under this form that we possess the primitive Institutions of Prouille, in the editions already mentioned.這也是根據此表表示,我們所擁有的原始機構prouille ,在該版本中已經提及。 St. Dominic and his companions, having received from Innocent III authorization to choose a rule, with a view to the approbation of their order, adopted in 1216, that of St. Augustine, and added thereto the "Consuetudines" which regulated the ascetic and canonical life of the religious.聖星和他的同伴們,收到了從無辜三授權,以選擇一個規則,以期使讚許,他們的命令,通過在1216說的聖奧古斯丁,並補充說,有所" consuetudines " ,其中規定了苦修和典型的生命的宗教。 These were borrowed in great part from the Constitutions of Prémontré, but with some essential features, adapted to the purposes of the new Preachers who also renounced private possession of property, but retained the revenues.這些都是借來的,在大部份是來自於憲法的prémontré ,但是隨著一些本質特徵,適應施行新的傳教士,他們也放棄了,私人擁有的財產,但保留了收入。 The "Consuetudines" formed the first part (prima distinctio) of the primitive Constitutions of the order (Quétif-Echard, "Scriptores Ord. Præd.", L 12-13; Denifle, "Archiv. für Literatur und Kirchengeschichte", I, 194; Balme, "Cart.", II, 18). " consuetudines " ,形成了第一部分(表面distinctio )的原始憲法秩序( quétif -埃沙爾, " scriptores霍德。 præd " ,升12-13 ;德尼夫勒, " archiv 。 f黵文學und kirchengeschichte " ,我想, 194個; balme , "購物車" ,二, 18 ) 。 The order was solemnly approved, 22 Dec., 1216.該命令是莊嚴批准, 1216年12月22日。 A first letter, in the style of those granted for the foundation of regular canons, gave the order canonical existence; a second determined the special vocation of the Order of Preachers as vowed to teaching and defending the truths of faith.第一次信中,在作風上的那些理所當然為基礎的經常門炮,一聲令下典型的存在;第二次定特別的天職秩序傳教士作為發誓要教學和捍衛真理的信念。 "Nos attendentes fratres Ordinis tui futuros pugiles fidei et vera mundi lumina confirmamus Ordinem tuum" (Balme, "Cart." II, 71-88; Potthast, 5402-5403). "不attendentes fratres ordinis吊futuros pugiles信等渾世界之露明納confirmamus ordinem tuum " ( balme , "購物車" 。二, 71-88 ;波特哈斯特, 5402年至5403年) 。 (Expecting the brethren of your order to be the champions of the Faith and true lights of the world, we confirm your order.) On 15 Aug., 1217 St. Dominic sent out his companions from Prouille. (期待兄弟,你為了得到冠軍的信念和真實燈的世界,我們確認您的訂單) ,對1217年8月15日,聖星發出了他的同伴們從prouille 。 They went through France, Spain, and Italy, and established as principal centres, Toulouse, Paris, Madrid, Rome, and Bologna.他們經歷了法國,西班牙和意大利,並確立為主要的金融中心,圖盧茲,巴黎,馬德里,羅馬和博洛尼亞。 Dominic, by constant journeyings, kept watch over these new establishments, and went to Rome to confer with the Sovereign Pontiff (Balme, "Cart." II, 131; "Annales Ord. Præd.", Rome, 1756, p. 411; Guiraud, "St. Dominic", Paris, 1899, p. 95).星中,不斷journeyings ,一直監視著這些新的場所,並到羅馬賦予與主權教宗( balme , "購物車" 。二, 131 " ;年鑑霍德。 præd " ,羅馬, 1756年, 411頁; guiraud , "聖星" ,巴黎, 1899年,第95頁) 。 In May, 1220, St. Dominic held at Bologna the first general chapter of the order.今年5月, 1220名,聖星舉行博洛尼亞第一章一般的命令。 This assembly drew up the Constitutions, which are complementary to the "Consuetudines" of 1216 and form the second part (secunda distinctio).這次大會,制定了憲法,這是相輔相成的,以" consuetudines " , 1216年形成全國第二部分(塞康達distinctio ) 。 They regulated the organization and life of the order, and are the essential and original basis of the Dominican legislation.他們規範了組織生活的秩序,是必要的,並在原有的基礎上的多米尼加立法。 In this chapter, the Preachers also gave up certain elements of the canonical life; they relinquished all possessions and revenues, and adopted the practice of strict poverty; they rejected the title of abbey for the convents, and substituted the rochet of canons for the monastic scapular.在這一章中,傳教士們也放棄了某些內容的典型生活方式,他們放棄了所有的財產和收入,並通過實踐的嚴格貧窮,他們拒絕的標題修道院為修道院,並取代了rochet的門炮,為寺院肩胛骨。 The regime of annual general chapters was established as the regulative power of the order, and the source of legislative authority.該政權的股東週年大會章確立為調節功率的秩序,從源頭上立法權威。 ("Script. Ord. Præd.", I, 20; Denifle, "Archiv.", I, 212; Balme, "Cart.", III, 575). ( "腳本。霍德。 præd " ,我和20名;德尼夫勒, " archiv 。 " ,我想, 212 ; balme , "購物車" ,三, 575頁) 。 Now that the legislation of the Friars Preachers was fully established, the Rule of the Sisters of St. Sixtus was found to be very incomplete.現在的立法工作方濟各會士傳教士,是完全建立,法治的修女聖Sixtus的發現是非常不完整。 The order, however, supplied what was wanting by compiling a few years after, the Statuta, which borrowed from the Constitutions of the Friars, whatever might be useful in a monastery of Sisters.一聲令下,不過,供應什麼,是要通過編制,幾年後, statuta ,這借來的,從憲法的方濟各會士,不管可能是有用的一個修道院的姐妹。 We owe the preservation of these Statuta, as well as the Rule of St. Sixtus, to the fact that this legislation was applied in 1232 to the Penitent Sisters of St. Mary Magdalen in Germany, who observed it without further modification.我們有責任保存這些statuta ,以及法治的聖Sixtus的,這一事實,即這條法例適用於在1232年至懺悔姐妹的聖瑪麗magdalen在德國,他們觀察到,它沒有進一步的修改。 The Statuta are edited im Duellius, "Misc.", bk.該statuta編輯的IM duellius , "雜項" ,交通銀行。 I, 182.一, 182 。 After the legislative work of the general chapters had been added to the Constitution of 1216-20, without changing the general ordinance of the primitive text, the necessity was felt, a quarter of a century later, of giving a more logical distribution to the legislation in its entirety.之後,立法工作的一般章節已被列入憲法的1216年至1220年,不改變一般條例的原始文本中,必須有人認為,在四分之一個世紀後,給予一個更合乎邏輯的分佈,以立法在其全貌。 The great canonist Raymond of Penaforte, on becoming master general of the order, devoted himself to this work.偉大canonist雷蒙德佩納福特,就成為掌握一般的一聲令下,一直致力於這方面的工作。 The general chapters, from 1239 to 1241, accepted the new text, and gave it the force of law.一般章節,從1239年至1241年,接受了新的文本,並使它具有法律效力。 In this form it has remained to the present time as the official text, with some modification, however, in the way of suppressions and especially of additions due to later enactments of the general chapters.在這種形式,它一直保持到現在的時間為正式文本,對一些修改,但是,在方式suppressions尤其是增補由於後來頒布的一般章節。 It was edited in Denifle, "Archiv.", V, 553; "Acta Capitulorum Generalium", I (Rome, 1898), II, 13, 18, in "Monum. Ord. Præd. Hist.", bk.這是編輯在德尼夫勒, " archiv 。 " ,第五章, 553 " ;學報capitulorum generalium "時,我(羅馬, 1898年) ,二,十三,十八,在" monum 。霍德。 præd 。歷史" ,交通銀行。 III.三。

The reorganization of the Constitutions of the Preachers called for a corresponding reform in the legislation of the Sisters.重組憲法的傳教士呼籲建立一個與之相適應的改革,在立法的姐妹。 In his letter of 27 Aug., 1257, Alexander IV ordered Humbert of Romans, the fifth master general, to unify the Constitutions of the Sisters.他在信中對1257年8月27日,亞歷山大四下令洪博達的入鄉隨俗,第五大師一般,以統一憲法的姐妹。 Humbert remodelled them on the Constitutions of the Brothers, and put them into effect at the General Chapter of Valenciennes, 1259.洪博達改造,他們對憲法的兄弟,並付諸實施,在一般的篇章已經推遲, 1259 。 The Sisters were henceforth characterized as Sorores Ordinis Prdicatorum.修女們從此被定性為sorores ordinis prdicatorum 。 The Constitutions are edited in "Analecta, Ord. Præd."憲法是主編的" analecta ,霍德。 præd " 。 (Rome, 1897), 338; Finke, "Ungedruckte Dominicanerbriefe des 13 Jahrhunderts" (Paderborn, 1891), D. 53; "Litterae Encyclicae magistrorum generalium" (Rome, 1900), in "Mon. Ord. Praed. Hist.", V, p. (羅馬, 1897年) , 338 ; finke , " ungedruckte dominicanerbriefe萬13 jahrhunderts " (帕德博恩, 1891 ) ,四53 " ; litterae encyclicae magistrorum generalium " (羅馬, 1900 ) ,在"星期一。霍德。 praed 。歷史" 。 ,第五頁 513. 513 。 To this legislation, the provincials of Germany, who had a large number of religious convents under their care, added certain admonitiones by way of completing and definitely settling the Constitutions of the Sisters.這條法例, provincials的德國,他們進行了大量的宗教修道院下,他們的照顧,加上某些admonitiones的方式完成,並肯定解決憲法的姐妹。 They seem to be the work of Herman of Minden, Provincial of Teutonia (1286-90).他們似乎已成為工作的赫爾曼minden ,省的teutonia ( 1286至1290年) 。 He drew up at first a concise admonition (Denifle, "Archiv.", II, 549); then other series of admonitions, more important, which have not been edited (Rome, Archives of the Order, Cod. Ruten, 130-139).他制定了在第一簡明諫(德尼夫勒, " archiv 。 " ,第二章, 549頁) ,然後其他系列的訓誡,更重要的是,其中並沒有被剪輯(羅馬,檔案館的一聲令下,化學需氧量。 ruten , 130-139 ) 。 The legislation of the Friars Preachers is the firmest and most complete among the systems of law by which institutions of this sort were ruled in the thirteenth century.該立法的方濟各會士傳教士,是最堅定,最徹底當中的法律制度,由哪些機構的這種被排除在13世紀。 Hauck is correct in saying: "We do not deceive ourselves in considering the organization of the Dominican Order as the most perfect of all the monastic organizations produced by the Middle Ages" ("Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands", part IV, Leipzig, 1902, p. 390). Hauck先生是正確的說: "我們不要欺騙自己,在考慮組織的多米尼加秩序作為當前最完美的所有寺院組織所產生的中世紀" (下稱" kirchengeschichte deutschlands " ,第四部分,萊比錫, 1902年,頁第390頁) 。 It is not then surprising that the majority of the religious orders of the thirteenth century should have followed quite closely the Dominican legislation, which exerted an influence even upon institutions very dissimilar in aim and nature.這不是那麼令人驚訝的是,大多數的宗教命令, 13世紀應該遵循相當密切多米尼加立法,其中一個施加影響,甚至經機構非常相似,在目的和性質。 The Church considered it the typical rule for new foundations.教會認為它是典型的統治,為新的基礎。 Alexander IV thought of making the legislation of the Order of Preachers into a special rule known as that of St. Dominic, and for that purpose commissioned the Dominican cardinal, Hugh of St. Cher (3 Feb., 1255), but the project encountered many obstacles, and nothing came of it.亞歷山大四思想作出的立法工作秩序的傳教士成為一個特殊的規則被稱為是聖星,並為此委託多米尼加樞機,休聖cher ( 1255年2月3日) ,但該項目所遇到的許多障礙,並不了了之。 (Potthast, n. 1566; Humberti de Romanis, "Opera de vita regulari", ed., Berthier, I, Rome, 1888, n. 43) (波特哈斯特, 12月31日第1566 ; humberti德romanis , "歌劇德履歷表regulari "版, berthier ,我,羅馬, 1888年12月31日43 )

B. NATURE OF THE ORDER OF PREACHERS乙自然的秩序佈道者

(1) Its Object ( 1 )對象

The canonical title of "Order of Preachers", given to the work of St. Dominic by the Church, is in itself significant, but it indicates only the dominant feature.典型的標題"命令的佈道者" ,考慮到工作的聖星由教會,這本身就是重要的,但它表明,只有佔主導地位的特點。 The Constitutions are more explicit: "Our order was instituted principally for preaching and for the salvation of souls."憲法中有更明確的說: "我們的秩序是建立了主要為說教,並為救贖的靈魂" 。 The end or aim of the order then is the salvation of souls, especially by means of preaching.年底或目的的命令,然後是救贖的心靈,特別是通過說教。 For the attainment of this purpose, the order must labour with the utmost zeal -- "Our main efforts should be put forth, earnestly and ardently, in doing good to the souls of our fellow-men."為實現這一目的,該命令必須勞工我們以極大的熱情-"我們的主要精力應經提出,在認真解決人民熱烈,在這樣做的好處亡靈,我們的同胞-男人"

(2) Its Organization ( 2 )其組織

The aim of the order and the conditions of its environment determined the form of its organization.目的次序和條件的,其環境決心的形式,其組織。 The first organic group is the convent, which may not be founded with less than twelve religious.第一次有機集團是修道院,卻未必能夠成立不到12個宗教團體。 At first only large convents were allowed and these were located in important cities (Mon. Ger. Hist.: SS. XXXII, 233, 236), hence the saying:首先,只有那些大修道院被允許和這些均位於重要城市(週一毛入學率。歷史。 :秒鐘。三十二, 233 , 236 ) ,因此,他說:

Bernardus valles, montes Benedictus amabat, 。 Bernardus valles , montes benedictus amabat ,

Oppida Franciscus, celebres Dominicus urbes. oppida濟等, celebres dominicus於爾貝斯。

(Bernard loved the valleys, Benediet the mountains, Francis the towns, Dominic the populous cities). (伯納德愛山谷, benediet山,方濟各城鎮,星人口眾多,市) 。

The foundation and the existence of the convent required a prior as governor, and a doctor as teacher.地基及存在的修道院須事先作為省長,醫生,教師。 The Constitution prescribes the dimensions of the church and the convent buildings, and these should be quite plain.憲法規定尺寸的教堂和修道院,建築,而這些應該很清楚。 But in the course of the thirteenth century the order erected large edifices, real works of art.但在執行過程中的13世紀命令豎立大型華廈時,真正的藝術作品。 The convent possesses nothing and lives on alms.修道院擁有,從無到有,生命就施捨。 Outside of the choral office (the Preachers at first had the title of canonici) their time is wholly employed in study.地以外的合唱辦公室(傳教士起初被各級評為canonici ) ,其時間是完全僱用的研究。 The doctor gives lectures in theology, at which all the religious, even the prior, must be present, and which are open to secular clerics.醫生給人講課,在神學上的所有宗教,甚至之前,必須在場,而且是公開的世俗教士。 The religious vow themselves to preaching, both within and without the convent walls.宗教發誓自己的說教,既沒有修道院的牆壁。 The "general preachers" have the most extended powers. "一般佈道者" ,有最擴大權力。 At the beginning of the order, the convent was called praedicatio, or sancta praedicatio.在一開始的一聲令下,修道院被稱為praedicatio ,或sancta praedicatio 。 The convents divided up the territory in which they were established, and sent out on preaching tours religious who remained for a longer or shorter time in the principal places of their respective districts.該修道院瓜分了領土,他們在其中設立,並派遣列於鼓吹宗教旅遊的人仍是一個較長或較短的時間內,主要地方各自的地區。 The Preachers did not take the vow of stability, but could be sent from one locality to another.講道並沒有採取發誓的穩定,但可以送交從一個地方到另一個地方。 Each convent received novices, these, according to the Constitutions, must be at least eighteen years of age, but this rule was not strictly observed.每一個修道院收到生手,其中,根據憲法,至少必須年滿18歲,但是這條規則是不嚴格遵守。 The Preachers were the first among religious orders to suppress manual labour, the necessary work of the interior of the house being relegated to lay brothers called conversi whose number was limited according to the needs of each convent.講道的人是首先之間的宗教命令,以制止體力勞動,必要的工作,內部的內務被降級奠定兄弟所謂conversi其數目是有限的,根據需要,每一個修道院。 The prior was elected by the religious and the doctor was appointed by the provincial chapter.事先被選出來的宗教和醫生被任命,由有關省的篇章。 The chapter, when it saw fit, relieved them from office.一章時,它認為合適的,解除他們的職務。

The grouping of a certain number of convents forms the province, which is administered by a provincial prior, elected by the prior and two delegates from each convent.編組一定數量的修道院形式,在省內,是由一個省級之前,由民選產生事先和兩名代表從各個修道院。 He is confirmed by the general chapter, or by the master general, who can also remove him when it is found expedient.他證實,由總章,或由主幹事,也可以罷免他時,才發現權宜之計。 He enjoys in his province the same authority as the master general in the order; he confirms the election of conventual priors, visits the province, sees to it that the Constitutions and the ordinances are observed and presides at the provincial chapters.他喜歡在他的省,同時管理局作為主人一般在秩序;證實了他的選舉conventual先驗下,參觀全省偏要給它的憲法和條例的遵守和主持,在省章節。 The provincial chapter, which is held annually, discusses the interests of the province.省委第一章,這是每年舉行一次,討論的利益,在全省的開展。 It is composed of a provincial prior, priors from the convents, a delegate from each convent, and the general preachers.它是由一個省級事先,先驗從修道院,一個代表從每個修道院,和一般的宣講員。 The capitulants (members of the chapter), choose from among themselves, four counsellors or assistants, who, with the provincial, regulate the affairs brought before the chapter.該capitulants (委員的一章)中,選擇從他們之間的四名輔導員或助理,他們同省,規範事務提交的篇章。 The chapter appoints those who are to visit annually each part of the province.本章任命這些人,以每年訪問每一部分的省。 The provinces taken together constitute the order, which has at its head a master general, elected by the provincial priors and by two delegates from each province.各省一起構成了秩序,這已在其頭部,碩士一般,由民選產生的省先驗和兩名代表從各個省市自治區。 For a long time his position was for life; Pius VII (1804), reduced it to six years, and Pius IX (1862) fixed it at twelve years.在相當長的時間,他的立場是終身;比約七( 1804年) ,減少為6年,比約九( 1862年) ,固定於十二年。 At first the master general had no permanent residence; since the end of the fourteenth century, he has lived usually at Rome.在第一主一般沒有永久居住地;結束以來的14世紀,他通常住在羅馬。 He visits the order, holds it to the observance of the laws and corrects abuses.他訪問一聲令下,擁有它,以遵守法律,並糾正侵權行為。 In 1509, he was granted two associates (socii); in 1752, four; in 1910, five.在1509名,他被授予兩名同夥( socii ) ,在1752名, 4名,在1910年,五名。 The general chapter is the supreme authority within the order.一般章是國家的最高權力機構內部的秩序。 From 1370, it was held every two years; from 1553, every three years, from 1625, every six years.從1370 ,它是每隔兩年舉行,從1553年,每3年一次,從1625年,每6年。 In the eighteenth and at the beginning of the nineteenth century, chapters were rarely held.在第十八屆,並在19世紀初葉,章很少舉行。 At present they take place every three years.目前,他們採取每3年一次。 From 1228, for two years in succession, the general chapter was composed of definitors or delegates from the provinces, each province sending one delegate; the following year it was held by the provincial priors.從1228年,連續兩年,一般章節組成definitors或代表,由各省,每個省派一名代表;次年法院裁定,由有關省先驗。 The chapter promulgates new constitutions, but to become law they must be accepted by three constitutive chapters.該章頒布新憲法,但要成為法律,他們必須接受3個構章節。 The chapter deals with all the general concerns of the order, whether administrative or disciplinary.該章所涉及的所有普遍關注的一聲令下,無論是行政或紀律處分。 It corrects the master general, and in certain cases can depose him.它改正了主人一般,而且在某些情況下可以罷免他。 From 1220 to 1244, the chapters were held alternately at Bologna and Paris; subsequently, they passed round to all the principal cities of Europe.從1220年至1244年,章輪流舉行,在博洛尼亞和巴黎;後來,他們通過輪,以各主要城市的歐洲。 The generalissimo chapter acknowledged by the Constitution and composed of two definitors from each province, also of provincials, ie equivalent to three consecutive general chapters, was held only in 1228 and 1236.該章將軍承認,在憲法和組成兩個definitors從每個省,也provincials ,即相當於連續三年總章,是只舉行了1228年和1236年。 The characteristic feature of government is the elective system which prevails throughout the order.該特徵的政府是選課制,其中普遍存在的整個秩序。 "Such was the simple mechanism which imparted to the Order of Friars Preachers a powerful and regular movement, and secured them for a long time a real preponderance in Church and in State" (Delisle, "Notes et extraits des mss. de la Bibl. Nat.", Paris, xxvii, 1899, 2nd part, p. 312. See the editions of the Constitutions mentioned above: "Const. Ord. Fr. Præd.", Paris, 1, 1888, "Acta Capit. Gen. Ord. Fr. Præd.", ed., Reichert, Rome, 1898, sq. 9 vols.; Lo Cicero, Const., "Declar. et Ord. Capit. Gen. OP", Rome, 1892; Humbert de Romanis, "Opera de vita regulari", ed. Berthier, Rome, 1888; Reichert, "Feier und Gesehäftsordung der Provincialkapitel des Dominikanerordens im 13 Jahrhundert" in "Römische Quart.", 1903, p. 101). "這是簡單的機制,其中傳授給該命令的方濟各會士傳教士一個強大的和經常運動,並獲取了他們在相當長的時間,真正preponderance在教會和國家" (迪萊爾, "債券等extraits萬重建置業。 de的香格里拉bibl 。 NAT的" ,巴黎,二十七, 1899年,第2部分,第312 。看到版本的憲法,上述: "常量。霍德。神父。 præd " ,巴黎, 1 , 1888年, "學報capit 。霍德將軍。神父。 præd "外,教育署, reichert ,羅馬, 1898年,以建築面積計,九卷;蘆西塞羅,常量, " declar 。霍德等。 capit 。將軍作品" ,羅馬, 1892年;洪博達德romanis "歌劇德履歷表regulari "外,教育署。 berthier ,羅馬, 1888年; reichert , " feier und gesehäftsordung明鏡provincialkapitel萬dominikanerordens的IM 13 jahrhundert "中的" römische夸脫" , 1903年,第101頁) 。

(3) Forms of its Activity ( 3 )形式的,其活動

The forms of life or activity of the Order of Preachers are many, but they are all duly subordinated.該形式的生命或活動的秩序傳教士有很多,但他們都妥服從。 The order assimilated the ancient forms of the religious life, the monastic and the canonical, but it made them subservient to the clerical and the apostolic life which are its peculiar and essential aims.該命令吸收了古代形式的宗教生活,寺院和典型,但它使他們屈從於文書及使徒生活,是它的奇特和基本目標。 The Preachers adopted from the monastic life the three traditional vows of obedience, chastity, and poverty; to them they added the ascetic element known as monastic observances; perpetual abstinence, fasting from 14 Sept. until Easter and on all the Fridays throughout the year the exclusive use of wool for clothing and for the bed a hard bed, and a common dormitory, silence almost perpetual in their houses, public acknowledgment of faults in the chapter, a graded list of penitential practices, etc. The Preachers, however, did not take these observances directly from the monastic orders but from the regular canons, especially the reformed canons, who had already adopted monastic rules The Preachers received from the regular canons the choral Office for morning and evening, but chanted quickly.講道通過從修道生活三個傳統誓言的服從,貞潔,與貧困;給他們,他們說:苦修元素稱為寺院的紀念活動;永久禁慾,禁食,從9月14日,直到復活節和所有星期五,在整個一年獨家使用的羊毛服裝和床上硬床,一個共同的寢室,沉默,幾乎永遠在自己的住宅,公開承認錯誤,在第一章,分級名單penitential做法等,宣講員,但沒有考慮到這些紀念活動直接從寺院的訂單,但由經常門炮,特別是經過改革炮,他們已經通過了寺院規則傳教士收到來自經常門炮合唱辦公室今天上午及傍晚,但高喊著快。 They added, on certain days, the Office of the Holy Virgin, and once a week the Office of the Dead.他們還說,某些日子,該辦公室的聖母,以及每週一次的辦公室死者。 The habit of the Preachers, as of the regular canons, is a white tunic and a black cloak.習慣了宣講員,為的經常門炮,是一個白色中山裝和黑色斗篷。 The rochet, distinctive of the regular canons, was abandoned by the Preachers at the General Chapter of 1220, and replaced by the scapular.該rochet ,鮮明的經常門炮,被遺棄,由傳教士在一般章的1220名,而代之以由肩胛骨。 At the same time they gave up various canonical customs, which they had retained up to that period.在同一時間,他們放棄了各種典型的習俗,他們已保留了這一時期。 They suppressed in their order the title of abbot for the head of the convent, and rejected all property, revenues, the carrying of money on their travels, and the use of horses.他們壓制在自己的命令的名稱住持為團長的修道院,並拒絕了所有的財產,收入,攜帶金錢的旅遊地點,以及使用的馬匹。 The title even of canon which they had borne from the beginning tended to disappear about the middle of the thirteenth century, and the General Chapters of 1240-1251 substituted the word clericus for canonicus in the article of the Constitutions relating to the admission of novices; nevertheless the designation, "canon" still occurs in some parts of the Constitutions.標題連佳能,他們已承擔從一開始趨向於消失,約中的13世紀,和一般章節的1240年至1251年取代字clericus為典型在文章中的憲法中有關接納生手;然而指定, "佳能"仍出現在部分憲法。 The Preachers, in fact, are primarily and essentially clerics.講道,其實,主要是從本質上講神職人員。 The pontifical letter of foundation said: "These are to be the champions of the Faith and the true lights of the world."聖座信基金會說: "這些都是要成為冠軍的信念和真實燈的世界" 。 This could apply only to clerics.這可能只適用於教士。 The Preachers consequently made study their chief occupation, which was the essential means, with preaching and teaching as the end.講道因此作了研究他們的行政佔領,這是必不可少的手段,與傳教和教學為目的。 The apostolic character of the order was the complement of its clerical character.使徒性質的指令是相輔相成的,其文書性質。 The Friars had to vow themselves to the salvation of souls through the ministry of preaching and confession, under the conditions set down by the Gospel and by the example of the Apostles: ardent zeal, absolute poverty, and sanctity of life.該方濟各會士不得不發誓自己的救贖靈魂通過教育部的說教和懺悔的條件下,所訂下的福音,並舉例提到使徒:殷切熱情,是絕對貧困和生命的神聖。

The ideal Dominican life was rich in the multiplicity and choice of its elements, and was thoroughly unified by its well-considered principles and enactments; but it was none the less complex, and it, full realization was difficult.理想的多米尼加生活是豐富多樣,並選擇其內容,並徹底統一其精心考慮的原則和法規,但它畢竟不那麼複雜,它的充分實現是困難的。 The monastic-canonical element tended to dull and paralyze the intense activity demanded by a clerical-apostolic life.寺院-典型要素趨於沉悶和癱瘓激烈的活動,要求一名文員-使徒生活。 The legislators warded off the difficulty by a system of dispensations, quite peculiar to the order.立委抵禦了困難,由系統dispensations ,相當奇特,以該命令。 At the head of the Constitutions the principle of dispensation appears jointly with the very definition of the order's purpose, and is placed before the text of the laws to show that it controls and tempers their application.在領導的憲法原則,省卻出現同定義該命令的目的,是放在前文的法律,以顯示它的控制和調節他們的申請。 "The superior in each convent shall have authority to grant dispensations whenever he may deem it expedient, especially in regard to what may hinder study, or preaching, or the profit of souls, since our order was originally established for the work of preaching and the salvation of souls", etc. The system of dispensation thus broadly understood while it favoured the most active element of the order, displaced, but did not wholly eliminate, the difficulty. "上級的每一個修道院應有權給予dispensations每當他可能認為這是權宜之計,特別是在對於什麼可能妨礙學習,或說教,或盈利性的靈魂,因為我們的命令最初確定為工作的說教和拯救心靈"等制度,從而免除大致了解,而它傾向於最活躍的要素之一,秩序,流離失所,但並沒有完全消除,難度。 It created a sort of dualism in the interior life, and permitted an arbitrariness that might easily disquiet the conscience of the religious and of the superiors.它創造了一種二元論,在內部生活,並允許一個隨意性可能很容易不安的良心宗教和的上司。 The order warded off this new difficulty by declaring in the generalissimo chapter of 1236, that the Constitutions did not oblige under pain of sin, but under pain of doing penance (Acta Cap. Gen. I, 8.) This measure, however, was not heartily welcomed by everyone in the order (Humbert de Romanis, Op., II, 46), nevertheless it stood.該命令抵禦這種新的困難,宣布在將軍章1236年,即憲法並未責成下疼痛的罪過,但根據疼痛的做懺悔(學報章將軍,我八)這項措施,不過,當時不由衷地歡迎大家在命令(洪博達德romanis ,作品,第二, 46分) ,不過原樣。

This dualism produced on one side, remarkable apostles and doctors, on the other, stern ascetics and great mystics.這種兩重性產生的一個副作用,顯著使徒和醫生,在另一方面,嚴峻的苦行者和偉大神秘主義者。 At all events the interior troubles of the order grew out of the difficulty of maintaining the nice equilibrium which the first legislators established, and which was preserved to a remarkable degree during the first century of the order's existence.在所有比賽中內部故障的命令前身的困難,保持好的平衡點,其中第一立法者確立,而被保留到一個了不起的程度在第一世紀的秩序的存在。 The logic of things and historical circumstances frequently disturbed this equilibrium.邏輯的東西和歷史的情況下,經常擾亂這種平衡。 The learned and active members tended to exempt themselves from monastic observance, or to moderate its strictness; the ascetic members insisted on the monastic life, and in pursuance of their aim, suppressed at different times the practice of dispensation, sanctioned as it was by the letter and the spirit of the Constitutions ["Cons".這個教訓,並積極成員傾向,以免除自己從寺院戒律,或以溫和的,其嚴謹性;苦修委員堅持對修道生活,並依照他們的目的,壓抑在不同時期的做法,省卻認可,因為它是由賀信的內容和精神,憲法[ "意見" 。 Ord.霍德。 Praed.", passim;. Denifle, "Die Const. praed " ,各處; 。德尼夫勒, "死常量。 des Predigerordens" in "Archiv.萬predigerordens "中的" archiv 。 f. Litt.利特。 u.美國 Kirchengesch.", I, 165; Mandonnet, "Les Chanoines -- Prêcheurs de Bologne d'après Jacques de Vitry" in "Archives de la société d'histoire du canton de Fribourg", bk. VIII, 15; Lacordaire, "Mémoire pour la restauration des Frères Prêcheurs dans la Chrétienté", Paris, 1852; P. Jacob, "Memoires sur la canonicité de l'institut de St. Dominic", Béziers, 1750, tr. into Italian under the title, "Difesa del canonicato dei FF. kirchengesch 。 " ,我想, 165 ;芒多內, "就業輔導組chanoines -p rêcheurs德波隆納-鑣雅克德v i try"中的"檔案德香格里拉協會代表和杜廣德弗里堡",交通銀行第八,1 5人;拉科代爾,"備忘錄傾訴恢復香格里拉萬Frères的prêcheurs dans香格里拉chrétienté " ,巴黎, 1852年;頁雅各, " memoires sur香格里拉canonicité德研究所聖星" , béziers , 1750年的TR 。成意大利文的標題下, "保衛刪除canonicato dei法郎。 Predicatori", Venice, 1758; Laberthoni, "Exposé de l'état, du régime, de la legislation et des obligations des Frères Prêcheurs", Versailles, 1767 (new ed., 1872)].普雷迪卡托裡" ,威尼斯, 1758 ; laberthoni , " exposé德l '閠at杜制度所,德香格里拉立法等義務萬萬Frères的prêcheurs " ,凡爾賽, 1767年(新版, 1872年) ] 。

(4) Nature of the Order of the Dominican Sisters ( 4 )的性質秩序多米尼加姐妹

We have indicated above the various steps by which the legislation of the Dominican Sisters was brought into conformity with the Constitutions of Humbert of Romans (1259).我們曾表示,以上各項措施,其中的立法工作多米尼加姐妹被帶進符合憲法的洪博達的入鄉隨俗( 1259 ) 。 The primitive type of religious established at Prouille in 1205 by St. Dominic was not affected by successive legislation.原始型的宗教確立prouille 1205聖星並沒有受到影響歷屆立法。 The Dominican Sisters are strictly cloistered in their monasteries; they take the three religious vows, recite the canonical Hours in choir and engage in manual labor.多米尼加姐妹都嚴格cloistered在他們所寺廟,他們採取了三個宗教誓言,朗誦典型時,在合唱團及從事體力勞動。 The eruditio litterarum inscribed in the Institutions of St. Sixtus disappeared from the Constitutions drawn up by Humbert of Romans.該eruditio litterarum銘刻在院校的聖Sixtus的消失,從憲法制定的,由洪博達的入鄉隨俗。 The ascetic life of the Sisters is the same as that of the Friars.苦修生活中的姐妹們是一樣的方濟各會士。 Each house is governed by a prioress, elected canonically, and assisted by a sub-prioress, a mistress of novices, and various other officers.每個房子是由一個prioress ,當選canonically ,並協助由一個小組prioress ,一名情婦的生手,以及其他各種人員。 The monasteries have the right to hold property in common; they must be provided with an income sufficient for the existence of the community; they are independent and are under the jurisdiction of the provincial prior, the master general, and of the general chapter.寺廟都有權持有共同財產時,他們必須向他們提供一個足夠的收入,為的存在,對社會,他們是獨立的管轄之下的省級之前,主人一般,和一般的篇章。 A subsequent paragraph will deal with the various phases of the question as to the relation existing between the Sisters and the Order of Preachers.其後段會處理的各個階段的問題,以關係之間存在姐妹和議事程序的傳教士。 Whilst the Institutions of St. Sixtus provided a group of brothers, priests, and lay servants for the spiritual and temporal administration of the monastery, the Constitutions of Humbert of Romans were silent on these points.雖然該機構的聖Sixtus的提供了一組兄弟,司鐸和奠定公務員,為精神文明建設和顳政府的楚布寺,憲法洪博達的羅馬人沉默就這幾點。 (See the legislative texts relating to the Sisters mentioned above.) (見立法文本涉及到姐妹如上所述) 。

(5) The Third Order ( 5 )三階

St. Dominic did not write a rule for the Tertiaries, for reasons which are given further on in the historical sketch of the Third Order.聖星沒有寫一條規則為tertiaries ,理由是鑑於對進一步在歷史的素描第三秩序。 However, a large body of the laity, vowed to piety, grouped themselves about the rising Order of Preachers, and constituted, to all intents and purposes, a Third Order.然而,相當多的機構俗人,發誓要虔誠,分組對自己的上升秩序的傳教士,並構成,為所有意圖和目的,第三條命令。 In view of this fact and of some circumstances to be noted later on, the seventh master general of the order, Munio de Zamora, wrote (1285) a rule for the Brothers and Sisters of Penitence of St. Dominic.鑑於這一事實,以及某些情況下應當指出,稍後,第七屆掌握一般的一聲令下,無二雄德薩莫拉,寫( 1285 )的規則,為兄弟姐妹們的懺悔聖星。 The privilege granted the new fraternity 28 Jan., 1286, by Honorius IV, gave it a canonical existence (Potthast, 22358).有幸獲准新聯誼1286年1月28日,由honorius四,賦予它一種典型的存在(波特哈斯特, 22358 ) 。 The rule of Munio was not entirely original; some points being borrowed from the Rule of the Brothers of Penitence, whose origin dates back to St. Francis of Assisi; but it was distinctive on all essential points.法治無二雄並不完全原件;幾點被借來的,從法治的兄弟懺悔,其起源可追溯到聖方濟各的阿西西,但它是獨特的所有基本要點。 It is in a sense more thoroughly ecclesiastical; the Brothers and Sisters are grouped in different fraternities; their government is immediately subject to ecclesiastical authority; and the various fraternities do not form a collective whole, with legislative chapters, as was the case among the Brothers of Penitence of St. Francis.它是在一定意義上更加徹底教會;兄弟姊妹一組,在不同的兄弟,他們的政府立即受到宗教事務管理局和各兄弟不形成一個集體的整體,各章立法的情況一樣,各兄弟悔罪聖弗朗西斯。 The Dominican fraternities are local and without any bond of union other than that of the Preaching Brothers who govern them.多米尼加兄弟是地方,沒有任何認同感為紐帶的聯盟以外的說教兄弟誰管他們。 Some characteristics of these fraternities may be gathered from the Rule of Munio de Zamora.一些特色的這些兄弟,可蒐集到的統治無二雄德薩莫拉。 The Brothers and Sisters, as true children of St. Dominic, should be, above all things, truly zealous for the Catholic Faith.兄弟姐妹們,作為真正的兒童的聖星,應當是,上述所有的東西,真正熱心為天主教信仰。 Their habit is a white tunic, with black cloak and hood, and a leathern girdle.他們的習慣是一個白色中山裝,黑斗篷和引擎蓋,和皮腰帶。 After making profession, they cannot return to the world, but may enter other authorized religious orders.經過專業的,他們不能返回到世界,但可以進入其他獲得授權的宗教命令。 They recited a certain number of Paters and Aves, for the canonical Hours; receive communion at least four times a year, and must show great respect to the ecclesiastical hierarchy.他們背誦了一定數量的paters和鳥類,為典型小時;領至少每年4次,而必須表現出極大的敬意,向教會等級。 They fast during Advent, Lent, and on all the Fridays during the year, and eat meat only three days in the week, Sunday, Tuesday, and Thursday.他們迅速來臨,出借,並就所有星期五,在這一年裡,吃的肉,只有三天的時間,在本週內,週日,週二和週四。 They are allowed to carry arms only in defense of the Christian Faith.他們是獲准攜帶武器,只有在國防部的基督教信仰。 They visit sick members of the community, give them assistance if necessary, attend the burial of Brothers or Sisters and aid them with their prayers.他們訪問生病的社會成員,給予他們必要的協助,參加安葬的兄弟或姐妹,並幫助他們與他們的祈禱。 The head or spiritual director is a priest of the Order of Preachers, whom the Tertiaries select and propose to the master general or to the provincial; he may act on their petition or appoint some other religious.頭部或精神上的主任是一名牧師,該命令的傳教士,其中tertiaries選擇,並建議主人一般或到省,他的行為可能對他們的請願書,或委派一些其他宗教。 The director and the older members of the fraternity choose the prior or prioress, from among the Brothers and Sisters, and their office continues until they are relieved.主任和老成員的聯誼選擇事前或prioress ,來自各兄弟姐妹,還有自己的辦公室繼續,直至他們感到寬慰。 The Brothers and the Sisters have, on different days, a monthly reunion in the church of the Preachers, when they attend Mass, listen to an instruction, and to an explanation of the rule.兄弟和姐妹們,在不同的日子裡,每月團聚在教會的傳教士,當他們參加群眾,傾聽一個指令,並解釋了有關規則。 The prior and the director can grant dispensations; the rule, like the Constitutions of the Preachers, does not oblige under pain of sin.事先和總能給予dispensations ;法治,像憲法的傳教士,並不規定下疼痛的罪過。

The text of the Rule of the Brothers of the Penitence of St. Dominic is in "Regula S. Augustini et Constitutiones FF. Ord. Praed."全文法治兄弟的懺悔聖星,是在"規範第奧古斯蒂尼等constitutiones法郎。霍德。 praed " 。 (Rome, 1690), 2nd pt. (羅馬, 1690年) ,第2次鉑。 p. 39; Federici, "Istoria dei cavalieri Gaudent" (Venice, 1787), bk. 39 ; federici , " istoria dei cavalieri gaudent " (威尼斯, 1787年) ,交通銀行。 II, cod.二,鱈魚。 diplomat., p.外交家。頁 28; Mandonnet, "Les règles et le gouvernement de l'Ordo de Poenitentia au XIIIe siècle" (Paris, 1902); Mortier, "Histoire des Maîtres Généraux des Frères Prêcheurs", II (Paris, 1903), 220. 28 ;芒多內, "就業輔導組規則和樂gouvernement德l'集體訴訟德poenitentia凹xiiie世紀" (巴黎, 1902年) ; mortier , "史萬ma顃res généraux萬Frères的prêcheurs " ,第二章(巴黎, 1903 ) , 220 。 II.二。 HISTORY OF THE ORDER歷史的順序

A. THE FRIARS PREACHERS答: friars傳教士

Their history may be divided into three periods: (1) The Middle Ages (from their foundation to the beginning of the sixteenth century); (2) The Modern Period up to the French Revolution; (3) The Contemporaneous Period.其歷史可分為三個時期: ( 1 )中世紀(從他們的基礎開始,十六世紀) ; ( 2 )現代時期,直至法國大革命; ( 3 )當代時期。 In each of these periods we shall examine the work of the order in its various departments.在上述每個時期,我們應審查的工作秩序,在各部門的。

