Christian Brothers基督教兄弟

General Information 一般資料

Saint John Baptist de La Salle聖約翰浸禮會喇沙

Saint John Baptist de La Salle, b.聖約翰浸禮會喇沙,乙 Apr. 30, 1651, d. 1651年4月30日,四 Apr. 7, 1719, was a French educator and the founder of the Institute of the brothers of Christian Schools, popularly known as Christian Brothers. 1719年4月7日,是法國教育家和奠基人學院兄弟的基督教學校,通稱基督教兄弟。 Ordained a priest in 1678, he was a canon of the cathedral at Reims until 1683, when he resigned to devote himself to organizing schools for poor children.祝聖司鐸在1678年,他是一位佳能的大教堂,在蘭斯,直到1683 ,當他辭職,以立志報國,舉辦學校,為貧困兒童。 In 1684 he founded a religious order devoted to teaching. 1684年,他創立了宗教秩序專門教學。 Distinguished as a pioneer of training colleges for teachers and in the use of the vernacular in teaching, he ranks among the outstanding educators of modern times.作為傑出的開拓者培訓學院,為教師及在使用白話文在教學中,他躋身於優秀教育工作者的現代倍。 Canonized in 1900, he is the patron saint of schoolteachers.冊封於1900年,他是守護神的教師。 Feast day: April 7.盛宴的日子: 4月7日。

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Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools研究所的兄弟基督教學校

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

NATURE AND OBJECT性質和對象

The Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools is a society of male religious approved by the Church, but not taking Holy orders, and having for its object the personal sanctification of its members and the Christian education of youth, especially of the children of artisans and the poor.該研究所的兩位兄弟的基督教學校,是全社會的男性宗教經堂,但不是以神聖的命令,並經其對象個人成聖,其成員和基督教青年教育,尤其是對兒童的工匠和窮人的利益。 It accepts the direction of any kind of male educational institution, provided the teaching of Latin be excluded; but its principal object is the direction of elementary gratuitous schools.它接受了方向任何類型的男性的教育機構,提供教學拉丁語被排除,但其主要對象就是方向初等無償學校。 This congregation was founded in 1680, at Reims, France, by St. John Baptist de La Salle, then a canon of the metropolitan church of that city.這個教區的成立, 1680年,在蘭斯,法國,由聖約翰浸禮會喇沙,那麼,佳能的大都會教堂該城。 Being struck by the lamentable disorders produced among the multitude by their ignorance of the elements of knowledge, and, what was still worse, of the principles of religion, the saint, moved with great pity for the ignorant, was led, almost without a premeditated design, to take up the work of charitable schools.正在受到可悲失常製作當中,千頭萬緒,其無知的要素知識,並,又是什麼力量仍然更糟的是,這些原則的宗教,聖者,搬到很可惜,為愚昧,是主導的,幾乎沒有一個有預謀設計時,考慮了工作的慈善學校。 In order to carry out the last will of his spiritual director, Canon Roland, he first busied himself with consolidating a religious congregation devoted to the education of poor girls.為了進行最後的意志,他的精神主任,佳能羅蘭,他首先紛紛親自與鞏固是一個宗教會眾專門用於教育的貧困女童。 He then seconded the efforts of a zealous layman, M. Nyel, to multiply schools for poor children.然後,他借調的努力,一個熱心的門外漢,米nyel ,以倍數計,為學校的貧困兒童。 Thus guided by Providence, he was led to create an institute that would have no other mission than that of Christian education.因此,遵循普羅維登斯,他率領營造一個研究所說,不會有其他任務,比基督教教育。

However, it would be a serious error to insinuate that until the end of the seventeenth century the Catholic Church had interested herself but little in the education of the children of the people.不過,那將是一個嚴重錯誤,以影射到年底17世紀天主教教會了自己興趣,但很少在教育子女的人。 From the fifth to the sixteenth century, many councils which were held, especially those of Vaison in 529 and Aachen in 817, recommended the secular clergy and monks to instruct children.從第五至十六世紀,許多議會分別舉行了,特別是那些vaison在529和亞琛在817 ,建議世俗教士和僧侶來教導小孩。 In 1179 the Third Council of Lateran ordained that the poor be taught gratuitously, and in 1547 the Council of Trent decreed that in connexion with every church, there should be a master to teach the elements of human knowledge to poor children and young students preparing for orders.在1179年第三屆理事會lateran受戒認為,窮人教授無償,並在第1547安理會的遄達命令,在與Connexion公司每一個教會,應該有一個師父,教導分子人類知識的貧困兒童和青年學生的準備命令。 There were, therefore, numerous schools - petites écoles - for the common people in France in the seventeenth century, but teachers were few, because the more clever among them abandoned the children of the poor to teach those of the wealthier class and receive compensation for their work.有,因此,許多學校-p etitesé coles-為普通百姓在法國是在1 7世紀,但教師很少,因為更聰明,其中被遺棄的窮人的子女,教導那些富裕階層和獲得賠償他們的工作。 It was evident that only a religious congregation would be able to furnish a permanent supply of educators for those who are destitute of the goods of this world.很明顯,僅僅是一個宗教會眾,將可提供一個永久的供應教育界人士對於那些一貧如洗的貨物的這個世界。 The institutes of the Venerable César de Bus in 1592 and of St. Joseph Calasanctius (1556-1648) had added Latin to the course of studies for the poor.該研究所的老塞薩爾德巴士1592年和聖若瑟calasanctius ( 1556至1648年)增加了拉丁語,以過程研究為窮人服務。 The tentatives made in favour of boys by St. Peter Fourier (1565-1640) and Père Barré, in 1678, failed; the work of M. Demia at Lyons in 1672 was not to spread.該tentatives作出贊成男生由聖彼得傅立葉( 1565至1640年)和père巴雷,在1678年,失敗的工作,米demia在里昂,在1672年並沒有蔓延。 Then God raised up St. John Baptist de La Salle, not to create gratuitous schools, but to furnish them with teachers and give them fixed methods.然後上帝又提出了聖約翰浸禮會喇沙,而不是製造無償學校,但它們提供教師,讓他們有固定的方法。 The undertaking was much more difficult than the founder himself imagined.承諾書是困難得多,比創立者自己想像的。 At the beginning he was encouraged by Père Barré, a Minim, who had founded a society of teaching nuns, Les Dames de Saint-Maur.在開始時,他感到十分鼓舞père巴雷,微量,曾創立了社會的教學尼姑,就業輔導組dames德聖- maur 。 The clergy and faithful applauded the scheme, but it had many bitter adversaries.神職人員和信徒熱烈鼓掌計劃,但它有許多慘痛的對手。 During forty years, from 1680 to 1719, obstacles and difficulties constantly checked the progress of the new institute, but by the prudence, humility, and invincible courage of its superior, it was consolidated and developed to unexpected proportions.在四十年,從1680年至1719年,障礙和困難,不斷檢查進度,這所新學院,而是由謹慎,謙卑,戰無不勝的勇氣,它的性能優越,這是鞏固和發展以意想不到的比重。