(1) The Middle Ages ( 1 )中世紀

The thirteenth century is the classic age of the order, the witness to its brilliant development and intense activity. 13世紀經典時代的秩序,見證其輝煌的發展和激烈的活動。 This last is manifested especially in the work of teaching.這是去年表現尤其是在教學工作。 By preaching it reached all classes of Christian society, fought heresy, schism, paganism, by word and book, and by its missions to the north of Europe, to Africa, and Asia, passed beyond the frontiers of Christendom.由說教,它達成了所有類別的基督教社會,爭取異端,分裂,異教, Word和這本書,其任務以北的歐洲,非洲和亞洲,通過超越國界的基督教。 Its schools spread throughout the entire Church its doctors wrote monumental works in all branches of knowledge and two among them, Albertus Magnus, and especially Thomas Aquinas, founded a school of philosophy and theology which was to rule the ages to come in the life of the Church.其學校遍布整個教會其醫生寫了不朽的工程,在各部門的知識和二,其中阿爾伯圖斯思,尤其是托馬斯阿奎那,創立了學校的哲學和神學,這是法治的年齡來,在生活的教會。 An enormous number of its members held offices in Church and State -- as popes, cardinals, bishops, legates, inquisitors, confessors of princes, ambassadors, and paciarii (enforcers of the peace decreed by popes or councils).一個巨大的數目,其成員舉行了辦事處,在教會與國家-作為教宗,樞機主教,主教, l egates, i nquisitors, c onfessors王子,大使,和p aciarii(執法人員對和平頒布的教皇或議會) 。 The Order of Preachers, which should have remained a select body, developed beyond bounds and absorbed some elements unfitted to its form of life.秩序的傳教士,應該仍然是一個專責機構,制定了超越的界限,並吸收了一些內容unfitted其形式的生命。 A period of relaxation ensued during the fourteenth century owing to the general decline of Christian society.一個時期放寬隨後在14世紀,由於普遍下降,基督教社會。 The weakening of doctrinal activity favoured the development here and there of the ascetic and contemplative life and there sprang up, especially in Germany and Italy, an intense and exuberant mysticism with which the names of Master Eckhart, Suso, Tauler, St. Catherine of Siena are associated.弱化理論的活動有利於發展在這裡和那裡的苦行和沉思的生活和有興起,尤其是在德國和意大利,一個激烈和旺盛的神秘主義與該名稱的主艾克哈特, suso ,陶勒爾,聖凱瑟琳錫耶納相關的。 This movement was the prelude to the reforms undertaken, at the end of the century, by Raymond of Capua, and continued in the following century.這項運動是前奏的改革承諾,在本世紀結束時,由雷蒙德卡普阿,並繼續在以下幾個世紀。 It assumed remarkable proportions in the congregations of Lombardy and of Holland, and in the reforms of Savonarola at Florence.它假定了顯著的比例,在教友的倫巴第大區和荷蘭,並在改革Savonarola作者在佛羅倫斯。 At the same time the order found itself face to face with the Renaissance.在同一時間,順序發現自己面對的復興。 It struggled against pagan tendencies in Humanism, in Italy through Dominici and Savonarola, in Germany through the theologians of Cologne but it also furnished Humanism with such advanced writers as Francis Colonna (Poliphile) and Matthew Brandello.它鬥爭,異教的傾向,在以人為本,在意大利通過dominici和Savonarola作者,在德國通過神學的科隆但它也提供了人文與這種先進的作家弗朗西斯科隆納( poliphile )和Matthew brandello 。 Its members, in great numbers, took part im the artistic activity of the age, the most prominent being Fra Angelico and Fra Bartolomeo.其成員,在偉大的號碼,參加了即時通訊的藝術活動的年齡,最突出的被FRA的安哥和FRA的bartolomeo 。

(a) Development and Statistics (一)發展和統計

When St. Dominic, in 1216, asked for the official recognition of his order, the first Preachers numbered only sixteen.當聖星,在1216要求官方承認他的一聲令下,第一個傳教士人只有16個。 At the general Chapter of Bologna, 1221, the year of St. Dominic's death, the order already counted some sixty establishments, and was divided into eight provinces: Spain, Provence, France, Lombardy, Rome, Teutonia, England, and Hungary.在一般章博洛尼亞, 1221年,在這一年的聖星的死亡,該命令已經算有些第六十二場所,並分為八個省份:西班牙, Provence ,法國,倫巴第,羅馬, teutonia ,英國和匈牙利。 The Chapter of 1228 added four new provinces: the Holy Land, Greece, Poland, and Dacia (Denmark and Scandinavia).該章的1228年增加了4個新的省份:聖地,希臘,波蘭和達契亞(丹麥和斯堪的那維亞) 。 Sicily was separated from Rome (1294), Aragon from Spain (1301).西西里島脫離羅馬( 1294 ) ,阿拉貢,從西班牙(第1301 ) 。 In 1303 Lombardy was divided into Upper and Lower Lombardy; Provence into Toulouse and Provence; Saxony was separated from Teutonia, and Bohemia from Poland, thus forming eighteen provinces.在1303年倫巴第,分為上,下倫巴第大; Provence的到圖盧茲和Provence的;薩克森州脫離teutonia ,波西米亞,從波蘭等,形成18個省份。 The order, which in 1277 counted 404 convents of Brothers, in 1303 numbered nearly 600.一聲令下,其中在1277年清點404修道院的弟兄們,在1303編號的有近600家。 The development of the order reached its height during the Middle Ages; new houses were established during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but in relatively small numbers As to the number of religious only approximate statements can be given.發展命令達到其高度在中世紀;新房,建立了在第十四和第十五屆百年,但在相對較小的數字至於有多少宗教只是近似表述,可加以考慮。 In 1256, according to the concession of suffrages granted by Humbert of Romans to St. Louis, the order numbered about 5000 priests; the clerks and lay brothers could not have been less than 2000.在1256年,根據該讓步的suffrages給予洪博達的入鄉隨俗,以聖路易斯,該命令編號為大約5000名神父;辦事員奠定兄弟已經不能少於2000年。 Thus towards the middle of the thirteenth century it must have had about 7000 members (de Laborde, "Layette du trésor des chartes", Paris 1875, III, 304).因此,對中的13世紀,它必須有大約7000名成員(德拉博德, "全套杜trésor萬chartes " ,巴黎1875年,三, 304 ) 。 According to Sebastien de Olmeda, the Preachers, as shown by the census taken under Benedict XII, were close on to 12,000 in 1337.據塞巴斯蒂安德olmeda ,傳教士,因為所表現出的普查下所採取的本篤第十二名,截止日期為12000人,在第1337 。 (Fontana, "Monumenta Dominicana", Rome, 1674, pp. 207-8). (豐塔納, "古蹟遺址Dominicana小" ,羅馬, 1674年,第207-8 ) 。 This number was not surpassed at the close of the Middle Ages; the Great Plague of 1348, and the general state of Europe preventing a notable increase, The reform movement begun in 1390 by Raymond of Capua established the principle of a twofold arrangement in the order.這個數字是不是超過了在緊密的中世紀;偉大鼠疫的第1348 ,和一般國家的歐洲預防顯著增加,改革運動開始的第1390號決議,由雷蒙德capua確立的原則,具有雙重安排在議事程序。 For a long time it is true, the reformed convents were not separate from their respective provinces; but with the foundation of the congregation of Lombardy, in 1459, a new order of things began.在相當長的時間,這是事實,經過改革的修道院並非獨立於各自的省份,但與該基金會的會眾的倫巴第,在1459年,一種新的秩序的東西,開始了。 The congregations were more or less self-governing, and, according as they developed, overlapped several provinces and even several nations.教友聚集較多或較少自我規管,並根據他們的發展,是重疊的幾個省甚至幾個國家。 There were established successively the congregations of Portugal (1460), Holland (1464), Aragon, and Spain (1468), St. Mark in Florence (1493), France (1497), the Gallican (1514).有既定先後畢業典禮,葡萄牙( 1460 ) ,荷蘭( 1464 ) ,阿拉貢,西班牙( 1468年) ,聖馬克,在佛羅倫斯( 1493 ) ,法國( 1497 ) , gallican ( 1514號決議) 。 About the same time some new provinces were also established: Scotland (1481), Ireland (1484), Bétique or Andalusia (1514), Lower Germany (1515).大約同一時候,一些新的省份,還建立了:蘇格蘭( 1481 ) ,愛爾蘭( 1484 ) , bétique或安達盧西亞( 1514號決議) ,較低的德國( 1515 ) 。 (Quétif-Echard, "Script. Ord. Praed.", I, p. 1-15; "Anal. Ord. Praed.", 1893, passim; Mortier, "Hist. des Maîtres Généraux", IV, passim). ( quétif -埃沙爾, "腳本。霍德。 praed 。 " ,我想,第1-15 " ;肛門。霍德。 praed " , 1893年,各處; mortier , "歷史。萬ma顃res généraux " ,四,各處) 。

(b) Administration (二)行政

The Preachers possessed a number of able administrators among their masters general during the Middle Ages, especially in the thirteenth century.講道掌握了一批有能力的管理者之一,他們的主人一般,在中世紀,尤其是在13世紀。 St. Dominic, the creator of the institution (1206-1221), showed a keen intelligence of the needs of the age.聖星,造物者的院校( 1206年至1221年) ,表現出敏銳的智慧時代需求。 He executed his plans with sureness of insight, firmness of resolution, and tenacity of purpose.他處死了他的計劃的確定與頓悟的,堅挺的決議,以及不屈不撓的目的。 Jordan of Saxony (1222-1237) sensitive, eloquent, and endowed with rare powers of persuasion, attracted numerous and valuable recruits.約旦薩克森州( 1222至1237年)敏感,雄辯的,並賦予了難得的權力的勸導,吸引了許多寶貴的新兵。 St. Raymond of Penaforte (1238-1240), the greatest canonist of the age, ruled the order only long enough to reorganize its legislation.聖雷蒙德佩納福特( 1238至1240年) ,最大的canonist的年齡,裁定該命令只足夠長的改組其立法。 John the Teuton (1241-1252), bishop and linguist, who was associated with the greatest personalities of his time pushed the order forward along the line of development outlined by its founder.約翰是位條頓( 1241年至1252年) ,主教和語言學家,他們是與最大性格他的時間推著秩序線沿線的發展,概述了其創始人。 Humbert of Romans (1254-1263), a genius of the practical sort, a broad-minded and moderate man, raised the order to the height of its glory, and wrote manifold works, setting forth what, in his eyes, the Preachers and Christian society ought to be.洪博達的羅馬人( 1254年至1263年) ,一個天才的實際排序,具有開闊的視野和溫和的人,提出了以高度的榮耀,並親筆題寫多方面的工程,又提出什麼,在他看來,傳教士和基督教社會應當做的。 John of Vercelli (1264-1283), an energetic and prudent man, during his long government maintained the order in all its vigor.約翰的Vercelli的( 1264至1283年) ,一個充滿活力和審慎的男子,在他漫長政府維持秩序,在其所有的活力。 The successors of these illustrious masters did their utmost in the discharge of their duty, and in meeting the situations which the state of the Church and of society from the close of the thirteenth century rendered more and more difficult.接班人的這些顯赫的主人翁們,拼命在履行他們的職責,並在會議的情況,其中國家的教會和社會從封閉的13世紀變得越來越難。 Some of them did no more than hold their high office, while others had not the genius of the masters general of the golden age [Balme-Lelaidier, "Cart. de St. Dominic"; Guiraud, "St. Dominic" (Paris, 1899); Mothon, "Vie du B. Jourdain de Saxe" (Paris, 1885); Reichert, "Des Itinerar des zweiten Dominikaner-generals Jordanis von Sachsen" in "Festschrift des Deutschen Campo Santo in Rom" (Freiburg, 1897) 153; Mothon, "Vita del B. Giovanini da Vecellio" (Vecellio 1903); Mortier, "Histoire des Maîtres Généraux", IV].他們中的一些人卻沒有多舉辦高層次的辦公,而另一些不是天才的主人一般的黃金時代[ balme -勒萊迪耶, "車。德聖星" ; guiraud , "聖星" (巴黎, 1899年) ,莫東, "百舸爭流杜乙據報導,德昂薩克森" (巴黎, 1885年) ; reichert , "萬itinerar萬zweiten dominikaner -將軍jordanis馮sachsen " ,在"紀念萬德國坎普在聖多明各光碟" (弗賴堡, 1897年) 153 ;莫東, "履歷表刪除乙giovanini達vecellio " ( vecellio 1903 ) ; mortier , "史萬ma顃res généraux " ,四] 。 The general chapters which wielded supreme power were the great regulators of the Dominican life during the Middle Ages.一般章執掌最高權力都是偉大的監管多米尼加生活在中世紀。 They are usually remarkable for their spirit of decision, and the firmness with which they ruled.他們通常是了不起的,為自己的決定的精神,和堅定性,與它們排除。 They appeared even imbued with a severe character which, taking no account of persons, bore witness to the importance they attached to the maintenance of discipline.他們似乎更充溢著嚴峻的性格,不考慮人,見證了,他們很重視,以維護紀律的勞動者。 (See the Acta Cap. Gen. already referred to.) (見學報章將軍已經提到) 。

(c) Modification of the Statute (三)修改章程

We have already spoken of the chief exception to be taken to the Constitution of the order, the difficulty of maintaining an even balance between the monastic and canonical observances and the clerical and apostolical life.我們已說過,行政例外,將要採取的憲法秩序,難以維持,甚至兩者之間取得平衡,寺院及典型紀念活動和文職和apostolical生活。 The primitive régime of poverty, which left the convents without an assured income, created also a permanent difficulty.加強原始性制度所貧困,其中離開修道院,沒有保證收入,也創造了一個永久的困難。 Time and the modifications of the state of Christian society exposed these weak points.時間和修改國家的基督教社會暴露了這些薄弱點。 Already the General Chapters of 1240-1242 forbade the changing of the general statutes of the order, a measure which would indicate at least a hidden tendency towards modification (Acta, I, p. 14-20).已經是一般章節的1240年至1242年禁止改變的總章程,議事程序,而採取的措施將表明至少有一個隱藏的傾向改裝(學報,我頁14-20 ) 。 Some change seems to have been contemplated also by the Holy See when Alexander IV, 4 February, 1255, ordered the Dominican cardinal, Hugh of Saint Cher, to recast the entire legislation of the Preachers into a rule which should be called the Rule of St. Dominic (Potthast, 156-69).發生一些變化似乎已經被爭議也由羅馬教廷的時候,亞歷山大四, 1255年2月4日,下令多米尼加樞機,休聖cher ,改寫整個立法的傳教士進入了一個照章辦事,這應稱為法治聖。星(波特哈斯特, 156-69 ) 。 Nothing came of the project, and the question was broached again about 1270 (Humbert de Romanis, "Opera", I, p. 43).無疾而終項目,而問題是broached再次約1270 (洪博達德romanis , "戲曲" ,我想,第43頁) 。 It was during the pontificate of Benedict XII, (1334-1342), who undertook a general reform of the religious orders, that the Preachers were on the point of undergoing serious modifications in the secondary elements of their primitive statute.那是在教宗的本篤十二, ( 1334年至1342年) ,他們進行了一般性改革的宗教命令,即講道人就點進行認真修改,在二手分子的原始規約。 Benedict, desiring to give the order greater efficiency, sought to impose a régime of property-holding as necessary to its security and to reduce the number of its members (12,000) by eliminating the unfit etc.; in a word, to lead the order back to its primitive concept of a select apostolic and teaching body.本篤,切盼給予治安更大的效率,試圖強加一種制度所物業控股作為自身安全所必需,並減少其會員人數( 12000 )通過消除不適宜等,在一份總之,要帶領治安回到它的原始概念的一個專責使徒和教學機構。 The order, ruled at that time by Hugh de Vansseman (1333-41), resisted with all its strength (1337-40).一聲令下,裁定,在當時由休德vansseman ( 1333至1341年) ,抵制其所有兵力( 1337年至1340年) 。 This was a mistake (Mortier, op. cit., III, 115).這是一個錯誤( mortier ,前引書,第III , 115 ) 。 As the situation grew worse, the order was obliged to petition Sixtus IV for the right to hold property, and this was granted 1 June, 1475.隨著形勢變得非常嚴重,為了不得不呈請Sixtus的四,為進一步追究的權利財產的,這是理所當然的1475年6月1日。 Thence forward the convents could acquire property, and perpetual rentals (Mortier, IV, p. 495).進而提出了修道院可購入物業,並永久出租( mortier ,四,頁495 ) 。 This was one of the causes which quickened the vitality of the order in the sixteenth century.這是原因之一,其中進展較快的生命力秩序,在16世紀。

The reform projects of Benedict XII having failed, the master general, Raymond of Capua (1390) sought to restore the monastic observances which had fallen into decline.改革工程篤第十二失敗後,主人一般,雷蒙德capua ( 1390 )旨在恢復寺院的紀念活動,其中已陷入衰退。 He ordered the establishment in each province of a convent of strict observance, hoping that as such houses became more numerous, the reform would eventually permeate the entire province.他下令成立,在每一個省一個女修道院的嚴格遵守,希望這樣的房子也變得更為眾多,改革最終將滲透到全省通報。 This was not usually the case.這不是一般案件。 These houses of the observance formed a confederation among themselves under the jurisdiction of a special vicar.這些房子的遵守,形成了邦聯之間管轄下的一個特別副主教。 However, they did not cease to belong to their original province in certain respects, and this, naturally gave rise to numerous conflicts of government.然而,他們並沒有因此而停止,以屬於他們的原省在某些方面,而這自然引起了眾多衝突是政府的責任。 During the fifteenth century, several groups made up congregations, more or less autonomous; these we have named above in giving the statistics of the order.在15世紀,有幾批彌補了畢業典禮,更多或更少的自治,這些我們都在上面給的統計,該命令。 The scheme of reform proposed by Raymond and adopted by nearly all who subsequently took up with his ideas, insisted on the observance of the Constitutions ad unguem, as Raymond, without further explanation, expressed it.該計劃的改革所提出的陳卓愉並通過了幾乎所有的人,隨後上台與他的理念,堅持遵守憲法專案unguem ,陳卓愉,而不作進一步的解釋,但表示它。 By this, his followers, and, perhaps Raymond himself, understood the suppression of the rule of dispensation which governed the entire Dominican legislation.由這一點,他的追隨者,而且,也許陳卓愉自己,相互理解鎮壓法治省卻管整個多米尼加立法。 "In suppressing the power to grant and the right to accept dispensation, the reformers inverted the economy of the order, setting the part above the whole, and the means above the end" (Lacordaire, "Mémoire pour la restauration des Frères L Prêcheurs dans la chrétienité", new ed., Dijon, 1852, p. 18). "在鎮壓有權准許,並有權接受配藥,改革者倒置的經濟秩序,設置部分高於整體,其手段高出一頭" (拉科代爾, "備忘錄傾訴恢復香格里拉萬Frères的升prêcheurs dans香格里拉chrétienité " ,新的版,第戎, 1852年,第18頁) 。 The different reforms which originated within the order up to the nineteenth century, began usually with principles of asceticism, which exceeded the letter and the spirit of the original constitutions.不同的改革起源於該命令直至19世紀,開始與通常的原則,禁慾主義,超過函原文的精神的憲法。 This initial exaggeration was, under pressure of circumstances, toned down, and the reforms which endured, like that of the congregation of Lombardy, turned out to be the most effectual.這一初步誇張是,在壓力下的情況下,淡化和改革,而這些改革經歷一樣,對會眾的倫巴第,最終被證明最有效的。 Generally speaking, the reformed communities slackened the intense devotion to study prescribed by the Constitutions; they did not produce the great doctors of the order, and their literary activity was directed preferably to moral theology, history, subjects of piety, and asceticism.一般而言,改革後的社區,渙散了激烈的獻身精神,研究由憲法,他們沒有產生偉大的醫生一聲令下,和他們的文學活動是針對最好的道德神學,歷史科目的虔誠和禁慾主義。 They gave to the fifteenth century many holy men (Thomae Antonii Senesis, "Historia disciplinæ regularis instaurata in Cnobiis Venetis Ord. Præd." in Fl. Cornelius, "Ecclesiæ Venetæ", VII, 1749, p. 167; Bl. Raymond of Capua, "Opuscula et Litterae", Rome, 1899; Meyer, "Buch der Reformacio Predigerordens" in "Quellen und Forschungen zur Geschichte des Dominikanerordens in Deutschland", II, III, Leipzig 1908-9; Mortier, "Hist. des Maîtres Généraux", III, IV).他們給到第十五世紀的許多聖男( thomae antonii senesis , "歷史disciplinæ regularis instaurata在cnobiis venetis霍德。 præd "外語。科尼利厄斯, " ecclesiæ venetæ " ,七, 1749年,第167頁;允許的。雷蒙德capua " opuscula等litterae " ,羅馬, 1899年; Meyer認為, " buch明鏡reformacio predigerordens "中的" quellen und forschungen zur歷史館萬dominikanerordens在德國"第一,二,三,萊比錫1908-9 ; mortier , "歷史。萬ma顃res généraux " ,三,四卷) 。

(d) Preaching and Teaching (四)說教和教學

Independently of their official title of Order of Preachers, the Roman Church especially delegated the Preachers to the office of preaching.獨立的,他們的正式名稱秩序的傳教士,羅馬教會,尤其是山西的宣講員向辦事處的說教。 It is in fact the only order of the Middle Ages which the popes declared to be specially charged with this office (Bull. Ord. Præd., VIII, p. 768).事實上,它唯一的命令中世紀其中教皇宣布為專控這個辦事處( bull.霍德。 præd ,第八,第768件) 。 Conformably to its mission, the order displayed an enormous activity. conformably自己的使命,為了表現出了巨大的活動。 The "Vitæ Fratrum" (1260) (Lives of the Brothers) informs us that many of the brothers refused food until they had first announced the Word of God (op. cit., p. 150). " vitæ fratrum " ( 1260 ) (生活中的兄弟)告訴我們很多的兄弟拒絕食物,直到他們首次宣布上帝的話(同前,第150頁) 。 In his circular letter (1260), the Master General Humbert of Romans, in view of what had been accomplished by his religious, could well make the statement: "We teach the people, we teach the prelates, we teach the wise and the unwise, religious and seculars, clerics and laymen, nobles and peasants, lowly and great."在他的一封通函( 1260 ) ,主人一般洪博達的入鄉隨俗,鑑於了哪些成就,由他的宗教,很可能使該聲明說: "我們教導人,我們教主教,我們教導的智慧和不明智,宗教和seculars ,神職人員和普通人,貴族和農民,卑微與偉大" 。 (Monum. Ord. Præd. Historia, V, p. 53). ( monum.霍德。 præd 。沿革,第五,第53頁) 。 Rightly, too, it has been said: "Science on one hand, numbers on the other, placed them [the Preachers] ahead of their competitors in the thirteenth century" (Lecoy de la Marche, "La chaire française au Moyen Age", Paris, 1886, p. 31).正確的,也有人曾經說: "科學一方面,號碼,另一方面,它們置於[傳教士]領先其競爭對手,在13世紀" (勒誇德香格里拉馬奇, "香格里拉chaire法國歐中沙年齡" ,巴黎, 1886年,第31頁) 。 The order maintained this supremacy during the entire Middle Ages (L. Pfleger, "Zur Geschichte des Predigtwesens in Strasburg", Strasburg, 1907, p. 26; F. Jostes, "Zur Geschichte der Mittelalterlichen Predigt in Westfalen", Münster, 1885, p. 10).該命令保持這一優勢,在整個中世紀(屬pfleger , " zur歷史館萬predigtwesens在strasburg " , strasburg , 1907年,第26頁;樓jostes , " zur歷史館明鏡mittelalterlichen predigt在Westfalen ) " ,在明斯特, 1885年,第10頁) 。 During the thirteenth century, the Preachers in addition to their regular apostolate, worked especially to lead back to the Church heretics and renegade Catholics.在13世紀,傳教士在他們除了定期牧靈工作,特別是要帶頭回到教會異端和叛離的天主教徒。 An eyewitness of their labours (1233) reckons the number of their converts in Lombardy at more than 100,000 ("Annales Ord. Præd.", Rome, 1756, col. 128).一名目擊者對他們的辛勤( 1233 )估計的數目,他們皈依在倫巴第,在10多萬( "年鑑霍德。 præd " ,羅馬, 1756年,中校128段) 。 This movement grew rapidly, and the witnesses could scarcely believe their eyes, as Humbert of Romans (1255) informs us (Opera, II, p. 493).這個運動的迅速成長,以及證人,可以幾乎不敢相信自己的眼睛,作為洪博達的入鄉隨俗( 1255名)告訴我們(歌劇,二, 493頁) 。 At the beginning of the fourteenth century, a celebrated pulpit orator, Giordano da Rivalto, declared that, owing to the activity of the order, heresy had almost entirely disappeared from the Church ("Prediche del Beato Fra Giordano da Rivalto", Florence, 1831, I, p. 239).在一開始的14世紀,我國著名的講壇演說家,佐丹奴達rivalto ,宣布說,由於該活動的命令,異端已幾乎完全消失,從教會( " prediche刪除" Beato FRA的佐丹奴達rivalto " ,佛羅倫薩, 1831 ,我,第239頁) 。

The Friars Preachers were especially authorized by the Roman Church to preach crusades, against the Saracens in favour of the Holy Land, against Livonia and Prussia, and against Frederick II, and his successors (Bull. OP, XIII, p. 637).該方濟各會士傳教士,尤其是授權由羅馬教會鼓吹十字軍東征,對這部電影贊成聖地,對livonia和普魯士,對馮檢二,和他的繼任者( bull.作品,第十三章, 637頁) 。 This preaching assumed such importance that Humbert of Romans composed for the purpose a treatise entitled, "Tractatus de prædicatione contra Saracenos infideles et paganos" (Tract on the preaching of the Cross against the Saracens, infidels and pagans).這說教承擔這樣重要的是,洪博達的羅馬人組成,為為此論文,題目是" tractatus德prædicatione矛盾saracenos infideles等帕加諾斯" (道就鼓吹的兩岸對這部電影,異教徒和異教徒) 。 This still exists in its first edition in the Paris Bibliothèque Mazarine, incunabula no.這仍然存在,在它的首版在巴黎國家圖書館mazarine , incunabula沒有。 259; Lecoy de la Marche, "La prédication de la Croisade au XIIIe siècle" in "Rev. des questions historiques", 1890, p. 259 ;勒誇德香格里拉馬奇, "香格里拉prédication德香格里拉croisade凹xiiie世紀" , "萬牧師問題historiques " , 1890年,頁 5). 5 ) 。 In certain provinces, particularly in Germany and Italy, the Dominican preaching took on a peculiar quality, due to the influence of the spiritual direction which the religious of these provinces gave to the numerous convents of women confided to their care.在一些省份,尤其是在德國和意大利,多米尼加說教了一個奇特的質量,由於受精神方向,這使得該宗教對這些省份給予眾多修道院的女confided給他們照顧。 It was a mystical preaching; the specimens which have survived are in the vernacular, and are marked by simplicity and strength (Denifle, "Uber die Anfänge der Predigtweise der deutschen Mystiker" in "Archiv. f. Litt. u. Kirchengesch", II, p. 641; Pfeiffer, "Deutsche Mystiker des vierzehnten Jahrhundert", Leipzig, 1845; Wackernagel, "Altdeutsche Predigten und Gebete aus Handschriften", Basle, 1876).這是一個神秘的說教;標本,其中的倖存者在白話文,並顯著簡便,快捷和力量(德尼夫勒" ,產品模具anfänge明鏡predigtweise贏得德國mystiker "中的" archiv 。樓利特,美國kirchengesch " ,第二章, 641頁;普發, "德意志mystiker萬vierzehnten jahrhundert " ,萊比錫, 1845年; wackernagel , " altdeutsche predigten und gebete澳大利亞handschriften " ,巴塞爾, 1876年) 。 Among these preachers may be mentioned: St. Dominic, the founder and model of preachers (d. 1221); Jordan of Saxony (d. 1237) (Lives of the Brothers, pts. II, III); Giovanni di Vincenza, whose popular eloquence stirred Northern Italy during the year 1233 -- called the Age of the Alleluia (Sitter, "Johann von Vincenza und die Italiensche Friedensbewegung", Freiburg, 1891); Giordano da Rivalto, the foremost pulpit orator in Tuscany at the beginning of the fourteenth century [d.在這些傳教士可能提及:聖星,創辦和發展模式佈道者(四1221 ) ;約旦薩克森(四1237 ) (生活中的兄弟,警校,第二,三) ;喬瓦尼迪vincenza ,其受歡迎口才激起意大利北部期間,對1233年-所謂的年齡的哈里路亞(看家" ,約翰馮v incenzau nd模具i talienschef riedensbewegung" ,弗賴堡, 1 891) ,佐丹奴達r ivalto,首要講壇演說家在托斯卡納在年初第十四世紀[四 1311 (Galletti, "Fra Giordano da Pisa", Turin, 1899)]; Johann Eckhart of Hochheim (d. 1327), the celebrated theorist of the mystical life (Pfeiffer, "Deutsche Mystiker", II, 1857; Buttner, "Meister Eckharts Schriften und Predigten", Leipzig, 1903); Henri Suso (d. 1366), the poetical lover of Divine wisdom (Bihlmeyer, "Heinrich Seuse Deutsche Schriften", Stuttgart, 1907); Johann Tauler (d. 1361), the eloquent moralist ("Johanns Taulers Predigten" ed. T. Harnberger, Frankfort, 1864); Venturino la Bergamo (d. 1345), the fiery popular agitator (Clementi, "Un Santo Patriota, Il B. Venturino da Bergamo", Rome, 1909); Jacopo Passavanti (d. 1357), the noted author of the "Mirror of Penitence" (Carmini di Pierro, "Contributo alla Biografia di Fra Jacopo Passavanti" in "Giornale storico della letteratura italiana", XLVII, 1906 p. 1); Giovanni Dominici (d. 1419), the beloved orator of the Florentines (Gallette, "Una Raccolta di Prediche volgari del Cardinale Giovanni Dominici" in "Miscellanea di studi critici publicati in onore di G. Mazzoni", Florence, 1907, I); Alain de la Rochei (d. 1475), the Apostle of the Rosary (Script. Ord. Præd., I, p. 849); Savonarola (d. 1498), one of the most powerful orators of all times (Luotto, "II vero Savonarola", Florence, p. 68). 1311 ( galletti , "佐丹奴FRA的大比薩" ,都靈, 1899年) 〕 ;約翰艾克哈的hochheim (四第1327 ) ,著名的理論家的神秘生活(普發, "德意志mystiker " ,第二章, 1857年; buttner , "大師eckharts schriften und predigten " ,萊比錫, 1903年) ;亨利suso (四第1366 ) ,詩歌愛好者的神聖智慧( bihlmeyer , "海因里希seuse德意志schriften " ,斯圖加特, 1907年) ;約翰tauler (四1361 ) ,雄辯滔滔道德( "約翰斯taulers predigten "海關。湯匙harnberger ,法蘭克福, 1864年) ;文圖里諾香格里拉貝加莫(四13時45分) ,火熱流行攪拌器(金文泰, "聯合國軍聖多明各帕特里奧塔,白細胞介素乙文圖里諾大貝加莫" ,羅馬, 1909年) ; jacopo passavanti (四第1357 ) ,指出作者的"一面鏡子的懺悔" (卡爾米尼迪pierro , " contributo阿拉biografia迪FRA的jacopo passavanti "中的"力爭不辜負storico della letteratura意大利" ,四十七, 1906年,第1頁) ;喬瓦dominici (四1419年)吧,我可愛的演說家的florentines (加萊特, "聯合國協會raccolta迪prediche volgari刪除cardinale喬瓦dominici "中的" miscellanea地研究了critici publicati在onore迪g.在Mazzoni " ,佛羅倫薩, 1907年,我) ;阿蘭德香格里拉rochei (四1475 ) ,使徒的玫瑰( script.霍德。 præd 。來說,我第849頁) ; savonarola (四1498 ) ,其中一個最有力的演說的時候都( luotto , "二,知識產權權利人savonarola " ,佛羅倫薩,第68頁) 。

(e) Academic Organization (五)學術組織

The first order instituted by the Church with an academic mission was the Preachers.一階是由教會與學術使命是傳教士。 The decree of the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) requiring the appointment of a master of theology for each cathedral school had not been effectual.該法令第四lateran會( 1215年) ,要求任命一位大師的神學對每個大教堂學校沒有得到有效的。 The Roman Church and St. Dominic met the needs of the situation by creating a religious order vowed to the teaching of the sacred sciences.羅馬教堂和聖星會見了形勢的需要,創造一個宗教秩序發誓要教學的神聖科學。 To attain their purpose, the Preachers from 1220 laid down as a fundamental principle, that no convent of their order could be founded without a doctor (Const., Dist. II, cog. I).為了達到其目的,傳教士,從1220名定下作為一項基本原則,即沒有修道院,其令時,可以創建一個醫生( const. ,區二,焦爐煤氣,我) 。 From their first foundation, the bishops, likewise, welcomed them with expressions like those of the Bishop of Metz (22 April, 1221): "Cohabitatio ipsorum non tantum laicis in praedicationibus, sed et clericis in sacris lectionibus esset plurimum profutura, exemplo Domini Papæ, qui eis Romæ domum contulit, et multorum archiepiscoporum ac episcoporum" etc. (Annales Ord. Præd. I, append., col. 71).從第一次基礎上,主教們,同樣也歡迎他們與表情像那些主教梅斯( 1221年4月22日)說: " cohabitatio ipsorum非唯一laicis在praedicationibus文,等clericis在sacris lectionibus esset plurimum profutura , exemplo多米尼papæ , qui的EIS romæ domum contulit等multorum archiepiscoporum交流episcoporum "等(年鑑霍德。 præd我,附錄,西一71 ) 。 (Association with them would be of great value not only to laymen by their preaching, but also to the clergy by their lectures on sacred science, as it was to the Lord Pope who gave them their house at Rome, and to many archbishops and bishops.) This is the reason why the second master general, Jordan of Saxony, defined the vocation of the order: "honeste vivere, discere et docere", ie upright living, learning and teaching (Vitæ Fratrum, p. 138); and one of his successors, John the Teuton, declared that he was "ex ordine Praedicatorum, quorum proprium esset docendi munus" (Annales, p. 644). (協會與它們將具有極大的價值,不僅是外行,他們的說教,而且也給神職人員,他們講授科學的神聖,因為它是向耶和華教宗誰給了他們自己的房子,在羅馬,以及許多主教和主教)這就是為什麼第二個掌握一般,約旦的薩克森州,其定義是天職的命令: " honeste vivere , discere等docere " ,即一身正氣生活,學習與教學( vitæ fratrum ,第138頁)和一門他的繼任者,約翰是位條頓宣稱,他是"特惠ordine praedicatorum ,法定人數proprium esset docendi munus " (年鑑,頁644 ) 。 (Of the Order of Preachers whose proper function was to teach.) In pursuit of this aim the Preachers established a very complete and thoroughly organized scholastic system, which has caused a writer of our own times to say that "Dominic was the first minister of public instruction in modern Europe" (Larousse, "Grand Dictionnaire; Universel du XIXe Siècle", sv Dominic). (該命令的傳教士,其適當的職能是傳授) ,在追求這一目標的講道建立了非常完整和周密組織學術制度,這引起了筆者的我們自己的時候說, "星是第一部長市民在教學中使用現代歐洲" ( larousse , "大詞典; universel杜xixe世紀" , sv星) 。

The general basis of teaching was the conventual school.一般的基礎教學,是該conventual學校。 It was attended by the religious of the convent, and by clerics from the outside; the teaching was public.與會者包括宗教界的修道院,由教士從外;教學,是市民。 The school was directed by a doctor, called later, though not in all cases, rector.學校的導演是一名醫生,後來提出的所謂的,雖然不是在所有情況下,任校長。 His principal subject was the text of Holy Scripture, which he interpreted, and in connection with which he treated theological questions.他的主要議題是純文字的聖經,而他的解釋,並就此與他的待遇神學問題。 The "Sentences" of Peter Lombard, the "History" of Peter Comestor, the "Sum" of cases of conscience, were also, but secondarily, used as texts. "服刑"的彼得倫巴第, "歷史"的彼得comestor , "森"的案件有良知的,也有,但為輔,用來作為文本。 In the large convents, which were not called studia generalia, but were in the language of the times studia solemnia, the teaching staff was more complete.在這次大修道院,還不能稱作studia generalia ,但在語言的時代studia solemnia ,教學人員更加完整。 There was a second master or sub-rector, or a bachelor, whose duty it was to lecture on the Bible and the "Sentences".有第二個碩士學位或副校長,或學士學位,其職責是講授聖經和"判刑" 。 This organization somewhat resembled that of the studia generalia.這個組織有點類似於表示,在該studia generalia 。 The head master held public disputations every fortnight.頭部大師舉行了公開disputations每兩星期。 Each convent possessed a magister studentium, charged with the superintendence of the students, and usually an assistant teacher.每一個修道院擁有magister studentium ,被控以監督學生,而且通常一名助理教師。 These masters were appointed by the provincial chapters, and the visitors were obliged to report each year to the chapter on the condition of academic work.這些主人被任命,由有關省分會,並參觀了有義務報告每年以一章的狀況,學術工作。 Above the conventual schools were the studia generalia.以上conventual學校分別studia generalia 。 The first studium generale which the order possessed was that of the Convent of St. Jacques at Paris.第一studium generale該命令擁有的是該修道院的聖雅克在巴黎舉行。 In 1229 they obtained a chair incorporated with the university and another in 1231.在1229名,他們獲得了一張椅子,列入大學和另一項在1231年。 Thus the Preachers were the first religious order that took part in teaching at the University of Paris, and the only one possessing two schools.因此,傳教士們則首次宗教秩序參加任教於巴黎大學,而且是唯一擁有兩所學校。 In the thirteenth century the order did not recognize any mastership of theology other than that received at Paris.在13世紀的命令,不承認任何mastership神學以外收到巴黎。 Usually the masters did not teach for any length of time.通常主人,沒有教任何時間長短而定。 After receiving their degrees, they were assigned to different schools of the order throughout the world.後,並接受度,他們被分配到不同的學校,該命令於世界各地。 The schools of St. Jacques at Paris were the principal scholastic centres of the Preachers during the Middle Ages.學校的聖雅克在巴黎分別為主要學術中心的傳教士,在中世紀。

In 1248 the development of the order led to the erection of four new studia generalia -- at Oxford, Cologne, Montpellier, and Bologna.在1248年的發展,該命令導致豎立四個新studia generalia -在牛津大學,德國科隆,蒙彼利埃,和博洛尼亞。 When at the end of the thirteenth and the beginning of the fourteenth century several provinces of the order were divided, other studia were established at Naples, Florence, Genoa, Toulouse, Barcelona, and Salamanca.當在去年底第十三並開始14世紀的幾個省份的秩序被劃分外,其他studia建立在那不勒斯,佛羅倫薩,熱那亞,圖盧茲,巴塞羅那,薩拉曼卡。 The studium generale was conducted by a master or regent, and two bachelors who taught under his direction.該studium generale進行碩士或攝政王,以及兩個單身漢也教他的領導下。 The master taught the text of the Holy Scripture with commentaries.師父教文的聖經與評論文章。 The works of Albert the Great and St. Thomas Aquinas show us the nature of these lessons.該工程的何俊仁大和聖托馬斯阿奎那向我們展示了大自然的這些教訓。 Every fifteen days the master held a debate upon a theme chosen by himself.每15天師父舉行辯論一項主題選擇自己。 To this class of exercises belong the "Quæstiones Disputatæ" of St. Thomas, while his "Quaestiones Quodlibeticae" represent extraordinary disputations which took place twice a year during Advent and Lent and whose subject was proposed by the auditors.為了這門課的演習屬於" quæstiones disputatæ "聖托馬斯,而他的" quaestiones quodlibeticae "代表著不平凡的disputations發生的,每年舉行兩次,在基督降臨節和貸出,其主題是由核數師。 One of the bachelors read and commentated the Book of Sentences.其中的單身漢閱讀並commentated這本書的句子。 The commentaries of Albert and Thomas Aquinas on the Lombard are the fruit of their two-year baccalaureate course as sententiarii.該評論的何俊仁和托馬斯阿奎那對倫巴第是自己所創造的成果兩年制文憑課程,作為sententiarii 。 The biblicus lectured on the Scriptures for one year before becoming a sententiarius.該biblicus講授聖經1年後,才成為sententiarius 。 He did not commentate, but read and interpreted the glosses which preceding ages had added to the Scriptures for better understanding of the text.他沒有commentate ,但閱讀和解釋該地一帶,其中前面的年齡已列入本經文,為更好地理解文本。 The professors of the studia generalia were appointed by the general chapters, or by the master general, delegated for the purpose.幾位教授的studia generalia被任命由總章,或由掌握一般的,下放作此用途。 Those who were to teach at Paris were taken indiscriminately from the different provinces of the order.那些被教導在巴黎被不分青紅皂來自不同省份的秩序。