DEVELOPMENT發展

In 1680 the new teachers began their apostolate at Reims; in 1682 they took the name of "Brothers of the Christian Schools"; in 1684 they opened their first regular novitiate. 1680年新教師開始了他們的使徒在蘭斯,在1682年,他們的名字: "兄弟的基督教學校" , 1684年他們打開他們的第一次定期novitiate 。 In 1688 Providence transplanted the young tree to the parish of St-Sulpice, Paris, in charge of the spiritual sons of M. Olier.在1688普羅維登斯移植的幼樹,以教區的聖- Sulpice ,巴黎,負責精神的兒子米olier 。 The mother-house remained in the capital until 1705.母親所留在首都,直到1705 。 During this period the founder met with trials of every kind.在此期間,創辦了審判的每樣。 The most painful came from holy priests whom he esteemed, but who entertained views of his work different from his own.最痛苦的是來自聖司鐸,他的尊敬,但他們受理的意見,他的工作不同,從他自己。 Without being in any way discouraged, and in the midst of the storms, the saint kept nearly all of his first schools, and even opened new ones.而不以任何方式勸阻,並在一片風雨中,聖保存幾乎所有的第一所學校,甚至開闢新的基地。 He reorganized his novitiate several times, and created the first normal schools under the name of "seminaries for country teachers".他改組他的novitiate數倍,並建立了第一個師範院校的名義下, "神學院,為國家的教師" 。 His zeal was as broad and ardent as his love of souls.他的熱情被廣泛和殷切希望,因為他愛的靈魂。 The course of events caused the founder to transfer his novitiate to Rouen in 1705, to the house of Saint-Yon, in the suburb of Saint-Sever, which became the centre whence the institute sent its religious into the South of France, in 1707.事件過程中造成的創辦人,以轉移他的novitiate到盧昂,在1705年,向眾議院聖延亨默,在市郊的聖-割斷,從而成為該中心何時學院派的宗教到法國南部,在1707年。 It was at Rouen that St. John Baptist de La Salle composed his rules, convoked two general chapters, resigned his office of superior, and ended his earthly existence by a holy death, in 1719.這是在盧昂說,聖約翰浸禮會喇沙組成,其規則,召集兩個一般章節,辭去他的辦公室的優越,並結束了他的俗世存在一個神聖的死亡, 1640 。 Declared venerable in 1840, he was beatified in 1888, and canonized in 1900.老先生宣布,在1840年,他被宣福於1888年,並冊封於1900年。

SPIRIT OF THE INSTITUTE精神研究所

The spirit of the institute, infused by the example and teachings of its founder and fostered by the exercises of the religious life, is a spirit of faith and of zeal.精神研究所,滲透著的例子和教誨的,其創辦人締造和精心培育起來演習的宗教生活,是一種精神的信念和熱情。 The spirit of faith induces a Brother to see God in all things, to suffer everything for God, and above all to sanctify himself.精神信仰,誘使兄弟看見上帝在一切事上,忍受一切為了上帝,並首先向聖化自己。 The spirit of zeal attracts him towards children to instruct them in the truths of religion and penetrate their hearts with the maxims of the Gospel, so that they may make it the rule of their conduct.精神的熱情吸引著他,對孩子,指示他們在真理的宗教和穿透人心的格言的福音,使他們可以把它統治的,他們的行為。 St. John Baptist de La Salle had himself given his Brothers admirable proofs of the purity of his faith and the vivacity of his zeal.聖約翰浸禮會喇沙曾親自給他的兄弟們佩服的證據的純潔性,他的信仰和調皮,他的狂熱。 It was his faith that made him adore the will of God in all the adversities he met with; that prompted him to send two Brothers to Rome in 1700 in testimony of his attachment to the Holy See, and that led him to condemn openly the errors of the Jansenists, who tried in vain at Marseilles.這是他的信念,使他崇拜上帝的意志,在所有的逆境中,他會見了這促使他派兩名兄弟羅馬1700年在證詞中他的依戀教廷,並說,這促使他公開譴責的錯誤該詹森教徒,他們未能如願在馬賽。 and Calais to draw him over to their party.和加提請他交給他們的黨。 His whole life was a prolonged act of zeal: he taught school at Reims, Paris, and Grenoble, and showed how to do it well.他的一生是一個長期行為的熱情:他教學校在蘭斯,巴黎,格勒諾布爾,並呈現出如何會做得很好。 He composed works for teachers and pupils, and especially the "Conduite des écoles" the "Devoirs du chrétien", and the "Règles de la bienséance et de la civilité chrétienne".他的作品組成的,為教師和學生,尤其是那些" conduite萬écoles " , " devoirs杜克雷蒂安" , "規則和德香格里拉bienséance等德香格里拉civilité基督教" 。

The saint pointed out that the zeal of a religious educator should be exercised by three principal means: vigilance, good example, and instruction.聖指出,這名狂熱的宗教教育工作者應該行使的三種主要方式:警惕,好榜樣和指示。 Vigilance removes from children a great many occasions of offending God; good example places before them models for imitation; instruction makes them familiar with what they should know, especially with the truths of religion.警惕免職,由孩子們一個偉大的多次得罪上帝;很好的例子名額面前模式仿製;指示,使他們熟悉的是什麼,他們應該知道,特別是與真理的宗教。 Hence, the Brothers have always considered catechism as the most important subject taught in their schools.因此,兄弟向來都認為講授作為當前最重要的課題,教導他們的學校。 They are catechists by vocation and the will of the Church.他們講授由天職和意志的教會。 They are, therefore, in accordance with the spirit of their institute, religious educators: as religious, they take the three usual vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience; as educators, they add the vow of teaching the poor gratuitously according to the prescriptions of their rule, and the vow of remaining in their institute, which they may not leave of themselves even for the purpose of joining a more perfect order.他們,因此,按照上述精神,他們的研究所,宗教教育工作者說:作為宗教,他們採取了3種常用誓言貧窮,貞潔,並服從;作為教育工作者,他們加上發誓教學窮人無償據處方對他們的統治,並誓言留在自己的研究所,他們可能不會離開自己,即使為了加入一個更完美的秩序。 Besides, the work appeared so very important to St. John Baptist de La Salle that, in order to attach the Brothers permanently to the education of the poor, he forbade them to teach Latin.此外,這項工作顯得非常重要,聖約翰浸禮會喇沙說,為了重視兄弟永遠向教育的窮人,他不准他們來教拉丁語。

GOVERNMENT政府

The institute is governed by a superior general elected for life by the general chapter.該學院是由上級一般當選為生活由一般的篇章。 The superior general is aided by assistants, who at the present time number twelve.上級一般是借助於助理,他們在目前這個時間,人數達到12例。 He delegates authority to the visitors, to whom he confides the government of districts, and to directors, whom he places in charge of individual houses.他代表管理局向旅客,其中他充滿信心政府的地區,並以導演,其中他的地方負責,個別房子。 With the exception of that of superior general, all the offices are temporary and renewable.與例外,即上級一般而言,所有的辦公室都是臨時性的和可再生的。 The general chapters are convoked at least every ten years.一般的篇章召集,至少每10年。 Thirty-two have been held since the foundation of the congregation. 32 ,已舉辦了建國以來的會眾。 The vitality of an institute depends on the training of its members.活力的一個研究所,就看訓練它的成員。 God alone is the author of vocations.只有上帝是作者的職業。 He alone can attract a soul to a life of self-denial such as that of the Brothers.只有他,才能吸引一個民族的靈魂,一個生命的自我否定,如表示,在該兄弟。 The mortification this life enjoins is not rigorous, but renouncement of self-will and of the frivolities of the world should gradually become complete.該mortification這輩子責成並不嚴格,但放棄自我意志的frivolities的世界,要逐步變成完整。 The usual age for admission to the novitiate of the society is from sixteen to eighteen years.慣常的入學年齡以novitiate的社會,是從16個增加到18年。 Doubtless there are later vocations that are excellent, and there are earlier ones that develop the most beautiful virtues.毫無疑問,有後來的職業是很好,有早先認為發展最美麗的美德。 If the aspirant presents himself at the age of thirteen or fourteen, he is placed in the preparatory or junior novitiate.如果爭取加入介紹了自己在年滿十三或十四個,他排在籌備或初級novitiate 。 During two or three years he devotes himself to study, is carefully trained to the habits of piety, and instructed how to overcome himself, so as one day to become a fervent religious.在兩,三年間,他專心研究,是經過精心訓練的習慣孝道,並指示如何克服自己,使一天成為一個火熱的宗教。

The novitiate proper is for young men who have passed through the junior novitiate, and for postulants who have come directly from the world.該novitiate正確的,是為年輕男子,他們已通過初級novitiate ,並為postulants有直接來自世界各地。 During a whole year they have no other occupation than that of studying the rules of the institute and applying themselves to observe them faithfully.在整整一年了,他們都沒有別的職業比學習規則以及學會運用自己的觀察,他們忠實地。 At the end of their first year of probation, the young Brothers enter the scholasticate, where they spend more or less time according to the nature of the duties to be assigned to them.在去年底的第一年試用,這位年輕的兄弟進入scholasticate那裡,他們花費更多或更少的時間,根據工作性質,將分配給他們。 As a rule, each of the districts of the institute has its three departments of training: the junior novitiate, the senior novitiate, and the scholasticate.作為一項規則,每個地區的研究院有其三個部門的培訓:初中novitiate ,高級novitiate ,以及scholasticate 。 In community, subjects complete their professional training and apply themselves to acquire the virtues of their state.在社區,科目完成專業訓練,並運用自己掌握的美德,他們的國家。 At eighteen years of age, they take annual vows; at twenty-three, triennial vows; and when fully twenty-eight years of age, they may be admitted to perpetual profession.在18歲以下的,他們每年的誓言,在2003年,每三年誓言;時,充分二十八年歲,他們可能會承認永恆專業。 Finally, some years later, they may be called for some months to the exercises of a second novitiate.最後,一些年後,他們可能會要求一些幾個月,演習的第二novitiate 。

METHODS OF TEACHING教學方法

In enjoining on his disciples to endeavour above all to develop the spirit of religion in the souls of their pupils, the founder only followed the traditions of other teaching bodies - the Benedictines, Jesuits, Oratorians, etc., and what was practised even by the teachers of the petites écoles.在吩咐他的弟子盡力上述所有發展的精神,宗教等方面的靈魂他們的學生,創辦人,只有遵循了傳統的教學機構-b enedictines,耶穌會士, o ratorians等,並是什麼,甚至實行由教師的petites écoles 。 His originality lay elsewhere.他的獨創性在於別處。 Two pedagogic innovations of St. John Baptist de La Salle met with approval from the beginning:兩項教學創新的聖約翰浸禮會喇沙見了批准,從開始:

(1) the employment of the "simultaneous method"; ( 1 )就業的"同步法" ;

(2) the employment of the vernacular language in teaching reading. ( 2 )僱傭的白話語言,在閱讀教學中。

They are set forth in the "Conduite des écoles", in which the founder condensed the experience he had acquired during an apostolate of forty years.他們提出,在" conduite萬écoles " ,其中創始人凝結著他的經驗,已具備在使徒的四十年。 This work remained in manuscript during the life of its author, and was printed for the first time at Avignon in 1720.這方面的工作仍是在手稿中的生命,其作者,並印刷了,為第一次在亞維儂在1641 。

(1) By the use of the simultaneous method a large number of children of the same intellectual development could thenceforward be taught together. ( 1 )所使用的方法,同時,大量的兒童,同時智力發展可能thenceforward教授在一起。 It is true that for ages this method had been employed in the universities, but in the common schools the individual method was adhered to.這是事實,為年齡這種方法已受聘於大學,但在共同的學校個別法行事。 Practicable enough when the number of pupils was very limited, the individual method gave rise, in classes that were numerous, to loss of time and disorder.切實可行不夠時,可容納的學生人數非常有限,個別的方法產生了,在課堂上被眾多的,以時間上的損失和混亂。 Monitors became necessary, and these had often neither learning nor authority.顯示器成為必要的,而這些往往是既不學習,也不權威。 With limitations that restricted its efficacy, St. Peter Fourier had indeed recommended the simultaneous method in the schools of the Congrégation de Notre-Dame, but it never extended further.與局限性,限制了它的療效,聖彼得傅立葉確曾建議同步方法,在學校的congrégation德聖母院,但它永遠不會進一步擴大。 To St. John Baptist de La Salle belongs the honour of having transformed the pedagogy of the elementary school.到聖約翰浸禮會喇沙屬於有幸擁有轉化教學法的小學。 Here required all his teachers to give the same lesson to all the pupils of a class, to question them constantly, to maintain discipline, and have silence observed.這裡需要他的所有教師給予同樣的教訓,對所有學生的一類,懷疑他們不斷,為了維持紀律,有沉默觀察。 A consequence of this new method of teaching was the dividing up of the children into distinct classes according to their attainments, and later on, the formation of sections in classes in which the children were too numerous or too unequal in mental development.一個後果,這種新的教學方法,是瓜分的兒童分為各個班級根據自己的素養,稍後,形成節課中,孩子們太多或太不平等的,在智力發展。 Thanks to these means, the progress of the children and their moral transformation commanded the admiration even of his most prejudiced adversaries.由於這些手段,所取得的孩子和他們的道德轉型指揮了欽佩,甚至他最先入為主的對手。

(2) A second innovation of the holy founder was to teach the pupils to read the vernacular language, which they understood, before putting into their hands a Latin book, which they did not understand. ( 2 )第二次創新的聖地創始人是教導學生讀白話文的語言,因為他們明白,然後才將其雙手拉書,他們不明白。 It may be observed that this was a very simple matter, but simple as it was, hardly any educator, except the masters of the schools of Port-Royal in 1643, had bethought himself of it; besides, the experiments of the Port-Royal masters, like their schools, were short lived, and exercised no influence on general pedagogy.可以說,這是一個很簡單的事,但簡單,因為它是,幾乎沒有任何教育家,除了主人,學校的港口-皇家在1643年,曾bethought自己的;此外,實驗中的港口-皇家主人一樣,他們的學校,都是短命的,並行使不影響普通教育學。 In addition to these two great principles, the Brothers of the Christian Schools have introduced other improvements in teaching.除上述兩項大原則下,兄弟的基督教學校都推行其他改善教學。 They likewise availed themselves of what is rational in the progress of modern methods of teaching, which their courses of pedagogy, published in France, Belgium, and Austria, abundantly prove.他們同樣利用自己的什麼是理性的進度,現代的教學方法,其課程的教學方法,發表在法國,比利時和奧地利,充分證明。

THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY十八世紀

At the death of its founder, the Brothers of the Christian Schools numbered 27 houses and 274 Brothers, educating 9000 pupils.在死亡的,其創辦人,兩兄弟的基督教學校編號為27幢房屋和274名兄弟,教育9000名學生。 Seventy-three years later, at the time of the French Revolution, the statistics showed 123 houses, 920 Brothers, and 36,000 pupils (statistics of 1790).七十三年後,在當時的法國大革命,統計顯示, 123家920個弟兄, 36000名學生(統計的1790 , ) 。 During this period, it had been governed by five superiors general: Brother Barthélemy (1717-20); Brother Timothée (1720-51); Brother Claude (1751-67); Brother Florence (1767-77); and Brother Agathon (1777-98, when he died).在此期間,它一直由五名上司一般:哥哥barthélemy ( 1717至1720年) ;弟弟timothée ( 1720至1751年) ;弟弟克勞德( 1751至1767年) ;弟弟佛羅倫薩( 1767年至1777年)和弟弟阿加松( 1777 -98 ,當他去世) 。 Under the administration of Brother Timothée successful negotiations resulted in the legal recognition of the institute by Louis XV, who granted it letters patent, 24 September, 1724; and in virtue of the Bull of approbation of Benedict XIII, 26 January, 1725, it was admitted among the congregations canonically recognized by the Church.根據政府當局的弟弟timothée成功的談判,導致在法律上的承認,該研究所是由路易十五,誰批准,英皇制誥, 1724年9月24日;借助牛市的認同本篤十三, 1725年1月26日,這是承認其中的畢業典禮canonically承認的教會。 The most prominent of its superiors general in the eighteenth century was Brother Agathon.最突出的,其上級一般在十八世紀被哥哥阿加松。 A religious of strong character, he maintained the faithful observance of the rules by the Brothers; a distinguished educator, he published the "Douze vertus d'un bon Maître", in 1785; an eminent administrator, he created the first scholasticates, in 1781, and limited new foundations to what was indispensable, aiming rather, when the storm was gathering on the horizon, to fortify an institute that had already become relatively widespread.一個宗教團體的強烈個性,他保持忠實遵守的規則,由兄弟,一位傑出的教育家,他發表了" douze vertus -聯合國盂蘭盆貝耶" ,在1 785年,一個傑出的管理者,他創造了第一個s cholasticates,在1 781 ,並限制新的基金會哪些是必不可少的,而不是瞄準時,風暴正蒐集在地平線上,以堅定的一個研究所說,已經成為相對普遍。 The congregation, however, was hardly known outside of France, except in Rome, 1700; Avignon, 1703; Ferrara, 1741; Maréville, 1743; Lunéville, 1749; and Morhange in Lorraine, 1761; Estavayer in Switzerland, 1750; Fort Royal, Martinique, 1777.眾,但當時幾乎不知道外面的法國,除了在羅馬, 1700間;亞維儂, 1703年;費拉拉, 1741年; maréville , 1743年; lunéville , 1749年和莫朗日在洛林, 1761年; estavayer在瑞士, 1750年;皇室堡,馬提尼克島, 1777 。

Whilst adhering to their methods of teaching during the eighteenth century, the Brothers knew how to vary their application.雖然堅持自己的教學方法,在18世紀,兄弟知道如何不同,他們的申請。 The superiors general insisted on having the elementary schools gratuitous and by far the more numerous.上級一般堅持對具有小學無償,並遠遠就更多了。 In accordance with the course of studies set down in the "Conduite des écoles", the Brothers applied themselves to teach very thoroughly reading, writing, the vernacular, and especially the catechism.根據該課程的研究訂定在" conduite萬écoles " ,兄弟應用於自己的教導非常深入閱讀,寫作,白話,尤其是講授。 The boarding school of St-Yon at Rouen, established in 1705 by St. John Baptist de La Salle himself, served as a model for like institutions: Marseilles in 1730, Angers in 1741, Reims in 1765, etc. It was proper that in these houses the course of studies should differ in some respects from that in the free schools.寄宿學校的ST延亨默在盧昂,成立於1705年由聖約翰浸禮會喇沙自己,充當一種模式像機構:馬賽在17時30分,憤怒的,在1741年,蘭斯1765年等等,實在是正確的,在這些房子的過程中的研究應該有所不同,在某些方面,從在免費學校。 With the exception of Latin, which remained excluded, everything in the course of studies of the best schools of the time was taught: mathematics, history, geography, drawing, architecture, etc. In the maritime cities, such as Brest, Vannes, and Marseilles, the Brothers taught more advanced courses in mathematics and hydrography.除與拉丁語,它一直被排除在外,一切都在這個過程中研究的最好的學校的時候是有教授:數學,歷史,地理,繪畫,建築等,在海事等城市布列斯特, vannes ,馬賽,兄弟講授更高級的課程,在數學和水文。 Finally, the institute accepted the direction of reformatory institutions at Rouen, Angers, and Maréville.最後,該研究所接受了方向勞教所機構在盧昂,昂熱, maréville 。 It was this efflorescence of magnificent works that the French Revolution all but destroyed forever.正是這種風化的宏偉工程,即法國大革命全部銷毀,但永遠。

THE BROTHERS DURING THE REVOLUTION兄弟革命期間

The revolutionary laws that doomed the monastic orders on 13 February, 1790, threatened the institute from 27 December, in the same year, by imposing on all teachers the civic oath voted on 27 November.革命規律注定修道令1790年2月13日,受威脅研究所從12月27日,在同一年中,強加給所有教師的公民宣誓投票於11月27日。 The storm was imminent.颶風即將到來。 Brother Agathon, the superior general endeavoured to establish communities in Belgium, but could organize only one, at St-Hubert in 1791, only to be destroyed in 1792.哥哥阿加松,優於一般努力建立社區在比利時,但可以組織只有一個,在聖-休伯特1791年,僅被摧毀於1792年。 The Brothers refused to take the oath, and were everywhere expelled.兩兄弟拒絕採取宣誓,並四處驅逐。 The institute was suppressed in 1792, after it had been decreed that it "had deserved well of the country".該研究所被鎮壓,在1792年後,它已頒布法令說,它"已當之無愧地以及該國的" 。 The storm had broken upon the Brothers.風暴爆發後,兄弟。 They were arrested, and more than twenty were cast into prison.他們被拘捕,並有超過20個演員關進監獄。 Brother Salomon, secretary general, was massacred in the Carmes (the Carmelite monastery of Paris); Brother Agathon spent eighteen months in prison; Brother Moniteur was guillotined at Rennes in 1794; Brother Raphael was put to death at Uzès; Brother Florence, formerly superior general, was imprisoned at Avignon; eight Brothers were transported to the hulks of Rochefort, where four died of neglect and starvation in 1794 and 1795.弟弟所羅門,秘書長,被屠殺,在carmes ( carmelite修道院巴黎) ;兄弟阿加頓花了18個月,在監獄服刑;弟弟moniteur是guillotined在雷恩在1794年;弟弟拉斐爾是把死刑uzès ;弟弟佛羅倫斯,前身為優一般而言,被囚禁在亞維儂;八個兄弟被運送到這兩艘潛艇船長的rochefort ,四名死亡的疏忽與飢餓,在1794年和1795年。

All the schools were closed and the young Brothers enrolled in the army of the Convention.所有學校都被關閉和年輕的兄弟就讀於陸軍該公約。 At the peril of their lives some of the older Brothers continued to teach at Elbeuf, Condrieux, Castres, Laon, Valence, and elsewhere, to save the faith of the children.在危難的生命部分的哥哥繼續教書elbeuf , condrieux , castres ,拉昂,價,並在其他地方,為了拯救信仰的孩子。 The Brothers of Italy had received some of their French confrères at Rome, Ferrara, Orvieto, and Bolsena.兄弟意大利已收到了他們的一些法語confrères在羅馬,費拉拉, orvieto ,博爾塞納。 During this time, Brother Agathon, having left his prison, remained hidden at Tours, whence he strove to keep up the courage, confidence in God, and zeal of his dispersed religious.在這段時間內,兄弟阿加頓後,他離開監獄,仍隱藏在遊,何時會有他力圖跟上有勇氣,有信心,在上帝,和熱情,他驅散宗教的。 On 7 August, 1797, Pope Pius VI appointed Brother Frumence vicar-general of the congregation.於1797年8月7日,教宗比約六,任命弟弟frumence副主教幹事的會眾。 In 1798 the Italian Brothers were in their turn driven from their houses by the armed forces of the Directory.在1798年的意大利兄弟兩人在輪到自己趕出自己的房子是由武裝部隊的目錄。 The institute seemed ruined; it reckoned only twenty members wearing the religious habit and exercising the functions of educators.該研究所似乎毀於一旦,它估計只有二十名成員身著宗教習慣和行使職能的教育家。