The conventual schools taught only the sacred sciences, ie Holy Scripture and theology.該conventual學校教導只有神聖科學,即聖經和神學。 At the beginning of the thirteenth century neither priest nor religious studied or taught the profane sciences As it could not set itself against this general status the order provided in its constitutions, that the master general, or the general chapter, might allow certain religious to take up the study of the liberal arts Thus, at first, the study of the arts, ie of philosophy was entirely individual.在一開始的13世紀既不是牧師,也沒有宗教研究或教,褻瀆科學,因為它不能為自己確定了對這一總體狀況,以便提供在其憲法中,即主幹事或一般章,可能允許某些宗教團體採取抓緊研究的文科,因此,在第一,學習藝術,即哲學,完全是個人。 As numerous masters of arts entered the order during the early years, especially at Paris and Bologna, it was easy to make a stand against this private teaching.無數的主人藝術進入議事程序,在最初幾年,特別是在巴黎和博洛尼亞,它容易就作出一個立場,反對這項私人教學。 However, the development of the order and the rapid intellectual progress of the thirteenth century soon caused the organization -- for the use of religious only -- of regular schools for the study of the liberal arts.然而,發展的秩序和快速智力進步的13世紀,盡快使本組織-對於利用宗教只有-的正規學校學習,為研究文科。 Towards the middle of the century the provinces established in one or more of their convents the study of logic; and about 1260 the studia naturalium, ie courses in natural science.邁向21世紀中葉,各省設立的一個或更多的修道院學習邏輯;一千二百六十該studia性,即課程,在自然科學。 The General Chapter of 1315 commended the masters of the students to lecture on the moral sciences to all the religious of their convents; ie on the ethics, politics, and economics of Aristotle.一般章315讚揚主人的學生講授道德科學的一切宗教自己的修道院,即對倫理,政治和經濟學的亞里士多德。 From the beginning of the fourteenth century we find also some religious who gave special courses in philosophy to secular students.從一開始的14世紀,我們發現也有一些宗教人士給予特別課程,在哲學領域,以世俗的學生。 In the fifteenth century the Preachers occupied in several universities chairs of philosophy, especially of metaphysics.在15世紀的傳教士,在被佔領的幾所大學教席的哲學,特別是形而上學的。 Coming in contact as it did with barbaric peoples -- principally with the Greeks and Arabs -- the order was compelled from the outset to take up the study of foreign languages.未來接觸,因為它確實與野蠻的人民-主要是希臘人和阿拉伯人-秩序是迫不得已從一開始就採取了學習外語。 The Chapter Generalissimo of 1236 ordered that in all convents and in all the provinces the religious should learn the languages of the neighbouring countries.該章將軍的1236年下令,在所有修道院,並在所有的省份宗教界要學習語文的鄰近國家。 The following year Brother Phillippe, Provincial of the Holy Land, wrote to Gregory IX that his religious had preached to the people in the different languages of the Orient, especially in Arabic, the most popular tongue, and that the study of languages had been added to their conventual course.次年弟弟phillippe ,省的聖地,寫信給格雷戈里九說,他的宗教曾鼓吹向人民在語言不同的東方,特別是在阿拉伯語中,最流行的舌頭,並學習語言已加入他們conventual課程。 The province of Greece furnished several Hellenists whose works we shall mention later.全省的希臘家具幾個hellenists其作品,我們會提。 The province of Spain, whose population was a mixture of Jews and Arabs, opened special schools for the study of languages.全省的西班牙,其人口是一個混合的猶太人和阿拉伯人,開闢特殊學校學習的語文。 About the middle of the thirteenth century it also established a studium arabicum at Tunis; in 1259 one at Barcelona; between 1265 and 1270 one at Murcia; in 1281 one at Valencia.約中的13世紀,它也建立了一個studium arabicum在突尼斯舉行,在1259年一在巴塞羅那之間,第1265和第1270一是在穆爾西亞,在第1281一是在瓦倫西亞。 The same province also established some schools for the study of Hebrew at Barcelona in 1281, and at Jativa in 1291.同時全省還建立了一些學校,為研究希伯來語,在巴塞羅那第1281 ,並在加迪瓦在第1291 。 Finally, the General Chapters of 1310 commanded the master general to establish, in several provinces, schools for the study of Hebrew, Greek, and Arabic, to which each province of the order should send at least one student.最後,一般章節1310指揮大師幹事設立,在一些省份,學校,為研究希伯來文,希臘文和阿拉伯文,而每個省的議事程序應派至少有1名學生。 In view of this fact a Protestant historian, Molmier, in writing of the Friars Preachers, remarks: "They were not content with professing in their convents all the divisions of science, as it was then understood; they added an entire order of studies which no other Christian schools of the time seem to have taught, and in which they had no other rivals than the rabbis of Languedoc and Spain" ("Guillem Bernard de Gaillac et l'enseignement chez les Dominicains", Paris, 1884, p. 30).鑑於這一事實一名基督教歷史學家, molmier ,在寫作的方濟各會士傳教士,備註: "他們不是內容與空頭在修道院所有分部的科學,因為它是那麼地理解;增添了一整秩序的研究報告沒有任何其他基督教學校的時候,似乎已經告訴,並在它們沒有其他競爭對手比拉比的朗格和西班牙" (下稱" guillem伯納德德gaillac等l' enseignement chez dominicains就業輔導組" ,巴黎, 1884年,第30頁) 。

This scholastic activity extended to other fields, particularly to the universities which were established throughout Europe from the beginning of the thirteenth century; the Preachers took a prominent part in university life.這一學術活動擴展到其他領域,特別是向大學建立了整個歐洲從一開始的13世紀;佈道者了一個突出的部分,在大學生活。 Those universities, like Paris, Toulouse etc., which from the beginning had chairs of theology, incorporated the Dominican conventual school which was patterned on the schools of the studia generalia.這些大學一樣,巴黎,圖盧茲等,這從一開始就是有椅子的神學,並把多米尼加conventual學校被仿製的,學校的studia generalia 。 When a university was established as in a city -- as was usually the case -- after the foundation of a Dominican convent which always possessed a chair of theology, the pontifical letters granting the establishment of the university made no mention whatever of a faculty of theology.當一所大學被確定為在一個城市-如同一般案件-建國後的多米尼加修道院,它總是擁有一張椅子的神學,宗座信函給予大學的成立並沒有提到任何一個系神學。 The latter was considered as already existing by reason of the Dominican school and others of the mendicant orders, who followed the example of the Preachers.後者被視為業已存在的理由,多米尼加學校和他人的乞討命令,他們效法的傳教士。 For a time in the Dominican theological schools were simply in juxtaposition to the universities, which had no faculty of theology.今後一個時期,在多米尼加神學學校乾脆在並列為大學,其中沒有神學系。 When these universities petitioned the Holy See for a faculty of theology, and their petition was granted, they usually incorporated the Dominican school, which thus became a part of the theological faculty.當這些大學請願教廷為神學系,並提交請願信,是理所當然的,他們通常會納入多米尼加學校,因此這成了部分的神學系。 This transformation began towards the close of the fourteenth and lasted until the first years of the sixteenth century.這個轉變,開始走向結束的第十四次,並持續至第一屆多年的16世紀。 Once established, this state of things lasted until the Reformation in the countries which became Protestant, and until the French Revolution and its spread in the Latin countries.一旦建立起來,造成這種狀況的東西,一直持續到改革在哪些國家,成為新教,並直到法國大革命和它的傳播,在拉美國家。

The archbishops, who according to the decree of the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) were to establish each metropolitan church a master of theology, considered themselves dispensed from this obligation by reason of the creation of Dominican schools open to the secular clergy.最古老的,他們根據該法令的第四lateran會( 1215年)分別建立各大都市教會碩士,神學,認為自己配藥,從這一義務的理由創建多米尼加學校開放給世俗教士。 However, when they thought it their duty to apply the decree of the council, or when later they were obliged by the Roman Church to do so, they frequently called in a Dominican master to fill the chair of their metropolitan school.但是,當他們認為他們有責任運用理事會法令,或當後來他們又不得不由羅馬教會這樣做,他們經常打電話,在多米尼加大師,以填補主持會議,他們都會學校。 Thus the metropolitan school of Lyons was entrusted to the Preachers, from their establishment in that city until the beginning of the sixteenth century (Forest, "L'école cathédrale de Lyon", Paris-Lyons, 1885, pp. 238, 368; Beyssac, "Les Prieurs de Notre Dame de Confort", Lyons, 1909; "Chart. Univer. Paris", III, p. 28).因此,都市學校的里昂委託給傳教士,從他們設立在這個城市,直到開始16世紀(森林, " l'學院cathédrale里昂" ,巴黎-里昂, 1885年,第238條, 368條; beyssac "就業輔導組prieurs德聖母德confort " ,在里昂, 1909年, "圖。系。巴黎" ,第三章,第28頁) 。 The same arrangement, though not so permanent, was made at Toulouse, Bordeaux, Tortosa, Valencia, Urgel, Milan etc. The popes, who believed themselves morally obligated to set an example regarding the execution of the scholastic decree of the Lateran Council, usually contented themselves during the thirteenth century with the establishment of schools at Rome by the Dominicans and other religious orders.同樣的安排,雖然不是那麼永久的,是在圖盧茲,波爾多, tortosa ,瓦倫西亞, urgel ,米蘭等教皇,他認為自己在道義上有義務以身作則,就執行該法令,在學術上的lateran會,通常知足自己在13世紀,與建立學校,在羅馬由多米尼加和其他宗教命令。 The Dominican masters who taught at Rome or in other cities where the sovereign pontiffs took up their residence, were known as lectores curiae.多米尼加船長任教於羅馬或在其他城市設有主權教宗了自己的居住地,被稱為lectores友。 However, when the popes, once settled at Avignon, began to require from the archbishops the execution of the decree of Lateran, they instituted a theological school in their own papal palace; the initiative was taken by Clement V (1305-1314).但是,當教皇,一旦收於亞維儂,就開始要求從大主教執行該法令的lateran ,他們建立了神學院在他們自己的教皇宮殿;主動採取了克萊門特五( 1305年至1314年) 。 At the request of the Dominican, Cardinal Nicolas Alberti de Prato (d. 1321), this work was permanently entrusted to a Preacher, bearing the name of Magister Sacri Palatii.在要求多米尼加,樞機主教尼古拉阿爾貝蒂德Prato的(四1321 ) ,這項工作是長期工作委託給一個佈道者,上面的名字的magister sacri palatii 。 The first to hold the position was Pierre Godin, who later became cardinal (1312).首次舉辦的立場是皮埃爾還在勾丁帖琵,後來成為紅衣主教( 1312 ) 。 The office of Master of the Sacred Palace, whose functions were successively increased, remains to the present day the special privilege of the Order of Preachers (Catalani, "De Magistro Sacri Palatii Apostolici", Rome, p. 175).該辦公室掌握的神聖宮殿,其職能也相繼增加了,仍到今天特別榮幸秩序佈道者( catalani , "德magistro sacri palatii apostolici " ,羅馬,第175頁) 。

Finally, when towards the middle of the thirteenth century the old monastic orders began to take up the scholastic and doctrinal movement, the Cistercians, in particular, applied to the Preachers for masters of theology in their abbeys ("Chart. Univ Paris", I, p. 184).最後,當朝中的13世紀舊寺院訂單開始採取了學術和理論運動, cistercians ,尤其適用於傳教士為主人翁的神學,在其修道院( "圖。巴黎大學" ,我,第184頁) 。 During the last portion of the Middle Ages, the Dominicans furnished, at intervals, professors to the different orders, not themselves consecrated to study (Denifle, "Quellen zur Gelehrtengeschichte des Predigerordens im 13. und 14. Jahrhundert" in "Archiv." II, p.165; Mandonnet, "Les Chanoines Prêcheurs de Bologne", Fribourg, 1903; Douais, "Essai sur l'organisation des études dans l'Ordre des Frères-Prêcheurs", Paris, 1884; Mandonnet, "De l'incorporation des Dominicains dans l'ancienne Université de Paris" in "Revue Thomiste", IV 1896, p. 139; Denifle, "Die Universitäten des Mittelalters", Berlin, 1885; I, passim; Denifle-Chatelain, "Chart. Univ., Paris", 1889, passim; Bernard, "Les Dominicains dans l'Université de Paris", Paris, 183; Mandonnet, "Siger de Brabant et l'averroisme Latin au XIIIe siècle", Louvain, 1911, I, n. 30-95).在最後一部分的中世紀,多米尼加家具,在時間間隔,教授,以不同的命令,而不是自己consecrated研究(德尼夫勒, " quellen zur gelehrtengeschichte萬predigerordens的IM 13 。 und 14 。 jahrhundert "中的" archiv "二,臨165 ;芒多內, "就業輔導組chanoines prêcheurs德波隆納" ,弗里堡, 1903年; douais , " essai sur本組織萬研究所dans勳章萬兄弟- prêcheurs " ,巴黎, 1884年;芒多內, "德l'團萬dominicains dans l' ancienne巴黎大學" , "雜誌thomiste " ,四, 1896年,第139頁;德尼夫勒, "死universitäten萬mittelalters " ,柏林, 1885年,我,各處;德尼夫勒- chatelain , "圖。方法。巴黎" , 1889年,各處;伯納德說: "就業輔導組dominicains dans大學和巴黎" ,巴黎, 183 ;芒多內, "西格德Brabant的等l' averroisme拉丁語凹xiiie世紀" ,魯汶, 1911年,我, 12月30日- 95 ) 。 The legislation regarding studies occurs here and there in the constitutions, and principally in the "Acta Capitularium Generalium", Rome, 1898, sq.有關立法方面的研究,出現在這裡和那裡,在憲法中,主要是在"學報capitularium generalium " ,羅馬, 1898年,建築面積計 and Douais, "Acta Capitulorum Provincialium" (Toulouse, 1894).和douais , "學報capitulorum provincialium " (圖盧茲, 1894年) 。 The teaching activity of the order and its scholastic organization placed the Preachers in the forefront of the intellectual life of the Middle Ages.教學活動的秩序和它的學術組織,把傳教士在前列的智力生活的中世紀。 They were the pioneers in all directions as one may see from a subsequent paragraph relative to their literary productions.它們分別是先鋒,在所有的方向之一,可能會看到從其後段相對於其文藝演出。 We speak only of the school of philosophy and of theology created by them in the thirteenth century which has been the most influential in the history of the Church.我們講的不僅是學校的哲學和神學所造成的,他們在13世紀已成為最有影響力的在教會的歷史。 At the beginning of the thirteenth century philosophical teaching was confined practically to the logic of Aristotle and theology, and was under the influence of St. Augustine; hence the name Augustinism generally given to the theological doctrines of that age.在開始的13世紀哲學教學僅限於實際的邏輯,亞里士多德和神學,並影響下,聖奧古斯丁,因此,名稱augustinism普遍給予的神學理論的年齡。 The first Dominican doctors, who came from the universities into the order, or who taught in the universities, adhered for a long time to the Augustinian doctrine.第一多米尼加醫生,誰是來自大學納入秩序,或誰教授在大學,堅持相當長的時間向奧古斯丁學說。 Among the most celebrated were Roland of Cremona, Hugh of Saint Cher, Richard Fitzacre, Moneta of Cremona, Peter of Tarentaise, and Robert of Kilwardby.其中最有名的被羅蘭的克雷莫納,休聖雪兒,理查德fitzacre , moneta的克雷莫納,彼得的塔朗泰斯,和羅伯特的基爾沃比。 It was the introduction into the Latin world of the great works of Aristotle, and their assimilation, through the action of Albertus Magnus, that opened up in the Order of Preachers a new line of philosophical and theological investigation.這是引入到拉丁美洲世界的偉大工程,亞里士多德,他們的同化,通過的行動阿爾伯圖斯思,開闢了在該命令的傳教士一個新的路線的哲學和神學調查。 The work begun by Albertus Magnus (1240-1250) was carried to completion by his disciple, Thomas Aquinas (qv), whose teaching activity occupied the last twenty years of his life (1245-1274).已經開始的工作阿爾伯圖斯思( 1240年至1250年)獲得通過,以完成他的弟子,托馬斯阿奎那(請參閱) ,其教學活動被佔領的最後二十年的他的生命( 1245年至1274年) 。 The system of theology and philosophy constructed by Aquinas is the most complete, the most original, and the most profound, which Christian thought has elaborated, and the master who designed it surpasses all his contemporaries and his successors in the grandeur of his creative genius.該系統的神學和哲學所興建的阿奎那是最完整,最原始,最深刻,基督教思想已經闡述,並主是誰設計的,它超越了所有他同時代的和他的繼任者,在莊嚴的創作天才。 The Thomist School developed rapidly both within the order and without.該thomist學校發展迅速,雙方內部的秩序和沒有。 The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries witnessed the struggles of the Thomist School on various points of doctrine.第十四屆和第十五世紀目睹鬥爭的thomist學校對各點的學說。 The Council of Vienne (1311) declared in favour of the Thomistic teaching, according to which there is but one form in the human composition, and condemned as heretical any one who should deny that "the rational or intellective soul is per se and essentially the form of the human body".安理會的維埃納省( 1311 )宣布,在贊成的thomistic教學,據有,只不過是一種形式,在人類的組成,並譴責為異端邪說,任何一個誰應該否認, “理性或智能的靈魂,是每SE和本質形式的人體“ 。 This is also the teaching of the Fifth Lateran Council (1515).這也是教學的第五次拉特蘭會( 1515 ) 。 See Zigliara, "De Mente Concilii Viennensis", Rome, 1878, pp.見齊利亞拉, “德mente concilii viennensis ” ,羅馬, 1878年,頁。 88-89. 88-89 。

The discussions between the Preachers and the Friars on the poverty of Christ and the Apostles was also settled by John XXII in the Thomistic sense [(12 Nov., 1323), Ehrle, "Archiv. f. Litt. u Kirchengesch.", III, p.討論之間的傳教士和friars對貧困耶穌和使徒也解決由約翰二十二,在thomistic意義[ ( 1323年11月12日) ,埃爾勒, “ archiv 。利特樓。 u kirchengesch ” ,三頁 517; Tocco, "La Questione della povertà nel Secolo XIV", Naples, 1910]. 517 ; tocco的“ La questione德拉povertà內爾secolo十四” ,那不勒斯, 1910年] 。 The question regarding the Divinity of the Blood of Christ separated from His Body during His Passion, raised for the first time in 1351, at Barcelona, and taken up again in Italy in 1463, was the subject of a formal debate before Pius II.問題就神的血,基督脫離他的身體在他的激情,首次提出的時間在1351年,在巴塞羅那,並採取了起來,在意大利1463年,當時的主題正式辯論之前碧岳二。 The Dominican opinion prevailed; although the pope refused a sentence properly so called (Mortier, "Hist. des Maîtres Généraux", III, p. 287, IV, p. 413; G. degli Agostini, "Notizie istorico-critiche intorno la vita e le opere degli scrittori Viniziani", Venice, 1752, I, p. 401. During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the Thomist School had to make a stand against Nominalism, of which a Preacher had been one of the protagonists. The repeated sentences of the universities and of princes slowly combatted this doctrine (De Wulf, "Histoire de la philosophic médiévale", Louvain-Paris, 1905, p. 453).多米尼加的意見佔了上風;雖然教宗拒絕了一句妥善所謂( mortier , “歷史。 maîtres萬généraux ” ,第三,第287 ,四, 413頁; g. degli阿戈斯蒂尼, “ notizie istorico - critiche intorno香格里拉簡歷e樂opere degli斯克里托裡viniziani “ ,威尼斯, 1752年,我,第401 ,在第十四和第十五世紀thomist學校不得不作出的立場,反對唯名,其中1佈道者已其中的主角。一再判刑大學和王子慢慢地打擊這一學說(德伍爾夫, “歷史學德香格里拉哲學médiévale ” ,魯汶-巴黎, 1905年,頁453 ) 。

The Averroism against which Albert the Great and especially Aquinas had fought so energetically did not disappear entirely with the condemnation of Paris (1277), but survived under a more or less attenuated form.該averroism反對何俊仁的偉大,特別是阿奎那曾打了這麼大力沒有消失,完全與譴責巴黎( 1277 ) ,但存活下更多或更少的衰減形式。 At the beginning of the sixteenth century the debates were renewed, and the Preachers found themselves actively engaged therein in Italy where the Averroist doctrine had reappeared.在開始的16世紀的辯論續約,和傳教士發現自己積極參與,因此在意大利的地方averroist學說已經出現。 The General of the Dominicans, Thomas de Vio (Cajetan) had published his commentaries on the "De Anima" of Aristotle (Florence, 1509), in which, abandoning the position of St. Thomas, he contended that Aristotle had not taught the individual immortality of the soul, but affirming at the same time that this doctrine was philosophically erroneous.一般的多米尼加,托馬斯德VIO接( cajetan )曾發表評論,他對“德阿尼瑪”亞里士多德(佛羅倫斯, 1509 ) ,其中,放棄立場,聖托馬斯,他認為,亞里士多德並沒有教導個人不朽的靈魂,但肯定在同一時間內,這個學說是哲學的錯誤。 The Council of Lateran, by its Decree, 19 Dec., 1513, not only condemned the Averroistic teaching, but exacted still further that professors of philosophy should answer the opposing arguments advanced by philosophers -- a measure which Cajetan did not approve (Mansi, "Councils", I, 32, col. 842).理事會拉特蘭,其法令, 1513年12月19日,不僅譴責averroistic教學,但exacted仍有進一步指出,教授,哲學應該回答的反對論點,先進的哲學家-的措施, c ajetan不批准(曼西, “議會” ,我32歲,中校842 ) 。 Pietro Pomponazzi, having published at Bologna (1516) his treatise on the immortality of the soul in the Averroistic sense, while making an open profession of faith in the Christian doctrine, raised numerous polemics, and was held as a suspect.皮耶特蓬波納齊,發表在博洛尼亞( 1516 )他的傷寒論了不朽的靈魂,在averroistic意識,同時使一個開放的行業,信仰在基督教的教義,提出了許多爭論,並舉行了作為一個嫌疑人。 Chrysostom Javelli, regent of theology at the Convent of St. Dominic, in agreement with the ecclesiastical authority, and at the request of Pomponazzi, sought to extricate him from this difficulty by drawing up a short theological exposé of the question which was to be added in the future to the work of Pomponazzi.金口javelli ,麗晶神學在修道院的聖星,在協議,與教會的權力,並在請求蓬波納齊,設法擺脫他從這個困難,擬訂了一項簡短Exposé的神學思想建設的問題,這是為了補充說:在今後的工作蓬波納齊。 But this discussion did not cease all at once.但這次討論沒有停止一切在一次。 Several Dominicans entered the lists.幾個多米尼加人進入名單。 Girolamo de Fornariis subjected to examination the polemic of Pomponazzi with Augustin Nifi (Bologna, 1519); Bartolommeo de Spina attacked Cajetan on one article, and Pomponazzi in two others (Venice, 1519); Isidore of Isolanis also wrote on the immortality of the soul (Milan, 1520); Lucas Bettini took up the same theme, and Pico della Mirandola published his treatise (Bologna, 1523); finally Chrysostom Javelli himself, in 1523, composed a treatise on immortality in which he refuted the point of view of Cajetan and of Pomponazzi (Chrysostomi Javelli, "Opera", Venice, 1577, I-III, p. 52).吉羅拉莫德fornariis受到考試論戰的蓬波納齊與奧古斯丁nifi (博洛尼亞, 1519 ) ; bartolommeo德脊柱攻擊cajetan對一的文章,和蓬波納齊在另外兩個(威尼斯, 1519 ) ;伊西多爾的isolanis也寫就了不朽的靈魂(米蘭, 1520 ) ;盧卡斯bettini了同樣的主題,和微微的梅蘭多拉發表論文(博洛尼亞, 1523 ) ;終於金口javelli自己,在1523年,組成一傷寒論神仙在他反駁的角度來看, cajetan和蓬波納齊( chrysostomi javelli , “戲曲” ,威尼斯, 1577年,我第三次,第52頁) 。 Cajetan, becoming cardinal, not only held his position regarding the idea of Aristotle, but further declared that the immortality of the soul was an article of faith, for which philosophy could offer only probable reasons ("In Ecclesiasten", 1534, cap. iv; Fiorentino, "Pietro Pomponazzi", Florence, 1868). cajetan ,成為樞機主教,不僅舉行了他的立場就亞里士多德的想法,但還宣布說,不朽的靈魂,是一篇文章的信仰,而哲學所能提供的唯一可能的原因( “在ecclesiasten ” , 1534年,章第四節;佛倫蒂諾, “彼得蓬波納齊” ,佛羅倫斯, 1868 ) 。

(f) Literary and Scientific Productions (六)文學和科學的製作

During the Middle Ages the order had an enormous literary output, its activity extending to all spheres.在中世紀的順序產生了巨大的文學產出,其活動擴展到各個領域。 The works of its writers are epoch-making in the various branches of human knowledge.作品,其作者都是具有劃時代意義的決策,在各黨支部的人類知識。

(i) Works on the Bible. (一)工程對聖經。 -- The study and teaching of the Bible were foremost among the occupations of the Preachers, and their studies included everything pertaining to it. -研究和教學的聖經被其中最首要的職業的傳教士,他們的研究包括一切有關。 They first undertook correctories (correctoria) of the Vulgate text (1230-36), under the direction of Hugh of Saint Cher, professor at the University of Paris.他們首先承諾correctories ( correctoria )的vulgate文( 1230年至1236年)的領導下,休聖cher教授,在巴黎大學。 The collation with the Hebrew text was accomplished under the sub-prior of St-Jacques, Theobald of Sexania, a converted Jew.校勘與希伯來文是下完成分之前的聖-雅克, theobald的sexania ,一輛經過改裝的猶太人。 Two other correctories were made prior to 1267, the first called the correctory of Sens. Again under the direction of Hugh of Saint Cher the Preachers made the first concordances of the Bible which were called the Concordances of St. Jacques or Great Concordances because of their development.其他兩個correctories前作出第1267號決議,首次被稱為correctory的sens.再次的指導下休聖cher講道取得第一concordances的聖經而被稱為concordances聖雅克或大concordances因為他們的的發展。 The English Dominicans of Oxford, apparently under the direction of John of Darlington, made more simplified concordances in the third quarter of the thirteenth century.英文多米尼加人的牛津,顯然的領導下,約翰的達林頓,更加簡化concordances在第三季度的13世紀。 At the beginning of the fourteenth century a German Dominican, Conrad of Halberstadt simplified the English concordances still more; and John Fojkowich of Ragusa, at the time of the Council of Basle, caused the insertion in the concordances of elements which had not hitherto been incorporated in them.在一開始的14世紀的德國,多米尼加,康拉德的這個收容中心簡化了英語concordances更和John fojkowich的古沙,在當時安理會的巴塞爾,造成插入在concordances的要素上至今尚未被納入在他們。 The Dominicans, moreover, composed numerous commentaries on the books of the Bible.在多米尼加人,而且,多出的評論對書籍的聖經。 That of Hugh of Saint Cher was the first complete commentary on the Scriptures (last ed., Venice, 1754, 8 vols. in fol.).即休聖cher是第一個完整的評會念經(最後版,威尼斯, 1754年, 8卷,在隨訪) 。 The commentaries of Bl.該評論的基本法。 Albertus Magnus and especially those of St. Thomas Aquinas are still famous. : Albertus思及這些人,尤其是聖托馬斯阿奎那仍然有名。 With St. Thomas the interpretation of the text is more direct, simply literal, and theological.與聖托馬斯的解釋文是更直接,簡單的字面,與神學。 These great Scriptural commentaries represent theological teaching in the studia generalia.這些大是大非聖經的評論代表了神學教學中的studia generalia 。 The lecturae on the text of Scripture, also composed to a large extent by Dominicans, represent scriptural teaching in the other studia of theology.該lecturae對文本的經文,還組成,在相當大程度上是由多米尼加人,所代表的聖經教導,在其他studia神學。 St. Thomas undertook an "Expositio continua" of the four Gospels now called the "Catena aurea", composed of extracts from the Fathers with a view to its use by clerics.聖托馬斯答應" expositio連續統"的四大福音書,現在被稱為" catena aurea "組成的提取物,從父親,以期能利用神職人員。 At the beginning of the fourteenth century Nicholas of Trevet did the same for all the books of the Bible.在一開始的14世紀尼古拉的特勒韋做著同樣的,為所有書籍的聖經。 The Preachers were also engaged in translating the Bible into the vernacular.講道,也從事翻譯聖經成白話文。 In all probability they were the translators of the French Parisian Bible during the first half of the thirteenth century, and in the fourteenth century they took a very active share in the translation of the celebrated Bible of King John.在所有的概率,他們翻譯的法國巴黎聖經在上半年的13世紀,在14世紀,他們採取了一個非常活躍的份額在翻譯的著名聖經的國王約翰。 The name of a Catalonian Dominican, Romeu of Sabruguera, is attached to the first translation of the Scriptures into Catalonian.寫了加泰羅尼亞多米尼加,羅梅烏的sabruguera ,附於第一次翻譯聖經到加泰羅尼亞。 The names of Preachers are also connected with the Valencian and Castilian translations, and still more with the Italian (FL Mannoci, "Intorno a un volgarizzamento della Biblia attribuita al B. Jacopo da Voragine" in "Giornale storico e letterario della Liguria", V, 1904, p. 96).姓名傳教士也與瓦倫西亞和castilian翻譯,還有更多的與意大利(外語mannoci , " intorno聯合國volgarizzamento della快報attribuita鋁乙jacopo達voragine "中的"力爭不辜負storico e letterario della利古里亞" ,第五章, 1904年,第96頁) 。 The first pre-Lutheran German translation of the Bible, except the Psalms, is due to John Rellach, shortly after the middle of the fifteenth century.第一次預路德德語翻譯聖經,除了詩篇,是因為約翰rellach後不久,中東的15世紀。 Finally the Bible was translated from Latin into Armenian about 1330 by B. Bartolommeo Parvi of Bologna, missionary and bishop in Armenia.最後聖經被翻譯,從拉丁語到亞美尼亞約13時30分,由乙bartolommeo帕爾維的博洛尼亞後,其傳教和主教在亞美尼亞。 These works enabled Vercellone to write: "To the Dominican Order belongs the glory of having first renewed in the Church the illustrious example of Origen and St. Augustine by the ardent cultivation of sacred criticism" (P. Mandonnet "Tràvaux des Dominicains sur les Saintes Ecritures" in "Dict. de la Bible", II, col. 1463; Saul, "Des Bibelstudium im Predigerorden" in "Der Katholik", 82 Jahrg, 3 f., XXVII, 1902, a repetition of the foregoing article).這些工程使韋爾切洛內寫: "到多米尼加秩序屬於榮耀,不必首先重新在教會傑出的例子淵源和聖奧古斯丁所殷切栽培神聖的批判" (第16頁芒多內" tràvaux萬dominicains sur就業輔導組saintes ecritures "中的"字典。 de的香格里拉聖經" ,第二章中校。 1463年;娑羅雙樹"萬bibelstudium的IM predigerorden "中的"明鏡katholik " , 82 jahrg , 3樓,二十七, 1902年,重複前述文章) 。

(ii) Philosophical works. (二)哲學著作。 -- The most celebrated philosophical works of the thirteenth century were those of Albertus Magnus and St. Thomas Aquinas. -最有名的哲學作品, 1 3世紀被那些: A lbertus馬格納斯和聖托馬斯阿奎那。 The former compiled on the model of Aristotle a vast scientific encyclopedia which exercised great influence on the last centuries of the Middle Ages ("Alberti Magni Opera", Lyons, 1651, 20 vols. in fol.; Paris, 1890, 38 vols. in 40; Mandonnet, "Siger de Brabant", I, 37, n. 3).前者彙編示範亞里士多德一個龐大的科學百科全書,其中行使了巨大的影響,對過去幾百年的中世紀( "阿爾貝蒂magni戲曲" ,在里昂, 1651年, 20卷,在隨訪;巴黎, 1890年, 38卷。第40條;芒多內, "西格德Brabant的" ,我想, 37 , 12 3 ) 。 Thomas Aquinas, apart from special treatises and numerous philosophical sections in his other works, commentated in whole or in part thirteen of Aristotle's treatises, these being the most important of the Stagyrite's works (Mandonnet, "Des écrits authentiques de St. Thomas d'Aquin", 2nd ed., p. 104, Opera, Paris, 1889, XXII-XVI).多瑪斯,除了特殊的論文和無數的哲學節在他的其他作品, commentated全部或部分十三亞里士多德的論文,這些被認為是最重要的stagyrite的作品(芒多內, "萬écrits authentiques德聖托馬斯-阿坎" ,第2版,第104頁,歌劇院,巴黎, 1889年, 22 -十六) 。 Robert of Kilwardby (d. 1279) a holder of the old Augustinian direction, produced numerous philosophical writings.羅伯特的基爾沃比(第1279四)持有舊augustinian方向,製作了大量的哲學著作。 His "De ortu et divisione philosophiae" is regarded as "the most important introduction to Philosophy of the Middle Ages" (Baur "Dominicus Gundissalinus De divisione philosophiae", Münster, 1903, 368).他的"德ortu等divisione philosophiae "被視為是"最重要的哲學概論的中世紀" (鮑氏東方藝術館" dominicus gundissalinus德divisione philosophiae " ,在明斯特, 1903 , 368 ) 。 At the end of the thirteenth and the beginning of the fourteenth century, Dietrich of Vriberg left an important philosophical and scientific work (Krebs, "Meister Dietrich, sein Leben, seine Werke, seine Wissenschaft", Münster, 1906).在去年底的第十三次,並開始14世紀,迪特里希的vriberg留下了重要的哲學和科學工作( krebs , "大師迪特里希,登盛,生活,塞納河werke ,塞納河wissenschaft " ,在明斯特, 1906年) 。 At the end of the thirteenth and the beginning of the fourteenth century the Dominicans composed numerous philosophical treatises, many of them bearing on the special points whereon the Thomistic School was attacked by its adversaries ("Archiv f. Litt. und Kirchengesch.", II, 226 sqq.).在去年底的第十三次,並開始14世紀多米尼加組成無數的哲學論文,他們中的許多人同時對特殊點whereon該thomistic學校遭到對手(下稱" archiv樓利特。 und kirchengesch 。 " ,第二章, 226 sqq ) 。

(iii) Theological works. (三)神學思想建設工程。 -- In importance and number theological works occupy the foreground in the literary activity of the order. -在重要性和數量神學作品佔據前景,在文學活動的秩序。 Most of the theologians composed commentaries on the "Sentences" of Peter Lombard, which was the classical text in theological schools.大部分的神學家組成的評論文章,對"刑期"的彼得倫巴第,這是經典文本的神學學校。 Besides the "Sentences" the usual work of bachelors in the Universities included Disputationes and Quodlibeta, which were always the writings of masters.除了"服刑"的慣常工作的單身漢在大學列入disputationes和quodlibeta ,則始終是寫作的主人。 The theological summae set forth the theological matter according to a more complete and well-ordered plan than that of Peter Lombard and especially with solid philosophical principles in which the books of the "Sentences" were wanting.神學summae提出神學思想建設事根據一項較完整和幸福下令計劃比彼得倫巴第,特別是與固體哲學原理,其中書籍的"刑期"要。 Manuals of theology and more especially manuals, or summae, on penance for the use of confessors were composed in great numbers.手冊的神學更是手冊,或summae ,就懺悔,為使用confessors人組成,在人數較多。 The oldest Dominican commentaries on the "Sentences" are those of Roland of Cremona, Hugh of Saint Cher, Richard Fitzacre, Robert of Kilwardby and Albertus Magnus.最古老的多米尼加評論文章,對"句子" ,是那些對羅蘭的克雷莫納,休聖cher ,理查德fitzacre ,羅伯特的基爾沃比和: Albertus馬格納斯。 The series begins with the year 1230 if not earlier and the last are prior to the middle of the thirteenth century (Mandonnet, "Siger de Brabant", I, 53).該系列始於去年12時30分,如果不早,以及最後的是前中的13世紀(芒多內, "西格德Brabant的" ,我想, 53 ) 。 The "Summa" of St. Thomas (1265-75) is still the masterpiece of theology. "總結"的聖托馬斯( 1265至1275年)仍是傑作的神學。 The monumental work of Albertus Magnus is unfinished.該巨著的工作: Albertus馬格納斯是未完成的。 The "Summa de bono" of Ulrich of Strasburg (d. 1277), a disciple of Albert is still unedited, but is of paramount interest to the historian of the thought of the thirteenth century (Grabmann, "Studien ueber Ulrich von Strassburg" in "Zeitschrift für Kathol. Theol.", XXIX, 1905, 82). "總結德博諾"烏爾里希的strasburg (四1277 ) ,弟子的何俊仁仍然是未經編輯的,而且是至高無上的利益,以史學家的思想, 13世紀(格拉布曼, "研究會ueber烏爾里希馮strassburg " " : Zeitschrift f黵kathol 。 theol " ,第29屆, 1905年, 82 ) 。 The theological summa of St. Antoninus is highly esteemed by moralists and economists (Ilgner, "Die Volkswirtschaftlichen Anschaungen Antonins von Florenz", Paderborn, 1904).神學總結聖antoninus是高度評價了由道德家和經濟學家們(伊爾格納, "死volkswirtschaftlichen anschaungen antonins馮florenz " ,帕德博恩, 1904年) 。 The "Compendium theologicæ veritatis" of Hugh Ripelin of Strasburg (d. 1268) is the most widespread and famous manual of the Middle Ages (Mandonnet, "Des écrits authentiques de St. Thomas", Fribourg, 1910, p. 86). "彙編theologicæ veritatis "休ripelin的strasburg (四二五五五一二六八) ,是最廣泛和最有名的手冊中世紀(芒多內, "萬écrits authentiques德聖托馬斯" ,弗里堡, 1910年,第86頁) 。 The chief manual of confessors is that of Paul of Hungary composed for the Brothers of St. Nicholas of Bologna (1220-21) and edited without mention of the author in the "Bibliotheca Casinensis" (IV, 1880, 191) and with false assignment of authorship by R. Duellius, "Miscellan. Lib."行政手冊confessors是保羅的匈牙利組成,為兄弟的聖尼古拉斯的博洛尼亞( 1220年至1221年)和主編提作者在"書目casinensis " (四, 1880年, 191頁) ,並以虛假的轉讓作者由R. duellius , " miscellan 。鋰離子電池" 。 (Augsburg, 1723, 59). (奧格斯堡, 1723年, 59歲) 。 The "Summa de Poenitentia" of Raymond of Pennafort, composed in 1235, was a classic during the Middle Ages and was one of the works of which the manuscripts were most multiplied. "總結德poenitentia "的雷蒙德彭納福特組成,在1235年,是一個典型的,在中世紀,被其中的作品,其中手稿最成倍增加。 The "Summa Confessorum" of John of Freiburg (d. 1314) is, according to F. von Schulte, the most perfect product of this class of literature. "總結confessorum "約翰的弗賴堡(四1314 ) ,是根據樓馮舒爾特,最完美的產品,這類型的文學作品。 The Pisan Bartolommeo of San Concordio has left us a "Summa Casuum" composed in 1338, in which the matter is arranged in alphabetical order.該pisan bartolommeo聖孔科爾迪奧給我們留下了一個"總結casuum "組成,在1338年,在這件事是安排在字母順序排列。 It was very successful in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.這是非常成功的,在第十三和第十四個世紀。 The manuals for confessors of John Nieder (d. 1438), St. Antoninus, Archbishop of Florence (d. 1459), and Girolamo Savonarola (d. 1498) were much esteemed in their time (Quétif-Echard, "Script. Ord. Praed.", I, passim; Hurter, "Nomenclator literarius; aetas media", Innsbruck, 1906, passim; F. von Schulte, "Gesch. der Quellen und Literatur des canonischen Rechts", Stuttgart, II, 1877, p. 410 sqq.; Dietterle, "Die Summæ confessorum . . . von ihren Anfängen an bis zu Silvester Prierias" in "Zeitschrift für Kirchengesch.", XXIV, 1903; XXVIII, 1907).該手冊confessors約翰nieder (四第1438 ) ,聖antoninus ,大主教佛羅倫薩(四二七六七一四五九) ,並girolamo savonarola (四1498 )更尊敬,在他們的時間( quétif -埃沙爾, "腳本。霍德。 praed 。 " ,我想,各處; hurter , " nomenclator literarius ; aetas媒體" ,因斯布魯克, 1906年,各處;樓馮舒爾特, " gesch 。明鏡quellen und文學萬canonischen機關Rechts " ,斯圖加特,二, 1877年, 410頁sqq ; dietterle , "死summæ confessorum … … 。馮ihren anfängen一個之二祖西爾維斯特prierias "中的" : Zeitschrift f黵kirchengesch " , 24條, 1903年;二十八, 1907年) 。

(iv) Apologetic works. (四)抱歉工程。 -- The Preachers, born amid the Albigensian heresy and founded especially for the defense of the Faith, bent their literary efforts to reach all classes of dissenters from the Catholic Church. -傳教士,出生在a lbigensian異端,並成立特別是為國防的信念,執意要自己的文學努力,以達到對各階層的異議人士,從天主教教會。 They produced by far the most powerful works in the sphere of apologetics.他們製作了迄今最強有力的工程領域內的護教學。 The "Summa contra Catharos et Valdenses" (Rome, 1743) of Moneta of Cremona, in course of composition in 1244, is the most complete and solid work produced in the Middle Ages against the Cathari and Waldenses. "總結矛盾catharos等valdenses " (羅馬, 1743年)的moneta的克雷莫納,在過程中的作文1244 ,是最完整和紮實的工作,產生於中世紀對卡塔利和瓦勒度派。 The "Summa contra Gentiles" of St. Thomas Aquinas is one of that master's strongest creations. "總結矛盾外邦人"的聖托馬斯阿奎那是其中一項即掌握最強的創作。 It is the defense of the Christian Faith against Arabian philosophy.它是美國國防部的基督教信仰對阿拉伯哲學。 Raymond Marti in his "Pugio fidei", in course of composition in 1278 (Paris, 1642; 1651: Leipzig, 1687), measures arms with Judaism.陳卓愉馬蒂在他的" pugio信" ,在過程中的作文1278 (巴黎, 1642 ; 1651年:萊比錫, 1687年) ,軍備控制措施與猶太教。 This work, to a large extent based on Rabbinic literature, is the most important medieval monument of Orientalism (Neubauer, "Jewish Controversy and the Pugio Fidei" in "The Expositor", 1888, p. 81 sqq.; Loeb, "La controverse religieuse entre les chrétiens et les Juifs au moyen-âge en France et en Espagne" in "Revue de l'histoire des religions", XVIII, 136).這項工作,在相當大的程度上基於rabbinic文學,是最重要的中古世紀豐碑東方( neubauer , "猶太人的爭論以及pugio信" , " expositor " , 1888年,第81頁sqq ;勒布的" La controverse religieuse登入基督教徒就業輔導組等就業輔導組juifs凹沙裡-年紀法國和恩espagne "中的"雜誌l'史萬教" , 18 , 136 ) 。 The Florentine, Riccoldo di Monte Croce, a missionary in the East (d. 1320), composed his "Propugnaculum Fidei" against the doctrine of the Koran.佛羅倫薩, riccoldo迪蒙特克羅齊,一名傳教士在東部(四第1320 ) ,由他的" propugnaculum信" ,對教義的可蘭經。 It is a rare medieval Latin work based directly on Arabian literature.它是一種罕見的中世紀拉丁語基礎工作,直接對阿拉伯文學。 Demetrius Cydonius translated the "Propugnaculum" into Greek in the fourteenth century and Luther translated it into German in the sixteenth (Mandonnet, "Fra Riccoldo di Monte Croce, pélerin en Terre Sainte et missionnaire en Orient" in "Revue Biblique", I, 1893, 44; Grabmann, "Die Missionsidee bei den Dominikanertheologien des 13. Jahrhunderts" in "Zeitschrift für Missionswissenschaft", I, 1911, 137). demetrius cydonius翻譯成" propugnaculum "成希臘文,在14世紀和路德翻譯成德文,在第十六屆(芒多內, "法國riccoldo迪蒙特克羅齊, pélerin恩terre聖等missionnaire恩東方" , "雜誌biblique " ,我想, 1893年, 44 ;格拉布曼, "死missionsidee鼻書齋dominikanertheologien萬13 。 jahrhunderts "中的" : Zeitschrift f黵missionswissenschaft " ,我想, 1911年, 137 ) 。