RESTORATION OF THE INSTITUTE.恢復研究所。 1802-1810 1802年至1810年

In July, 1801, the First Consul signed the concordat with Pius VII.今年7月, 1801年,第一次簽署了領事協約與比約七。 For the Church of France this was the spring of a new era; for the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools it was a resurrection.對於教會的法國,這是春天的一個新的時代氣息,為學院的兄弟的基督教學校,這是一個復活。 If at the height of the storm some Brothers continued to exercise their holy functions, they were only exceptional cases.如果在颶風高峰有些兄弟繼續行使自己的神聖職責,但他們只有在特殊情況下。 The first regular community reorganized at Lyons in 1802; others in 1803, at Paris, Valence, Reims, and Soissons.第一次定期社會重組,在里昂,在1802年,另在1803年,在巴黎,威龍,蘭斯,並soissons 。 Everywhere the municipalities recalled the Brothers and besought the survivors of the woeful period to take up the schools again as soon as possible.到處直轄市回憶兄弟besought倖存者是非常時期採取了學校,再次盡快進行。 The Brothers addressed themselves to Rome and petitioned the Brother Vicar to establish his abode in France.兄弟處理自己去羅馬,並請求兄弟副主教,樹立自己的居留法國。 Negotiations were begun, and thanks to the intervention of his uncle, Cardinal Fesch, Bonaparte authorized the re-establishment of the institute, on 3 December, 1803, provided their superior general would reside in France.談判開始了,多虧了干預,他的叔叔,樞機fesch ,波拿巴授權重新成立的學院,於1803年12月3日,他們提供了優越的一般會住在法國。 In November, 1804, the Brother Vicar arrived at Lyons, and took up his residence in the former petit collège of the Jesuits.在11月, 1804年,弟弟副主教抵達里昂,並採用了他的住所前幼兒學院的耶穌會士。 The institute began to live again.該研究所已開始安居樂業。 Nothing was more urgent than to reunite the former members of the congregation.什麼是更具緊迫性團聚前成員會眾。 An appeal was made to their faith and good will, and they responded.上訴了他們的信念和良好意願,但他們的反應。 Shortly after the arrival of Brother Frumence at Lyons, the foundation of communities began.不久後到來的弟弟frumence在里昂舉行,該基金會的社區開始了。 There were eight new ones in 1805, and as many in 1806, four in 1807, and five in 1808.當時有八名新的,在1805年,因為很多1806年, 4名1807年, 5個在1808年。 Brother Frumence dying in January, 1810, a general chapter, the tenth since the foundation, was assembled at Lyons on 8 September following, and elected Brother Gerbaud to the highest office in the institute.哥哥frumence死於今年1月, 1810年,總章,第十自創建以來,聚集在里昂9月8日之後,並選出哥哥的一刻到最高處,在該研究所。 Brother Gerbaud governed until 1822.哥哥一刻治,直到1822年。 His successors were Brother Guillaume de Jésus (1822-30); Brother Anaclet (1830-38); Brother Philippe (1838-74); Brother Jean-Olympe (1874-75); Brother Irlide (1875-84); Brother Joseph (1884-97); and Brother Gabriel-Marie elected in March, 1897.他的繼任者的弟弟紀堯姆德jésus ( 1822至1830年) ;弟弟anaclet ( 1830至1838年) ;哥哥菲利普( 1838年至1874年) ;弟弟讓奧蘭普( 1874至1875年) ;弟弟irlide ( 1875至1884年) ;弟弟約瑟夫( 1884年至1897年)和弟弟加布里埃爾-瑪麗3月選出, 1897 。 He is the thirteenth successor of St. John Baptist de La Salle.他是第十三繼任者聖約翰浸禮會喇沙。

THE INSTITUTE FROM 1810 TO 1874該研究所從1810年至1874年

After 1810 communities of the Brothers multiplied like the flowers of the fields in spring-time after the frosts have disappeared. 1810年後,社區的兄弟乘以喜歡鮮花的領域中的春天-時間後,霜凍已經消失。 Fifteen new schools were opened in 1817, twenty-one in 1818, twenty-six in 1819, and twenty-seven in 1821. 15個新的學校開設了1817年, 2001年於1818年, 2006年,在1819年和2007年於1821年。 It was in this year that the Brother Superior General, at the request of the municipality, took up his residence in Paris, with his assistants.正是在這一年,弟弟優於一般的請求,於全市,討論了他的住所在巴黎,同他的助手們。 The institute then numbered 950 Brothers and novices, 310 schools, 664 classes, and 50,000 pupils.該研究所則編號為950的兄弟和生手,有310所學校, 664班, 50000名學生。 Fifteen years had sufficed to reach the same prosperous condition in which the Revolution found it in 1789.十五年已足以達到同樣繁榮的條件,其中革命發現,它在1789年。 It must not, however, be admitted that, in consequence of the services rendered by the Brothers to popular education, they always enjoyed the favour of the Government.它必須,但不能予以承認,在後果提供的服務,由兄弟,以普及教育,他們總是喜歡對政府有利。 From 1816 to 1819, Brother Gerbaud, the superior general, had to struggle vigorously for the preservation of the traditional methods of the congregation.從1816年至1819年,哥哥的一刻,優於一般,要大力鬥爭,為保存傳統方法的會眾。 The mutual or Lancasterian method had just been introduced into France, and immediately the powerful Société pour l'Instruction Elémentaire assumed the mission of propagating it.相互或lancasterian方法剛剛被引進法國,並立即強大協會法國指示elémentaire承擔的使命是宣揚它。 At a time when teachers and funds were scarce, the Government deemed it wise to pronounce in favour of the mutual school, and recommended it by an ordinance in 1818.在這個時候,老師和資金匱乏,政府有必要進行明智宣告贊成相互學校,並建議由一個條例於1818年。 The Brothers would not consent to abandon the "simultaneous method" which they had received from their founder, and on this account they were subjected to many vexations.兄弟不會同意放棄"同步法" ,他們已收到來自其創辦人,並在此賬戶,他們受到很多騷擾。 During forty years the supporters of the two methods were to contend, but finally the "simultaneous" teachers achieved the victory.在四十年的支持者兩種方法來的,但最後的"同聲傳譯"教師取得了勝利。 By holding fast to their traditions and rules the Brothers had saved elementary teaching in France.由堅守自己的傳統和規則兄弟拯救了小學教學在法國。

The expansion of the Christian schools was not arrested by these struggles.擴大基督教學校沒有逮捕這些鬥爭。 In 1829 there were 233 houses, including 5 in Italy, 5 in Corsica, 5 in Belgium, 2 in the Island of Bourbon, and 1 at Cayenne; in all, 955 classes and 67,000 pupils. 1829年有233個房子,其中包括5個在意大利, 5日在科西嘉島, 5日在比利時, 2個在島內的波旁王朝,和1個在卡宴;總而言之, 955班, 67000名學生。 But the Government of Louis-Philippe obstructed this benevolent work by suppressing the grants made to certain schools: eleven were permanently closed, and twenty-nine were kept up as free schools by the charity of Catholics.但政府的路易-菲利普阻撓這項德政工作,為鎮壓贈款作出某些學校: 11人被永久封閉, 2009年保持了作為免費學校是由慈善組織的天主教徒。 The hour had now come for a greater expansion.一小時了,現在到了更大的擴張。 Fortified and rejuvenated by trial, fixed for a long time on the soil of France, augmented by yearly increasing numbers, the institute could, without weakening itself, send educational colonies abroad.設防和偉大復興的宏偉目標審判,不動相當長的時間對土壤的法國,再增每年增加的人口數量,研究所,可又不削弱本身,送教育殖民地國外。 Belgium received Brothers at Dinant in 1816; the Island of Bourbon, 1817; Montreal, 1837; Smyrna, 1841; Baltimore, 1846: Alexandria, 1847; New York, 1848; St. Louis, 1849; Kemperhof, near Coblenz, 1851; Singapore, 1852; Algiers, 1854; London, 1855; Vienna, 1856; the Island of Mauritius, 1859; Bucharest, 1861; Karikal, India, 1862; Quito, 1863.比利時收到的兄弟在dinant在1816年;島上的波旁王朝, 1817年;蒙特利爾, 1837年;皆在一八四一年;巴爾的摩, 1846年:亞歷山大, 1847年;紐約, 1848年;聖路易斯, 1849/2836 ; kemperhof ,近科布侖茲, 1851年,新加坡, 1852年;阿爾及爾, 1854年,倫敦, 1855年;維也納, 1856年;毛里求斯島, 1859年;布加勒斯特, 1861年; karikal ,印度, 1862年;基多, 1863年。 In all of these places, the number of houses soon increased, and everywhere the same intellectual and religious results proved a recommendation of the schools of the Brothers.在所有這些地方,住房數量增加很快,到處都一樣的智力和宗教的結果證明了這樣一條建議,對學校的兄弟。 The period of this expansion is that of the generalship of Brother Philippe, the most popular of the superiors of teaching congregations in the nineteenth century at the time of the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71.該時期的這種擴張,是該generalship的弟弟菲利普,最受歡迎的上司教學的畢業典禮在19世紀,在當時的佛朗哥-普魯士戰爭, 1870年至1871年。 Under his administration, the institute received its most active impetus.根據他的政府,該研究所收到其最活躍的動力。 When Brother Philippe was elected superior general, in 1838, the number of schools and of Brothers was already double what it was in 1789; when he died, in 1874, it had increased in entirely unexpected proportions.當弟弟菲利普當選優於一般來講,在1838年中,有多少學校和兄弟已經是雙重什麼,它是在1789年,當他真的死了,在1874年,它已增加了在完全沒有預料到的比例。 The venerable superior saw the number of houses rise from 313 to 1149; that of the Brothers from 2317 to 10,235; that of their pupils from 144,000 to 350,000.老上司看到住房數量上升,從313至1149年,這對兄弟們: 2317至10235 ,即他們的學生從144000到350000 。 And as in France, and through the benevolence of the hierarchy, Belgium, North America, the Indies, and the Levant multiplied Christian schools.與法國一樣,並通過善的層次,比利時,北美洲,印度和地中海東部乘以基督教學校。 Assuredly, Brother Philippe was aware that, for a religious institute, the blessing of numbers is less desirable than the progress of the religious in the spirit of their vocation.穩妥,兄弟菲利普知道,對一個宗教研究所,祝福的人數不如進展情況,在宗教的精神,他們的天職。 In order to strengthen them therein, the superior general composed seven volumes of "Meditations", and a large number of instructive "Circular Letters", in which are explained the duties of the Brothers as religious and as educators.為了加強對他們的地方,上級一般組成7冊的"沉思" ,以及大量的啟發性"通函" ,在這種解釋的職責,兄弟宗教和教育工作者。 Every year at the time of the retreats, until he was eighty years of age, he travelled all over France, and spoke to his Brothers in most ardent language, made still more impressive by the saintly example of this venerable old man.每年都在時間的務虛會,直到他八十年的年齡,他前往所有超過法國,並談到他的兄弟們最殷切的語言,取得更加驕人的,由德雷克這樣的例子老先生歲男子。

THE INSTITUTE FROM 1874 TO 1908該研究所從1874年至1908年

The generalship of Brother Irlide was marked by two principal orders of facts: a powerful effort to increase the spiritual vigour of the institute by introducing the Great Exercises or retreats of thirty days; and the reorganization as free schools of the French schools which the laicization laws from 1879 to 1886 deprived of the character of communal schools.該generalship的弟弟irlide標誌是由兩個主要的訂單的事實:一個強大的努力,以增加精神活力,該研究所通過引入大演習或務虛的三十天;和重組作為免費的學校,法國學校,其中laicization法律從1879年至1886年,剝奪性質的社區學校。 This period witnessed, especially in two regions, the establishment and multiplication of Brothers' schools.這一時期,發生了,尤其是在這兩個地區,建立和乘法的兄弟學校。 The districts of Ireland and Spain, where such fine work is going on, were organized under the administration of Brother Irlide.該地區的愛爾蘭和西班牙,如優良的工作正在進行中,組織管理下的弟弟irlide 。 Indefatigable in the fight, he asserted the rights of his institute against the powerful influence which strove to set them aside.不知疲倦的在打,他斷言權利,他的研究所對強大的影響力,而伴隨著它們設置在一邊。 He had broad and original views which he carried out with a strong, tenacious will.他曾廣泛和具有獨到見解的,他進行的,與一個強大,堅韌的意志。 What his predecessor had accomplished by indomitable energy, Brother Joseph, superior general from 1884 to 1897, maintained by the ascendency of his captivating goodness.他的前任已完成了由頑強的能源,弟弟約瑟夫,優於一般,從1884年至1897年,由ascendency他著迷善。 He was an educator of rare distinction and exquisite charm.他是一位教育家珍稀區分和精緻的魅力。 He had received from Pope Leo XIII the important mission of developing in the institute the works of Christian perseverance, so that the faith and morals of young men might be safeguarded after leaving school.他收到了由教皇利奧十三世的重要使命,在發展研究所工程基督教毅力,因此,只要信仰和道德的青年男子可能得到保障後,離開學校。 One of his great delights was to transmit this direction to his Brothers and to see them work zealously for its attainment.他的一個很大的樂趣是為了傳遞這個方向,以他的兄弟,看看他們的工作熱情,為它的實現。 Patronages, clubs, alumni associations, boarding-houses, spiritual retreats, etc., were doubtless already in existence; now they became more prosperous. patronages ,俱樂部,校友會,寄宿之家,精神務虛會等,無疑已經存在的,現在他們變得更加繁榮。 For many years the alumni associations of France had made their action consist in friendly but rare reunions.多年來,校友會的法國作出了自己的行動,構成了親切友好的,但難得的團聚。 The legal attempts against liberty of conscience forced the members into the Catholic and social struggle.法律試圖對人身自由的良知迫使成員進入天主教和社會鬥爭。 They have formed themselves into sectional unions; they have an annual meeting, and have created an active movement in favour of persecuted Catholic education.他們已經形成了自己的成截面職工,他們有一個年度會議,並創造了一個活躍的運動贊成迫害天主教教育。 The alumni associations of the Brothers in the United States and Belgium have their national federation and annual meeting.該校友會的兄弟,在美國和比利時有其全國工商聯和年度會議。