(v) Educational literature. (五)教育文獻。 -- Besides manuals of theology the Dominicans furnished a considerable literary output with a view to meeting the various needs of all social classes and which may be called educational or practical literature. -此外手冊神學多米尼加家具有相當的文學產量,以期滿足各方面的需要,所有的社會階層中,其中可稱為教育或實用的文獻。 They composed treatises on preaching, models or materials for sermons, and collections of discourses.他們組成的論文上的說教,型號或材料的說教,而收藏的論述。 Among the oldest of these are the "Distinctiones" and the "Dictionarius pauperum" of Nicholas of Biard (d. 1261), the "Tractatus de diversis materiis prædicabilibus" of Stephen of Bourbon (d. 1261), the "De eruditione prædicatorum" of Humbert of Romans (d. 1277), the "Distinctiones" of Nicholas of Goran (d. 1295), and of Maurice of England [d.其中年紀最大的,這些都是" distinctiones "和" dictionarius pauperum "的尼古拉斯的biard (四1261名) , " tractatus德diversis materiis prædicabilibus "斯蒂芬的波旁(四1261名) , "德eruditione prædicatorum "的洪博達的入鄉隨俗(四1277 ) , " distinctiones "的尼古拉斯的英格蘭(四第1295 ) ,和莫里斯英格蘭[四 circa 1300; (Quétif-Echard, "Script. Ord. Præd.", II, 968; 970; Lecoy de la Marche, "La chaire française au moyen âge", Paris, 1886; Crane, "The exempla or illustrative stories from the 'Sermones vulgares' of Jacques de Vitry", London, 1890)]. circa 1300個; ( quétif -埃沙爾, "腳本。霍德。 præd "第一,二, 968 ; 970 ;勒誇德香格里拉馬奇, "香格里拉chaire法國凹沙裡年紀" ,巴黎, 1886年;起重機, " exempla或說明性的故事' sermones vulgares '的雅克德vitry " ,倫敦, 1890年) ] 。 The Preachers led the way in the composition of comprehensive collections of the lives of the saints or legendaries, writings at once for the use and edification of the faithful.講道為首的方式組成的綜合性收藏的聖人們的生命或legendaries ,著作,在一次關於使用及教化信徒。 Bartholomew of Trent compiled his "Liber epilogorum in Gesta Sanctorum" in 1240.巴爾多祿茂一世的遄達編纂他的" liber epilogorum在gesta sanctorum " 1240人。 After the middle of the thirteenth century Roderick of Cerrate composed a collection of "Vitæ Sanctorum" (Madrid University Library, cod. 146).中葉以後的13世紀散播的cerrate組成,收錄了" vitæ sanctorum " (馬德里大學圖書館,鱈魚146段) 。 The "Abbreviatio in gestis et miraculis sanctorum", composed in 1243 according to the "Speculum historiale" of Vincent of Beauvais, is the work of Jean de Mailly. " abbreviatio在gestis等miraculis sanctorum "組成,在1243年要按照" speculum historiale "的文森特的beauvais ,是工作讓德mailly 。 The "Legenda Sanctorum" of Jacopo de Voragine (Vorazze) called also the "Golden Legend", written about 1260, is universally known. " legenda sanctorum " jacopo德voragine ( vorazze ) ,也稱為"黃金傳奇" ,以書面一千二百六十,是舉世皆知的。 "The success of the book," writes the Bollandist, A. Poncelet, "was prodigious; it far exceeded that of all similar compilations." "的成功,這本書" ,並寫bollandist ,甲蓬斯萊, " prodigious ,它遠遠超過了所有同類資料彙編" 。 It was besides translated into all the vernaculars of Europe.這是除了翻譯成聯合國所有vernaculars的歐洲。 The "Speculum Sanctorale" of Bernard Guidonis is a work of a much more scholarly character. " speculum sanctorale "伯納德guidonis是一個工作的一個更為學術品格。 The first three parts were finished in 1324 and the fourth in 1329.前三部分結束後,在第1324和第四次在1329年。 About the same time Peter Calo (d. 1348) undertook under the title of "Legenda sanctorum" an "immense compilation" which aimed at being more complete than its predecessors (A. Poncelet, "Le légendier de Pierre Calo" in "Analecta Bollandiana", XXIX, 1910, 5-116).大約同一時候,彼得卡洛(四第1348 )承諾下的標題" legenda sanctorum "是一個"巨大的彙編" ,旨在較為完整的,比它的前輩(甲蓬斯萊, "樂légendier德皮埃爾卡洛" , " analecta bollandiana " ,第29屆, 1910年, 5-116 ) 。

Catechetical literature was also early taken in hand. catechetical文學也是早期採取在手。 In 1256-7 Raymond Marti composed his "Explanatio symboli ad institutionem fidelium" ("Revue des Bibliothèques", VI, 1846, 32; March, "La 'Explanatio Symboli', obra inedita de Ramon Marti, autor del 'Pugio Fidei"', in "Anuari des Institut d'Estudis Catalans", 1908, and Bareclona, 1910).在1256-7雷蒙德馬蒂組成他的" explanatio symboli專案institutionem形的教會" (下稱"萬雜誌bibliothèques " ,第六, 1846年,第32條;三月的" La ' explanatio symboli ' ,訂立inedita德拉蒙馬蒂,作者刪除' pugio信"在" anuari萬學院estudis巴薩" , 1908年,並bareclona , 1910 ) 。 Thomas Aquinas wrote four small treatises which represent the contents of a catechism as it was in the Middle Ages: "De articulis fidei et Ecclesiae Sacramentis"; "Expositio symboli Apostolorum"; "De decem præceptis et lege amoris"; "Expositio orationis dominicae".多瑪斯寫了四個小論文,其中所代表的內容,一個問答,因為它是在中世紀: "德articulis信等ecclesiae sacramentis " , " expositio symboli apostolorum " , "德decem præceptis等法律上amoris " , " expositio orationis dominicae " 。 Several of these writings have been collected and called the catechism of St. Thomas.幾個這些著作已經收齊,並呼籲該講授的聖托馬斯。 (Portmann-Kunz, "Katechismus des hl. Thomas von Aquin", Lucerne, 1900.) In 1277 Laurent d'Orléans composed at the request of Philip the Bold, whose confessor he was, a real catechism in the vernacular known as the "Somme le Roi" (Mandonnet, "Laurent d'Orléans l'auteur de la Somme le Roi" in "Revue des langues romanes", 1911; "Dict. de théol. cath.", II, 1900). ( portmann -昆茨, " katechismus萬的HL 。托馬斯馮阿坎" ,盧塞恩, 1900年)在1277洛朗-奧爾良組成時,應請求國弘大膽的,他們的懺悔他是一個真正的講授,在白話文稱為" somme樂ROI的" (芒多內, "洛朗-奧爾良行為人香格里拉s omme樂的投資回報率" , "雜誌萬l anguesr omanes" , 1 911年" ;字典。德t héol。蛋白酶" ,二, 1 900年) 。 At the beginning of the fourteenth century Bernard Guidonis composed an abridgment of Christian doctrine which he revised later when he had become Bishop of Lodève (1324-31) into a sort of catechism for the use of his priests in the instruction of the faithful ("Notices et extraits de la Bib. Nat.", XXVII, Paris, 1879, 2nd part, p. 362, C. Douais, "Un nouvel écrit de Bernard Gui. Le synodal de Lodève, "Paris, 1944 p. vii).在一開始的14世紀伯納德guidonis組成一個abridgment基督教教義,其中他反复修改後,當他成為主教lodève ( 1324至1331年)變為某種理講授,為利用他的祭司的指示,忠實( "告示等extraits德香格里拉背帶褲。 NAT的" ,二十七,巴黎, 1879年,第2部分,第362 ,長douais , "聯合國軍nouvel écrit德伯納德貴。樂主教德lodève , "巴黎, 1944年第七頁) 。 The "Discipulus" of John Hérolt was much esteemed in its day (Paulus, "Johann Hérolt und seine Lehre. Ein Beitrag zur Gesch. des religiosen Volksunterichte am Ausgang des Mittelalters" in "Zeitsch. für kath. Theol.", XXVI, 1902, 417). " discipulus "約翰hérolt十分尊敬的,在其當日(鮑魯斯, "約翰hérolt und塞納河教。艾因beitrag zur gesch 。 religiosen萬volksunterichte上午ausgang萬mittelalters "中的" zeitsch 。 f黵kath 。 theol " , 26 , 1902 , 417 ) 。

The order also produced pedagogical works.該命令還製作了教學工程。 William of Tournai composed a treatise "De Modo docendi pueros" (Paris, Bib. Nat. lat. 16435) which the General Chapter of 1264 recommended, as well as one on preaching and confession for school children.威廉的tournai了一治"時點產生方式docendi pueros " (巴黎,背帶褲。 NAT的。北緯16435 ) ,其中一般章的第1264多項建議,以及一說教和懺悔,為學童。 ("Act. Cap. Gen." I, 125; "Script. Ord. Præd.", I, 345). ( "行為。章將軍" , 125 " ;講稿。霍德。 præd 。 " ,我想, 345 ) 。 Vincent of Beauvais wrote especially for the education of princes.鄭海泉的beauvais寫了,尤其是對教育的王子。 He first composed his "De eruditione filiorum regalium" (Basle, 1481), then the "De eruditione principum", published with the works of St. Thomas, to whom as well as to Guillaume Perrault it has been incorrectly ascribed; finally (c. 1260) the "Tractatus de morali principis institutione", which is a general treatise and is still unedited ("Script. Ord. Præd.", I, 239; R. Friedrich, "Vincentius von Beauvais als Pädagog nach seiner Schrift De eruditione filiorum regalium", Leipzig, 1883).他首先組成他的"德eruditione filiorum regalium " (巴塞爾, 1481 ) ,那麼, "德eruditione principum " ,發表與作品聖托馬斯,向誰以及作為紀堯姆佩勞爾特它被錯誤地歸咎於;終於(三。一千二百六十) " tractatus德morali principis institutione " ,這是一個普遍的論文,現仍未經編輯的( "腳本。霍德。 præd 。 " ,我想, 239 ;傳譯弗里德里希, " vincentius馮beauvais勾地表制度pädagog nach圍網schrift德eruditione filiorum regalium " ,萊比錫, 1883年) 。 Early in the fifteenth century (1405) John Dominici composed his famous "Lucula noctis", in which he deals with the study of pagan authors in the education of Christian youth.早在15世紀( 1405 )約翰dominici組成,其著名的"盧庫拉河新娘" ,他在其中的交易結合起來,同學習異教作者在教育基督教青年會。 This is a most important work, written against the dangers of Humanism ("B. Johannis Dominici Cardinalis S. Sixti Lucula Noctis", ed. R. Coulon, Paris, 1908).這是一個最重要的工作,對書面的危險人文主義(下稱"乙johannis dominici cardinalis第sixti盧庫拉河新娘" ,教育署。傳譯coulon ,巴黎, 1908年) 。 Dominici is also the author of a much esteemed work on the government of the family ("Regola del governo di cure familiare dal Beato Giovanni Dominici", ed. D. Salve, Florence, 1860). dominici也是作者的一個崇高的工作,對政府的家庭( " regola恢復政府與迪治愈率達familiare " Beato喬瓦dominici "外,教育署。四慰藉,佛羅倫薩, 1860年) 。 St. Antoninus composed a "Regola a ben vivere" (ed. Palermo, Florence, 1858).聖antoninus組成的一個" regola一本vivere " (編輯巴勒莫,佛羅倫薩, 1858年) 。 Works on the government of countries were also produced by members of the order; among them are the treatises of St. Thomas "De rege et regno", addressed to the King of Cyprus (finished by Bartolommeo of Lucca), and the "De regimine subditorum", composed for the Countess of Flanders.工程,對政府的國家也產生了成員的秩序;它們之中有論文的聖托馬斯的"再生等regno " ,給國王的塞浦路斯(已完成bartolommeo的盧卡) ,以及"德regimine subditorum "組成,為countess的佛蘭德地區。 At the request of the Florentine Government Girolamo Savonarola drew up (1493) his "Trattati circa il reggimento e governo della cittá di Firenze" (ed. Audin de Rians, Florence, 1847) in which he shows great political insight.在要求佛羅倫薩政府girolamo savonarola制定了( 1493 )他的" trattati circa白細胞介素reggimento e政府與della cittá迪firenze " (編輯audin德rians ,佛羅倫薩, 1847年) ,他在其中表現了濃厚的政治洞察力。

(vi) Canon law. (六)教會法。 -- St. Raymond of Pennafort was chosen by Gregory IX to compile the Decretals (1230-34); to his credit also belong opinions and other works on canon law. -聖雷蒙德彭納福特選定格雷戈里九,以編制d ecretals( 1 230至1 234年) ,他的信用也屬於意見和其他工程對教會法。 Martin of Troppau, Bishop of Gnesen, composed (1278) a "Tabula decreti" commonly called "Margarita Martiniana", which received wide circulation.馬丁特羅保,主教格尼森,組成( 1278 ) "搭decreti " ,俗稱"瑪格麗塔馬丁尼亞納" ,這得到了廣泛流通。 Martin of Fano, professor of canon law at Arezzo and Modena and podeatà of Genoa in 1260-2, prior to entering the order, wrote valuable canonical works.馬丁法諾教授,教會法在arezzo和摩德納和podeatà的熱那亞1260-2 ,之前進入一聲令下,寫了寶貴的典型作品。 Nicholas of Ennezat at the beginning of the fourteenth century composed tables on various parts of canon law.尼古拉斯的埃訥扎在開始的14世紀所組成的統計表,各部分的教會法。 During the pontificate of Gregory XII John Dominici wrote copious memoranda in defense of the rights of the legitimate pope, the two most important being still unedited (Vienna, Hof-bibliothek, lat. 5102, fol. 1-24).在教宗的格雷戈里第十二約翰dominici寫道,再用備忘錄辯護的權利的正當教宗,兩個最重要的仍是未經編輯的(維也納霍夫-圖書館,北緯5102 ,接下來。 1-24 ) 。 About the middle of the fifteenth century John of Torquemada wrote extensive works on the Decretals of Gratian which were very influential in defense of the pontifical rights.約中的15世紀的約翰torquemada寫了廣泛的工程對decretals的gratian了一些十分有影響力,在防禦的宗座權利。 Important works on inquisitorial law also emanated from the order, the first directories for trial of heresy being composed by Dominicans.重要工程審問法還出自一聲令下,第一個目錄,為審判異端組成,由多米尼加人。 The oldest is the opinion of St. Raymond of Pennafort [1235 (ed. in Bzovius, "Annal. eccles." ad ann. 1235 "Monum. Ord. Præd. Hist.", IV, fasc. II, 41; "Le Moyen Age", 2nd series III, 305)].最古老的,是民意的聖雷蒙德彭納福特[ 1235 (編在bzovius , " annal 。埃克勒斯( Eccles "專案神經網絡。 1235 " monum 。霍德。 præd 。歷史" ,四, fasc 。二, 41 " ;樂沙裡年齡" ,第二系列第三, 305 ) ] 。 The same canonist wrote (1242) a directory for the inquisitions of Aragon (C. Douais, "L'Inquisition", Paris, I, 1906, p. 275).同時canonist寫道(第1242 )目錄,為inquisitions的阿拉貢(丙douais , " l'宗教裁判所" ,巴黎,我, 1906年,第275頁) 。 About 1244 another directory was composed by the inquisitors of Provence ("Nouvelle revue historique du droit français et étranger", Paris, 1883, 670; E. Vacandard, "L'Inquisition", Paris, 1907, p. 314).關於1244號決議另一個目錄組成,由監獄法律條款(下稱" nouvelle雜誌historique國際法法國等的啟示" ,巴黎, 1883年, 670人;體育vacandard , " l'宗教裁判所" ,巴黎, 1907年,第314頁) 。 But the two classical works of the Middle Ages on inquisitorial law are that of Bernard Guidonis composed in 1321 under the title of "Directorium Inquisitionis hereticae pravitatis" (ed. C. Douais Paris, 1886) and the "Directorium Inquisitorum" of Nicholas Eymerich [(1399) "Archiv für Literatur und Kirchengeschechte"; Grahit, "El inquisidor F. Nicholas Eymerich", Girona, 1878; Schulte, "Die Gesch. der Quellen und Literatur des Canonischen Rechts", II, passim].但兩地的經典作品的中世紀糾問式上的法律是伯納德guidonis組成,是1321下的標題" directorium inquisitionis hereticae pravitatis " (編輯長douais巴黎, 1886年)和" directorium inquisitorum "的尼古拉斯eymerich [ ( 1399 ) " archiv f黵文學und kirchengeschechte " ; grahit , "厄爾尼諾inquisidor樓尼古拉eymerich " , girona , 1878年;舒爾特, "模具gesch 。明鏡quellen und文學萬canonischen機關Rechts " ,第二章,各處] 。

(vii) Historical Writings. (七)歷史著作。 -- The activity of the Preachers in the domain of history was considerable during the Middle Ages. -活動的傳教士在域的歷史是相當大,在中世紀。 Some of their chief works incline to be real general histories which assured them great success in their day.他們的一些政務工程傾斜,以得到真正的通史,其中保證,他們的偉大成就,他們的一天。 The "Speculum Historiale" of Vincent of Beauvais (d. circa 1264) is chiefly, like the other parts of the work, of the nature of a documentary compilation, but he has preserved for us sources which we could never otherwise reach (E. Boutarie, "Examen des sources du Speculum historiale de Vincent de Beauvais", Paris, 1863). " speculum historiale "的文森特的beauvais (四circa 1264 ) ,主要是一樣,其他部分的工作,對危險的性質的一部紀錄片,彙編,但他卻保留了我們的消息來源,我們絕不可到達,否則(體育boutarie "的審查源杜speculum historiale德鄭海泉德beauvais " ,巴黎, 1863年) 。 Martin the Pole, called Martin of Troppau (d. 1279), in the third quarter of the thirteenth century composed his chronicles of the popes and emperors which were widely circulated and had many continuators ("Mon. Germ. Hist.: Script.", XXII).馬丁為一極,所謂馬丁特羅保(四第1279 ) ,在第三季度的13世紀組成,其地方志的教皇和皇帝,其中被廣泛流傳,有過不少continuators ( "星期一。胚芽。歷史:腳本" 。 , 22 ) 。 The anonymous chronicles of Colmar in the second half of the thirteenth century have left us valuable historical materials which constitute a sort of history of contemporary civilization (Mon. Germ. Hist.: Script., XVII).匿名方志的科爾馬在下半年的13世紀給我們留下了寶貴的歷史資料,構成了一種歷史的當代文明(週一胚芽。歷史:劇本,十七) 。 The chronicle of Jacopo da Voragine, Archbishop of Genoa (d. 1298) is much esteemed ("Rer. Ital. Script."; Mannucci, "La Cronaca di Jacopo da Voragine", Genoa, 1904).紀事的jacopo達voragine ,大主教熱那亞(四第1298 )的可能性十分尊敬(下稱"人民幣匯率。 2007/2008 。劇本" ;曼努奇, "香格里拉克羅納卡迪jacopo達voragine " ,熱那亞, 1904年) 。 Ptolemy of Lucca and Bernard Guidonis are the two great ecclesiastical historians of the early fourteenth century.托勒密的盧卡和伯納德guidonis是兩個偉大的宗教史學家的早期14世紀。 The "Historia ecclesiastica nova" of the former and the "Flores cronicorum seu cathalogus pontificum romanorum" of the latter contain valuable historical information. "歷史ecclesiastica新的"前和"弗洛雷斯cronicorum您cathalogus pontificum romanorum " ,後者含有寶貴的歷史資料。 But the historical activity of Bernard Guidonis far exceeded that of Ptolemy and his contemporaries; he is the author of twenty historical publications, several of which, such as his historical compilation on the Order of Preachers, are very important in value and extent.但歷史活動的伯納德guidonis遠遠超過了托勒密和他同時代的,他是作者的第二十一屆歷史的出版物,其中有幾個,如他的歷史編纂於議事程序的宣講員,是非常重要的價值和程度的影響。 Bernard Guidonis is the first medieval historian who had a wide sense of historical documentation ("Rer. Ital. Script.", XI K. Krüger, "Des Ptolemäus Lucensis Leben und Werke", Göttingen, 1874; D. König, "Ptolemaus von Lucca und die Flores Chronicorum des B. Guidonis", Würzburg, 1875, Idem, "Tolomeo von Lucca", Harburg, 1878; Delisle, "Notice sur les manuscrits de Bernard Gui" in "Notices et manuscrits de la Bib. Nat.", XVII, pt. II, 169-455; Douais, "Un nouveau manuscrit de Bernard Gui et de ses chroniques des papes d'Avignon" in "Mém. soc. Archéol. Midi", XIV, 1889, p. 417, Paris, 1889; Arbellot, "Etude biographique et bibliographique sur Bernard Guidonis", Paris-Limoges, 1896).伯納德guidonis是第一中世紀史學家的人進行了廣泛的意義上的歷史文獻(下稱"人民幣匯率。 2007/2008 。腳本" ,喜k. krüger , "萬ptolemäus lucensis ,生活und werke " ,哥廷根, 1874年;四三種語文印行的, "馮ptolemaus盧卡und模具弗洛雷斯chronicorum萬乙guidonis " ,維爾茨堡, 1875年,同上, "托洛梅奧馮盧卡" , harburg , 1878年;迪萊爾, "通知sur就業輔導組manuscrits德伯納德貴"的"告示等manuscrits德香格里拉背帶褲。 NAT的" 。 , 17 ,鉑,第二169-455 ; douais , "聯合國軍大款manuscrit德伯納德桂等德經濟局局長chroniques萬papes -亞維儂" , " m ém。 S oC的。 a rchéol。的M IDI" ,第十四條, 1 889年, 4 17頁,巴黎, 1889年;阿爾貝洛, "練習曲biographique等bibliographique sur伯納德guidonis " ,巴黎-利摩日, 1896 ) 。 The fourteenth century beheld a galaxy of Dominican historians, the chief of whom were: Francesco Pipini of Bologna (d. 1320), the Latin translator of Marco Polo and the author of a "Chronicon" which began with the history of the Franks (L. Manzoni, "Di frate Francesco Pipini da Bologna, storico, geografo, viaggiatore del sec. XIV", Bologna, 1896); Nicholas of Butrinto (1313), author of the "Relatio de Henrici VII imperatoris itinere italico" (ed. Heyck, Innsbruck, 1888); Nicholas Trevet, compiler of the "Annales sex regum Angliæ" (ed. T. Hog, London, 1845); Jacopo of Acqui and his "Chronicon imaginis mundi" [(1330); Monumenta historiæ patriæ, script." III, Turin, 1848]; Galvano Fiamma (d. circal 1340) composed various works on the history of Milan (Ferrari, "Le cronache di Galvano Flamma e le fonti della Galvagnana" in "Bulletino dell' Istituto Storico Italiano", Rome, 1891); John of Colonna (c. 1336) is the author of a "De viris illustribus" and a "Mare Historiarum" (Mandonnet, "Des écrits authentiques de St. Thomas d'Aquin", Fribourg, 2nd ed., 1910, p. 97). In the second half of the fourteenth century Conrad of Halberstadt wrote a "Chronographia summorum Pontificum et Imperatorum romanorum (Merck, "Die Chronographia Konrads von Halberstadt" etc. in "Forsch. deutsch. Gesch." XX, 1880, 279); Henry of Hervordia (d. 1370) wrote a "Liber de rebus memorabilibus" (ed. Potthast, Göttingen, 1859); Stefanardo de Vicomercato is the author of the rhythmical poem "De gestis in civitate Mediolani" (in "Script. Rer. Ital.", IX; G. Calligaris, "Alcune osservazioni sopra un passo del poema 'De gestis in civitate Mediolani' di Stefanardo" in "Misc. Ceriani", Milan, 1910). 14世紀看到人才薈萃多米尼加歷史學家,政務,其中包括:弗朗西斯科皮皮尼的博洛尼亞(四第1320 ) ,拉丁語翻譯的馬可孛羅與作者的一個" chronicon "開始,歷史上的法蘭克斯( 1 。 manzoni , "迪frate弗朗西斯科皮皮尼達博洛尼亞, storico , geografo , viaggiatore刪除秒14 " ,博洛尼亞, 1896年) ;尼古拉斯的butrinto ( 1313 ) ,作者的" relatio德henrici七imperatoris itinere italico " (編輯heyck ,因斯布魯克, 1888年) ;尼古拉特勒韋,編譯的"年鑑性別regum angliæ " (編輯湯匙,豬,倫敦, 1845年) ; jacopo的阿奎和他的" chronicon imaginis世界之" [ ( 1330 ) ;古蹟遺址historiæ patriæ ,劇本"三,都靈, 1848年〕 ;沉積fiamma (四circal 340名)組成的各項工作,對歷史的米蘭(法拉利, "樂cronache邸沉積flamma e樂fonti della galvagnana "中的" bulletino戴爾'的Istituto storico意大利"羅馬, 1891年) ;約翰的colonna (約1336 )是作者的一個"德viris illustribus "和"馬historiarum " (芒多內, "萬écrits authentiques德聖托馬斯-阿坎" ,弗里堡,第二版。 , 1910年,第97頁) ,在下半年的14世紀康拉德的這個收容中心寫了" chronographia summorum pontificum等imperatorum romanorum (默克, "死chronographia konrads馮這個收容中心"等" forsch 。說明deutsch english 。 gesch "某某, 1880年,第279條) ;亨利hervordia (四1370 )寫了" liber德rebus memorabilibus " (編輯波特哈斯特,哥廷根, 1859 ) ; stefanardo德vicomercato是作者的有節奏的詩"德gestis在奇維塔特mediolani " (在"腳本。人民幣匯率。 2007/2008 " ,第九章; g. calligaris , " alcune osservazioni sopra聯合國passo刪除版本'德gestis在奇維塔特mediolani '迪stefanardo "中的"雜項切里亞尼" ,米蘭, 1910 ) 。 At the end of the fifteenth century Hermann of Lerbeke composed a "Chronicon comitum Schauenburgensium" and a "Chronicon episcoporum Mindensium" (Eckmann, "Hermann von Lerbeke mit besonderer Berücksichtigung seines Lebens und der Abfassungszeit seiner Schriften" (Hamm, 1879); Hermann Korner left an important "Chronica novella" (ed. J. Schwalm, Göttingen 1895; cf. Waitz, "Ueber Hermann Korner und die Lübecker Chronikon", Göttingen, 1851). The "Chronicon" or "Summa Historialis" of St. Antoninus, Archbishop of Florence, composed about the middle of the fifteenth century is a useful compilation with original data for the author's own times (Schaube, "Die Quellen der Weltchronik des heil. Antonin Erzbischofs von Florenz" Hirschberg, 1880). Felix Fabri (Schmid, d. 1502) left valuable historical works; his "Evagatorium in Terræ Sanctæ, Arabiæ et Aegypti peregrinationem" (ed., Hassler, Stuttgart, 1843) is the most instructive and important work of this kind during the fourteenth century. He is also the author of a "Descriptio Sueviæ" ("Quellen zer Schweizer Gesch.", Basle, 1884) and a "Tractatus de civitate Ulmensi" (Litterarischesverein in Stuttgart, no. 186, Tübingen, 1889, ed. G. Veesenmeyer; cf., under the names of these writers, Quétif-Echard, "Script. Ord. Præd", Chevalier, "Répertoire . . . du moyen-âge; Bio-Bibl.", Paris, 1907, Potthast "Bib. Hist. Medii Ævi", Berlin, 1896; Hurter, "Nomenclator Lit.", II, 1906).在去年底的15世紀赫爾曼的lerbeke組成的一個" chronicon comitum schauenburgensium "和" chronicon episcoporum mindensium " ( eckmann , "赫爾曼馮lerbeke麻省理工學院besonderer berücksichtigung seines lebens und明鏡abfassungszeit圍網schriften " (哈姆, 1879年) ;赫爾曼korner左一個重要的"慢性中篇小說" (編輯j.施瓦姆,哥廷根1895年;比照waitz , " ueber赫爾曼korner und模具lübecker chronikon " ,哥廷根, 1851年) 。 " chronicon "或"總結historialis "聖antoninus ,大主教的佛羅倫斯,組成約中的15世紀是一個有用的彙編與原始數據為作者自己的時代( schaube , "死quellen明鏡weltchronik萬heil 。倫奎斯特erzbischofs馮florenz " hirschberg , 1880年) 。菲利克斯物(施密德第1502四) ,左寶貴的歷史工程;他的" evagatorium在terræ sanctæ , arabiæ等埃及伊蚊peregrinationem " (編輯, hassler ,斯圖加特, 1843年)是最有啟發性的重要工作,這種在14世紀,他也是作者的一個" descriptio sueviæ " (下稱" quellen zer schweizer gesch " ,巴塞爾, 1884年)和" tractatus德奇維塔特ulmensi " ( litterarischesverein在斯圖加特,沒有186 ,蒂賓根, 1889年版。 g. veesenmeyer ;比照,根據姓名的這些作家, quétif -埃沙爾, "腳本。霍德。 præd " ,其士" ,匯輯… … 。杜沙裡-年紀;生物bibl " ,巴黎, 1907年,波特哈斯特"背帶褲。歷史。 medii ævi " ,柏林, 1896年; hurter , " nomenclator亮著" ,第二章, 1906年) 。

(viii) Miscellaneous works. (八) ,雜項工程。 -- Being unable to devote a section to each of the different spheres wherein the Preachers exercised their activity, we shall mention here some works which obtained considerable influence or are particularly worthy of attention The "Specula" ("Naturale", "doctrinale", "historiale"; the "Speculum morale" is apocryphal) of Vincent of Beauvais constitute the largest encyclopedia of the Middle Ages and furnished materials for many subsequent writers (Vogel, "Literar-historischen Notizen über den mittelalterlichen Gelehrten Vincenz von Beauvais", Freiburg, 1843; Bourgeat, "Etudes sur Vincent de Beauvais", Paris, 1856). -無法撥出一節,每一個不同的領域,其中傳教士行使他們的活動,我們會在這裡提到的一些作品獲得了相當大的影響力或者是特別值得警惕的" s pecula" (下稱" n aturale" , " d octrinale" " historiale " , " speculum士氣" ,是猜測)鄭海泉的beauvais構成了最大的百科全書的中世紀和家具裝飾材料,對許多後來的作家(傅高義, " literar - historischen notizen黚er書齋mittelalterlichen gelehrten vincenz馮beauvais " ,弗賴堡, 1843年; bourgeat , "練習曲sur鄭海泉德beauvais " ,巴黎, 1856 ) 。 The work of Humbert of Romans, "De tractandis in concilio generali", composed in 1273 at the request of Gregory X and which served as a programme to the General Council of Lyons in 1274, contains the most remarkable views on the condition of Christian society and the reforms to be undertaken (Mortier, "Hist. des Maîtres généraux de l'ordre des Frères Prêcheurs", I, 88).工作洪博達的羅馬人, "德tractandis在concilio generali "組成,在1273年時,應請求格雷戈里X和服務,其中的一個方案,向總理事會的里昂,在1274年,包含了最卓越的見解條件的基督教社會與改革,以進行( mortier , "歷史。萬ma顃res généraux勳章萬Frères的prêcheurs " ,我想, 88 ) 。 The treatise is edited in full only in Brown "Appendix ad fasc. rerum expectandarum et fugendarum" (London, 1690, p. 185).該論文是編輯在充分只有棕色"附錄專案fasc 。 rerum expectandarum等fugendarum " (倫敦, 1690年,第185頁) 。 Burchard of Mount Sion with his "Descriptio Terræ Sanctae" written about 1283, became the classic geographer of Palestine during the Middle Ages (JCM Laurent, "Peregrinatores medii ævi quatuor", Leipsig, 1873). burchard的摩錫永與他的" descriptio terræ sanctae "書面大約1283年,已成為經典的地理學家的巴勒斯坦,在中世紀( jcm洛朗" , peregrinatores medii ævi quatuor " , leipsig , 1873年) 。 William of Moerbeke, who died as Archbishop of Corinth about 1286, was the revisor of translations of Aristotle from the Greek and the translator of portions not hitherto translated.威廉的穆爾貝克人死亡大主教科林斯約1286年,是revisor翻譯亞里士多德從希臘文和翻譯的部分,至今尚未翻譯成英文。 To him are also due translations of numerous philosophical and scientific works of ancient Greek authors (Mandonnet, "Siger de Brabant", I, 40).他也由於翻譯的許多哲學和科學作品的古希臘作家(芒多內, "西格德Brabant的" ,我想, 40 ) 。 The "Catholicon" of the Genoese John Balbus, completed in 1285, is a vast treatise on the Latin tongue, accompanied by an etymological vocabulary. "靈丹妙藥"的熱那亞約翰balbus ,在完成第1285 ,是一個幅員遼闊,傷寒論拉丁語舌,伴隨著一個詞源詞彙。 It is the first work on profane sciences ever printed.這是第一個工作就褻瀆科學以往任何時候都加印。 It is also famous because in the Mainz edition (1460) John Guttenberg first made use of movable type ("Incunabula xylographica et typographica", 1455-1500, Joseph Baer Frankfort, 1900, p. 11).這也是有名的,因為在美因茨版( 1460 )約翰古滕貝格首次利用活字( " incunabula xylographica等typographica " , 1455年至1500年,約瑟夫貝爾法蘭克福, 1900年,第11頁) 。 The "Philobiblion" edited under the name of Richard of Bury, but composed by Robert Holcot (d. 1349), is the first medieval treatise on the love of books (ed. Cocheris, Paris, 1856; tr. Thomas, London, 1888). " philobiblion "主編的名義下,理查德的埋葬,而是由羅伯特holcot (四1349 ) ,是第一個中世紀傷寒論愛情的書籍(編cocheris ,巴黎, 1856年;的TR 。托馬斯,倫敦, 1888年) 。 John of Tambach (d. 1372), first professor of theology at the newly-founded University of Prague (1347), is the author of a valuable work, the "Consolatio Theologiæ" (Denifle, "Magister Johann von Dambach" in "Archiv für Litt. u. Kirchengesch" III, 640).約翰的坦巴奇(四1372 ) ,第一教授神學,在新成立的大學,布拉格( 1347 ) ,是作者的一個寶貴的工作, " consolatio theologiæ " (德尼夫勒, " magister約翰馮丹巴赫"中的" archiv f黵利特,美國kirchengesch "三, 640頁) 。 Towards the end of the fifteenth century Frederico Frezzi, who died as Bishop of Foligno (1416), composed in Italian a poem in the spirit of the "Divine Commedia" and entitled "Il Quadriregio" (Foligno, 1725); (cf. Canetti, "Il Quadriregio", Venice, 1889; Filippini, "Le edizioni del Quadriregio" in "Bibliofilia", VIII, Florence, 1907).在接近年底的15世紀frederico frezzi ,死於作為主教foligno ( 1416 ) ,由在意大利的一首詩,在精神上來,把"神commedia "和名為"白細胞介素quadriregio " ( foligno , 17時25分) ; (參見卡內蒂"白介素quadriregio " ,威尼斯, 1889年;菲利皮尼, "樂edizioni刪除quadriregio "中的" bibliofilia " ,第八,佛羅倫薩, 1907年) 。 The Florentine Thomas Sardi (d. 1517) wrote a long and valued poem, "L'anima peregrina", the composition of which dates from the end of the fifteenth century (Romagnoli "Frate Tommaso Sardi e il suo poema inedito dell' anima peregrine" in "Il propugnatore", XVIII, 1885, pt. II, 289).佛羅倫薩托馬斯sardi (四1517 )寫了一長和重視詩, " l'動物peregrina " ,其人員組成,其中日期,從去年底的15世紀( romagnoli " frate tommaso sardi e白細胞介素鎖版本inedito戴爾'動物百富勤"中的"白介素propugnatore " ,十八, 1885年,鉑,第二289 ) 。

(ix) Liturgy. (九)禮拜儀式。 -- Towards the middle of the thirteenth century the Dominicans had definitely established the liturgy which they still retain. -對中的1 3世紀多米尼加已建立了一定的禮儀中,他們仍然保留。 The final correction (1256) was the work of Humbert of Romans.最後更正( 1256 )的工作洪博達的入鄉隨俗。 It was divided into fourteen sections or volumes.它共分為14個章節或卷。 The prototype of this monumental work is preserved at Rome in the general archives of the order ("Script. Ord. Præd." I, 143; "Zeitschr. f. Kathol. Theol.", VII, 10).原型本巨著,是保存在羅馬,在綜合檔案館的命令( "腳本。霍德。 præd "我的143 " ; zeitschr 。樓kathol 。 theol " ,第七章, 10條) 。 A portable copy for the use of the master general, a beautiful specimen of thirteenth-century book-making, is preserved in the British Museum, no.便攜式拷貝,為使用的師父一般,一個美麗的標本第十三世紀圖書決策,是保存在大英博物館裡,沒有。 23,935 (JW Legg, "Tracts on the Mass", Bradshaw Society, 1904; Barge, "Le Chant liturgique dans 1'Ordre de Saint-Dominique" in "L'Année Dominicaine", Paris, 1908, 27; Gagin, "Un manuscrit liturgique des Frères Prêcheurs antérieur aux réglements d Humbert de Romans" in "Revue des Bibliothèques", 1899, p. 163; Idem, "Dominicains et Teutoniques, conflit d'attribution du 'Liber Choralis'" no. 182 du catalogue 120 de M. Ludwig Rosenthal" in "Revue des Bibliothèques", 1908). Jerome of Moravia, about 1250, composed a "Tractatus de Musica" (Paris, Bib. Nat. lat. 16,663), the most important theoretical work of the thirteenth century on liturgical chant, some fragments of which were placed as preface to the Dominican liturgy of Humbert of Romans. It was edited by Coussemaker in his "Scriptores de musica medii ævi", I (Paris, 1864). (Cf. Kornmüller "Die alten Musiktheoretiker XX. Hieronymus von Mären" in "Kirchenmusikalisehes Jahrbueh", IV, 1889, 14.) The Preachers also left numerous liturgical compositions, among the most renowned being the Office of the Blessed Sacrament by St. Thomas Aquinas, one of the masterpieces of Catholic liturgy (Mandonnet, "Des écrits authentiques de S. Thomas d'Aquin", 2nd ed. p. 127). Armand du Prat (d. 1306) is the author of the beautiful Office of St. Louis, King of France. His work, selected by the Court of Philip the Bold, came into universal use in France ("Script. Ord. Præd." I, 499; "Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bib. Nat.", XXVII, 11th pt., 369, n. 6). The "Dies Iræ" has been attributed to Cardinal Latino Malabranca who was in his time a famous composer of ecclesiastical chants and offices ("Scritti vari di Filologia", Rome, 1901, p. 488). 23935 (李鍾鬱券商Legg , "傳單上開展群眾性的" ,白的社會, 1904年;駁船, "樂高唱liturgique dans 1'ordre德聖-多米尼克" , " l' ann閒dominicaine " ,巴黎, 1908年,第27條;哈金, "聯合國manuscrit liturgique萬Frères的prêcheurs antérieur輔助réglements d洪博達德入鄉隨俗" , "萬雜誌bibliothèques " , 1899年,第163條;同上, " dominicains等teutoniques ,衝突-歸屬杜' l iberc horalis' " ,沒有1 82杜目錄1 20德米路德維希羅森塔爾" , "萬雜誌bibliothèques " , 1908年) 。杰羅姆的摩拉維亞,約有1250名,組成一個" tractatus音樂" (巴黎,背帶褲。 NAT的。北緯16663 )中,最重要的理論工作的13世紀關於禮儀高唱,有些片段,其中把它作為序多米尼加禮儀中的洪博達的羅馬人,這是主編庫瑟馬凱在他的" scriptores音樂medii ævi "時,我(巴黎, 1864 ) 。 (參見kornmüller "死alten musiktheoretiker二十。 hieronymus馮mären "中的" kirchenmusikalisehes jahrbueh " ,四, 1889年, 14件)的宣講員,也留下了眾多的禮儀成分,其中最知名的作為辦公室的聖體聖托馬斯阿奎那,其中的代表作天主教禮拜儀式(芒多內, "萬écrits authentiques下環托馬斯-阿坎" ,第2版第1 27頁) 。華山松杜寶勒巷(四1 306) ,是作者的美麗辦公室聖路易斯,法國國王。他的工作,選定由法院弘大膽的,當初普遍使用在法國( "腳本。霍德。 præd "我499 " ;告示等extraits萬manuscrits德香格里拉背帶褲。 NAT的" ,二十七, 11鉑。 , 369 , 12月31日6 ) 。 "模具iræ "已被歸因於樞機拉丁裔malabranca誰在他的時間,一位著名作曲家的教會呼喊和辦公室(簡稱" scritti可變迪filologia " ,羅馬, 1901年, 488頁) 。 (x) Humanistic works. ( x )的人文工程。 -- The order felt more than is commonly thought the influence of Humanism and furnished it with noteworthy contributions. -為了覺得以上是常見的思想的影響,人文和家具,它與值得注意的貢獻。 This influence was continued during the following period in the sixteenth century and reacted on its Biblical and theological compositions.這種影響力是繼續在下列期間,在十六世紀和反應,就其聖經和神學的成分。 Leonardo Giustiniani, Archbishop of Mytilene, in 1449, composed against the celebrated Poggio a treatise "De vera nobilitate", edited with Poggio's "De nobilitate" (Avellino, 1657).萊昂納多朱斯蒂尼亞尼,大主教mytilene ,在1449年組成,對慶祝中意一論文“德維拉nobilitate ” ,編輯與中意的“時點nobilitate ” (阿韋利諾, 1657 ) 。 The Sicilian Thomas Schifaldo wrote commentaries on Perseus about 1461 and on Horace in 1476.西西里托馬斯schifaldo寫評論,珀爾修斯約1461年和對賀拉斯在1476年。 He is the author of a "De viris illustribus Ordinis Prædicatorum", written in humanistic style, and of the Office of St. Catherine of Siena, usually but incorrectly ascribed to Pius II (Cozzuli "Tommaso Schifaldo umanista siciliano del sec. XV", Palermo, 1897, in "Documenti per servire alla storia di Sicilia", VI).他是作者一個“時點viris illustribus ordinis prædicatorum的” ,寫的人文風格,和辦公室的聖凱瑟琳錫耶納,但通常是不正確的歸因於碧岳二( cozzuli : “ tommaso schifaldo umanista siciliano恢復秒。十五” ,巴勒莫, 1897年,在“ documenti每servire阿拉storia邸西西里島” ,第六節) 。 The Venetian Francesco Colonna is the author of the celebrated work "The Dream of Poliphilus" ("Poliphili Hypnerotomachia, ubi humane omnia non nisi somnium esse docet", Aldus, Venice, 1499; cf. Popelin, "Le songe de Poliphile ou hypnerotomachia de Frère Francesco Colonna", Paris, 1880).威尼斯的弗朗西斯科科隆納是作者的慶祝工作“的夢想poliphilus ” ( “ poliphili hypnerotomachia ,育碧人道OMNIA公司非暫準的夢想esse docet ” , aldus ,威尼斯, 1499年;比照popelin , “樂songe德poliphile歐hypnerotomachia德frère弗朗西斯科科隆納“ ,巴黎, 1880年) 。 Colonna's work aims to condense in the form of a romance all the knowledge of antiquity.科隆納的工作,目的是凝聚在的形式,愛情,所有的知識古物。 It gives evidence of its author's profound classical learning and impassioned love for Græco-Roman culture.它給人的證據證明其作者的深厚的古典學習和慷慨激昂的愛græco -羅馬文化。 The work, which is accompanied by the most perfect illustrations of the time, has been called "the most beautiful book of the Renaissance" (Ilg, "Ueber den kunsthistorisches werth der Hypnerotomachia Poliphili", Vienna, 1872; Ephrusi, "Etudes sur le songe de Poliphile" in "Bulletin de Bibliophile" 1887, Paris, 1888; Dorez, "Des origines et de la diffusion du songe de Poliphile" in "Revue des Bibliothèques", VI, 1896, 239; Gnoli "Il sogno di Polifilo, in "Bibliofila", 1900, 190; Fabrini, "Indagini sul Polifilo" in "Giorn. Storico della letteratura Italiana", XXXV, 1900, I; Poppelreuter, "Der anonyme Meister des Polifilo" in "Zur Kunstgesch. des Auslandes", XX, Strassburg, 1904; Molmenti, "Alcuni documenti concernenti l'autore della (Hypnerotomachia Poliphili)" in "Archivio storico italiano", Ser. V, XXXVIII (906, 291). Tommaso Radini Todeschi (Radinus Todischus) composed under the title "Callipsychia" (Milan, 1511) an allegorical romance in the manner of Apuleius and inspired by the Dream of Poliphilus. The Dalmatian, John Polycarpus Severitanus of Sebenico, commentated the eight parts of the discourse of Donatus and the Ethics of Seneca the Younger (Perugia, 1517; Milan, 1520; Venice, 1522) and composed "Gramatices historicæ, methodicæ et exegeticæ" (Perugia, 1518). The Bolognese Leandro Alberti (d. 1550) was an elegant Latinist and his "De viris illustribus ordinis praedicatorum" (Bologna, 1517), written in the humanistic manner, is a beautiful specimen of Bolognese publishing ("Script. Ord. Præd.", II, 137; Campori, "Sei lettere inedite di Fra Leandro Alberti" in "Atti e memorie della Deput. di Storia patria per le prov. Modenesi e Parmensi", I, 1864, p. 413). Finally Matteo Bandello (d. 1555), who was called the "Dominican Boccacio", is regarded as the first novelist of the Italian Cinquecento and his work shows what an evil influence the Renaissance could exert on churchmen (Masi "Matteo Bandello o vita italiana in un novelliere del cinquecento", Bologna, 1900).工作,這是伴隨著最完美的插圖的時間裡,被稱為“最美麗的書文藝復興” ( ilg , “ ueber書齋kunsthistorisches werth明鏡尋愛綺夢” ,維也納, 1872年; ephrusi , “練習曲sur樂songe德poliphile “在”公告德藏書“ 1887年,巴黎, 1888年; dorez , ”萬德等origines香格里拉擴散杜songe德poliphile “在”雜誌萬bibliothèques “ ,六, 1896年, 239 ;尼奧利”白細胞介素sogno邸polifilo ,在“ bibliofila ” , 1900年, 190 ; fabrini , “ indagini州polifilo ”在“ giorn 。 storico德拉letteratura意大利” ,三十五, 1900年,我; poppelreuter , “明鏡anonyme梅斯特萬polifilo ”在“ zur kunstgesch 。奧斯蘭德斯萬” , XX條, strassburg , 1904年; molmenti , “ alcuni documenti concernenti l' autore德拉(尋愛綺夢) ”在“ archivio storico義大利語” ,絲氨酸。五,三十八( 906 , 291 ) 。 tommaso radini托代斯基( radinus todischus )組成的標題下“ callipsychia ” (米蘭, 1511 )一寓言的浪漫方式apuleius和靈感的夢想poliphilus 。達爾馬提亞,約翰polycarpus severitanus的塞貝尼科, commentated八個部分話語圖斯和倫理塞涅卡年輕(佩魯賈, 1517年;米蘭, 1520年;威尼斯, 1522 )及組成的“ gramatices historicæ , methodicæ等exegeticæ ” (佩魯賈, 1518年) 。波洛尼亞萊安德羅阿爾貝蒂(四1550年)是一個優雅的latinist和他的“德viris illustribus ordinis praedicatorum ” (博洛尼亞, 1517年) ,以書面在人文的方式,是一個美麗的標本波洛尼亞出版( “腳本。條例” 。 præd 。 “第一,二, 137 ;坎波里, ” SEI的lettere inedite邸FRA的萊安德羅阿爾貝蒂“在” atti e memorie德拉deput 。娣storia祖國%樂省。莫代內西e parmensi “ ,我, 1864年,頁413 ) 。最後馬特奧班戴洛(四1555 ) ,誰被稱為”多米尼加薄伽邱“ ,被視為是第一小說家的意大利cinquecento和他的工作表明,什麼是邪惡的影響,文藝復興時期可以施加對牧師( masi “馬特奧班戴洛o簡歷意大利在聯合國novelliere刪除cinquecento ” ,博洛尼亞, 1900年) 。

(g) The Preachers and Art (七)傳教士和藝術

The Preachers hold an important place in the history of art.該傳教士舉行的一個重要的地方,在歷史上的藝術品。 They contributed in many ways to the artistic life of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.他們的貢獻在許多方面的藝術生活的中世紀和文藝復興時期。 Their churches and convents offered an extraordinary field of activity to contemporary artists, while a large number of the Preachers themselves did important work in the various spheres of art.他們的教堂和修道院提供了一個非同尋常的活動領域,以當代藝術家,而大量的傳教士本身沒有重要的工作在各個領域的藝術。 Finally by their teaching and religious activity they often exercised a profound influence on the direction and inspiration of art.最後由他們的教學和宗教活動,他們往往行使了深刻的影響,方向和靈感的藝術。 Primarily established under a regime of evangelic poverty, the order took severe measures to avoid in its churches all that might suggest luxury and wealth.初步建立下一個政權的福音貧困,為了採取了嚴厲的措施,以避免在其教會所有可能建議奢侈品和財富。 Until the middle of the thirteenth century its constitutions and general chapters energetically legislated against anything tending to suppress the evidence of poverty ("Archiv. f. Litt.-und Kirchgesch.", I, 225, "Acta Cap. Gen.", I, passim).中才有13世紀,其憲法和一般章節大力立法對付任何撫育鎮壓的證據,貧窮( “ archiv 。 litt.樓- und kirchgesch ” ,我, 225 , “學報上限。將軍” ,我,各處) 。 But the order's intense activity, its establishment in large cities and familiar contact with the whole general movement of civilization triumphed over this state of things.但該命令的激烈活動,其設立在大中城市和熟悉的聯繫與整個一般運動的文明戰勝了這個國家的事情。 As early as 1250, churches and convents appeared called opus sumptuosum (Finke, "Die Freiburger Dominikaner und der Münsterbau", Freiburg, 1901 p. 47; Potthast, op. cit., 22,426).早在1250年,教堂和修道院出現了所謂的作品sumptuosum ( finke , “模具freiburger dominikaner und明鏡münsterbau ” ,弗賴堡, 1901年,第47頁;波特哈斯特,前引書, 22426 ) 。 They were, however, encouraged by ecclesiastical authority and the order eventually relinquished its early uncompromising attitude.然而,他們感到鼓舞,教會的權威和秩序,最終放棄了早期不妥協的態度。 Nevertheless ascetic and morose minds were scandalized by what they called royal edifices (Matthew Paris, "Hist. maj.", ad. ann. 1243; d'Achéry, "Spicelegium", Paris, 1723, II, 634; Cocheris "Philobiblion", Paris, 1856, p. 227).不過苦行和morose的頭腦被scandalized由他們所謂的皇家大樓(馬太巴黎, “歷史。少校” ,廣告。人工神經網絡。 1243年; -a chéry, “ s picelegium” ,巴黎, 1 723年第一,二, 6 34; c ocheris“ p hilobiblion” ,巴黎, 1856年,第227條) 。 The second half of the thirteenth century saw the beginning of a series of monuments, many of which are still famous in history and art." The Dominicans," says Cesare Cantù, "soon had in the chief towns of Italy magnificent monasteries and superb temples, veritable wonders of art. Among others may be mentioned: the Church of Santa Maria Novella, at Florence; Santa Maria Sopra Minerva, at Rome; St. John and St. Paul, at Venice; St. Nicholas, at Treviso; St. Dominic, at Naples, at Perugia, at Prato, and at Bologna, with the splendid tomb of the founder, St. Catherine, at Pisa; St. Eustorgius and Sta Maria delle Grazie, at Milan, and several others remarkable for a rich simplicity and of which the architects were mostly monks" ("Les Hérétiques de l'Italie", Paris, 1869, I, 165; Berthier, "L'église de Sainte Sabine à Rome", Rome, 1910; Mullooly, "St. Clement, Pope and Martyr, and his Basilica in Rome", Rome, 1873; Nolan, "The Basilica of St. Clement in Rome" Rome, 1910; Brown, "The Dominican Church of Santa Maria Novelli at Florence, An historical, architectural and artistic study", Edinburgh, 1902; Berthier, "L'église de la Minerve à Rome, Rome: 1910; Marchese, "San Marco convento dei Padri Predicatori in Firenze", Florence, 1853; Malaguzzi, "La chiesa e il convento di S. Domenico a Bologna secondo nuove richerche" in "Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft", XX, 1897, 174; Caffi, "Della chiesa di Sant' Eustorgio in Milano", Milan, 1841; Valle, "S. Domenico Maggiore di Napoli", Naples, 1854; Milanese, "Le Chiesa monumentale di S. Nicolò in Treviso", Treviso, 1889; Mortier, "Notre Dame de la Guercia" Paris, 1904; Ital. tr. Ferretti, Florence, 1904; Oriandini, "Descrizione storica della chiesa di S. Domenico di Perugia", Perugia, 1798; Biebrach, "Die holzgedeckten Franziskaner und Dominikanerkirchen in Umbrien und Toskana", Berlin, 1908).下半年13世紀看到開始了一系列的古蹟,其中有許多是著名的仍是在歷史和藝術“ ,多米尼加,說: ”凱薩cantù , “盡快曾在行政城鎮意大利的宏偉寺廟和高超的寺廟,名副其實的藝術奇觀,其中可能會提到的:教堂Santa Maria中篇小說,在佛羅倫斯;聖瑪麗亞sopra密涅瓦,在羅馬;聖約翰和聖保羅,在威尼斯;聖尼古拉斯,在特雷維索;聖多米尼克,在那不勒斯,佩魯賈,在普拉托,並在博洛尼亞,與燦爛的墓的創始人,聖凱瑟琳,在比薩;聖eustorgius和站瑪麗亞delle格拉傑,在米蘭,和其他幾個顯著,為豐富簡單和其中的建築師大多是和尚“ ( ”就業輔導組hérétiques德l' Italie廣場“ ,巴黎, 1869年,我, 165 ; berthier , ” l' église德聖薩賓à羅馬“ ,羅馬, 1910年; mullooly , ”聖克萊門特,教宗和烈士,和他的巴西利卡在羅馬“ ,羅馬, 1873年;諾蘭”的Basilica聖克萊門特在羅馬“ ,羅馬, 1910年;布朗, ”多米尼加的教堂Santa Maria諾維在佛羅倫斯,歷史,建築及藝術研究“ ,愛丁堡, 1902年; berthier , ” l' église德香格里拉minerve à羅馬,羅馬: 10年; marchese , “聖馬convento dei padri普雷迪卡托裡在firenze ” ,佛羅倫斯, 1853年;馬拉的“ La基耶薩e金正日convento娣第明尼科1博洛尼亞secondo nuove richerche “在” repertorium f黵kunstwissenschaft “ , XX條, 1897年, 174 ; caffi , ”德拉基耶薩迪聖歐斯托希奧在米蘭“ ,米蘭, 1841年;山谷, ”美國Maggiore )明尼科迪那波利“ ,那不勒斯, 1854年;米蘭, “樂基耶薩monumentale邸第nicolò在特雷維索” ,特雷維索, 1889年; mortier , “巴黎聖母院德香格里拉圭爾恰”巴黎, 1904年;瑞典。的TR 。 ferretti ,佛羅倫斯, 1904年; oriandini , “ descrizione storica德拉基耶薩邸第明尼科迪佩魯賈“ ,佩魯賈, 1798年; biebrach , ”模具holzgedeckten franziskaner und dominikanerkirchen在umbrien und toskana “ ,柏林, 1908年) 。

France followed in Italy's footsteps.其次是法國,在意大利的後塵。 Here mention must be made of the Jacobins of Toulouse (Carrière, "Les Jacobins de Toulouse", 2nd ed., Toulouse, sd); St. Jacques de Paris (Millie, "Antiquités rationales", Paris, 1790, III, 1); St. Maximin in Provence (Rostan, "Notice sur l'église de Saint-Maximin", Brignoles, 1859); Notre-Dame-de-Confort at Lyons (Cormier, "L'ancien couvent des Dominicains de Lyon", Lyons, 1898).這裡必須提到取得的雅各賓的圖盧茲( carrière , "就業輔導組雅各賓德圖盧茲" ,第二版,圖盧茲,職務) ,聖雅克德巴黎( millie , " antiquités理" ,巴黎, 1790 , ,三, 1 )聖極大極小,在Provence的( rostan , "通知sur l' église德聖-極大極小" , brignoles , 1859 ) ;聖母院德- confort在里昂( cormier , " l' ancien couvent萬dominicains里昂" ,在里昂, 1898 ) 。 A comprehensive account of the architectural work of the Dominicans in France may be found in the magnificent publication of Rohault de Fleury, "Gallia Dominicana, Les couvents de Saint-Dominique en France au moyen-âge" (Paris, 1903, 2 vols. in 4).報告全面介紹了建築工作的多米尼加人,在法國可能會發現,在波瀾壯闊的出版羅奧德後繼" , gallia Dominicana小,就業輔導組couvents德聖-多米尼克恩法國歐中沙-年紀" (巴黎, 1903年,第2卷。 4 ) 。 Spain was also covered with remarkable monuments: St. Catherine of Barcelona and St. Thomas of Madrid were destroyed by fire; S. Esteban at Salamanca, S. Pablo and S. Gregorio at Valladolid, Santo Tomas at Avila, San Pablo at Seville and at Cordova.西班牙也佈滿了顯著的古蹟:聖凱瑟琳的巴塞羅那和聖托馬斯的馬德里被燒毀;第埃斯特萬在薩拉曼卡,第巴勃羅和聖格雷戈里奧在巴利亞多利德,聖托馬斯在阿維拉,聖巴勃羅在塞維利亞和在科爾多瓦。 S. Cruz at Granada, Santo Domingo at Valencia and Saragossa (Martinez-Vigil, "La orden de Predicadores", Barcelona, 1886).第克魯斯在格拉納達,聖多明各在巴倫西亞和saragossa (馬丁內斯-燭光紀念會, "香格里拉勳章德predicadores " ,巴塞羅那, 1886年) 。 Portugal also had beautiful buildings.葡萄牙也有漂亮的建築。 The church and convent of Batalha are perhaps the most splendid ever dwelt in by the order (Murphy, "Plans, elevations, sections and views of the Church of Batalha", London, 1795; de Condeixa, "O mosteiro de Batalha em Portugal", Paris, 1892; Vascoucellos, "Batalha. Convento de Santa Maria da Victoria", Porto, 1905).教堂和修道院, batalha也許是最燦爛以往任何時候都住在由秩序(墨菲, "規劃,海拔,科室和意見的教堂batalha " ,倫敦, 1795年;德condeixa ,劃" O mosteiro德batalha葡國"巴黎, 1892年; vascoucellos , " batalha 。 convento德聖瑪麗亞大維" ,波爾圖, 1905年) 。 Germany had beautiful churches and convents, usually remarkable for their simplicity and the purity of their lines (Scherer, "Kirchen und Kloster der Franziskaner und Dominikaner in Thuringen", Jena, 1910; Schneider, "Die Kirchen der Dominikaner und Karmeliten" in "Mittelalterliche Ordensbauten in Mainz", Mainz, 1879; "Zur Wiederherstellung der Dominikanerkirche in Augsburg" in "Augsburger Postzeitung", 12 Nov., 1909; "Des Dominikanerkloster in Eisenach", Eisenach, 1857; Ingold, "Notice sur l'église et le couvent des Dominicains de Colmar", Colmar, 1894; Burckhardt-Riggenbach, "Die Dominikaner Klosterkirche in Basel", Basle, 1855; Stammler, "Die ehemalige Predigerkirche in Bern und ihre Wandmalerein" in "Berner Kunstdenkmaler", III, Bern, 1908).德國有漂亮的教堂和修道院,通常是了不起的簡單和純淨的線條( scherer , " kirchen und克洛斯特明鏡franziskaner und dominikaner在thuringen " ,耶拿, 1910年;施耐德, "死kirchen明鏡dominikaner und karmeliten "中的" mittelalterliche ordensbauten在美因茨" ,美因茨, 1879年" ; zur wiederherstellung明鏡dominikanerkirche在奧格斯堡"中的" augsburger postzeitung " , 1909年11月12日, "萬dominikanerkloster在埃森納赫" ,愛森納赫, 1857年; INGOLD的, "通知sur l' église等樂couvent萬dominicains德科爾馬" ,科爾馬, 1894年;布氏- riggenbach , "死dominikaner klosterkirche在巴塞爾" ,巴塞爾, 1855年; stammler , "死ehemalige predigerkirche在伯爾尼und ihre wandmalerein "中的"伯納kunstdenkmaler " ,三,伯爾尼, 1908年) 。

Whatever may be said to the contrary the Dominicans as well as other mendicant orders created a special architectural art.無論如何,可以說是相反的多米尼加以及其他乞討命令創建了一個特殊的建築藝術。 They made use of art as they found it in the course of their history and adapted it to their needs.他們利用先進的,因為他們發現,它在執行過程中,他們的歷史和它適應他們的需要。 They adopted Gothic art and assisted in its diffusion, but they accepted the art of the Renaissance when it had supplanted the ancient forms.他們採取了哥特式藝術,並協助其擴散,但他們接受了藝術的文藝復興時,它沒有supplanted古老的形式。 Their churches varied in dimensions and richness, according to the exigencies of the place.他們的教會都各有不同的尺寸和豐富性,根據需要來的地方。 They built a number of churches with double naves and a larger number with open roofs.他們建成了一批教會雙naves和大批開放式屋頂。 The distinct characteristic of their churches resulted from their sumptuary legislation which excluded decorated architectural work, save in the choir.鮮明的特點,其教堂,導致其sumptuary立法,排除建築裝飾工作,儲蓄,在合唱團。 Hence the predominance of single lines in their buildings.因此為主的單一線路在自己的大廈。 This exclusivism, which often went as far as the suppression of capitals on the columns, gives great lightness and elegance to the naves of their churches.這種排外主義,因為這往往不惜據制止首都欄,讓偉大的明度和優雅向naves他們的教堂。 While we lack direct information concerning most of the architects of these monuments, there is no doubt that many of the men who supervised the construction of its churches and convents were members of the order and they even assisted in works of art outside of the order.我們雖然沒有直接的資料,大部分的建築師這些紀念碑,這是毫無疑問的,許多男人督戰,它的建造的教堂和修道院的成員,該命令,他們甚至協助藝術作品以外的秩序。 Thus we know that Brother Diemar built the Dominican church of Ratisbon (1273-77) (Sighart, "Gesch. d. bildenden Künste im Kgn. Bayern", Munich, 1862).因此,我們知道哥哥diemar建多米尼加教堂拉蒂斯邦( 1273至1277年) (西加爾特, " gesch 。四bildenden künste的IM kgn 。拜仁" ,慕尼黑, 1862年) 。 Brother Volmar exercised his activity in Alsace about the same time and especially at Colmar (Ingold, op. cit.).哥哥volmar行使其活性在阿爾薩斯,大約同一時間,尤其是在科爾馬( INGOLD的,同前) 。 Brother Humbert was the architect of the church and convent of Bonn, as well as of the stone bridge across the Aar, in the Middle Ages the most beautiful in the city (Howard, "Des Dominikaner-Kloster in Bern von 1269-1400", Bern, 1857).哥哥洪博達是建築師的教堂和修道院,波恩,以及作為石頭之間架起了一座橋樑AAR的,在中世紀,最美麗的城市(霍華德, "萬dominikaner -克洛斯特在伯爾尼馮1269年至1400年" ,伯爾尼, 1857年) 。 In Italy architects of the order are known to fame, especially at Florence, where they erected the church and cloisters of S. Maria Novella, which epitomize the whole history of Florentine art (Davidsohn, "Forschungen zur Gesch. von Florenz", Berlin, 1898, 466; Marchese, "Memorie dei più insigni pittori, scultori e architetti domenicani", Bologna, 1878, I).在意大利建築師的命令是眾所周知的知名度,特別是在佛羅倫薩,在那裡豎立教會和迴廊的第瑪麗亞中篇小說,它體現了整個歷史的佛羅倫薩藝術( davidsohn , " forschungen zur gesch 。馮florenz " ,柏林, 1898年, 466名; marchese , " memorie dei più insigni pittori , scultori e architetti domenicani " ,博洛尼亞, 1878年,我) 。 At first the order endeavoured to banish sculpture from its churches, but eventually accepted it and set the example by the construction of the beautiful tomb of St. Dominic at Bologna, and of St. Peter of Verona at the Church of St. Eustorgius at Milan.當初為了力求放逐雕塑,從教堂,但最終接受了它,並做出表率,由建設美麗墓聖星在博洛尼亞,和聖彼得的維羅納,在教會的聖eustorgius在米蘭。 A Dominican, William of Pisa, worked on the former (Berthier, "Le tombeau de St. Dominique", Paris, 1895; Beltrani, "La cappella di S. Pietro Martire presso la Basilica di Sant Eustorgio in Milano" in "Archivio storico dell' arte", V, 1892).多米尼加,威廉的比薩,工作,對前( berthier , "樂tombeau德聖多米尼克" ,巴黎, 1895年;貝爾特拉尼, "香格里拉清唱迪第彼得馬爾蒂利信息PRESSO香格里拉大教堂迪桑特歐斯托希奧在米蘭" , " archivio storico戴爾'藝術" ,第五, 1892年) 。 Brother Paschal of Rome executed interesting sculptural works, eg his sphinx of Viterbo, signed and dated (1286), and the paschal candlestick of Sta.哥哥逾越的羅馬簽有趣的雕塑作品,如他的獅身人面像維泰博,簽名並註明日期( 1286 ) ,並逾越燭台的站下車。 Maria in Cosmedin, Rome ("Römische Quartalschrift", 1893, 29).瑪麗亞在cosmedin ,羅馬( " römische quartalschrift " , 1893年, 29 ) 。

There were many miniaturists and painters among the Preachers.當時有很多miniaturists與畫家之間的宣講員。 As early as the thirteenth century Hugh Ripelin of Strasburg (d. 1268) was renowned as a painter (Mon. Germ. Hist.: SS., XVII, 233).早在公元13世紀休ripelin的strasburg (四二五五五一二六八)是著名畫家(週一胚芽。歷史。 :秒鐘, 17 , 233 ) 。 But the lengthy list is dominated by two masters who overshadow the others, Fra Angelico and Fra Bartolommeo.但冗長的名單,主要是受兩個主人誰抹煞別人,法國Angelico "和FRA的bartolommeo 。 The work of Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole (d. 1455) is regarded as the highest embodiment of Christian inspiration in art (Marchese, "Memorie", I, 245; Tumiàti, "Frate Angelico", Florence, 1897; Supino "Beato Angelico", Florence, 1898; Langton Dougias, "Fra Angelico", London, 1900; Wurm, "Meister und Schülerarbeit in Fra Angelicos Werk", Strasburg, 1907; Cochin, "Le Bienheureux Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole", Paris, 1906; Schottmuller, "Fra Angelico da Fiesole", Stuttgart and Leipzig, 1911 (Fr. ed., Paris, 1911). Fra Bartolommeo belongs to the golden age of the Italian Renaissance. He is one of the great masters of drawing. His art is scholarly, noble and simple and imbued with a tranquil and restrained piety (Marchese, "Memorie", II, 1; Franz, "Fra Bartolommeo della Porta", Ratisbon, 1879; Gruyer, "Fra Bartolommeo della Porta et Mariotto Albertinelli", Paris-London, sd; Knapp, "Fra Bartolommeo della Porta und die Schule von San Marco", Halle, 1903). The order also produced remarkable painters on glass: James of Ulm (d. 1491), who worked chiefly at Bologna and William of Marcillat (d. 1529), who in the opinion of his first biographer was perhaps the greatest painter on glass who ever lived (Marchese, "Memorie", II; Mancini, "Guglielmo de Marcillat francese insuperato pittore sul vetro", Florence, 1909). As early as the fourteenth century Dominican churches and convents began to be covered with mural decorations. Some of these edifices became famous sanctuaries of art, such as S. Maria Novella and S. Marco of Florence. But the phenomenon was general at the end of the fifteenth century, and thus the order received some of the works of the greatest artists, as for instance the "Last Supper" of Leonardo da Vinci (1497-98) in the refectory of S. Maria delle Grazie at Milan (Bossi, "Del cenacolo di Leonardo daVinci", Milan, 1910; Sant' Ambrogio, "Note epigrafiche ed artistiche intorno alla sale del Cenacolo ed al tempio di Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milano" in "Archivio Storico Lombardo", 1892).工作FRA的喬瓦尼Angelico "大fiesole (四1455 ) ,是被視為最高體現,基督教的啟示,在藝術( marchese , " memorie " ,我想, 245 ; tumiàti , " frate Angelico " " ,佛羅倫薩, 1897年; supino " , " Beato Angelico " " ,佛羅倫薩, 1898年; langton dougias , "法蘭克福機場Angelico " " ,倫敦, 1900年; wurm , "大師und schülerarbeit在法蘭克福機場angelicos werk " , strasburg , 1907年;交趾陶" ,樂bienheureux FRA的喬瓦尼Angelico "大fiesole " ,巴黎, 1906年; schottmuller , "法蘭克福機場Angelico "大fiesole " ,斯圖加特和萊比錫, 1911年(菌核版,巴黎, 1911年) 。 FRA的bartolommeo屬於黃金時代的意大利文藝復興時期,他是一個偉大的主人,繪畫,他的藝術是學術,崇高和簡單和充滿恬靜和克制的虔誠( marchese , " memorie " ,第二章, 1 ; Franz ,印度"法蘭克福機場bartolommeo della門" ,拉蒂斯邦, 1879年; gruyer , "法蘭克福機場bartolommeo della門等馬里奧托阿爾貝蒂內利" ,巴黎-倫敦,標準差; knapp , "法蘭克福機場bartolommeo della門und模具schule馮聖馬" ,哈雷, 1903年) 。秩序,也產生了顯著畫家對玻璃:詹姆斯的烏爾姆隊(四1491 ) ,他們的工作主要是在博洛尼亞和威廉。對馬爾西亞(四第1529 ) ,他在民意的,他先寫傳記,也許是最偉大的畫家,在玻璃上的人永遠生活( marchese , " memorie " ,第二章;曼奇尼, " guglielmo德馬爾西亞弗朗西斯insuperato pittore州vetro " ,佛羅倫斯, 1909年) ,早在公元14世紀多米尼加教堂和修道院開始被佈滿壁畫,裝飾,有的這些華廈成為國際知名聖地的藝術品,如美國瑪麗亞中篇小說和聖馬可佛羅倫薩的,但這種現象一般在年底, 15世紀,因此,為了得到一些工程的最偉大的藝術家,作為舉例來說, "最後的晚餐"達芬奇( 1497年至1498年)在refectory脊髓肌肉萎縮瑪麗亞delle grazie在米蘭(伯希, "刪除cenacolo迪列奧納多達芬奇" ,米蘭, 1910年;桑特'的Ambrogio , "注epigrafiche海關artistiche intorno阿拉出售刪除cenacolo海關鋁tempio迪瑪麗亞。德勒grazie在米蘭" , " archivio storico lombardo " , 1892年) 。

The Preachers exercised a marked influence on painting.講道實行了一項顯著的影響,對繪畫。 The order infused its apostolic zeal and theological learning into the objects of art under its control, thus creating what may be called theological painting.該命令注入其使徒的熱誠和神學學習到物體的藝術在其控制下的,這樣就產生什麼可稱為神學畫。 The decoration of the Campo Santo of Pisa, Orcagna's frescoes in the Strozzi chapel and the Spanish chapel at S. Maria Novella, Florence, have long been famous (Michel, "Hist. de l'art depuis les premiers temps chrétiens jusqu'à nos jours", Paris, II, 1908; Hettner, "Die Dominikaner in der Kunstgesch. des l4. und 15. Jahrhunderts" in "Italienische Studien zur Gesch. der Renaissance", Brunswick, 1879, 99; "Renaissance und Dominikaner Kunst" in "Hist.-polit. Blatter", LXXXXIII, 1884; Perate, "Un Triomphe de la Mort de Pietro Lorenzetti", Paris, 1902; Bacciochi, "Il chiostro verde e la cappella degli Spagnuoli", Florence; Endres, "Die Verherrlichung des Dominikanerordens in der Spanischen Kapelle an S. Maria Novella zu Florenz" in "Zeitschr. f. Christliche Kunst", 1909, p. 323).裝修的坎普聖多明各的比薩, orcagna的壁畫在strozzi教堂和西班牙禮拜堂在第瑪麗亞中篇小說,佛羅倫斯,早已聞名(米歇爾, "歷史是。 de l'藝術depuis就業輔導組氣溫總理基督教徒jusqu'à號jours " ,巴黎第一,二, 1908年;赫特納, "死dominikaner在明鏡kunstgesch 。萬L10的。 und 15 。 jahrhunderts "中的" italienische研究會zur gesch 。明鏡復興" ,布倫瑞克, 1879年,共有99個; "文藝復興und dominikaner藝術" " hist. - polit 。布拉特" , lxxxxiii , 1884年; perate , "聯合國軍凱旋德死亡彼得洛倫澤蒂" ,巴黎, 1902年;巴喬基, "伊爾chiostro佛得角e香格里拉清唱degli spagnuoli " ,佛羅倫薩; endres , "死verherrlichung萬dominikanerordens在明鏡spanischen kapelle第一個瑪麗亞中篇小說祖florenz "中的" zeitschr 。樓christliche藝術" , 1909年,頁323 ) 。 To the same causes were due the numerous triumphs of St. Thomas Aquinas (Hettner, op. cit.; Berthier, "Le triomphe de Saint Thomas dans la chapelle des Espagnols à Florence", Fribourg, 1897; Ucelli, "Dell' iconografia di s. Tommaso d'Aquino", Naples, 1867).為了同一原因,是由於無數輝煌的聖托馬斯阿奎那(赫特納,同前; berthier , "樂門德聖托馬斯dans香格里拉Chapelle的萬espagnols à佛羅倫薩" ,弗里堡, 1897年;於切爾利, "戴爾' iconografia娣第tommaso -阿基諾" ,那不勒斯, 1 867年) 。 The influence of Savonarola on the artists and the art of his time was profound (Gruyer, "Les illustrations des écrits de Jérôme Savonarole et les paroles de Savonarole sur l'art", Paris, 1879; Lafenestre, "Saint François d' Assise et Savonarole inspirateurs de l'art Italien", Paris, 1911).影響savonarola對藝術家和藝術的,他當時的深刻( gruyer , "就業輔導組插圖萬écrits德杰羅姆savonarole等就業輔導組假釋德savonarole sur l'藝術" ,巴黎, 1879年;拉弗內特, "聖弗朗索瓦d ' assise等savonarole inspirateurs德l'藝術意大利" ,巴黎, 1911年) 。 The Dominicans also frequently furnished libretti, ie dogmatic or symbolic themes for works of art.多米尼加也經常家具libretti ,即教條主義的或象徵性為主題的藝術作品。 They also opened up an important source of information to art with their sanctoriaux and their popularizing writings.他們還開闢了一個重要的信息來源,使藝術與sanctoriaux及其普及著作。 Artistic works such as the dances of death and sybils allied with the prophets are greatly indebted to them (Neale, "L'art religieux du XIIIe siècle", Paris, 1910; Idem, "L'art religieux de la fin du moyen-âge en France", Paris, 1910).藝術作品,如舞蹈死亡和sybils盟軍與先知大大感激他們(處於同一水平, " l'藝術religieux杜xiiie世紀" ,巴黎, 1910年;同上, " l'藝術religieux德香格里拉鰭杜沙裡-年紀恩法國" ,巴黎, 1910年) 。 Even the mystical life of the order, in its way, exercised an influence on contemporary art (Peltzer, "Deutsche Mystik und deutsche Kunst", Strassburg, 1899; Hintze, "Der Einfluss des mystiken auf die ältere Kölner Malerschule", Breslau, 1901).甚至神秘的生活秩序,在它的方式,行使的影響力,對當代藝術( peltzer , "德意志mystik und德意志藝術" , strassburg , 1899年; hintze , "明鏡einfluss萬mystiken auf模具ältere kölner malerschule " ,布雷斯勞, 1901年) 。 Its saints and its confraternities, especially that of the Rosary, inspired many artists (Neuwbarn, "Die Verherrlichung des hl. Dominicus in der Kunst", 1906).聖人及其confraternities ,尤其是玫瑰,激發了許多藝術家( neuwbarn , "死verherrlichung萬的HL 。 dominicus在明鏡藝術" , 1906年) 。

(h) The Preachers and the Roman Church (八)在傳教士與羅馬教會

The Order of Preachers is the work of the Roman Church.該命令的傳教士,是工作的羅馬教會。 She found in St. Dominic an instrument of the first rank.她發現,在聖星的一個工具第一級的。 But it was she who inspired the establishment of the order, who loaded it with privileges, directed its general activity, and protected it against its adversaries.但這是她啟發設立一聲令下,誰裝上它與特權,是針對一般經濟活動,並保護它打擊對手。 From Honorius III (1216) till the death of Honorius IV (1287) the papacy was most favourable to the Preachers.從honorius三( 1216 ) ,直至死亡honorius四( 1287 )教宗是最有利的講道。 Innocent IV's change of attitude at the end of his pontificate (10 May, 1254), caused by the recriminations of the clergy and perhaps also by the adhesion of Arnold of Trier to Frederick II's projects of anti-ecclesiastical reform, was speedily repaired by Alexander IV [22 Dec., 1254; ("Chart Univ. Paris", I, 263, 276; Winckelmann, "Fratris Arnoldi Ord. Præd. De correctione Ecclesiae Epistola", 1863; "Script. Ord. Praed.", II, 821 b)].無辜的四個人態度的轉變在去年底成為教宗( 1254年5月10日) ,造成了相互指責的神職人員,而且還可能由粘附阿諾德的特里爾,以馮檢二的項目的反教會改革,是迅速修復由Alexander四[ 1254年12月22日( "圖表大學巴黎" ,我想, 263 , 276條; winckelmann , " fratris的Arnoldi霍德。 præd 。德correctione ecclesiae epistola " , 1863年"的劇本。霍德。 praed 。 " ,第二章821 b )條] 。 But as a general thing during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the popes remained much attached to the order, displaying great confidence in it, as is made manifest by the "Bullarium" of the Preachers.但作為一個普通的事,在第十四和第十五世紀教皇仍然很大重視,一聲令下,展現深具信心,因為是取得了明顯的,由" bullarium "的傳教士。 No other religious order, it would seem, ever received eulogies from the papacy like those addressed to it by Alexander IV, 23 May, 1257 (Potthast, op cit., 16,847).沒有任何其他宗教秩序,看來,有史以來收到的頌詞,從教皇一樣,給它的亞歷山大四, 1257年5月23日(波特哈斯特,作品引文中, 16847 ) 。 The order co-operated with the Church in every way, the popes finding in its ranks assistants who were both competent and devoted.該命令商合作,與教會在各方面都,是教皇發現在其職級助理人員,他們都能幹,一心。 Beyond doubt through its own activity, its preaching and in instruction, it was already a powerful agent of the papacy; nevertheless the popes requested of it a universal co-operation.毫無疑問,通過自己的活動,它的說教,並在教學中,已經是一個強大的代理人教皇國,但由於教宗要求它一個普遍的合作。 Matthew Paris states in 1250: "The Friars Preachers, impelled by obedience, are the fiscal agents, the nuncios and even the legates of the pope. They are the faithful collectors of the pontifical money by their preaching and their crusades and when they have finished they begin again. They assist the infirm, the dying, and those who make their wills. Diligent negotiators, armed with powers of every kind, they turn all to the profit of the pope" (Matthew Paris, "Hist. Angl.", III, 317, in "Rer. Brit. Med. Æv. Script.").馬修巴黎國家在1250名說: "方濟各會士傳教士,感召服從,是財政代理商, nuncios甚至legates的教宗,他們是忠實的收藏家宗座錢,由他們的說教和他們的十字軍東征時,他們已完成他們重新開始,他們幫助體弱者,亡者,而那些使他們的意志,勤勞的談判代表,配備有權力的每樣,他們把全部利潤的教宗" (馬太巴黎, "歷史。角" ,三, 317 ,在"人民幣匯率。英國人。地中海。 æv 。劇本" ) 。 But the commissions of the Church to the Preachers far exceeded those enumerated by Matthew Paris, and among the weightiest must be mentioned the visitation of monasteries and dioceses, the administration of a large number of convents of nuns and the inquisitorial office.但該委員會的教會講道遠遠超過當年所列舉的馬修巴黎,其中weightiest必須一提的探望的寺廟和教區,政府的大量修道院的修女和審問式辦公。 The order attempted to withdraw from its multifarious occupations, which distracted it from its chief end.該命令試圖退出其五花八門的職業,而分心,將其從行政下場。 Gregory IX partially yielded to their demands (25 Oct., 1239; cf. Potthast, op; cit., 10,804), but the order never succeeded in wholly winning its cause (Fontana, "Sacrum Theatrum Dominicanum" pt. II, De SR Ecclesiae Officialibus, Rome, 1666; "Bull. Ord. Præd.", I-II, passim; Potthast, "Regest. Pont. Rom.", Papal Register of the XIII cent. in "Bib. des Ecoles Françaises d'Athènes et de Rome").格雷戈里第九部分屈服於他們的要求( 1239年10月25日;比照波特哈斯特,作品;引文中, 10804 ) ,但為了成功過,全部獲獎,其原因(豐塔納, "骶骨theatrum dominicanum "鉑第二節,德簡ecclesiae officialibus ,羅馬, 1666宗; "牛市。霍德。 præd " ,第一項和第二項,各處;波特哈斯特, " regest 。 pont 。光碟" ,教皇登記的十三美分,而在"背帶褲。萬化服務françaises -a thènes等德羅馬" ) 。

The Dominicans gave to the Church many noted personages: among them during the Middle Ages were two popes, Innocent V (1276) and Benedict XI [1303-4; (Mothon, "Vie du B. Innocent V", Rome, 1896; Fietta, "Nicolò Boccasino di Trevigi e il suo tempo", Padua, 1875; Funk, "Papst Benedikt XI", Münster, 1891; Grandjean; "Benoît XI avant son pontificat" (1240-1303) in "Mélanges archiv.-Hist. de L'école française de Rome", VIII, 219; Idem, "Recherches sur l'administration financière du pape Benoît XI", loc. cit., III, 1883, 47; Idem, "La date de la mort de Benoît XI", loc. cit. XIV, 1894, 241; Idem, "Registre de Benoît XI", Paris, 1885)].多米尼加送給教會的許多知名人士:其中,在中世紀兩個教皇,無辜的五( 1276 )和本篤喜[ 1303-4 (莫東, "百舸爭流杜乙無辜V "形,羅馬, 1896年; fietta " 。 Nicolò boccasino迪trevigi e白細胞介素索節奏" ,帕多瓦, 1875年;畏縮, " papst benedikt喜" ,在明斯特, 1891年; grandjean " ; benoît喜前衛兒子pontificat " ( 1240至1303年) "混雜岩archiv.歷程。德l'學院法國羅馬" ,第八章, 219條;同上, "地理sur l'政府financière杜本文benoît喜" ,在上述引文中,三, 1883年, 47歲;同上, "香格里拉日期德死亡benoît喜" ,如上。十四, 1894年, 241個;同上, "註冊以德benoît喜" ,巴黎, 1885年) ] 。