It is especially in France that the work of the spiritual retreats, of which the chief centre has been the Association of St. Benoit-Joseph Labre, has been developed.這是特別是在法國,這項工作的精神務虛會,其中,行政中心一直在該協會的聖輪戰平以色列-約瑟夫labre ,已經研製成功。 Founded in Paris in 1883, it had, twenty-five years later, brought together 41,600 young Parisians at the house of retreat, at Athis-Mons.在巴黎創立,在1883年,它已,二十五年後,聚集了41600青少年巴黎人在眾議院撤退,在athis -山景。 About the same time, "retreats previous to graduation" were gradually introduced in the schools of all countries with the view of the perseverance in their religious practices of the graduates entering upon active life.幾乎在同一時間, "務虛會前到畢業" ,逐步推行,在學校的所有國家的觀點,堅持在自己的宗教習俗的畢業生進入後,積極的生活。 During the administration of Brother Gabriel-Marie, and until 1904, the normal progress of the congregation was not obstructed.在政府的弟弟加布里埃爾-瑪麗,並直到1904年,正常的進度,會眾並沒有阻撓。 The expansion of its divers works attained its maximum.擴大其潛水員工程達到了極限。 Here are the words of one of the official reports of the Universal Exposition of Paris in 1900: "The establishments of the Institute of Brothers of the Christian Schools, spread all over the world, number 2015. They comprise 1500 elementary or high schools; 47 important boarding-schools; 45 normal schools or scholasticates for the training of subjects of the institute, and 6 normal schools for lay teachers; 13 special agricultural schools, and a large number of agricultural classes in elementary schools; 48 technical and trade schools; 82 commercial schools or special commercial courses."這裡有字的一種正式的報告,世界博覽會在巴黎在1900年說: "該機構的研究所兄弟的基督教學校,範圍遍及全球,數量,到2015年,他們組成1500個小學或中學; 47重要的寄宿學校; 45師範院校或scholasticates為培訓對象的研究所和6個普通學校,為奠定教師; 13特色農業學校,以及大量的農業班小學; 48技術和職業學校; 82商業學校或特殊商業課程" 。

Such was the activity of the Institute of St. John Baptist de La Salle when it was doomed in France by the legislation that abolished teaching by religious.這樣的活動,該研究所的聖約翰浸禮會喇沙時,它注定在法國由立法廢除了教學由宗教團體。 Not the services rendered, nor the striking lustre of its success, nor the greatness of the social work it had accomplished, could save it.不能提供的服務,也沒有醒目的光澤,其成功的,也不是偉大的社會工作,它已完成了,可以挽救。 Its glory, which was to render all its schools Christian, was imputed to it as a crime.它的榮耀,這是使所有學校基督徒,是歸罪於它視為犯罪。 In consequence of the application of the law of 7 July, 1904, to legally authorized teaching congregations, 805 establishments of the Brothers were closed in 1904, 196 in 1905, 155 in 1906, 93 in 1907, and 33 in 1908.在後果適用該法1904年7月7日,以法律授權教學中的畢業典禮, 805場所的兄弟被封閉,在1904年, 196名在1905年,有155名是在1906年, 93個在1907年,有33個在1908年。 Nothing was spared.什麼也沒有倖免。 The popular and free schools to the number of more than a thousand; the boarding and half-boarding schools such as Passy in Paris, those at Reims, Lyons, Bordeaux, Marseilles, etc.; the cheap boarding schools for children of the working class, such as the admirable houses of St. Nicholas, the technical and trade schools of Lyons, Saint-Etienne, Saint-Chamond, Commentry, etc.; the agricultural institutions of Beauvais, Limoux, etc. - all were swept away.流行和免費學校的人數超過1000人;寄宿和半寄宿制學校,如帕西在巴黎,那些在蘭斯,里昂,波爾多,馬賽等;低廉的寄宿制學校,為孩子的勞動階層如令人欽佩的房子的聖尼古拉斯,技術和貿易學校的里昂,聖-艾蒂安,聖- chamond , commentry等;農業院校的beauvais , limoux ,等等-都被一掃而空。 The blows were severe, but the beautiful tree of the institute had taken root too firmly in the soil of the whole Catholic world to have its vitality endangered by the lopping off of a principal branch.衝擊嚴重的,但美麗的樹該研究所已扎下了根太牢固,在土壤中的整個天主教世界有它的生命力瀕危由lopping小康的一個主要分支。 The remaining branches received a new afflux of sap, and on its vigorous trunk there soon appeared new branches.其餘分行接到一個新的匯流的SAP公司,並就其嚴厲的主幹很快出現了新的黨支部。 From 1904 to 1908, 222 houses have been founded in England, Belgium, the islands of the Mediterranean, the Levant, North and South America, the West Indies, Cape Colony, and Australia.從1904年至1908年, 222所房屋被創建於英國,比利時,島嶼,地中海,地中海東部,北美洲和南美洲,西印度群島,歌連臣角的殖民地,和澳大利亞。

SCHOOLS OF EUROPE AND THE EAST學校的歐洲和東亞

When their schools were suppressed by law in France, the Brothers endeavoured with all their might to assure to at least a portion of the children of the poor the religious education of which they were about to be deprived.當他們被學校壓抑的,由法律,在法國,兄弟努力同一切可能來保證至少有一部份窮人的子女的宗教教育,使他們即將被剝奪。 At the same time the institute established near the frontiers of Belgium and Holland, of Spain and Italy, ten boarding-schools for French boys.在同一時間,該學院設立了近邊疆的比利時及荷蘭,西班牙,意大利等10個寄宿學校,為法國男孩。 The undertaking was venturesome, but God has blessed it, and these boarding-schools are all flourishing.承諾書是venturesome ,但上帝保佑它,而這些寄宿學校都是一片繁榮景象。 Belgium has 75 establishments conducted by the Brothers, comprising about 60 popular free schools, boarding-schools, official normal schools, and trade schools known as St. Luke schools.比利時有75個場所進行,由兄弟,其中包括約60個熱門的免費學校,寄宿學校,正式的師範院校,以及貿易學校稱為聖盧克學校。 There are 32 houses in Lorraine, Austria, Hungary, Bohemia, Galicia, Albania, Bulgaria, and Rumania.已有32個住房洛林,奧地利,匈牙利,波希米亞,加利西亞,阿爾巴尼亞,保加利亞和羅馬尼亞。 Spain, including the Canaries and the Balearic Isles, has 100 houses of the institute, of which about 80 are popular gratuitous schools.西班牙,包括坎和巴利阿里群島,有100棟房屋的研究所,其中約80都很受歡迎無償學校。 In Italy there are 34 houses, 9 of which are in Rome.在意大利境內有34個房子,其中9個是在羅馬。 The Brothers have been established over fifty years in the Levant, Turkey, Syria, and Egypt.兩兄弟已建立了超過50年在地中海東部,土耳其,敘利亞和埃及。 The 50 houses which they conduct are centres of Christian education and influence, and are liberally patronized by the people of these countries. 50棟,他們的行為是中心的基督教教育與影響力,是寬鬆光顧這些國家的人民。 The district of England and Ireland comprises 25 houses, the Brothers for the most part being engaged in the "National" schools.該地區的英國和愛爾蘭包括房屋25間,兩兄弟對於大多數正在從事"國家"學校。 In London they direct a college and an academy; in Manchester, an industrial school; and in Waterford, a normal school or training college, the 200 students of which are King's scholars, who are paid for by a grant from the British Government.在倫敦,他們直接在大學和學院;曼徹斯特,工業學校,而且在沃特福德,一個正常的學校或培訓學校, 200名學生,其中有國王的學者,他們是負擔為贈款,由英國政府。 In India, the Brothers have large schools, most of which have upwards of 800 pupils.在印度,兄弟大學校,其中大部分已達到800名學生。 Those of Colombo, Rangoon, Penang, Moulmein, Mandalay, Singapore, Malacca, and Hong Kong in China, stand high in public estimation.這些科倫坡仰光,檳城,毛淡棉,曼德勒省,新加坡,馬來西亞,以及香港在中國,站得高一點,在公眾的估計。 They are all assisted by government grants.它們都是由政府補助。