There were twenty-eight Dominican cardinals during the first three centuries of the order's existence.有28多米尼加樞機在首三個世紀的秩序的存在。 Some of them were noted for exceptional services to the papacy.他們中的一些人指出,在特殊的服務給教皇。 The earliest of them, Hugh of Saint Cher, had the delicate mission of persuading Germany to accept William of Holland after the deposition of Frederick II (Sassen, "Hugh von St. Cher em Seine Tätigkeit als Kardinal, 1244-1263", Bonn, 1908).最早的人,休聖cher ,有微妙的使命說服德國接受威廉荷蘭後,沉積的馮檢二( Sassen曾"休馮聖cher在塞納河tätigkeit勾地表制度kardinal , 1244年至1263年" ,波恩, 1908年) 。 Cardinal Latino Malabranca is famous for his legations and his pacification of Florence (1280; Davidsohn, "Gesch. von Florenz", II, Berlin, 1908, p. 152; Idem, "Forsch. zur Gesch von Florenz", IV, 1908, p. 226).紅衣主教拉丁裔malabranca聞名他的公館和他講和的佛羅倫薩( 1280 ; davidsohn , " gesch 。馮florenz " ,第二章,柏林, 1908年,第152頁;同上, " forsch 。 zur gesch馮florenz " ,四, 1908年,頁226 ) 。 Nicholas Albertini of Prato (1305-21) also undertook the pacification of Florence (1304; Bandini, "Vita del Cardinale Nicolo da Prato", Leghorn, 1757; Fineschi, "Supplemento alla vista del Cardinale Nicolò da Prato", Lucca, 1758; Perrens, "Hist. de Florence", Paris, III, 1877, 87).尼古拉阿爾貝蒂尼的Prato的( 1305至1321年) ,同時承諾安撫佛羅倫薩(第1304 ; bandini , "履歷表刪除cardinale nicolo達Prato的" ,萊航, 1757年;菲內斯基, " supplemento阿拉Vista中刪除cardinale 。 Nicolò達Prato的" ,盧卡, 1758 ; perrens , "歷史。佛羅倫薩德" ,巴黎,第三, 1877年, 87 ) 。 Cardinal Giovanni Dominici (1408-19) was the staunchest defender of the legitimate pope, Gregory XII, at the end of the Great Schism; and in the name of his master resigned is the papacy at the Council of Constance (Rossler, "Cardinal Johannes Dominici, O.Pr., 1357-1419", Freiburg, 1893; Mandonnet, "Beiträge zur. Gesch. des Kardinals Giovanni Dominici" in "Hist. Jahrbuch.", 1900; Hollerbach, "Die Gregorianische le Partei, Sigismund und das Konstanzer Konzil" in. "Römische Quartalschrift", XXIII-XXIV, 1909-10).樞機主教喬瓦尼dominici ( 1408至1419年)是最堅定的捍衛者的合法教皇格雷戈里十二,在去年底的大分裂,而且在名稱,他的主人辭職,是教宗在安理會的人Constance ( rossler , "紅衣主教約翰內斯。 dominici , o.pr. , 1357年至1419年" ,弗賴堡, 1893年;芒多內, " beiträge zur 。 gesch 。 kardinals萬喬瓦dominici "中的"歷史。 jahrbuch " , 1900年;霍勒巴赫, "死gregorianische樂partei , sigismund und之konstanzer konzil "進" römische quartalschrift " ,二十三-二十四, 1909年至1910年) 。 Cardinal John de Torquemada (Turrecremata, 1439-68), an eminent theologian, was one of the strongest defenders of the pontifical rights at the time of the Council of Basle (Lederer, "Johann von Torquemada sein Leben und seine Schriften", Freiburg, 1879; Hefele, "Conciliengesch.", VIII) Many important officials were furnished to the Church: Masters of the Sacred Palace (Catalamus, "De magistro sacri palatii apostolici" Rome, 1751); pontifical penitentiaries (Fontana, "Sacr. Theatr Dominic", 470; 631, "Bull. OP", VIII, 766, Poenitentiarii; Goller, "Die päpstliche Ponitentiarii vor ihrem Ursprung bis zu ihrer Umgestaltung unter Pius VII", Rome, 1907-11); and especially pontifical inquisitors.紅衣主教約翰德torquemada ( turrecremata , 1439年至1468年) ,一位傑出的神學家,是其中一個最強勁的捍衛者的宗座權利的時候,安理會的巴塞爾(萊德羅, "約翰馮torquemada實事,生活und塞納河schriften " ,弗賴堡, 1879年;黑弗勒" , conciliengesch " ,第八章) ,許多重要的官員提供給教會:當家作主的神聖宮殿( catalamus , "德magistro sacri palatii apostolici "羅馬, 1751年) ;宗座監獄(豐塔納, " sacr 。 theatr星" ,有470名; 631 , "牛市。作品" ,第八章, 766 , poenitentiarii ; goller , "死päpstliche ponitentiarii vor ihrem ursprung之二祖與自己的umgestaltung漫步道Unter比約七" ,羅馬, 1907年至1911年) ;特別是宗座監獄。 The defense of the Faith and the repression of heresy is essentially an apostolic and pontifical work.國防部的信仰和鎮壓異端基本上是一個使徒和宗座工作。 The Preachers also furnished many delegate judges holding their powers either from the bishops or from the pope, but the order as such had no mission properly so called, and the legislation for the repression of heresy was in particular absolutely foreign to it.講道還提供了許多代表的法官擔任,他們的權力,無論是從主教或由教宗,但為了這種不恰當的使命所謂,及有關法例,為鎮壓異端,是在特定絕不陌生。 The extreme dangers run by the Church at the beginning of the thirteenth century owing to the progress of the Albigensians and Cathari impelled the papacy to labour for their repression.極端危險的,由教會在開始的13世紀,由於進度的albigensians和卡塔利促使教宗以勞工為他們的鎮壓。 It first urged the bishops to act, and the establishment of synodal witnesses was destined to make their mission more effective, but the insufficiency of their arrangement induced Gregory IX to advise the bishops to make use of the Preachers and finally doubtless owing to the lack of zeal displayed by many bishops, to create inquisitorial judges by pontifical delegation.它首先敦促主教採取行動,並設立主教證人是注定要做出自己的使命更加有效,但不足的,他們安排誘導格雷戈里九提醒主教善加利用這些傳教士,最後毫無疑問,由於缺乏熱情,所顯示的許多主教,創造糾問法官,由宗座代表團。 The Preachers were not chosen de jure but de facto and successively in the various provinces of the order.講道人沒有選擇在法律上而且在事實上和先後在各省的秩序。 The pope usually charged the Dominican provincials with the nomination of inquisitorial officers whose jurisdiction ordinarily coincided with the territory of the Dominican province.教宗通常被控多米尼加provincials與提名的審問人員,其管轄範圍內通常正值領土多米尼加省。 In their office the inquisitors were removed from the authority of their order and dependent only on the Holy See.在他們的辦公室在監獄被拆除,由管理局其秩序和依賴,不僅對羅馬教廷。 The first pontifical inquisitors were invariably chosen from the Order of Preachers, the reason being the scarcity of educated and zealous clerics.第一宗座監獄都是選自秩序的傳教士,因為稀缺,受過教育的和熱心的教士。 The Preachers, being vowed to study and preaching, were alone prepared for a ministry, which required both learning and courage.在宣講員,正發誓要學習和說教,被單獨準備一個部,這都需要學習和勇氣。 The order received this like many other pontifical commissions, only with regret.該命令收到此像其他許多宗座佣金中,只有遺憾。 The master general, Humbert of Romans declared that the friars should flee all odious offices and especially the Inquisition (Opera, ed. Berthier, II, 36)主人一般,洪博達的羅馬人宣布該方濟各會士應該逃離一切可憎的辦事處,特別是宗教裁判所(戲曲,教育署。 berthier ,二, 36 )

The same solicitude to remove the order from the odium of the inquisitorial office impelled the provincial chapter of Cahors (1244) to forbid that anything should accrue to the friars from the administration of the Inquisition, that the order might not be slandered.同樣的關懷,以消除該命令從odium的糾問式辦公,激勵全省章cahors ( 1244 )禁止任何有關應撥歸該方濟各會士,從政府的宗教裁判所,該命令可能不會被誣衊。 The provincial chapter of Bordeaux (1257) even forbade the religious to eat with the inquisitors in places where the order had a convent (Douais, "Les Frères Prêcheurs en Gascogne", Paris-Auch, 1885, p. 64).省委章波爾多( 1257 ) ,甚至禁止宗教吃同監獄的地方,為了有一個修道院( douais , "就業輔導組兄弟prêcheurs恩加斯科涅" ,巴黎- auch , 1885年,第64頁) 。 In countries where heresy was powerful, for instance in the south of France and the north of Italy, the order had much to endure, pillage, temporary expulsion, and assassination of the inquisitors.在所在國家異端被強大的,例如在法國南部和意大利北部,該命令有很多忍受,掠奪,暫時開除學籍,並暗殺了監獄。 After the putting to death of the inquisitors at Avignonet (28 May, 1242) and the assassination of St. Peter of Verona (29 April, 1242) ("Vitae fratrum", ed. Reichart, 231; Perein, "Monumenta Conventus Tolosani", Toulouse, 1693, II, 198, Acta SS., 29 April) the order, whose administration had much to suffer from this war against heresy, immediately requested to be relieved of the inquisitorial office.之後,把死的監獄在avignonet ( 1242年5月28日)和暗殺聖彼得的維羅納( 1242年4月29日) (下稱"簡歷fratrum "外,教育署。 reichart , 231 ; perein , "古蹟遺址conventus tolosani " ,圖盧茲, 1693年第一,二, 198 ,學報的SS , 4月29日)一聲令下,他們的政府有很多遭受這場戰爭對異端,立刻要求,以被解職的糾問式辦公。 Innocent IV refused (10 April, 1243; Potthast, 11,083), and the following year the bishops of the south of France petitioned the pope that he would retain the Preachers in the Inquisition ("Hist. gén. du Languedoc", III, ed. in folio, proof CCLIX, Vol. CCCCXLVI).無辜四拒絕的建議( 1243年4月10日;波特哈斯特, 11083 ) ,並於翌年的主教們在法國東南部的請願,教宗表示,他將保留傳教士在宗教裁判所(下稱"歷史。 gén 。篤郎" ,三,海關。英文排版,校對cclix ,第一卷ccccxlvi ) 。 Nevertheless the Holy See understood the desire of the Preachers; several provinces of Christendom ceased to be administered by them and were confided to the Friars Minor viz., the Pontifical States, Apulia, Tuscany, the March of Trevisa and Slavonia, and finally Provence (Potthast, 11,993, 15,330, 15,409, 15,410, 18,895, 20,169; Tanon, "Hist. des tribunaux de l'inquisition en France" Paris, 1893; Idem, "Documents pour servir a l'hist. de l'Inquisition dans le Languedoc", Paris, 1900; Vacandard, "L'Inquisition", Paris, 1907; Lea, "Hist. of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages" New York-London, 1888, French tr., Paris, 1900; Frédéricq, "Corpus documentorum Inquisitionis hæreticæ pravitatis Neerlandicæ", Ghent, 1900; Amabile, "Il santo officio della Inquizione in Napoli" Città di Castello, 1892; Canzons, "Hist. de l'Inquisition en France", Paris, 1909; Jordan, "La responsabilité de l'Eglise dans la répression de l'hérésie au moyen-âge" in "Annales de Philosophie chrét.", CLIV, 1907, p. 225).不過教廷理解的願望,講道;幾個省的基督教不再是由他們分別confided向方濟各會士輕微的,即,宗座國,普利亞,托斯卡納,三月的特里維薩和斯拉沃尼亞,並最終Provence的(波特哈斯特, 11993 , 15330 , 15409 , 15410 , 18895 , 20169 ; tanon , "歷史。法庭的德l'探討恩法國"巴黎, 1893年;同上, "文件傾訴servir一l'歷史。德l'探討dans樂朗格" ,巴黎, 1900年; vacandard , " l'宗教裁判所" ,巴黎, 1907年; lea , "歷史。的宗教裁判所,在中世紀的"紐約-倫敦, 1888年,法國的TR ,巴黎, 1900年; frédéricq , "語料庫documentorum inquisitionis hæreticæ pravitatis neerlandicæ " ,根特, 1900年; amabile , "伊爾聖多明各守della inquizione在那不勒斯" città迪堡城, 1892年; canzons , "歷史是。 de l'探討恩法國" ,巴黎, 1909年;約旦, "和責任德l' eglise dans香格里拉répression德l' hérésie凹沙裡-年紀" , "年鑑德哲學chrét " , cliv , 1907年,第225頁) 。 The suppression of heresy which had been especially active in certain more affected parts of Christendom, diminished notably in the second half of the thirteenth century.鎮壓異端,其中已特別是活躍在某些較受影響的部分基督教的減弱,特別是在下半年的13世紀。 The particular conditions prevailing in Spain brought about the reestablishment of the Inquisition with new duties for the inquisitor general.特殊情況,在西班牙所帶來的重建宗教裁判所與新的任務,為打破砂鍋一般。 These were exercised from 1483 to 1498 by Thomas of Torquemada, who reorganized the whole scheme of suppression, and by Diego de Deza from 1498 to 1507.這些獲行使,從1483年至1498年,由托馬斯torquemada ,改組整個計劃的壓制,以及聖地牙哥德deza從1498年至1507年。 These were the first and last Dominican inquisitors general in Spain (Lea, "Hist. of the Inquisition of Spain, New York, 1906, Cotarelo y Valledor, "Fray Diego de Deza", Madrid, 1905).這些都是第一次和最後多米尼加監獄一般,在西班牙( lea , "歷史的。宗教裁判所的西班牙,紐約, 1906年,科塔雷洛y巴列多爾" ,被捲入旋渦迭戈德deza " ,馬德里, 1905年) 。

(i) The Friars Preachers and the Secular Clergy (一)方濟各會士傳教士與世俗教士

The Preachers, who had been constituted from the beginning as an order of clerics vowed to ecclesiastical duties with a view to supplementing the insufficiency of the secular clergy, were universally accepted by the episcopate, which was unable to provide for the pastoral care of the faithful and the instruction of clerics.講道,已構成了從一開始就作為一個常規的教士發誓要教會職務,以期補充不足的世俗教士,被普遍接受的主教,這是無法提供,為牧民服務的忠實並指示神職人員。 It was usually the bishops who summoned the Preachers to their dioceses.它通常由主教召見傳教士,以自己的教區。 The conflicts which broke out here and there during the thirteenth century were not generally due to the bishops but to the parochial clergy who considered themselves injured in their temporal rights because of the devotion and generosity of the faithful towards the order.衝突此起彼伏,並有在13世紀普遍不因主教,但對狹隘的神職人員,他們認為自己受傷,在他們的顳權利,因為該奉獻和慷慨的教友們對秩序。 As a general thing compromises were reached between the convents and the parishes in which they were situated and peaceful results followed.作為一個普通的事,妥協是雙方達成的修道院和教區中,他們分別坐落與和平的結果之後。 The two great contests between the order and the secular clergy broke out in France during the thirteenth century.這兩個偉大的競賽與秩序和世俗教士爆發出法國在13世紀。 The first took place at the University of Paris, led by William of Saint-Amour (1252-59), and was complicated by a scholastic question.第一次發生在巴黎大學,率領由威廉聖amour ( 1252至1259年) ,並很複雜,由一個學術問題。 The episcopate had no share in this, and the church supported with all its strength the rights and privileges of the order, which emerged victorious (Mandonnet, "Siger de Brabant", I, 70, 90; Perrod, "Etude sur la vie et les uvres de Guillaume de Saint-Amour" in "Mémoires de la société d'émulation de Jura", Lons-le-Saunier, 1902, p. 61; Seppelt, "Der Kampf der Bettelorden an der Universität Paris in der Mitte des 13. Jahrhunderts" in "Kirchengeschichtliche Abhandlungen", Breslau, III, 1905; VII, 1909).主教沒有分享這個原因,並教會支持與全部力量的權利與特權的一聲令下,出現戰勝國(芒多內, "西格德Brabant的" ,我想, 70 , 90 ; perrod , "練習曲sur生命就業輔導組uvres德紀堯姆德聖- amour " ,在"德,為本協會香格里拉-é mulation德( J ura" ,離子-樂s aunier, 1 902年,第6 1頁;澤佩爾特, "明鏡k ampf明鏡b ettelorden一個明鏡大學巴黎明鏡m itte萬1 3 。 jahrhunderts "中的" kirchengeschichtliche abhandlungen " ,布雷斯勞,三, 1905年;第七, 1909年) 。 The strife broke out anew in the north of France after the privilege of Martin IV, "Ad fructus uberes" (13 Dec., 1281), and lasted until the Council of Paris in 1290.爭鬥爆發重新在法國北部後,有幸馬丁四, "廣告藥材uberes " ( 1281年12月13日) ,並一直持續到會的巴黎在1290年。 It was to a large extent conducted by Guillaume de Flavacourt, Bishop of Amiens, but in this instance also the two great mendicant orders triumphed over their adversaries, thanks to the energetic assistance of two cardinal legates (Denifle-Chatelain, "Chart. Univ. Paris" I, passim; Finke, "Des Pariser National Konzil 1290" in "Römische Quartalschrift", 1895, p. 171; Paulus, "Welt und Ordensclerus beim Ausgange des XIII. Jahrhunderts in Kampfe um die Pfarr-Rechte", Essen-Ruhr, 1900).這是相當大的程度上進行的紀堯姆德flavacourt主教,亞眠,但在這問題,也是兩個偉大乞討訂單戰勝自己的對手,感謝大力協助下兩個紅衣主教legates (德尼夫勒- chatelain , "圖。系。巴黎: "我,各處; finke , "萬pariser國家konzil 1290 " , " römische quartalschrift " , 1895年,第171頁;鮑魯斯, "世界報und ordensclerus beim ausgange萬十三。 jahrhunderts在kampfe嗯模具pfarr - rechte " ,埃森-魯爾, 1900 ) 。

The order gave many of its members to the episcopate, but endeavoured to prevent this.該命令了,它的許多成員進入主教,但在努力防止這種情況出現。 Sts. STS對。 Dominic and Francis seem to have disapproved of the accession of their religious to eeelesiastical dignities ("Speculum perfectionis", ed. Sabatier, Paris, 1898, p. 75; Thomas of Celano, "Legenda secunda S. Francisci", III, lxxxvi).星和弗朗西斯似乎都不贊成加入自己的宗教,以eeelesiastical尊嚴( " speculum perfectionis "外,教育署。 sabatier ,巴黎, 1898年,第75頁;托馬斯切拉諾, " legenda塞康達第francisci " ,三, lxxxvi ) 。 Jordanus of Saxony the immediate successor of St. Dominic, forbade all acceptance of election or postulation to the episcopate, under pain of excommunication, without special permission of the pope, the general chapter, and the master general ("Acta Cap. Gen.", ed. Reichert, 4). jordanus薩克森立即繼任的聖星,禁止所有接受選舉或任命,以主教,根據疼痛的禁教,未經特別許可的教宗,一般的篇章,主人一般(簡稱"學報章將軍"教育署。 reichert , 4 ) 。 During his administration he resisted with all his strength and declared that he would rather see a friar buried than raised to the episcopate ("Vitæ Fratrum", ed. Reichert, 141, 143, 209).在他的政府,他頂住他的全部實力,並聲稱他寧願看到一個弗萊爾埋比提高到主教( " vitæ fratrum "外,教育署。 reichert , 141 , 143 , 209 ) 。 Everyone knows the eloquent letter which Humbert of Romans wrote to Albertus Magnus to dissuade him from aecepting the nomination to the See of Ratisbon (1260; Peter of Prussia, "Vita B. Alberti Magni", Antwerp, 1621; p. 253).大家都知道口才信洪博達的羅馬人寫信給: Albertus思,以勸阻他從aecepting提名到見的拉蒂斯邦(一千二百六十彼德的普魯士, "履歷表乙阿爾貝蒂magni " ,安特衛普, 1621年;頁253 ) 。 But all this opposition could not prevent the nomination of a great many to high ecclesiastical dignities.但是,這一切都反對,卻不能阻止提名了大量高教會尊嚴。 The worth of many religious made them so prominent that it was impossible that they should not be suggested for the episcopate.價值,許多宗教,使他們如此突出的,這是不可能的,他們不應被建議為主教。 Princes and nobles who had sons or kinsmen in the order often laboured for this result with interested motives, but the Holy See especially saw in the accession of Dominicans to the episcopate the means of infusing it with new blood.王公貴族的人的兒子或親人致敬,在議事程序往往辛勞這一結果與有興趣的動機,但羅馬教廷特別是看到在加入的多米尼加人向主教團的手段,它注入新的血液。 From the accession of Gregory IX the appointment of Dominicans to dioceses and archdioceses became an ordinary thing.從加入格雷戈里九,任命多米尼加人的教區和archdioceses成了一名普通的事。 Hence until the end of the fifteenth century about fifteen hundred Preachers were either appointed or translated to dioceses or archdioceses, among them men remarkable for their learning, their competent administration, their zeal for souls, and the holiness of their lives.因此,直到去年底15世紀約1500傳教士被任命或轉化為教區或archdioceses ,其中男性顯著,為他們的學習,其主管當局,他們的熱心心靈,神聖的生命。 (Eubel, "Hierarchia catholica", I-II; "Bull Ord. Præd.", I-IV; "Script. Ord. Præd.", I, p. xxi; Cavalieri, "Galleria de' sommi Pontefici, Patriarchi, Areivescovi, e Vescovi dell' ordine de' Predicatori", Benevento, 1696; Vigna, "I veseovi domenicani Liguri ovvero in Liguria", Genoa, 1887.) ( eubel , " hierarchia catholica " ,第一項和第二項; "牛市霍德。 præd " ,一至四, "腳本。霍德。 præd 。 " ,我想, 21頁; cavalieri , "廣場德' sommi pontefici ,帕特里亞爾基, areivescovi ,電子vescovi戴爾' ordine德'普雷迪卡托裡" , benevento , 1696年;豇豆, "我veseovi domenicani利古裡ovvero在利古里亞" ,熱那亞, 1887年) 。

(j) The Preachers and Civil Society (十)傳教士和民間社會

During the Middle Ages the Preachers influenced princes and communities.在中世紀的傳教士的影響,王子和社區。 Princes found them to be prudent advisers, expert ambassadors, and enlightened confessors.王子發現,他們要審慎行事,顧問,專家大使,而開明confessors 。 The French monarchy was much attached to them.法國的君主制是很大的重視。 As early as 1226 Jordanus of Saxony was able to write, in speaking of Blanche of Castile "The queen tenderly loves the friars and she has spoken with me personally and familiarly about her affairs" (Bayonne, "Lettres du B. Jourdain de Saxe" Paris-Lyons 1865, p. 66).早在1226 jordanus薩克森是能寫,在談到處理權的卡斯蒂利亞"王后溫柔地熱愛方濟各會士和她交談,我親自和familiarly她的事務" ( bayonne , " lettres杜乙據報導,德薩克斯"巴黎-里昂1865年,第66頁) 。 No prince was more devoted to the order than St. Louis, nor did any grant it more favours.沒有王子的是更多的篇幅來討論秩序比聖路易斯,也沒有任何補助金,它更恩惠。 The French monarchy sought most of its confessors during the Middle Ages from the Order of Preachers (Chapotin, "A travers l'histoire dominicaine: "Les princes français du Moyen Age et l'ordre de Saint Dominique", Paris, 1903, p. 207; Idem, "Etudes historiques sur la province dominicaine de France", Paris, 1890, p. 128). It was the entrance of Humbert II, Dauphin of Vienna, into the order, which gained Dauphiny for France (Guiffrey, "Hist. de la réunion du Dauphiné à la France" Paris, 1878). The Dukes of Burgundy also sought their confessors from the order (Chapotin, op. cit. 190). The kings of England did likewise and frequently employed its members in their service. (Palmer; "The Kings's Confessors" in "The Antiquary", London, 1890, p. 114; Tarett, "Friars Confessors of the English Kings" in "The Home Counties Magazine", XII, 1910, p. 100). Several German emperors were much attached to the order nevertheless the Preachers did not hesitate to enter into conflict with Frederick II and Louis of Bavaria when these princes broke with the Church (Opladen, "Die Stellung der deutschen Könige zu den Orden im dreizethnten Jahrhundert" Bonn, 1908; Paulus, "Thomas von Strassburg und Rudolph von Sachsen. Ihre Stellung zum Interdikt" in "Hist. Jahrbuch.", XIII, 1892, 1; "Neues Archiv. der Geschellschaft für altere deutsche Geschictskunde", XXX, 1905, 447). The kings of Castile and Spain invariably chose their confessors from among the Preachers ("Catalogo de los religiosos Dominicos qui hen servido ea los Señores de Castilla, de Aragon, y de Andalucia, en el empleo de sus Confessores de Estado", Madrid, 1700). The kings of Portugal likewise sought their directors from the same source (de Sousa, "Historia de S. Domingos particulor de Reino, e conquistas de Portugal" Lisbon, 1767; Grégoire, "Hist. des confesseurs les empereurs, des rois et d'autres princes", Paris, 1824).法國的君主制尋求它的大部分confessors在中世紀從議事程序的佈道者(沙波坦" Travers的l' dominicaine史說: "就業輔導組王子法國杜沙裡年齡等榮譽勳章聖多米尼克" ,巴黎, 1903 ,頁207 ;同上, "練習曲historiques sur香格里拉省dominicaine的法國" ,巴黎, 1890年,第128頁) ,這是入口的洪博達二,海豚的維也納,成一聲令下,取得了dauphiny為法國( guiffrey , "歷史。德留尼汪島杜dauphiné à香格里拉法國"巴黎, 1878年) 。腫瘤Dukes的勃艮第,也徵求了他們confessors從議事程序(沙波坦,同前190 ) 。國王隊的英格蘭也同樣並經常聘請其成員在其服務(帕爾默, "國王的confessors " ,在" antiquary " ,倫敦, 1890年,第114頁; tarett " ,方濟各會士confessors的英語國王" ,在"民政縣警訊" ,第十二, 1910年,第100頁) 。幾個德國皇帝遠,隸屬該命令不過,傳教士沒有猶豫進入衝突與馮檢二和路易巴伐利亞州的時候,這些王子打破了教會( opladen , "死stellung贏得德國könige祖書齋勳章的IM dreizethnten jahrhundert "波恩, 1908年;鮑魯斯, "托馬斯馮strassburg und魯道夫馮sachsen 。 ihre stellung zum interdikt "中的"歷史。 jahrbuch " ,十三, 1892年, 1 " ;排列著archiv 。明鏡geschellschaft f黵altere德意志geschictskunde " ,三十, 1905年, 447 ) ,國王隊的卡斯蒂利亞和西班牙都選擇了自己的confessors當中佈道者( " catalogo德洛杉磯religiosos多米尼科斯qui母雞servido環境洛杉磯señores德卡斯蒂利亞,德阿拉貢, y德安達盧西亞,恩下午empleo德避震confessores德estado " ,馬德里, 1700 ) ,國王隊的葡萄牙同樣要求其董事來自同一來源(蘇沙, "沿革美國多明戈particulor德reino ,電子conquistas德葡萄牙"里斯本, 1767年; grégoire , "歷史。 confesseurs萬就業輔導組empereurs ,萬里奧斯等進一步的王子" ,巴黎, 1824年) 。

The first to be established in the centres of cities, the Dominicans exercised a profound influence on municipal life, especially in Italy.首先被設在中心城市,多米尼加人行使了深刻的影響,市政生活中,特別是在意大利。 A witness at the canonization of St. Dominic in 1233 expresses the matter when he says that nearly all the cities of Lombardy and the Marches placed their affairs and their statutes in the hands of the Preachers, that they might arrange and alter them to their taste and as seemed to them fitting.一名證人在封聖星在對1233表示此事時,他說,幾乎所有城市的倫巴第和馬爾凱放在自己的事務,和其章程在政府手中的傳教士,他們會安排,並改變他們自己的品味正如他們看來,再恰當不過了。 The same was true of the extirpation of wars, the restoration of peace, restitution for usury, hearing of confessions and a multitude of benefits which would be too long to enumerate ("Annales Ord. Præd.", Rome, 1756, append., col. 128).同樣是真實的滅絕戰爭,恢復和平,恢復原狀,為農村高利貸,聽證會的口供,並在眾多的好處,這將是太長贅述(下稱"年鑑霍德。 præd " ,羅馬, 1756年,附錄,中校128段) 。 About this time the celebrated John of Vicenza exercised powerful influence in the north of Italy and was himself podestà of Verona (Sutter, "Johann von Vicenza und die italienisehe Friedensbewegung im Jahre 1233", Freiburg, 1891; Ital. tr., Vicenza, 1900; Vitali, "I Domenicani nella vita italiana del secolo XIII", Milan, 1902; Hefele, "Die Bettelorden und das religiöse Volksleben Ober-und Mittelitaliensim XIII. Jahrhundert", Leipzig-Berlin, 1910).大約在這個時候著名的約翰維琴察行使強大的影響力,在意大利北部,並親自podestà維羅納(編織出, "約翰馮維琴察und模具italienisehe friedensbewegung的IM jahre對1233 " ,弗賴堡, 1891年; 2007/2008 。的TR ,維琴察, 1900 ;將創造, "我domenicani的理解履歷表意大利刪除secolo十三" ,米蘭, 1902年;黑弗勒,在"死bettelorden und之religiöse volksleben ober取而代之mittelitaliensim十三。 jahrhundert " ,萊比錫-柏林, 1910年) 。 An idea of the penetration of the order into all social classes may be formed from the declaration of Pierre Dubois in 1300 that the Preachers and the Minors knew better than anyone else the condition of the world and of all social classes ("De recuperatione Terre Sancte", ed. Langlois, Paris, 1891, pp. 51, 74, 84).一個理念的滲透,該命令到所有的社會階層中可能形成的,從申報的皮埃爾迪布瓦1300說,傳教士和未成年人知道比別人表現得更好的條件對世界和各個社會階層( "時點recuperatione terre神聖" ,教育署。 langlois ,巴黎, 1891年,第51 , 74 , 84 ) 。 The part played by Catherine of Siena in the pacification of the towns of Central Italy and the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome is well known.部分扮演的凱瑟琳錫耶納在安撫城鎮意大利中部和歸還教宗從巴黎到羅馬已是人所共知。 "She was the greatest figure of the second half of the fourteenth century, an Italian, not only a saint, a mystic, a miracle-worker, but a statesman, and a great statesman, who solved for the welfare of Italy and all Christendom the most difficult and tragic question of her time" (Gebhart "Une sainte homme d'état, Ste Catherine de Sienne"; in "Revue Hebdomadaire", 16 March, 1907, 257). "她是最偉大的人物,下半年的14世紀,一個意大利人,不僅是一個聖人,一個神秘的,是一個奇蹟-工人,但一個政治家,一位偉大的政治家,他為解決福利意大利和所有基督教最困難和最悲慘的問題,她的時候" ( gebhart " une聖人權政變,您凱瑟琳德sienne " ,在" hebdomadaire雜誌" , 1907年3月16日, 257 ) 。 It was the Dominican Bishop of Geneva Adémar de la Roche, who granted that town its liberties and franchise in 1387 (Mallet, "Libertés, franchises, immunités, et coutumes de la ville de Genève promulgés par évêque Adémar Fabri le 23 Mai, 1387" in "Mémoires et documents de la société d'histoire et d'archéologie de Genève", Geneva, II, 1843, p. 270).這是多米尼加主教日內瓦adémar德香格里拉羅氏公司,他們理所當然地認為城市,其自由和專利權1387 (槌, "自由,專利權, immunités等coutumes德市香格里拉日內瓦promulgés桿évêque adémar物勒23邁,已有1387 "在" ,為本等證件德香格里拉協會代表和等archéologie -日內瓦" ,日內瓦,二, 1 843年,第2 70頁) 。 Finally reference must be made to the profound influence exercised by Girolamo Savonarola (1498) on the political life of Florence during the last years of the fifteenth century (Vilari, "La Storia di Girolamo Savonarola e dé suoi tempi", Florence, 1887; Luotto, "Il vero Savonarola", Florence, 1897).最後參考,必須向深刻的影響,行使girolamo savonarola ( 1498 )對政治生活中的佛羅倫薩在過去數年中的15世紀( vilari的" La storia迪girolamo savonarola e dé suoi tempi " ,佛羅倫薩, 1887年; luotto "白細胞介素的Vero savonarola " ,佛羅倫薩, 1897年) 。 (k) The Preachers and the Faithful (十一)傳教士和信徒

During the thirteenth century the faithful were almost without pastoral care and preaching.在13世紀的忠實幾乎沒有牧區的關懷和說教。 The coming of the Preachers was an innovation which won over the people eager for religious instruction.未來的傳教士是一個創新,這贏得了人民群眾渴望宗教的指示。 What a chronicler relates of Thuringia was the case almost everywhere: "Before the arrival of the Friars Preachers the word of God was rare and precious and very rarely preached to the people. The Friars Preachers preached alone in every section of Thuringia and in the town of Erfurt and no one hindered them" (Koch, "Graf Elger von Holmstein", Gotha, 1865, pp. 70, 72).什麼是chronicler涉及圖林根當時的情況幾乎隨處可見: “來臨前的friars傳教士上帝的話是稀有和珍貴,很少鼓吹向人民負責。 friars傳教士鼓吹僅在每節的圖林根和在城市愛爾福特的,沒有人阻礙了他們“ (科赫, ”格拉夫elger馮holmstein “ ,哥達, 1865年,第70 , 72 ) 。 About 1267 the Bishop of Amiens, Guillaume de Flavacourt, in the war against heresy already mentioned, declared that the people refused to hear the word of God from any save the Preachers and Minors (Bibl. de Grenoble, manuscript 639, fol. 119).約1267主教亞眠,紀堯姆德flavacourt ,在戰爭中對異端已經提到,宣布該人拒絕聽到上帝的話從任何儲存傳教士和未成年人( bibl.德格勒諾布爾,手稿639 ,隨訪119 ) 。 The Preachers exercised a special influence over the piously inclined of both sexes among the masses, so numerous in the Middle Ages, and they induced to penance and continence a great many people living in the world, who were commonly called Beguins, and who lived either alone or in more or less populous communities.該傳教士行使一個特殊的影響力超過虔誠傾向的男女雙方於人民群眾之中,使許多在中世紀,和他們誘導penance和可控的偉大很多人生活在世界上,誰是常見的所謂beguins ,和誰住要么單獨或在更多或更少人口的社區。 Despite the order's attraction for this devout, half-lay, half-religious world, the Preachers refused to take it under their jurisdiction in order not to hamper their chief activity nor distort their ecclesiastical ideal by too close contact with lay piety.儘管秩序的吸引力,這個虔誠的,半奠定,半宗教的世界裡,傳教士拒絕採取它在其管轄下的,為了不妨礙他們的行政活動,也沒有歪曲其教會的理想是由太密切的聯繫奠定孝道。 The General Chapters of 1228 and 1229 forbade the religious to give the habit to any woman or to receive her profession, or to give spiritual direction to any community of women not strictly subject to some authority other than that of the order ("Archiv. f. Litt. a Kirchengesch.", I, 27; Bayonne, "Lettres du B. Jourdain de Saxe", 110).一般章節的1228年和1229年禁止宗教給予的習慣,任何女子或接待她的專業,或給予精神的方向,對任何社會的婦女沒有嚴格受到一些權力機構以外的其他有關命令( “ archiv F節。利特。 kirchengesch “ ,我,第27條;巴約納, ” lettres杜乙茹爾丹德薩克斯“ , 110 ) 。 But the force of circumstances prevailed, and, despite everything, these clients furnished the chief elements of the Penitential Order of St. Dominic, who received their own rule in 1285, and of whom more has been said above (Mosheim, "De Beghardis et Beguiniabus", Leipzig, 1720; Le Grand "Les Béguines de Paris", 1893; Nimal, "Les Beguinages", Nivelles, 1908).但武力的情況普遍存在,而且儘管一切,這些客戶提供的行政要素的penitential秩序的聖星,誰收到自己的規則,在1285年,其中更有人說,上述( mosheim , “德beghardis等beguiniabus “ ,萊比錫, 1720年;樂盛大的”就業輔導組béguines ,法國巴黎“ , 1893年;動物, ”就業輔導組beguinages “ ,尼維勒斯, 1908年) 。 The Order especially encouraged congregations of the Blessed Virgin and the saints, which developed greatly, especially in Italy.該命令特別是鼓勵教友的祝福美屬維爾京和聖人,其中很大發展,特別是在意大利。 Many of them had their headquarters in convents of the Preachers, who administered them spiritually.他們中的許多已總部設在修道院的傳教士,誰管理,他們的精神。 After the Penitential movement of 1260 confraternities were formed commonly called Disciplinati, Battuti, etc. Many of them originated in Dominican churches (there is no general historical work on this subject).後penitential運動1260 confraternities ,形成了普遍的所謂disciplinati , battuti等,他們中的許多起源於多米尼加教堂(有沒有一般的歷史的工作就此事) 。 In 1274, during the Council of Lyons, Gregory X confided to the Dominicans the preaching of the Holy Name of Jesus, whence arose confraternities of that name (Bull. Ord. Præd., VIII, 524).在1274年,在安理會的里昂,格雷戈里x confided向多米尼加該宣揚的聖名耶穌, whence出現confraternities的名稱( bull.條例“ 。 præd ,第八, 524 ) 。 Finally the second half of the fifteenth century saw the rapid development of confraternities of the Holy Rosary under the influence of the Preachers ("Acta Sanctae Sedis nec non magistrorum et capitulorum generalium sacri ordinis Prædicatorum pro Societate SS. Rosarii", Lyons, 1890).最後下半年15世紀看到的迅速發展, confraternities的神聖念珠的影響下,該傳教士( “學報sanctae sedis NEC公司非magistrorum等capitulorum generalium sacri ordinis prædicatorum親societate的SS 。 rosarii ” ,里昂, 1890年) 。 With the object of developing the piety of the faithful the Preachers allowed them to be buried in the habit of the order (Cantimpratanus, "De bono universali apum", lib. II, viii, n. 8).與對象的發展虔誠的信徒該傳教士,讓他們被安葬在習慣的順序( cantimpratanus , “德博諾universali apum ” ,庫。二,八, 12月31日8 ) 。 From the time of Jordanus of Saxony they issued letters of participation in the spiritual goods of the order.從時間的jordanus薩克森州,他們發出的信的參與精神的貨物該命令。 The same general established at Paris the custom of the evening sermon (collatio) for the students of the University, in order to turn them aside from dissipation, which custom passed to all the other universities ("Vita fratrum", ed. Reichert, 327).同時,一般設在巴黎的習俗,晚上的布道( collatio )為學生的大學,為了使他們除了耗散,通過自定義的所有其他大學( “簡歷fratrum ” ,教育署。 reichert , 327 ) 。

(l) The Preachers and the Foreign Missions (升)傳教士和外國使團

During the Middle Ages the Order of Preachers exercised considerable activity within the boundaries of Christendom and far beyond.在中世紀秩序的傳教士行使相當大的活動的界限和基督教遠遠超出。 The evangelization of heathen countries was confided to the nearest Dominican provinces.福音聖heathen國家confided至最接近的多米尼加省份。 At the beginning of the fourteenth century the missions of Asia became a special group, the congregation of Friars Pilgrims for Christ.在開始的14世紀的使命,亞洲成為一個特別小組,聚集friars朝聖者為基督。 Some of the remote provinces, especially those of Greece and the Holy Land, were recruited from volunteers throughout the order.一些邊遠省份,特別是那些希臘和羅馬教廷的土地,被招募的志願者在整個秩序。 Besides the work of evangelization the religious frequently assumed the mission of ambassador or agent to schismatic or pagan princes, and Friars Preachers frequently occupied sees in partibus infidelium.除了福傳工作的宗教經常承擔的使命,駐華大使或代理人向裂或異教的王子,和friars傳教士,經常看到在被佔領partibus infidelium 。 A number of them, faithful to the order's doctrinal vocation, composed works of all kinds to assist their apostolate to defend the Christian Faith, to inform the Roman Church or Latin princes concerning the condition of the East, and to indicate measures to be taken against the dangers threatening Christianity.其中一些人,忠實於秩序的理論使命,組成工程的所有種,以協助他們的使徒,以捍衛基督教信仰,告知羅馬教會或拉丁美洲王子有關條件的東部地區,並說明將採取何種措施打擊造成的威脅基督教。

Finally they frequently shed their blood in these inhospitable and unfruitful countries.最後,他們經常拋頭顱,灑熱血,在這些荒涼unfruitful國家。 The province of Spain laboured for the conversion of the Arabs of the Peninsula, and in 1256 Humbert of Romans described the satisfactory results (H. de Romanis, "Opera", ed. Berthier, II, 502).省西班牙辛勞,為轉換阿拉伯人的朝鮮半島,並在1256恩貝爾羅馬描述了令人滿意的結果(每小時德romanis , “戲曲” ,教育署。 berthier ,二, 502 ) 。 In 1225 the first Spanish Dominicans evangelized Morocco and the head of the mission, Brother Dominic, was consecrated in that year first Bishop of Morocco (Analecta Ord. Præd., III, 374 sqq.).在1225年第一西班牙語多米尼加evangelized摩洛哥和特派團團長,兄弟多米尼克,是consecrated在該年度的第一主教摩洛哥( analecta條例“ 。 præd ,三, 374 sqq ) 。 Some years later they were already established at Tunis ["Mon. Ord. Præd.: Hist.", IV (Barmusidiana) fasc.一些年後,他們已經建立了在突尼斯[ “週一條例” 。 præd 。 :歷史“ ,四( barmusidiana ) fasc 。 II, 29].二, 29 ] 。 In 1256 and the ensuing years Alexander IV, at the instance of St. Raymond of Pennafort, gave a vigorous impulse to this mission (Potthast, 16,438; 17,187; 17,929).在1256年和隨後的年亞歷山大四世,在例如聖雷蒙德彭納福特,進行了嚴厲的衝動,這團(波特哈斯特, 16438 ; 17187 ; 17929 ) 。 In the north of Europe the province of England or that of Dacia carried its establishments as far as Greenland (Telié, "L'évangelization de l'Amérique avant Christophe Colomb" in "Compte rendu du congrès scient. intern. des Catholiques", 1891, sect. hist., 1721).在北部的歐洲省英格蘭或認為達契亞進行其場所據格陵蘭( telié , “ l' évangelization德l' amérique前衛克里斯托弗哥倫布”在“ compte rendu杜會議中心scient 。實習生。 catholiques萬” , 1891節歷史, 1721年) 。 As early as 1233 the province of Germany promoted the crusade against the Prussians and the heretical Stedingers, and brought them to the Faith (Schomberg, "Die Dominikaner im Erzbistum Bremen", Brunswick, 1910, 14; "Bull. Ord. Præd.", I, 61; H. de Romanis, "Opera", II, 502).早在1233年省德國,促進了十字軍東征對prussians和邪教stedingers ,並帶來了他們的信念( schomberg , “模具dominikaner即時通訊erzbistum不來梅” ,布倫瑞克, 1910年, 14 “ ;牛市。條例” 。 præd “ 。 ,我61歲;每小時德romanis , “歌劇”第一,二, 502 ) 。 The province of Poland, founded by St. Hyaeinth (1221), extended its apostolate by means of this saint as far as Kieff and Dantizig.省波蘭,所創立的聖hyaeinth ( 1221 ) ,擴大了其傳道的方式,這聖據kieff和dantizig 。 In 1246 Brother Alexis resided at the Court of the Duke of Russia, and in 1258 the Preachers evangelized the Ruthenians (Abraham, "Powstanie organizacyi Kosicio lacinskiego na Rusi", Lemberg, 1904; Rainaldi, "Annal. eccl.", ad ann. 1246, n. 30; Potthast, 17,186; Baracz, "Rys dziejó Zakonn Kaznodzie jskiego w Polsce" Lemberg, 1861; Comtesse de Flavigny, "Saint Hyacinthe et ses compagnons", Paris, 1899).在1246兄弟亞歷克居住在原訟法庭公爵俄羅斯,並在1258年該傳教士evangelized該羅沙泥亞(石禮謙, “ powstanie organizacyi kosicio lacinskiego娜rusi ” ,倫貝格, 1904年;拉伊納爾迪, “ annal 。傳道書” ,廣告的神經網絡。 1246年, 12月31日30日;波特哈斯特, 17186 ;鮑勞茨, “ rys dziejó zakonn kaznodzie jskiego瓦特polsce ”倫貝格, 1861年; comtesse德弗拉維尼,所謂“聖人hyacinthe等經濟局局長compagnons ” ,巴黎, 1899年) 。 The province of Hungary, founded in 1221 by Bl.省的匈牙利,成立於1221年由基本法。 Paul of Hungary, evangelized the Cumans and the people of the Balkans.保羅的匈牙利, evangelized該cumans和人民的巴爾幹地區。 As early as 1235-37 Brother Richard and his companions set out in quest of Greater Hungary -- the Hungarian pagans still dwelling on the Volga ("Vitæ Fratrum", ed. Reichert, 305; "De inventa Hungaria Magna tempore Gregorii IX", ed. Endlicher, in "Rerum Hungaricarum Monumenta", 248; Ferrarius, "De rebus Hungaricæ Provinciæ S. Ord. Præd.", Vienna, 1637).早在1235年至1237年兄弟理查德和他的同伴載列於追求更大的匈牙利-匈牙利的異教徒仍居住在伏爾加河( “ v itæf ratrum” ,教育署。 r eichert, 3 05; “時點i nventa匈牙利瑪格納臨時g regorii九” ,教育署。恩德利歇爾,在“ rerum hungaricarum monumenta ” , 248 ; ferrarius , “德rebus hungaricæ provinciæ第條例” 。 præd “ ,維也納, 1637 ) 。

The province of Greece, founded in 1228, occupied those territories of the empire of the East which had been conquered by the Latins, its chief centre of activity being Constantinople.全省的希臘,創辦1228年,佔領這些領土的帝國的東部,其中已征服了拉丁人,其行政中心的活動正在君士坦丁堡。 Here also the Preachers laboured for the return of the schismatics to ecclesiastical unity ("Script. Ord. Præd.", I, pp. i, xii, 102, 136, 156, 911; Potthast, 3198; "Vitæ fratrum", 1218).這裡也是傳教士辛勞交還該schismatics以教會統一組織( "腳本。霍德。 præd 。 " ,我想,第一,第十二, 102 , 136 , 156 , 911 ;波特哈斯特, 3198 " ; vitæ fratrum " ,第1218 ) 。 The province of the Holy Land established in 1228, occupied all the Latin conquest of the Holy Land besides Nicosia and Tripoli.省聖地成立的1228年,被佔領的所有拉美征服的聖地除了尼科西亞和的黎波里。 Its houses on the Continent were destroyed one after the other with the defeat of the Christians, and at the beginning of the fourteenth century the province was reduced to the three convents on the Island of Cyprus ("Script. Ord. Præd.", I, pp. i, xii; Balme, "La Province dominicaine de Terre-Sainte de 1277 à 1280" in "Archives de l'Orient Latin"; Idem, "Les franciscains et les dominicains à Jérusalem au treizième et au quatorzième siècle", 1890, p. 324).它的房子就大陸被摧毀後,其他與失敗的基督徒,並在一開始的14世紀,全省已減少到3個修道院對塞浦路斯島( "腳本。霍德。 præd " ,我,聚丙烯,我,第十二章; balme , "香格里拉省dominicaine德terre -聖德1277 à為1280 " ,在"檔案德l'東方拉丁語" ;同上, "就業輔導組弗朗西斯坎等就業輔導組dominicains à jérusalem凹treizième等凹quatorzième世紀" , 1890年,第324條) 。 The province of the Holy Land was the starting point for the evangelization of Asia during the thirteenth century.全省的聖地,是出發點,為福傳事業的,亞洲國家在13世紀。 As early as 1237 the provincial, Philip, reported to Gregory IX extraordinary results obtained by the religious; the evangelization reached Jacobites and Nestorians, Maronites and Saracens (Script. Ord. Præd., I, 104).早在1237名,省,弘,報格雷戈里九不平凡的業績,得到了宗教;福音聖達成jacobites和nestorians ,馬龍派教徒和拜仁( script.霍德。 præd 。來說,我和104 ) 。 About the same time the Friars established themselves in Armenia and in Georgia ("Bull. Ord. Præd.", I, 108, "Script. O P.", I, 122; H. de Romanis, "Opera" II, 502 Vinc. Bellovacensis, "Speculum historiale", l. b XXI, 42; Tamarati, "L'Eglise Géorgienne des origines jusqu'à nos jours", Rome, 1910, 430).大約同一時間,方濟各會士確立自己在亞美尼亞和格魯吉亞( "牛市。霍德。 præd " ,我, 108 , "腳本請你們頁" ,我想, 122個;每小時德romanis , "戲曲"二502 vinc 。 bellovacensis , " speculum historiale " ,屬b二十一, 42歲; tamarati , " l' eglise géorgienne萬origines jusqu'à數jours " ,羅馬, 1910年, 430頁) 。

The missions of Asia continued to develop through out the thirteenth century and part of the fourteenth and missionaries went as far as Bagdad and India [Mandonnet, "Fra Ricoldo de Monte Croce" in "Revue bib.", I, 1893; Balme, "Jourdain Cathala de Sévérae, Evêque de Coulain" (Quilon), Lyons, 1886].該特派團的亞洲不斷發展,在全國推出了13世紀和部分第十四和傳教士來到據巴格達和印度[芒多內, "法國ricoldo德蒙特克羅齊"中的"雜誌背帶褲" ,我, 1893年; balme "據報導, cathala德sévérae , evêque德coulain " ( quilon ) ,里昂, 1886年] 。 In 1312 the master general, Béranger de Landore, organized the missions of Asia into a special congregation of "Friars Pilgrims", with Franco of Perugia as vicar general.在第1312大師一般, béranger德landore ,有組織的使命亞洲成為一個特殊聚集"的方濟各會士朝聖者" ,與佛朗哥的佩魯賈作為副主教一般。 As a base of evangelization they had the convent of Pera (Constantinople), Capha, Trebizond, and Negropont.作為基地的福傳事業,他們有修道院的佩拉(君士坦丁堡) , capha , trebizond , negropont 。 Thence they branched out into Armenia and Persia.從那裡他們支到亞美尼亞和波斯的。 In 1318 John XXII appointed Franco of Perugia Archbishop of Sultanieh, with six other Dominicans as suffragans.在1318年約翰二十二任命佛朗哥的佩魯賈大主教sultanieh ,與其他6名多米尼加人,因為suffragans 。 During the first half of the fourteenth century the Preachers occupied many sees in the East.在上半年的14世紀的傳教士被佔領許多認為在東部地區。 When the missions of Persia were destroyed in 1349, the Preachers possessed fifteen monasteries there, and the United Brethren (see below) eleven monasteries.當任務的波斯被摧毀,在1349年,傳教士擁有15個寺廟,和美國的弟兄(見下文) , 11個寺院。 In 1358 the Congregation of Pilgrims still had two convents and eight residences.在1358年會眾的朝聖者仍然有兩個修道院和八個住地。 This movement brought about the foundation, in 1330, of the United Brethren of St. Gregory the Illuminator.這個運動所帶來的基礎,在1330 ,對美國兄弟的聖格里高利照明。 It was the work of Bl.這是工作的基本法。 Bartolommeo Petit of Bologna, Bishop of Maragha, assisted by John of Kerni. bartolommeo幼兒的博洛尼亞,主教maragha ,協助約翰的kerni 。 It was formed by Armenian religious who adopted the Constitution of the Dominicans and were incorporated with the order after 1356.它是由亞美尼亞宗教的人通過了憲法的多米尼加人,並分別納入該命令後, 1292 。 Thirty years after their foundation the United Brethren had in Armenia alone 50 monasteries with 700 religious.三十年後,他們的基金會,美國兄弟曾在亞美尼亞僅50所寺廟,與700個宗教團體。 This province still existed in the eighteenth century [Eubel, "Die während des 14. Jahrhunderts im Missionsgebiet der Dominikanel und Franziskaner errichteten Bistümer" in "Festchrift des deutschen Campo Santo in Rom", Freiburg i.這個省的情況依然存在,在十八世紀[ eubel , "死während萬14 。 jahrhunderts的IM missionsgebiet明鏡dominikanel und franziskaner errichteten bistümer "中的" festchrift萬德國坎普在聖多明各光碟" ,弗賴堡一。 Br., 1897, 170; Heyd, "Die Kolonien der römischen Kirche, welche die Dominikaner und Franziskaner im 13. und 14. Jahrhundert in dem von der Tataren beherrschten Ländern Asiens und Europas gregründet haben" in "Zeitschrift für die historische Theologie", 1858; Tournebize, "Hist. politique et religieuse de l'Arménie", Paris, s.溴, 1897年, 170個; heyd , "死kolonien明鏡römischen kirche , welche模具dominikaner und franziskaner的IM 13 。 und 14 。 jahrhundert在DEM的馮明鏡tataren beherrschten ländern asiens und europas gregründet haben " , " : Zeitschrift f黵die historische theologie " 1858年; tournebize , "歷史。政治和religieuse德l' arménie " ,巴黎,第 d (1910) 320; André-Marie, "Missions dominicaines dans l'Extrême Orient", Lyons and Paris, 1865 Mortier, "Hist. des maîtres généraux de l'ordre des Frères Prêcheurs", I, IV]. D類( 1910 ) 320個;安德烈-瑪麗, "任務dominicaines dans l'極東方" ,里昂和巴黎, 1865年mortier , "歷史。萬ma顃res généraux勳章萬Frères的prêcheurs " ,我想,四] 。

(m) The Preachers and Sanctity ( m )為傳教士和聖潔

It is characteristic of Dominican sanctity that its saints attained holiness in the apostolate, in the pursuit or promotion of learning, administration, foreign missions, the papacy, the cardinalate, and the episcopate.它的特點是多米尼加的神聖性,其聖人達到成聖在使徒,在追求或宣傳學習,依法行政,外國使團,教皇, cardinalate ,和主教。 Until the end of the fifteenth century the order in its three branches gave to the Church nine canonized saints and at least seventy-three blessed.直至本世紀末15世紀議事程序,在其3家分行,給予教會冊封九聖人和至少73有福了。 Of the first order (the Preachers) are St. Dominic, St. Peter of Verona, martyr, St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Raymond of Pennafort, St. Vincent Ferrer, St. Antoninus of Florence.的一階(傳教士) ,是聖多米尼克,聖彼得的維羅納,烈士,聖托馬斯阿奎那,聖雷蒙德彭納福特,聖文森特費雷爾,聖antoninus的佛羅倫薩。 Among the Dominican saints in general there is a predominance of the intellectual over the emotional qualities; their mystical life is more subjective than objective; and asceticism plays a strong part in their holiness.其中多米尼加聖人一般是有絕對優勢的智力超過情感特質,他們的神秘生活,是較主觀的客觀的;禁慾主義扮演一個強有力的一部分,在他們成聖。 Meditation on the sufferings of Christ and His love was common among them.沉思的痛苦基督和他的愛情,常見於其中。 Mystic states, with the phenomena which accompany them, were ordinary, especially in convents of women in German countries.神秘的國家,與現象,陪伴他們,一般人,尤其是在修道院的婦女在德語國家。 Many received the stigmata in various forms.許多收到五傷,在各種形式。 St. Thomas Aquinas and Meister Eckhart were, from different standpoints, the greatest medieval theorists concerning the mystical state (Giffre de Rechac, "Les vies et actions mémorables des saints canonisés de l'ordre des Frères Prêcheurs et de plusieurs bienheureux et illustres personnages du même ordre", Paris, 1647; Marchese, "Sagro diario domenicano", Naples, 1668, 6 vols. in fol.; Manoel de Lima, "Agiologio dominico", Lisbon, 1709-54, 4 vols. in fol.; "Année dominicaine", Lyons, 1883-1909, 12 vols. in 4; Imbert-Gourbeyre, "La Stigmatisation", Clermont-Ferrand, 1894; Thomas de Vallgormera, "Mystica theologia D. Thomae", Barcelona, 1662; Turin, 1911, re-ed. Berthier).多瑪斯和大師艾克哈人,從不同的立場,最大的中世紀理論家關於神秘狀態( giffre德rechac , "就業輔導組爭奪等行動mémorables萬聖人canonisés勳章萬Frères的prêcheurs等德plusieurs bienheureux等illustres personnages杜即使公共秩序" ,巴黎, 1647年; marchese , " sagro多梅尼卡諾日報" ,那不勒斯, 1668年,第6卷,在隨訪; manoel德利馬, " agiologio dominico " ,里斯本, 1709年至1754年, 4卷,在隨訪。 " ; ann閒dominicaine " ,在里昂, 1883年至1909年, 12卷, 4例; imbert -古貝爾的" La污名" ,克萊蒙費朗, 1894年,托馬斯德vallgormera , " mystica theologia四thomae " ,巴塞羅那, 1662年;都靈, 1911年,再教署。 berthier ) 。

(2) Modern Period ( 2 )現代時期

The modern period consists of the three centuries between the religious revolution at the beginning of the sixteenth century (Protestantism) and the French Revolution with its consequences.現代時期,構成了三個世紀之間的宗教革命,在開始的16世紀(新教)和法國革命及其後果。 The Order of Preachers, like the Church itself, felt the shock of these destructive revolutions but its vitality enabled it to withstand them successfully.該命令的傳教士,如教會本身,感受到的震撼,這種破壞性革命,但它的生命力,使它能經受住他們的成功。 At the beginning of the sixteenth century the order was on the way to a genuine renaissance when the Revolutionary upheavals occurred.在一開始的16世紀,該命令就未來路向一個真正的文藝復興,當革命的動亂發生。 The progress of heresy cost it six or seven provinces and several hundreds of convents, but the discovery of the New World opened up a fresh field of activity.進度異端成本,它六,七個省份和數百修道院,但發現新的世界開闢了一個新鮮的活動領域。 Its gains in America and those which arose as a consequence of the Portuguese conquests in Africa and the Indies far exceeded the losses of the order in Europe, and the seventeenth century saw its highest numerical development.其成果在美國和那些產生的一個後果,葡萄牙征服非洲和印度遠遠超過了損失,該命令在歐洲, 17世紀看到它的最高數值的發展。 The sixteenth century was a great doctrinal century, and the movement lasted beyond the middle of the eighteenth. 16世紀是一個偉大的學說上個世紀,以及運動持續超越中的第十八。 In modern times the order lost much of its influence on the political powers, which had universally fallen into absolutism and had little sympathy for the democratic constitution of the Preachers.在現代倍秩序失去了它的許多影響,對政治權力的,其中已普遍陷入絕對主義和不表同情,為民主憲政的傳教士。 The Bourbon Courts of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were particularly unfavourable to them until the suppression of the Society of Jesus.該波旁法院的十七世紀和十八世紀,尤其對他們不利,直到制止社會上的耶穌。 In the eighteenth century there were numerous attempts at reform which created, especially in France, geographical confusion in the administration.在十八世紀,有許多嘗試改革創造了,尤其是在法國,地理混亂,在政府當局。 During the eighteenth century the tyrannical spirit of the European Powers and, still more, the spirit of the age lessened the number of recruits and the fervour of religious life.在十八世紀的專橫精神的歐洲列強,更弘揚時代精神緩解,招聘人數和狂熱的宗教生活。 The French Revolution ruined the order in France, and the crises which more or less rapidly followed considerably lessened or wholly destroyed numerous provinces.法國革命,毀了,為了在法國和危機,其中較多或較少接踵而來大大減輕或完全摧毀了無數的省份。

(a) Geographical Distribution and Statistics (一)地理分佈及統計

The modern period saw a great change in the geographical distribution of provinces and the number of religious in the order.現代時期,看到一個巨大的變化,在地域分佈省份及一些宗教在該命令。 The establishment of Protestantism in Anglo-Saxon countries brought about during the sixteenth century, the total or partial disappearance of certain provinces.成立新教在盎格魯-撒克遜國家帶來大約在十六世紀,部分或全部消失,一些省份。 The provinces of Saxony, Dacia, England, and Scotland completely disappeared, that of Teutonia was mutilated; that of Ireland sought refuge in various houses on the Continent.各省薩克森州,達契亞,英國,蘇格蘭完全消失,也就是teutonia被肢解;的愛爾蘭尋求避難的各種房子就大陸。 The discovery and evangelization of America opened up vast territories, where the first Dominican missionaries established themselves as early as 1510.發現號與福傳的美國開闢了廣闊的領土,那裡的第一多米尼加傳教士建立了自己早在15時10分。 The first province, with San Domingo and the neighbouring islands for its territory, was erected, under the name of the Holy Cross, in 1530.第一屆省,聖多明戈和鄰近島嶼為其領土,是架設,名義下,聖十字,在15時30分。 Others followed quickly -- among them St. James of Mexico (1532), St. John Baptist of Peru (1539), St. Vincent of Chiapa (1551), St. Antoninus of New Granada (1551), St. Catherine of Quito (1580), St. Lawrence of Chile (1592).其次是別人很快-其中包括聖雅各福群會的墨西哥( 1 532年) ,聖約翰浸禮會的秘魯( 1 539) ,聖文森的恰帕( 1 551) ,聖a ntoninus新格拉納達( 1 551) ,聖凱瑟琳基多( 1580 ) ,聖勞倫斯智利(第1592 ) 。 In Europe the order developed constantly from the middle of the sixteenth century till the middle of the eighteenth.在歐洲,為了不斷發展,從中東的十六世紀至中第十八。 New provinces or congregations were formed.新的省或教友組成。 Under the government of Serafino Cavalli (1571-78) the order had thirty-one provinces and five congregations.根據政府的塞拉菲諾卡沃利( 1571至1578年) ,該命令31個省和5個教區。 In 1720 it had forty-nine provinces and four congregations.在17時20分,它49個省和4個教區。 At the former date there were about 900 convents; at the latter, 1200.在該日期前,有大約900個修道院,在後者, 1200 。 During Cavalli's time the order had 14,000 religious, and in 1720 more than 20,000.在卡沃利的時間順序有14000個宗教,並在1720年超過20000個。 It seems to have reached its greatest numerical development during the seventeenth century.它似乎已經達到了自己的最大數值發展,在17世紀。 Mention is made of 30,000 and 40,000 Dominicans; perhaps these figures include nuns; it does not seem probable that the number of Preachers alone ever exceeded 25,000.提到了30000名和40000名多米尼加人,或許這些數字包括修女,它似乎並不可能因為若干傳教士單獨以往任何時候都超過了25000人。 The secularization in Austria-Hungary under Joseph II began the work of partial suppression of convents, which was continued in France by the Committee of Regulars (1770) until the Convention (1793) finally destroyed all religious life in that country.世俗化,在奧匈帝國約瑟夫下展開的第二工作的部分鎮壓修道院,這是繼續在法國,由該委員會的常客( 1770 ) ,直到該公約( 1793 ) ,終於摧毀了所有的宗教生活在這個國家。 The Napoleonic conquest overthrew many provinces and houses in Europe.拿破崙征服推翻了許多省份及部分房屋在歐洲。 Most of them were eventually restored; but the Revolution destroyed partially or wholly the provinces of Portugal (1834), Spain (1834), and Italy (1870).他們大多是最終恢復了,但革命摧毀了部分或全部省份,葡萄牙( 1834年) ,西班牙( 1834年)和意大利( 1870年) 。 The political troubles brought about by the revolt of Latin America from the mother country at the beginning of the nineteenth century partially or wholly destroyed several provinces of the New World ("Script. Ord. Præd.", II, p. I, "Analecta Ord. Præd.", I sqq.; "Dominicanus orbis descriptus"; Mortier, "Hist. des maîtres généraux", V sqq.; Chapotin, "Le dernier prieur du dernier couvent", Paris, 1893; Rais, "Historia de la provincia de Aragón, orden de Predicadores desde le año 1803 haste el de 1818", Saragossa, 1819; 1824).在政治上的麻煩所帶來的造反,拉丁美洲,從母國,在19世紀初葉部分或全部摧毀了多個省份的新的世界( "腳本。霍德。 præd " ,第二頁, " analecta霍德。 præd " ,我sqq 。 ; " dominicanus奧比斯descriptus " ; mortier , "歷史。萬ma顃res généraux " ,第五章sqq ;沙波坦, "樂dernier prieur杜dernier couvent " ,巴黎, 1893年;賴斯, "沿革香格里拉省德商務勳章德predicadores desde樂a駉1803年匆忙下午德1818 " , saragossa , 1819 ; 1824年) 。

(b) Administration of the Order (二)政府的命令

During the modern period the Preachers remained faithful to the spirit of their organization.在現代時期,傳教士始終忠於精神,他們的組織。 Some modifications were necessitated by the general condition of the Church and civil society.一些修改,必須由一般條件下的教會和民間社會。 Especially noteworthy was the attempt, in 1569, of St. Pius V, the Dominican pope, to restrict the choice of superiors by inferiors and to constitute a sort of administrative aristocracy (Acta Cap. Gener., V, 94).特別值得注意的是,試圖在1569年,聖比約五,多米尼加教宗,以限制選擇的,由上級低人一等,並構成一種行政貴族(學報帽。生成,五, 94 ) 。 The frequent intervention of popes in the government of the order and the pretensions of civil powers, as well as its great development, diminished the frequency of general chapters; the rapid succession of masters general caused many chapters to be convened during the seventeenth century; in the eighteenth century chapters again became rare.頻繁的干預,教皇在政府的命令及偽裝的民事權力,以及它大的發展,削弱了頻率一般章節;迅猛繼承主人一般,造成許多章節會的召開,在17世紀;十八世紀的篇章再度成為罕見的。 The effective administration passed into the hands of the general assisted by pontifical decrees.有效管理通過成為手中一般輔助宗座政令暢通。 During these three centuries the order had many heads who were remarkable for their energy and administrative ability, among them Thomas de Vio (1508-18), Garcia de Loaysa (1518-24), Vincent Giustiniani (1558-70), Nicolo Ridolfi (1629-44), Giovanni Battista de' Marini (1650-69), Antonin Cloche (1686-1720), Antonin Brémond (1748-55), John Thomas de Boxadors (Mortier, "Hist. des maîtres généraux", V sq.; "Acta cap. gen.", IV sq.; "Chronicon magistrorum generalium"; "Regula S. Augustini et Constitutiones Ord. Præd.", Rome, 1695; Paichelli, "Vita del Rmo PF Giov. Battista de' Marini", Rome, 1670; Messin, "Vita del Rmo P F. Antonino Cloche", Benevento, 1721; "Vita Antonini Bremondii" in "Annales Ord. Præd.", Rome, 1756, I, p. LIX).在這三個世紀的命令有許多首長的人了不起,他們的能源和執政能力的提高,其中包括托馬斯德VIO接( 1508年至1518年) ,加西亞德loaysa ( 1518至1524年) ,文森特朱斯蒂尼亞尼( 1558至1570年) , nicolo ridolfi ( 1629年至1644年) ,吉奧瓦尼-巴蒂斯塔德'瑪連尼( 1 650年至1 669年) ,倫奎斯特c loche( 1 686至1 720年) ,倫奎斯特b rémond( 1 748至1 755年) ,約翰托馬斯德b oxadors( m ortier, "歷史。萬m a顃r esg énéraux" ,第五章平方" ;學報章根" ,四平方米; " chronicon magistrorum generalium " , "規範第奧古斯蒂尼等constitutiones霍德。 præd " ,羅馬, 1695年; paichelli , "履歷表刪除rmo酚醛giov 。 Battista )德'瑪連尼"羅馬, 1670年; messin , "履歷表刪除rmo p樓antonino cloche " , benevento第1721 " ;履歷表antonini bremondii "中的"年鑑霍德。 præd " ,羅馬, 1756年,我第LIX )號。

(c) Scholastic Organization (三)學術組織

The scholastic organization of the Dominicans during this modern period tended to concentration of studies.學術組織的多米尼加人在這個現代時期趨於集中學習。 The conventual school required by the Constitutions disappeared, at least in its essentials, and in each province or congregation the studies were grouped in particular convents.該conventual學校須根據憲法消失,至少在其基本知識,並在每個省或教區的研究被分為特別是修道院。 The studia generalia multiplied, as well as convents incorporated with universities.該studia generalia成倍增加,以及修道院,列入大學。 The General Chapter of 1551 designates 27 convents in university towns where, and where only, the religious might take the degree of Master in Theology.一般章1551指定了27個修道院,在大學城的地方,那裡只,宗教可以採取一定程度的掌握,在神學。 Through the generosity of Dominicans in high ecclesiastical offices large colleges for higher education were also established for the benefit of certain provinces.通過慷慨的多米尼加人在高教會辦事處大型學院接受高等教育,還建立了造福於一些省份。 Among the most famous of these were the College of St. Gregory at Valladolid, founded in 1488 by Alonzo of Burgos, adviser and confessor of the kings of Castile (Bull. OP, IV, 38); that of St. Thomas at Seville, established in 1515 by Archbishop Diego de Deza ("Historia del colegio major de Ste Tomás de Sevilla", Seville, 1890).其中最有名的,這些高校的聖格雷戈里在巴利亞多利德,成立於1488年,由僅僅的布爾戈斯,顧問和懺悔的國王隊的卡斯蒂利亞( bull.作品,四, 38 ) ;的聖托馬斯在塞維利亞舉行成立於1515年,由大主教迭戈德deza ( "歷史刪除歲Colegio重大德您托馬斯德塞維利亞" ,塞維利亞, 1890年) 。 The Preachers also established universities in their chief provinces in America -- San Domingo (1538), Santa Fé de Bogotá (1612), Quito (1681), Havana (1721) -- and even in the Philippines, where the University of Manila (1645) is still flourishing and in their hands.講道還設立了大學在其行政省份在美國-聖多明戈( 1 538) ,聖菲省菲波哥大( 1 612) ,基多( 1 681) ,哈瓦那( 1 721) -甚至在菲律賓,而大學(馬尼拉16時45分)仍然蓬勃發展,並在他們手上。 During the sixteenth and following centuries the schedule of studies was more than once revised, and the matter extended to meet the needs of the times.在第十六和以下幾百年的時間表,研究一次以上的修訂,以及該事項,以滿足時代的需要。 Oriental studies especially received a vigorous impulse under the generalship of Antonin Brémond (Fabricy, "Des titres primitifs de la Révélation", Rome, 1772, II, 132; "Acta. Cap. Gen.", IV-VII; "Bull. OP", passim; V. de la Fuente, "La enseñanza Tomistica en España", Madrid, 1874; Contarini "Notizie storiche circa gli publici professori nello studio di Padova scelti dall' ordine di San Domenieo", Venice, 1769).東方學研究,特別是收到了嚴厲的衝動下generalship的倫奎斯特brémond ( fabricy , "萬滴度primitifs德香格里拉révélation " ,羅馬, 1772年第一,二, 132 " ;學報。章將軍" ,第四至第七; "牛市。作品" ,各處;訴德香格里拉Fuente小" ,而成tomistica西班牙" ,馬德里, 1874年; contarini " notizie storiche circa款GLI publici professori nello工作室迪帕多瓦scelti dall ' ordine迪聖domenieo " ,威尼斯, 1769年) 。

(d) Doctrinal Activity (四)理論活動

The doctrinal activity of the Preachers continued during the modern period.理論活動的傳教士繼續在現代時期。 The order, closely connected with the events of the Reformation in German countries, faced the revolutionary movement as best it could, and by preaching and writing deserved what Dr. Paulus has said of it: "It may well be said that in the difficult conflict through which the Catholic Church had to pass in Germany in the sixteenth century no other religious order furnished in the literary sphere so many champions, or so well equipped, as the Order of St. Dominic" ("Die deutschen Dominikaner in Kampfe gegen Luther, 1518-1563", Freiburg i. Br., 1903).一聲令下,緊密相連,隨著事件的改造,在德語國家,面臨著革命運動為最佳,它可以和鼓吹和寫作當之無愧什麼博士鮑魯斯說的那樣: "或許有人會說,在困難的衝突透過天主教會已通過德國在16世紀沒有其他宗教秩序家具在文學領域有這麼多冠軍,或使裝備精良,由於該命令聖星" (下稱"模德國dominikaner在kampfe葛根路德, 1518年至1563年" ,弗賴堡一溴, 1903年) 。 The order was conspicuous by the number and influence of the Dominican bishops and theologians who took part in the Council of Trent.該命令是由突出的數目和影響力多米尼加主教和神學家參加安理會的遄達。 To a certain extent Thomistic doctrine predominated in the discussions and decisions of the council, so that Clement VII, in 1593, could say, when he desired the Jesuits to follow St. Thomas, that the council approved and accepted his works (Astrain, "Historia de la Compañia de Jésus en la asistencia de España", III, Madrid, 1909, 580).得到了一定程度的thomistic學說為主,在討論和決定本會,讓克萊門特七,在1593年,可以說,當他想要的耶穌會跟隨聖托馬斯說,理事會批准,並接受了他的作品(阿斯特拉因"沿革香格里拉compañia德jésus恩和殘疾香格里拉西班牙" ,三,馬德里, 1909年, 580 ) 。 The "Catechismus ad Parochos", the composition of which had been ordered by the council, and which was published at the command of Pius V (1566), is the work of Dominican theologians (Reginaldus, "De catechismi romani auctoritate dissertatio", Naples, 1765). " catechismus專案parochos " ,其人員組成,其中已下令由理事會,並發表在指揮的比約五( 1566 ) ,是工作的多米尼加神學家( reginaldus , "德catechismi吉普賽auctoritate dissertatio " ,那不勒斯, 1765 ) 。 The Spanish Dominican School of the sixteenth century, inaugurated by Francisco de Vitoria (d. 1540), produced a series of eminent theologians: Melchior Cano (1560), the celebrated author of "De locis theologicis"; Domingo Soto (1500); Bartolomé de Medina (1580); Domingo Bañez.西班牙多米尼加學校的16世紀,宣誓就職,由弗朗西斯科德維多利亞(四1540號決議) ,製作了一系列傑出的神學家:梅爾希奧爾莫卡諾( 1560 ) ,著名作家的"時點locis theologicis "多明戈德索托( 1500 ) ;巴托洛德麥迪那( 1580 ) ,多明戈bañez 。 This line of theologians was continued by Tomás de Lemos (1629); Diego Alvarez (1635); Juan de S. Tomás (1644), ["Script. OP", II, s.這條線的神學家繼續由托馬斯德,羅納爾多的前女友( 1629 ) ;迭戈阿爾瓦雷斯( 1635年) ;胡安第托馬斯( 1644 ) , [ "腳本。作品" ,第二章第 vv.; P. Getino, "Historia de un convento" (St. Stephen of Salamanca), Vergara, 1904 Ehrle, "Die Vatikanischen Handschriften der Salamanticenser Theologen des sechszehnten Jahrhunderts" in "Der Katholik", 64-65, 1884-85; LG Getino, "El maestro Fr. Francisco de Vitoria" in "La Ciencia tomista", Madrid, I, 1910, 1; Caballero, "Vida del Illmo. dr. D. Fray Melchor Cano", Madrid, 1871; Alvarez, "Santa Teresa y el P. Bañez", Madrid, 1882].維維;頁getino , "沿革聯合國convento " (聖士提反灣的薩拉曼卡) , vergara , 1904年埃爾勒, "死vatikanischen handschriften明鏡salamanticenser theologen萬sechszehnten jahrhunderts "中的"明鏡katholik " , 64-65 , 1884年至1885年; LG電子getino , "厄爾尼諾大師神父弗朗西斯科德維多利亞"中的"香格里拉科學和tomista " ,馬德里,我, 1910年, 1 ;安卡瓦列羅, "生活恢復伊爾莫。博士。四捲入旋渦melchor爾莫卡諾" ,馬德里, 1871年;阿爾瓦雷斯"聖特雷莎y下午頁bañez " ,馬德里, 1882年] 。

Italy furnished a contingent of Dominican theologians of note, of whom Thomas de Vio Cajetan (d. 1534) was incontestably the most famous (Cossio, "II cardinale Gaetano e la riforma", Cividale, 1902).意大利家具一支多米尼加神學家的注意,其中托馬斯德VIO接cajetan (四第1534 )是無可爭議最有名( cossio , "二cardinale加埃塔諾阿蘭e香格里拉riforma " , cividale , 1902 ) 。 Franceseo Silvestro di Ferrara (d. 1528) left a valuable commentary on the "Summa contra Gentiles" (Script. OP, II, 59). franceseo silvestro迪費拉拉(第1528四)留下了寶貴的評論,對"總結矛盾外邦人" ( script.作品,二, 59 ) 。 Chrysostom Javelli, a dissenter from the Thomistic School, left very remarkable writings on the moral and political sciences (op. cit., 104).金口javelli , dissenter從thomistic學校,都留下了相當了不起的著作上的道德和政治科學院(同前, 104 ) 。 Catharinus (1553) is a famous polemicist, but an unreliable theologian (Schweizer, "Ambrosius Catharinus Politus, 1484-1553, ein Theologe des Reformations-zeitalters", Münster, 1910). catharinus ( 1553 ) ,是我國著名的辯論家,但一個不可靠的神學家( schweizer , "安布羅修斯catharinus politus , 1484年至1553年,艾因theologe萬變革- zeitalters " ,在明斯特, 1910 ) 。 France likewise produced excellent theologians -- Jean Nicolai (d. 1673); Vincent de Contenson (d. 1674); Antoine Reginald (d. 1676); Jean-Baptiste Gonet (d. 1681); Antoine Gondin (d. 1695); Antonin Manoulié (d. 1706); Noël Alexandre (Natalis Alexander) (d. 1724); Hyacinthe de Graveson (d. 1733); Hyacinthe Serry (d.1738) ("Seript. OP", II; Hurter "Nomenelator", IV; H. Serry, "Opera omnia", I, Lyons, 1770, p. 5).法國同樣產生了良好的神學家-讓尼可拉(四1 673) ;鄭海泉德孔唐松(四1 674) ;安托( R eginald(四1 676) ,讓-巴蒂斯特戈內特(四1 681) ;安托g ondin(四1 695) ;倫奎斯特manoulié (四1706 ) ;諾埃爾亞力山大(陳百祥亞歷山大) (四1724 ) ; hyacinthe德格雷夫森(四1733 ) ; hyacinthe serry ( d.1738 ) ( " seript 。作品" ,第二章; hurter " nomenelator "四;每小時serry , "歌劇OMNIA公司" ,我想,里昂, 1770年,第5頁) 。 From the sixteenth century to the eighteenth the Thomistic School upheld by the authority of Dominican general chapters and theologians, the official adhesion of new religious orders and various theological faculties, but above all by the Holy See, enjoyed an increasing and undisputed authority.從十六世紀至十八該thomistic學校堅持由權威多米尼加一般章節和神學家時,這位官員粘附新的宗教命令及各種神學系,但首先是由羅馬教廷,享有越來越大,並無可爭議的權威。

The disputes concerning moral theology which disturbed the Church during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, originated in the theory of probability advanced by the Spanish Dominican Bartolomé de Medina in 1577.該糾紛涉及的道德神學,它擾亂了教會,在十七世紀和十八世紀,起源於概率論先進的是由西班牙多米尼加巴托洛德麥迪在1577年。 Several theologians of the order adopted, at the beginning of the seventeenth century the theory of moral probability; but in consideration of the abuses which resulted from these doctrines the General Chapter of 1656 condemned them, and after that time there were no more Probabilists among the Dominicans.幾位神學家的議事程序通過,在一開始的17世紀的理論,道德的概率,但考慮到侵權行為造成的,這些理論一般章1656譴責他們,並經過當時實際上並沒有足夠多probabilists之間多米尼加人。 The condemnations of Alexander VII (1665, 1667), the famous Decree of Innocent XI, and various acts of the Roman Church combined to make the Preachers resolute opponents of Probabilism.該被譴責,亞歷山大七( 1665 , 1667 ) ,著名的法令無辜席,以及各種行為的羅馬教會結合,使宣講員堅決的反對者probabilism 。 The publication of Concina's "Storia del probabilismo" in 1743 renewed the controversy.出版孔奇納的" storia刪除probabilismo " ,在1743延長了爭議。 He displayed enormous activity, and his friend and disciple, Giovanni Vicenzo Patuzzi (d. 1769) defended him in a series of vigorous writings.他表現出了巨大的活動,以及他的朋友和徒弟,喬萬尼vicenzo帕圖齊(四1769 )捍衛了他在一系列嚴厲的著作。 St. Alphonsus Liguori felt the consequences of these disputes, and, in consideration of the position taken by the Holy See, greatly modified his theoretical system of probability and expressed his desire to adhere to the doctrine of St. Thomas Aquinas (Mandonnet, "Le décret d'Innocent XI contre le probabilisme", in "Revue Thomiste" 1901-03; Ter Haar, "Des Decret des Papstes Innocenz XI über den Probabilismus", Paderborn, 1904; Concina, "Della storia del Probabilismo e del Rigorismo", Lucca, 1743; Mondius, "Studio storico-critico sul sistema morale di S. Alfonso M. de Liguori", Monza, 1911; Dölinger-Reuseh, "Gesch. der Moralstreitigkelten", Nordlingen, 1889).聖阿方liguori感受到了後果的這些糾紛,並考慮到所採取的立場教廷,大大改進他的理論體系中的概率,並表示他的願望,要堅持以中庸聖托馬斯阿奎那(芒多內, "樂décret -無辜喜c ontre樂p robabilisme" ,在" t homiste雜誌" , 1 901年至1 903年;條之三哈爾, "萬d ecret萬p apstesi nnocenz喜黚e r書齋p robabilismus" ,帕德博恩, 1 904年;孔奇納" d ellas toria刪除p robabilismoe刪除r igorismo"盧卡, 1743年; mondius , "工作室storico - critico州系統的士氣,第邸內斯米德liguori " ,蒙扎, 1911年; dölinger - reuseh , " gesch 。明鏡moralstreitigkelten " , nordlingen , 1889年) 。

(e) Scientific productions (五)科學製作

The literary activity of the Preachers of the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries was not confined to the theological movement noticed above, but shared in the general movement of erudition in the sacred sciences.文學活動的傳教士的第十六和十八世紀並不局限於神學運動注意到上述情況,但共同的,在一般運動的博學,在神聖的科學。 Among the most noteworthy productions were the works of Pagnini (d. 1541) on the Hebrew text of Scripture; his lexicons and grammars were famous in their day and exercised a lasting influence (Script. OP, II 114); Sixtus of Siena (d. 1569), a converted Jew created the science of introduction to the sacred Books with his "Bibliotheca Sancta" (Venice, 1566; op. cit., 206); Jacques Goar, liturgist and Orientalist published the "Euchologium sive rituale Græeorum" (Paris, 1647), a work which, according to Renaudot, was unsurpassed by anything in its time (Hurter, "Nomenclat. litt.", III, 1211).其中最值得注意的製作人的作品7.7/10 7.7 Grand Hotel Adriatico (四第1541 )對希伯來文聖經,他的詞彙和語法都是有名的,他們每天和行使持久的影響力( script.作品之一,二114 ) ; Sixtus的錫耶納(四。 1569 ) ,一輛經過改裝的猶太人創造了科學的介紹了這一神聖的書籍與他的"圖書館sancta " (威尼斯,第1566 ;同上, 206 ) ;雅克goar , liturgist和東方出版的" euchologium sive裡圖阿萊græeorum " (巴黎, 1647年) ,一項工作,據勒諾多,是無可比擬的,由什麼在其時間( hurter , " nomenclat 。利特" ,三, 1211 ) 。 François Combefis (d. 1679) issued editions of the Greek Fathers and writers (op. cit., IV, 161).弗朗索瓦combefis (四為1679 )發行版本的希臘教父和作家(同前,四中,有161個) 。 Michel le Quien, Orientalist, produced a monumental work in his "Oriens Christianus".米歇爾樂quien ,東方,製作了一個紀念性的工作,在他的" oriens christianus " 。 Vansleb (d. 1679) was twice sent by Colbert to the Orient, whence he brought a large number of manuscripts for the Bibliothèque du Roi (Pougeois "Vansleb", Paris, 1869). vansleb (四為1679 ) ,先後兩次派出由colbert向東方,何時會有,他帶來了大量的手稿,為國家圖書館杜的ROI (普茹瓦" vansleb " ,巴黎, 1869年) 。 Thomas Mammachi (d. 1792) left a large unfinished work, "Origines et Antiquitates Christianæ" (Rome, 1753-57).托馬斯mammachi (四1792年)留下了大量未完成的工作, " origines等antiquitates christianæ " (羅馬, 1753年至1757年) 。

In the historical field mention must be made of Bartholomew de Las Casas (d. 1566) who left a valuable "Historia de las Indias" (Madrid, 1875), Noël Alexandre (d. 1724) left an ecclesiastical history which was long held in esteem [Paris, 1676-89; (Dict. de Théol. Cath., I, 769)].在歷史領域必須提到了巴爾多祿茂一世梅德拉斯卡薩斯(四1566 )的人留下了寶貴的"沿革拉斯維加斯印" (馬德里, 1875 ) ,諾埃爾亞力山大(四1724年)留下了教會歷史上是長舉行自尊[巴黎, 1676年至1689年; ( dict.德théol 。蛋白酶。來說,我和769 ) ] 。 Joseph Augustin Orsi (d. 1761) wrote an "Historia eelesiastica" which was continued by his confrère Filippo Angelo Becchetti (d. 1814).約瑟夫奧古斯丁orsi (四1761 ) ,寫了一個"歷史eelesiastica " ,這是繼續他的confrère菲利普安吉洛becchetti (四1814年) 。 The last edition (Rome, 1838) ; numbers 50 volumes (Kirchenlex., IX, 1087).最新版(羅馬, 1838 ) ;編號50卷( kirchenlex. ,第九, 1087年) 。 Nicolas Coeffeteau was, according to Vaugelas, one of the two greatest masters of the French language at the beginning of the eighteenth century (Urbain, "Nicolas Coeffeteau, dominicain, évêque de Marseille, un des fondateurs de la prose française, 1574-1623", Paris, 1840).尼可拉斯克弗托是,據沃熱拉,其中兩個最大的主人,法國語言在一開始的18世紀( urbain , "尼可拉斯克弗托, dominicain , évêque德馬賽,在聯合國萬fondateurs德香格里拉散文法國, 1574年至1623年"巴黎, 1840年) 。 Thomas Campanella (d. 1639) won renown by his numerous writings on philosophy and sociology as well as by the boldness of his ideas and his eventful life (Dict. de théol. Bath., II, 1443).托馬斯campanella (四二一六三九)贏得了名聲,他的許多著作對哲學和社會學以及由氣魄,他的思想和他的多變生活( dict.德théol 。浴。第一,第二,第1443 ) 。 Jacques Barelier (d. 1673) left one of the foremost botanical works of his time, which was edited by A. de Jussieu, "Icones plantarum per Galliam, Hispaniam et Italiam observatarum ad vivum exhibitarum" [Paris, 1714; (Script. OP, II, 645)].雅克巴勒利耶(四1673年)離開的一個首要植物園工程,他的時間,這是主編甲德jussieu , " icones植物每galliam , hispaniam等italiam observatarum專案vivum exhibitarum " [巴黎, 1714年; ( script.作品第一,二, 645頁) ] 。

(f) The Preachers and Christian Society (六)傳教士和基督教社會

During the modern period the order performed countless services for the Church.在現代時期,為了演出無數服務,為教會。 Their importance may be gathered from the fact that during this period it gave to the Church two popes, St. Pius V (1566-72) and Benedict XIII (1724-30), forty cardinals, and more than a thousand bishops and archbishops.它們的重要性,可蒐集到的事實,即在此期間所給予教會兩個教皇,聖比約五( 1566年至1572年)和本篤十三( 1724年至1730年) ,第四十八樞機主教,並有超過1000名主教和大主教。 From the foundation of the Roman Congregations in the sixteenth century a special place was reserved for the Preachers; thus the titulars of the Commissariat of the Holy Office and the secretary of the Index were always chosen from this order.從立黨之本,羅馬教會在16世紀一個特殊的地點,是預留作傳教士,因此titulars的小賣部的聖地辦公室及秘書指數總是選擇從這項命令。 The title of Consultor of the Holy Office also belonged by right to the master general and the Master of the Sacred Palace (Gams,( "Series episcoporum ecclesiae catholicae", Ratisbon, 1873; Falloux, "Histoire de Saint Pie V", Paris, 1858; Borgia, "Benedicti XIII vita", Rome, 1741; Catalano, "De secretario Indicis", Rome 1751). The influence of the Preachers on the political powers of Europe was unequally exercised during this period: they remained confessors of the kings of Spain until 1700; in France their credit decreased especially under Louis XIV, from whom they had much to suffer ("Catalogo de los religiosos dominicanos confessores de Estado, 1700"; Chapotin, "La guerre de succession de Poissy, 1660-1707", Paris, 1892).標題consultor的聖地辦事處也屬於所謂權利,以主人翁的一般和主人的神聖宮殿(的GAMS , ( "系列episcoporum ecclesiae catholicae " ,拉蒂斯邦, 1873年; falloux , "歷史學德聖餅V "字,巴黎, 1858年;博爾吉亞" benedicti第十三履歷表" ,羅馬, 1741年;卡塔拉諾, "德司長之indicis " ,羅馬1751 )的影響以及傳教士對政治權力的歐洲是不平等的行使,在此期間:他們仍然confessors的國王在西班牙,直到1700間,在法國他們的信用下降,特別是在路易十四,從誰,他們有很多受苦( " catalogo德洛杉磯religiosos dominicanos confessores德estado , 1700 " ;沙波坦, "香格里拉戰爭德繼承德poissy , 1660年至1707年"巴黎, 1892年) 。

(g) The Preachers and the Missions (七)傳教士和使命

The missions of the Preachers reached their greatest development during the modern period.該特派團的佈道者達到他們最大的發展中的現代時期。 They were fostered, on the one hand, by the Portuguese conquests in Africa and the East Indies and, on the other, by the Spanish conquests in America and Western Asia.他們培育的,一方面,由葡萄牙征服非洲和東印度群島,另一方面,由西班牙人征服美洲和西亞。 As early as the end of the fifteenth century Portuguese Dominicans reached the West Coast of Africa and, accompanying the explorers, rounded the Cape of Good Hope to settle on the coast of East Africa.早在去年底15世紀葡萄牙多米尼加人達到了非洲西海岸,並伴隨著探險者,四捨五入好望角定居,對沿海東部非洲。 They founded temporary or permanent missions in the Portuguese African settlements and went in succession to the Indies, Ceylon, Siam, and Malacca.他們成立了臨時或永久使命,在葡萄牙語非洲定居點,並前往先後向印度,錫蘭,暹羅,馬六甲。 They made Goa the centre of these missions which in 1548 were erected into a special mission of the Holy Cross, which had to suffer from the British conquest, but continued to flourish till the beginning of the nineteenth century.他們作出了果阿的中心任務,其中在1548年被豎立成為一個特殊使命的聖十字,而不得不承受來自英國征服,但他仍繼續蓬勃發展,到19世紀初葉。 The order gave a great many bishops to these regions [João dos Santos, "Ethiopia oriental", Evora, 1609; re-edited Lisbon, 1891; Cacegas-de Sousa, "Historia de S. Domingo partidor do reino e eonquistas de Portugal", Lisbon, 1767 (Vol. IV by Lucas de Santa Catharina); André Marie, "Missions dominicaines dans l'extrême Orient", Lyons-Paris, 1865].該命令了很多主教,以這些地區[若昂多斯桑托斯, "埃塞俄比亞東方的" ,埃武拉, 1609年;重新剪輯里斯本, 1891年; cacegas -蘇沙, "沿革美國多明戈partidor做reino e eonquistas德葡萄牙" ,里斯本, 1767年(第四卷由盧卡斯德聖catharina ) ;安德烈瑪麗, "任務dominicaines dans l'極東方" ,里昂-巴黎, 1865年] 。 The discovery of America soon brought Dominican evangelization in the footsteps of the conquistadores, one of them Diego de Deza, was the constant defender of Christopher Columbus, who declared (letter of 21 Dec. 1504) that it was to him the Sovereigns of Spain owed the possession of the Indies (Mandonnet, "Les dominicains et la découverte de l'Amérique", Paris 1893).該發現美洲很快帶來了多米尼加的福傳工作中的腳步聲的征服者,其中一人迭戈德deza的,是不斷的維護者,克里斯托弗哥倫布,他宣布(信1504年12月21日)表示,這是他的兩個主權國的西班牙欠擁有了印度群島(芒多內, "就業輔導組dominicains等出版社德l' amérique " ,巴黎1893年) 。 The first missionaries reached the New World in 1510, and preaching was quickly extended throughout the conquered countries, where they organized the various provinces already mentioned and found in Bartolomé de las Casas who took the habit of the order, their most powerful assistant in the defence of the Indians.第一傳教士達成新的世界,在15時10分,並鼓吹已被迅速擴大到整個被征服國家,在那裡他們組織各省已經提到的,並發現,在巴托洛梅德拉斯卡薩斯人的習慣,一聲令下,其最得力的助手,在辯護對印度人。

St. Louis Bertrand (d. 1581) was the great apostle of New Granada, and St. Rose of Lima (d. 1617) the first flower of sanctity in the New World (Remesal "Historia de la provincia de S. Vicente de Chiapa y Guatemala", Madrid, 1619; Dávila Padilla "Historia de la fundacion y discorso de la provincia de Santiago de Mexico", Madrid, 1592; Brussels 1625; Franco, "Segunda parte de la historia de provincia de Santiago de Mexico", 1645, Mexico re-ed. Mexico, 1900; Melendez, "Tesores verdadero de la Indias en la historia de la gran provincia de S Juan Bautista del Peru", Rome, 1681; Alonso d' Zamora, "Historia de la provineia de San Antonio del nuevo reyno de Granada", Barcelona, 1701; Helps, "Life of las Casas, the Apostle of the Indies" London, 1883; Gutierrez, "Fray Bartolomé de las Casas sus tiempos y su apostolado", Madrid, 1878; Fabie, "Vida y escritos de Fray Bartolomé de las Casas", Madrid, 1879; Wilberforce, "Life of Louis Bertrand", Fr. tr. Folghera, Paris, 1904; Masson, "Sainte Rose, tertiaire dominicaine, patronne du Nouveau Monde", Lyons, 1898).聖路易斯貝特朗(四1581 )是一場偉大的使徒保羅的新格拉納達,和聖玫瑰利馬(四第1617 )第一個花卉的神聖性,在新的世界(雷梅薩爾"沿革香格里拉省德第新華社德恰帕y危地馬拉" ,馬德里, 1619年; dávila帕迪拉"沿革香格里拉基金會y discorso德香格里拉省德聖地亞哥德墨" ,馬德里, 1592年;布魯塞爾第1625 ;佛朗哥, " segunda方參與德香格里拉沿革省德聖地亞哥德墨" , 16時45分,墨西哥重新版墨西哥, 1900年; melendez , " tesores verdadero德香格里拉印恩香格里拉沿革香格里拉大省德s胡安包蒂斯塔恢復秘魯" ,羅馬, 1681年;阿隆索d '薩莫拉, "沿革香格里拉provineia德聖安東尼奧馬刺刪除新reyno德格拉納達" ,巴塞羅那, 1701年;幫助, "生命拉斯卡薩斯,使徒的印度"倫敦, 1883年;古鐵雷斯, "弗賴巴托洛梅卡薩斯避震tiempos y蘇apostolado " ,馬德里, 1878年;法比耶, "生活y escritos德弗賴巴托洛梅卡薩斯" ,馬德里, 1879年;威爾伯福斯, "生命的路易斯貝特朗" ,神父的TR 。 folghera ,巴黎, 1904年; Masson三, "聖玫瑰, tertiaire dominicaine , patronne杜大款"上,里昂, 1898年) 。 Dominican evangelization went from America to the Philippines (1586) and thence to China (1590), where Gaspar of the Holy Cross, of the Portuguese Congregation of the Indies, had already begun to work in 1559.多米尼加前往福傳的,從美國到菲律賓( 1586 ) ,並從那裡向中國( 1590 ) ,在那裡加斯帕爾的聖十字,葡萄牙眾的印度,已經開始工作, 1559年。 The Preachers established themselves in Japan (1601), in Tonking (1676), and in the Island of Formosa.講道確立自己在日本( 1601 ) ,在tonking ( 1676 ) ,並在島上的福爾摩沙。 This flourishing mission passed through persecutions, and the Church has raised its numerous martyrs to her altars [Ferrando-Fonseca, "Historia de los PP. Dominicos a las isles Filipinas, y en sus misiones de Japón, China, Tungkin y Formosa", Madrid, 1870; Navarrete, "Tratados historicos, politicos, ethicos y religiosos de la monarquia de China", Madrid, 1676-1679, tr., London, 1704; Gentili, "Memorie di un missionario domenicano nella Cina", 1887; Orfanel, "Historia eelesiastica de los succesos de la christiandad de Japón desde 1602 que entró en el la orden de Predicadores, haste el año de 1620", Madrid, 1633; Guglielmotti, "Memorie delle missioni cattoliche nel regno del Tunchino", Rome, 1844; Arias, "El beato Sanz y companeros martires", Manila, 1893; "I martiri annamiti e chinesi (1798-1856)", Rome, 1900; Clementi, "Gli otto martiri tonchinesi dell' ordine di S. Domenico", Rome, 1906].這個蓬勃發展的使命通過迫害,並教會提出了自己的無數先烈,以她的神壇[ ferrando -豐塞卡, "沿革洛杉磯頁多米尼科斯一拉斯維加斯群島菲律賓, y恩避震米西奧內斯德japón ,中國, tungkin y福爾摩沙" ,馬德里, 1870年;納瓦雷特, " tratados historicos ,政客, ethicos y religiosos德香格里拉monarquia德中國" ,馬德里, 1676年至1679年,的TR ,倫敦, 1704年; gentili , " memorie邸聯合國米西奧納里奧多梅尼卡諾的理解cina " , 1887年;奧法內爾, "歷史eelesiastica德洛杉磯succesos德香格里拉christiandad德japón desde 1602闕entró恩下午香格里拉勳章德predicadores ,匆忙下午a駉德1620年" ,馬德里, 1633年;古列爾莫蒂, " memorie delle missioni cattoliche內爾regno刪除tunchino " ,羅馬, 1844年;阿里亞斯, "厄爾尼諾" Beato斯桑斯y companeros馬蒂雷斯" ,馬尼拉, 1893年; : "我martiri annamiti e chinesi ( 1798至1856年) " ,羅馬, 1900年;金文泰" ,為Gli奧托martiri tonchinesi戴爾' ordine迪第( Domenico " ,羅馬, 1906 ] 。 In 1635 the French Dominicans began the evangelization of the French Antilles, Guadaloupe, Martinique etc., which lasted until the end of the eighteenth century (Du Tertre, "Hist. générale des Antilles", Paris, 1667-71; Labat "Nouveau voyage aux isles de l'Amérique", Paris 1742).在1635年法國的多米尼加人開始福傳事業的法語的列斯群島,瓜德羅普島,馬提尼克島等,一直持續到十八世紀末(杜tertre , "歷史。興業銀行萬列斯" ,巴黎, 1667年至1671年;拉巴特的"大款遠航輔助群島德l' amérique " ,巴黎1742年) 。 In 1750 the Mission of Mesopotamia and Kurdistan was founded by the Italian religious; it passed to the Province of France (Paris) in 1856 (Goormachtigh, "Hist. de la mission Dominicaine en Mésopotamie et Kurdistan", in "Analecta OP" III, 271).在1750年的使命,美索不達米亞和庫爾德斯坦成立,由意大利的宗教,它通過向省,法國(巴黎)於1856年( goormachtigh , "歷史是。 de香格里拉使命dominicaine恩mésopotamie等庫爾德斯坦" ,在" analecta作品"三271 ) 。

(h) Dominican Saints and Blessed (八)多米尼加聖徒和祝福

From the beginning of the sixteenth century members of the Order of St. Dominic eminent for sanctity were the subjects of twenty-one canonizations or beatifications.從一開始的16世紀成員的命令聖星知名人士為神聖不可侵犯的人,主題21 canonizations或beatifications 。 Some of the beatifications included a more or less large number at one time: such were the Annamite martyrs, who formed a group of twenty-six beati canonized 21 May, 1900, by Leo XIII, and the martyrs of Tonking, who numbered eight, the last of whom died in 1861, and who were canonized by Pius X, 28 Nov., 1905.一些對beatifications包括較多或較少大批在同一時間:如被annamite烈士,他們形成了一組26 beati冊封1900年5月21日,由利奧十三世,以及烈士的tonking ,編號為八人,最後的死亡,其中在1861年,是誰在被冊封,由比約十, 1905年11月28日。 Five saints were canonized during this period; St. John of Gorkum (d. 1572), martyr; St. Pius V (d. 1572), the last pope canonized; St. Louis Bertrand (d. 1581), missionary in the New World; St. Catherine de' Ricci (d. 1589), of the second order, and St. Rose of Lima (d. 1617), tertiary, the first American saint.五聖人被冊封,在此期間;聖約翰的gorkum (四第1572 ) ,烈士,聖比約五(四第1572年) ,最後,教宗冊封;聖路易斯貝特朗(四1581 ) ,傳教士在新的世界;聖凱瑟琳德'利瑪竇(四1589 ) ,二階,和聖玫瑰利馬(四第1617 ) ,大專,美國第一家聖。 (See general bibliography of saints in section Middle Ages above.) (見總書目聖人節中世紀以上) 。

(3) Contemporaneous Period ( 3 )當期期

The contemporaneous period of the history of the Preachers begins with the different restorations of provinces under taken after the revolutions which had destroyed the order in several countries of the Old World and the New.當代時期的歷史上的傳教士開始與不同的修復體的省份後所採取的革命,它已經摧毀了,為了在幾個國家的一個舊世界,新的。 This period begins more or less early in the nineteenth century, and it cannot be traced down to the present day without naming religious who are still living and whose activity embodies the present life of the order.這一時期開始較多或較少早在十九世紀,它已無法追查到現在一天也命名宗教的人目前仍生活,他們的活動體現了目前的生活秩序。 The revolutions not having totally destroyed certain of the provinces, nor decimated them, simultaneously, the Preachers were able to take up the laborious work of restoration in countries where the civil legislation did not present insurmountable obstacles.革命尚未被完全摧毀的某些省份,也不decimated他們,同時,傳教士們能夠採取行動費力的工作,恢復在所在國家的民事立法中沒有不可逾越的障礙。 During this critical period the number of Preachers seems never to have sunk below 3500.在這一關鍵時期,有多少傳教士似乎永遠都無法取回低於3500 。 The statistics for 1876 give 3748 religious, but 500 of these had been expelled from their convents and were engaged in parochial work.統計為1876年給予3748宗教,但500對這些已被驅逐出他們的修道院,並從事與狹隘的工作。 The statistics for 1910 give a total of very nearly 4472 religious both nominally and actually engaged in the proper activities of the order.統計數據給1910年共非常接近4472年的宗教都在名義上和實際上從事正當活動的秩序。 They are distributed in 28 provinces and 5 congregations, and possess nearly 400 convents or secondary establishments.他們分佈在28個省和5個教區,並擁有近400個修道院或二次場所。

In the revival movement France held a foremost place, owing to the reputation and convincing power of the immortal orator, Henri-Dominique Lacordaire (1802-61).在復興運動法國舉行了首要的地方,由於聲譽和說服力的不朽的演說家,亨利-多米尼克拉科代爾( 1802至1861年) 。 He took the habit of a Friar Preacher at Rome (1839), and the province of France was canonically erected in 1850.他的習慣,一個弗萊爾佈道者在羅馬( 1839年) ,以及省,法國是canonically建於1850年。 From this province were detached the province of Lyons, called Occitania (1862), that of Toulouse (1869), and that of Canada (1909).從這個省的超脫全省的里昂,所謂奧克西塔尼亞( 1862 ) ,即在圖盧茲( 1869 ) ,以及加拿大( 1909年) 。 The French restoration likewise furnished many labourers to other provinces, to assist in their organization and progress.法國恢復同樣提供了許多勞動者到其他省份,以協助解決他們的組織和進展情況。 From it came the master general who remained longest at the head of the administration during the nineteenth century, Père Vincent Jandel (1850-72).從它來到主人一般人仍是最長的,在行政首長,在19世紀, père鄭海泉jandel ( 1850至1872年) 。 Here should be mentioned the province of St. Joseph in the United States.這裡應該提到的省聖若瑟在美國。 Founded in 1805 by Father Dominic Fenwick, afterwards first Bishop of Cincinnati, Ohio (1821-32), this province has developed slowly, but now ranks among the most flourishing and active provinces of the order.成立於1805年,由父親星分域,事後第一主教辛辛那提,俄亥俄州( 1821年至1832年) ,這個省已發展緩慢,但現在卻躋身於最繁榮和活躍的省份,該命令。 In 1910 it numbered 17 convents or secondary houses. 1910年17修道院或二次房子。 In 1905 it established a large house of studies at Washington.在1905年,它設立了一個大房子的研究,在華盛頓。

The province of France (Paris) has produced a large number of preachers, several of whom became renowned.全省的法國(巴黎)製作了大量的傳教士,其中一些已成為享負盛名。 The conferences of Notre-Dame-de-Paris were inaugurated by Père Lacordaire.會議聖母院德-巴黎分別舉行落成典禮père拉科代爾。 The Dominicans of the province of France furnished most of the orators: Lacordaire (1835-36, 1843-51), Jacques Monsabré (1869-70, 1872-90), Joseph Ollivier (1871, 1897), Thomas Etourneau (1898-1902).多米尼加了省內的法國家具大部分的演說:拉科代爾( 1835年至1836年, 1843年至1851年) ,雅克monsabré ( 1869年至1870年, 1872年至1890年) ,約瑟夫奧利維耶( 1871 , 1897 ) ,托馬斯etourneau ( 1898年至1902年) 。 Since 1903 the pulpit of Notre Dame has again been occupied by a Dominican.自1903年講壇的聖母院已再次佔領了多米尼加。 Père Henri Didon (d. 1900) was one of the most esteemed orators of his time. père亨利迪東(四1900 ) ,是一個最尊敬的演講他的時代了。 The province of France displays greater intellectual and scientific activity than ever, the chief centre being the house of studies at present situated at Kain, near Tournai, Belgium, where are published "L'Année Dominicaine" (founded 1859), "La Revue des Sciences Philosophiques et Theologiques" (1907), and "La Revue de la Jeunesse" (1909).全省的法國顯示器更多的知識和科學活動比以往任何時候,行政中心,作為眾議院的研究目前處於kain ,近Tournai ,比利時,在那裡發表了" l' ann閒dominicaine " ( 1859年創立) , "香格里拉萬雜誌科學philosophiques等theologiques " ( 1907年) ,和" La雜誌香格里拉青年" ( 1909年) 。

The province of the Philippines, the most populous in the order, is recruited from Spain, where it has several preparatory houses.全省的菲律賓,人口最多的,在一聲令下,是聘自西班牙,在那裡有幾個籌備房子。 In the Philippines it has charge of the University of Manila, recognized by the Government of the United States, two colleges, and six establishments; in China it administers the missions of North and South Fo-Kien, in the Japanese Empire, those of Formosa and Shikoku, besides establishments at New Orleans, at Caracas (Venezuela) and at Rome.在菲律賓,它負責該大學的馬尼拉,由政府認可的美國,兩個學院和6個場所,在中國它管理任務的北方和南方佛kien ,在日本帝國的那些福爾摩沙和四國,除了機構在新奧爾良,在加拉加斯(委內瑞拉) ,並訂於羅馬。 The province of Spain has seventeen establishments in the Peninsula and the Canaries, as well as the missions of Urubamba (Peru).全省的西班牙就有17個機構,在半島和坎,以及為使命urubamba (秘魯) 。 Since 1910 it has published at Madrid an important review, "La Ciencia Tomista".自1910年出版了在馬德里的一個重要的檢討, "香格里拉科學和tomista " 。 The province of Holland has a score of establishments, and the missions of Curaçao and Puerto Rico.全省荷蘭有一個評分的場所,和使團的庫拉索島和波多黎各。 Other provinces also have their missions.其他省區也有自己的使命。 That of Piedmont has establishments at Constantinople and Smyrna; that of Toulouse, in Brazil; that of Lyons, in Cuba, that of Ireland, in Australia and Trinidad; that of Belgium, in the Belgian Congo, and so on.這皮埃蒙特已場所君士坦丁堡,並皆即在圖盧茲的,在巴西,這對里昂,在古巴,愛爾蘭,澳大利亞和特立尼達;比利時,在比利時,剛果等。

Doctrinal development has had an important place in the restoration of the Preachers.理論發展產生了重要的地位,在恢復國家的傳教士。 Several institutions besides those already mentioned have played important parts.數家機構除了那些已經提到起到重要組成部分。 Such is the Biblical school at Jerusalem, open to the religious of the order and to secular clerics, and which publishes the "Revue Biblique", so highly esteemed in the learned world.這就是聖經學校在耶路撒冷,公開向宗教的秩序和世俗的神職人員,並出版一本名為"雜誌biblique " ,使高度評價了中汲取世界。 The faculty of theology of the University of Freiburg, confided to the care of the Dominicans in 1890, is flourishing and has about 250 students.神學系的大學,弗賴堡, confided以照顧多米尼加於1890年,是蓬勃發展,並有大約250名學生。 The Collegium Angelicum, established at Rome (1911) by Hyacinth Cormier (master general since 1902), is open to regulars and seculars for the study of the sacred sciences.該collegium angelicum成立於羅馬( 1911年)由風信子cormier (碩士一般自1902年) ,是開放的常客,並seculars ,為研究神聖的科學。 To the reviews mentioned above must be added the "Revue Thomiste", founded by Père Thomas Coconnier (d. 1908), and the "Analecta Ordinis Prædicatorum" (1893).該評論上述必須加上" thomiste雜誌" ,創辦père托馬斯coconnier (四1908年) ,和" analecta ordinis prædicatorum " ( 1893 ) 。 Among the numerous writers of the order in this period are: Cardinals Thomas Zigliara (d. 1893) and Zephirin González (d. 1894), two esteemed philosophers; Father Alberto Guillelmotti (d. 1893), historian of the Pontifical Navy, and Father Heinrich Denifle, one of the most famous writers on medieval history (d. 1905).在眾多作家的命令,在這期間是:紅衣主教托馬斯齊利亞拉(四1893年)和zephirin岡薩雷斯(四1894年) ,兩名尊敬的哲學家父親阿爾韋托guillelmotti (四1893 ) ,歷史學家的宗座海軍,和父親王俠德尼夫勒,其中最有名的作家對中世紀的歷史(四1905年) 。 In 1910 the order had twenty archbishops or bishops, one of whom, Andreas Frühwirth, formerly master general (1892-1902), is Apostolic nuncio at Munich (Sanvito, "Catalogus omnium provinciarum sacri ordinis praedicatorum", Rome, 1910; "Analecta OP", Rome, 1893--; "L'Année Dominicaine", Paris, 1859-- ). 1910年,為了有二十大主教或主教,其中一人,安德烈亞斯frühwirth ,以前一般碩士( 1892年至1902年) ,是教廷大使在慕尼黑( sanvito , " catalogus omnium provinciarum sacri ordinis praedicatorum " ,羅馬, 1910年" ; analecta作品" ,羅馬, 1893年-" ; l 'a nn閒d ominicaine" ,巴黎, 1 859年- )。 In the last two publications will be found historical and bibliographical information concerning the history of the Preachers during the contemporaneous period.在過去的兩本刊物,會被發現的歷史文獻資料,歷史上的傳教士,在當期的時期。

B. THE SECOND ORDER; DOMINICAN SISTERS二,二階;多米尼加姐妹

The circumstances under which St. Dominic established the first convent of nuns at Prouille (1206) and the legislation given the second order have been related above.在何種情況下,聖星建立了第一個女修道院的修女們在prouille ( 1206 )及有關法例給予二階已經鏈段。 As early as 1228 the question arose as to whether the Order of Preachers would accept the government of convents for women.早在1228年出現的問題,以決定是否該命令的傳教士們將接受政府的修道院,為婦女。 The order itself was strongly in favour of avoiding this ministry and struggled long to maintain its freedom.該命令本身極力贊成避免這個部和鬥爭長期保持其自由。 But the sisters found, even among the Preachers, such advocates as the master general, Jordanus of Saxony (d. 1236), and especially the Dominican cardinal, Hugh of St. Cher (d. 1263), who promised them that they would eventually be victorious (1267).但姐妹們發現,即使在宣講員,這樣的主張,作為主人一般, jordanus薩克森(四1236 ) ,尤其是多米尼加樞機,休聖cher (四第1263號) ,他們答應他們,他們最終會勝利( 1267 ) 。 The incorporation of monasteries with the order continued through the latter part of the thirteenth and during the next century.把寺廟與秩序繼續通過後者的一部分,第十三屆,並在下一世紀。 In 1288 the papal legate, Giovanni Boccanazzi, simultaneously placed all the Penitent Sisters of St. Mary Magdalen in Germany under the government of the provincial of the Preachers, but this step was not final.在1288年教皇legate ,喬萬尼boccanazzi ,同時放在各懺悔姐妹的聖瑪麗magdalen在德國政府領導下,全省的宣講員,但這個措施是不是最終的數字。 The convents of sisters incorporated with the order were especially numerous in the province of Germany The statistics for 1277 show 58 monasteries already incorporated, 40 of which were in the single province of Teutonia.該修道院的修女,列入議事程序,尤其是多次在省,德國的統計數字為1277查看58寺院已經被納入了,其中40人在單省teutonia 。 The statistics for 1303 give 149 convents of Dominican nuns, and these figures increased during the succeeding centuries.統計為1303 ,讓149修道院的多米尼加尼姑,而這些數字在增加,對後任百年。 Nevertheless, a certain number of monasteries passed under the jurisdiction of bishops.不過,也有一定數量的寺院通過管轄下的主教。 In the list of convents drawn up during the generalship of Serafino Cavalli (1571-78) there are only 168 monasteries.在名單上的修道院制定了在generalship的塞拉菲諾卡沃利( 1571至1578年) ,目前只有168所寺廟。 But the convents of nuns are not indicated for most provinces, and the number should really be much higher.但修道院的修女們都沒有表示,為多數省份,以及有多少確實應該要高得多。 The Council of Trent placed all the convents of nuns under the jurisdiction of bishops, but the Preachers frequently provided these houses with chaplains or almoners.安理會的遄達放在所有修道院的修女管轄下的主教,但傳教士們經常提供這些房子與牧師或almoners 。 The statistics for 1770 give 180 monasteries, but they are incomplete.統計為1770 ,讓180寺院,但他們並不完整。 The revolutions, which affected the ecclesiastical situation in most Catholic countries from the end of the eighteenth century, brought about the suppression of a great many monasteries; several, however, survived these disturbances, and others were re-established.在革命,這影響到教會的情況,大部分天主教國家,從十八世紀末以來,所帶來的鎮壓一個偉大了許多寺廟;幾次,不過,倖存這些干擾,而有些則重新建立。 In the list for 1895 there are more than 150 monasteries including some of the Third Order, which are cloistered like the Second Order.在名單上1895年有150多所寺廟,其中包括一些第三秩序,這是cloistered像二階。 These monasteries are most numerous in Spain.這些寺廟是數量最多,在西班牙。 In Germany the convents of nuns in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries witnessed the development of an intense mystical life, and several of these houses have preserved accounts of the life of the sisters, usually in the vernacular.在德國,修道院的修女們在第十三和第十四目睹百年的發展,激烈的神秘生活,其中有幾位這些房子都保留賬戶的生命修女,通常是在白話文。 The Dominican sisters, instructed and directed by an order of preachers and teachers, were remarkable not only for spiritual but also for intellectual culture.多米尼加姐妹,指示,並指示由治安的傳教士和教師,也是可圈可點,不僅在精神上,而且智力文化。 In the course of seven centuries various nuns have left literary and artistic works which bear witness to the culture of some of these monasteries ("Script. OP", I, pp. i-xv; II, Pp. i-xix, 830; "Bull. OP", passim; Mortier, "Hist. des maitres généraux", passim; Danzas, "Etudes sur les temps primitifs de l'ordre de St. Dominique",IV, Poitiers-Paris (1877); "Analecta OP", passim; Greith, "Die deutsche Mystik im Prediger Orden", Freiburg i. Br., 1861; de Villermont, "Un groupe mystique allemand", Brussels, 1907).在這個過程中的七個世紀的各種修女離開文學和藝術作品,其中見證了文化的部分,這些寺廟(下稱"劇本作品" ,我想,第一至十五;二,聚丙烯,我- 19條, 830個; "牛市。作品" ,各處; mortier , "歷史。萬maitres généraux " ,各處;丹沙, "練習曲sur就業輔導組氣溫primitifs榮譽勳章聖多米尼克" ,四,普瓦捷-巴黎( 1877年) ; " analecta作品" ,各處; greith , "死德意志mystik的IM普雷迪格爾勳章" ,弗賴堡一溴, 1861年;德villermont , "一群神秘感allemand " ,布魯塞爾, 1907年) 。

C. THE THIRD ORDER正三階

Neither St. Dominic nor the early Preachers wished to have under their jurisdiction -- and consequently under their responsibility -- either religious or lay associations.既不聖星,也沒有早期傳教士希望有各自管轄的範圍內-並因此根據自己的責任-無論是宗教或停工的協會。 We have seen their efforts to be relieved of the government of nuns who, nevertheless, were following the rule of the order.我們已經看到他們的努力得到緩解,該國政府的修女,不過,當時的法治秩序。 But numerous laymen, and especially lay women, who were leading in the world a life of penance or observing continence, felt the doctrinal influence of the order and grouped themselves about its convents.但也有很多普通人,特別是打好女,他們分別躋身世界前列的一生,懺悔或觀測可控,感受到理論的影響,現場秩序及分組自行了解其修道院。 In 1285 the need of more firmly uniting these lay elements and the idea of bringing under the direction of the Preachers a portion of the Order of Penance led the seventh master general, Muñon de Zamora, at the instance of Honorius IV to draw up the rule known as that of the Penance of St. Dommic.在1285年的需要,更加牢固地團結這些奠定元素和理念的引進指導下的傳教士一部分秩序懺悔率領第七大師一般, muñon德薩莫拉,在實例honorius四,制訂規則被稱為時表示,在該懺悔聖dommic 。 Inspired by that of the Brothers of Penance, this rule had a more ecclesiastical character and firmly subordinated the conduct of the brothers to the authority of the Preachers.靈感是兄弟的懺悔,這條規則進行了更多的宗教特色和堅決服從行為的兄弟向房委會轄下的傳教士。 Honorius IV confirmed the foundation by the collation of a privilege (28 Jan., 1286). honorius四證實,基金會所整理的一個特權( 1286年1月28日) 。 The former master general of the Friars Minor, Jerome d'Ascoli, having become pope in 1288 under the name of Nicholas IV, regarded the action of his predecessor and of the master general of the Friars-Preachers as a kind of defiance of the Friars Minor who considered themselves the natural protectors of the Brothers of Penance, and by his letters of 17 August, 1289, he sought to prevent the desertion of the Brothers of Penance.前者掌握一般的方濟各會士未成年人,杰羅姆-阿斯科利後,成為教宗在1 288年的名義下,尼古拉四,把行動的,他的前任和師父一般的方濟各會士-傳教士作為一種蔑視的方濟各會士未成年人把自己視為自然保護者兄弟的懺悔,以自己的信1289年8月17日,他要求,以防止遺棄兩兄弟的懺悔。 Muñon de Zamora discharged his office of master general as it had been confided to him by Martin IV. muñon德薩莫拉出院,他的辦公室的主人一般,因為它已被confided給他的馬丁四。 The Order of Preachers protested with all its might against what it regarded as an injustice.該命令的佈道者抗議其所有可能反對它視為一種不公正的情況。 These events retarded the development of the Dominican Third Order, a portion of the Preachers remaining un favourable to the institution.這些活動遲鈍的發展多米尼加三階時,部分講道其餘聯合國有利的,以該機構。 Nevertheless, the Third Order continued to exist; one of its fraternities, that of Siena, was especially flourishing, a list of its members from 1311 being extant The sisters numbered 100 in 1352, among them she who was to become St. Catherine of Siena.儘管如此,三階繼續存在;它的一個兄弟,錫耶納,尤其是蓬勃發展的一個名單,其成員從1311年被現存姐妹編號為100 ,第1352 ,其中包括她的人將是成為聖凱瑟琳錫耶納。 They numbered 92 in 1378.他們的人數92第1378 。 The reforming movement of Raymund of Capua, confessor and historian of St. Catherine, aimed at the spread of the Third Order; in this Thomas Caffarini of Siena was especially active.改革運動的raymund的capua ,懺悔和歷史學家的聖凱瑟琳,旨在傳播的第三個命令,在這托馬斯卡法里尼錫耶納尤為活躍。 The Dominican Third Order received new approbation from Boniface IX, 18 January, 1401, and on 27 April of the following year the pope published its rule in a Bull, whereupon its development received a fresh impetus.多米尼加三階獲得了新的讚許,從博尼法斯九, 1401年1月18日,並於4月27日的次年,教宗發表了其統治的牛市,在這種情況下,其發展得到新的推動力。 It never became very widespread, the Preachers having sought quality rather than number of tertiaries.它永遠不會變得非常普遍,傳教士經徵詢質量,而不是數量tertiaries 。 St. Catherine of Siena, canonized in 1461, is the patroness of the Third Order, and, following the example of her who has been called the Joan of Arc of the papacy, the Dominican tertiaries have always manifested special devotion to the Roman Church.聖凱瑟琳的錫耶納,冊封的,在1461年,是patroness的第三個命令,並效法她的人被稱為貞德的教皇國,多米尼加tertiaries一直表現特別奉獻給羅馬教會。 Also in imitation of their patroness, who wrote splendid mystical works, they endeavoured to acquire a special knowledge of their religion, as befits Christians incorporated with a great doctrinal order.此外,在模仿他們的patroness ,誰寫輝煌神秘的作品,他們力圖獲得一個特殊的知識,他們的宗教,適合作為基督徒,列入一個偉大理論秩序。 The Third Order has given several blessed to the Church, besides St. Catherine of Siena and St. Rose of Lima.第三個令已使數個有福教會,除了聖凱瑟琳錫耶納和聖玫瑰利馬。 For several centuries there have been regular convents and congregations belonging to the Third Order.數百年來有定期修道院教友屬於第三秩序。 The nineteenth century witnessed the establishment of a large number of regular congregations of tertiaries devoted to works of charity or education.十九世紀見證了建立大批優秀的普通教友的tertiaries用於工程的慈善機構或教育服務。 In 1895 there were about 55 congregations with about 800 establishments and 20,000 members.在1895年有大約55個教區,約有八百個工作場所和20000名成員。 In the United States there are flourishing convents at Sinsinawa (Wisconsin), Jersey City, Traverse (Michigan), Columbus (Ohio), Albany (New York), and San Francisco (California).在美國蓬勃發展的修道院在sinsinawa (威斯康辛) ,澤西市,導線(密歇根州) ,哥倫布(俄亥俄州) ,奧爾巴尼(紐約) ,舊金山(加州) 。

In 1852 Père Lacordaire founded in France a congregation of Priests for the education of youth called the Third Teaching Order of St. Dominic. 1852年père拉科代爾在法國成立聚集牧師為教育青年的所謂第三個教學秩序的聖星。 It is now regarded as a special province of the Order of Preachers, and had flourishing and select colleges in France at Oullins (1853), Sorèze (1854), Arceuil (1863), Arcachon (1875), Paris (Ecole Lacordaire 1890).它目前已被視為一個特殊的命令的宣講員,並已蓬勃發展,並選擇高校在法國oullins ( 1853年) , sorèze ( 1854 ) , arceuil ( 1863年) , arcachon ( 1875票) ,巴黎(的Ecole拉科代爾1890 ) 。 These houses have ceased to be directed by Dominicans since the persecution of 1903.這些房子已不再是導演的多米尼加人,因為這場迫害的1903 。 The teaching Dominicans now have the Collège Lacordaire at Buenos Aires, Champittet at Lausanne (Switzerland), and San Sebastian (Spain).教學多米尼加人,現在有拉科代爾學院,在布宜諾斯艾利斯, champittet在洛桑(瑞士) ,和聖塞瓦斯蒂安(西班牙) 。 During the Paris Commune four martyrs of the teaching order died in company with a priest of the First Order, 25 May, 1871.在巴黎公社四烈士的教學秩序死亡,在公司有一名神父的一階, 1871年5月25日。 One of them, Père Louis Raphael Captier was an eminent educator (Mandonnet, "Les règles et le gouvernement de l'ordo de Poenitentia au XIIIe siècle" in "Opuscules de critique historique", IV, Paris, 1902; Federici, "Istoria de' Cavalieri Gaudenti", Venice, 1787).其中一人, père路易拉斐爾卡普捷是一位傑出的教育家(芒多內, "就業輔導組規則和樂gouvernement德l'集體訴訟德poenitentia凹xiiie世紀" , " opuscules德批判historique " ,四,巴黎, 1902年; federici , " istoria德' cavalieri gaudenti " ,威尼斯, 1787年) 。

Publication information Written by P. Mandonnet.出版信息撰稿頁芒多內。 Transcribed by Fr.轉錄神父。 Albert Judy OP.何俊仁朱迪作品。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.天主教百科全書,體積十二。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. nihil obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


Also, see:此外,見:
Religious Orders 宗教命令
Franciscans
Jesuits 耶穌會士
Benedictines benedictines
Trappists trappists
Cistercians cistercians
Christian Brothers 基督教兄弟
Carmelites carmelites
Discalced Carmelites discalced carmelites
Augustinians 奧古斯丁會士
Marist Brothers 聖母兄弟

Monasticism 修道
Nuns 修女
Friars 方濟各會士
Convent 修道院
Ministry 財政部
Major Orders 大訂單
Holy Orders 神聖的訂單


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


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The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在