SCHOOLS IN AMERICA學校在美國

The institute has already established 72 houses in Mexico, Cuba, Ecuador, Colombia, Panama, Argentina, and Chile.該研究所已經確定了72個房子,在墨西哥,古巴,厄瓜多爾,哥倫比亞,巴拿馬,阿根廷和智利。 When Brother Facile was appointed visitor of North America in 1848, he found in Canada 5 houses, 56 Brothers and 3200 pupils in their schools.當哥哥很容易被任命為旅客北美在1848年後,他發現在加拿大的5座莊園, 56兄弟和3200名學生就讀的學校。 In 1908, the statistics show 48 houses, and nearly 20,000 pupils.在1908年,統計數字顯示, 48家,並有近20000名學生。 The parochial schools are gratuitous, according to the constant tradition of the institute.該教會學校是無償,根據不斷的傳統學院。 The most important boarding-school is Mount St. Louis, Montreal.最重要的寄宿學校是摩聖路易斯,加拿大蒙特利爾。 At the request of the Most Reverend Samuel Eccleston, Brother Philippe, superior general, sent three brothers to Baltimore in 1846.在要求最牧師塞繆爾eccleston ,兄弟菲利普,優於一般,派出三名兄弟,以巴爾的摩市於1846年。 The district of which Baltimore has become the centre now contains 24 houses, the Brothers of which for the most part are engaged in gratuitous parochial schools; they also conduct five colleges; a protectory; and the foundations of the family of the late Francis Anthony Drexel of Philadelphia, namely, St. Francis Industrial School, at Eddington, Pa.; the Drexmor, a home for working boys at Philadelphia; and the St. Emma Industrial and Agricultural College of Belmead, Rock Castle, Va., for coloured boys.區,其中巴爾的摩已經成為該中心現載有24家兄弟其中大部分是從事無償教會學校,他們也進行五所高校; protectory和基金會的家屬已故弗朗西斯安東尼drexel對費城76人,分別是聖方濟各工業學校,愛丁頓,賓州; drexmor ,民政工作的男孩,在費城和聖愛瑪工業和農業學院belmead ,岩石城堡,維吉尼亞州,為有色男孩。 The district of New York is the most important in America.區的紐約是最重要的在美國。 It comprises 38 houses, most of the Brothers of which are engaged in teaching parochial gratuitous schools.它包括38個房子,大部分的兄弟,其中從事教學狹隘的無償學校。 In addition to these they conduct Manhattan College, the De La Salle Institute, La Salle Academy, and Clason Point Military Academy, in New York City, and academies and high schools in other important cities.除了這些,他們的行為曼哈頓學院,喇沙研究所,喇沙書院,並clason點軍校,在紐約市,和院校及高中,在其他重要城市。 The New York Catholic Protectory, St. Philip's Home, and four orphan asylums and industrial schools under their care contain a population of 2500 children.設在紐約的天主教protectory ,聖弘的家裡,和4名孤兒,精神病院和工業學校,他們所照顧的遏制,人口2500名兒童。

The district of St. Louis contains 19 houses, the majority of the Brothers of which are doing parochial school work.區的聖路易斯載有19家,大部分的兄弟,其中正在做狹隘的學校工作。 They conduct large colleges at St. Louis and Memphis, and important academies and high schools at Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis, Duluth , St. Joseph and Santa Fé.他們進行大型學院,在聖路易斯和孟菲斯,以及重要的院校及高中在芝加哥,聖保羅,明尼阿波利斯,德盧斯,聖若瑟和聖菲。 They also have charge of the Osage Nation School for Indian boys at Gray Horse, Oklahoma.他們也有負責該奧塞奇文民族學校為印度男孩在灰色馬,俄克拉何馬州。 The district of San Francisco comprises 13 houses, and as in the other districts, the Brothers are largely engaged in parochial schools; but they also conduct St. Mary's College at Oakland, the Sacred Heart College at San Francisco, and the Christian Brothers' College at Sacramento, together with academies at Berkeley, Portland, Vancouver, and Walla Walla, and the St. Vincent Orphan Asylum, Marin Co., California, which contains 500 boys.區舊金山共有13家,並在其他地區,兄弟大多從事教會學校,但他們也進行聖瑪麗學院在奧克蘭,聖心書院,在舊金山,和基督教兄弟學院在沙加緬度,連同院校伯克利分校,波特蘭,溫哥華,並沃拉沃拉,以及聖文森特孤兒庇護,馬林有限公司,加利福尼亞州,其中載有500名男孩。 The total number of pupils of the Brothers in the United States is thirty thousand.學生總人數的兩兄弟,在美國是30000 。 Their 94 houses are spread over 33 archdioceses and dioceses.其94的房子分佈在33 archdioceses和教區。 It would not be possible in such an article as this to recall the memory of all the religious who, during the last sixty years, figured prominently in this development of their institute.會根本不可能在這樣的文章,因為這回憶的記憶,所有的宗教人士,在過去的60年,佔有突出地位,在這個發展自己的研究所。 Among those who have been called to their reward, we may however mention the revered names of Brothers Facile and Patrick, assistants to the superior general.在那些被稱為他們的獎賞,我們可以,但提崇敬的名字兄弟簡易和帕特里克,助理人員向上級一般。

INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY智力活動

The Brothers of the Christian Schools are too much absorbed by the work of teaching to devote themselves to the writing of books not of immediate utility in their schools.兄弟的基督教學校太多吸納的工作,教學投入到寫作的圖書不能即時效用,在他們的學校。 But, for the use of their pupils, they have written a large number of works on all the specialities in their courses of studies.不過,對於使用自己的學生,他們寫了大量的工程,全部專業課程,他們的研究工作。 Such works have been written in French, English, German, Italian, Spanish Flemish, Turkish, Annamite, etc. The Brothers' schoolbooks treat of the following subjects: Christian doctrine, reading, writing, arithmetic, geometry, algebra, trigonometry, mechanics, history, geography, agriculture, physics, chemistry, physiology, zoology, botany, geology, the modern languages, grammar, literature, philosophy, pedagogy, methodology, drawing, shorthand, etc.這些工程已寫在法語,英語,德語,意大利語,西班牙語弗拉芒語,土耳其語, annamite等兄弟教科書對待的議題如下:基督教教義,閱讀,寫作,算術,幾何,代數,三角學,力學,歷史,地理,農業,物理,化學,生理學,動物學,植物學,地質學,現代語言,語法,文學,哲學,教育學,方法論,繪畫,速記等。

Publication information Written by Brother Paul Joseph.出版信息寫的兄弟保羅約瑟夫。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯j.波特。 Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.專為無玷聖心之聖母瑪利亞天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. nihil obstat , 1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

Annales de l'institut des frères des écoles chrétiennes (Paris, 1883); Essai historique sur la maison mère de l'institut des frères des écoles chrétiennes (Paris, 1905); DUBOIS-BERGERSON, Les nouvelles écoles à la Lancaster comparées avec l'enseignement des frères des écoles chrétiennes (Paris, 1817); La vérité sur l'enseignement mutuel (Paris, 1821); RENDU, L'association en général, et particulièrement l'association charitable des frères des écoles chrétiennes (Paris, 1845); D'ARSAC, Les frères des écoles chrétiennes pendant la guerre franco-allemande de 1870-1871 (Paris, 1872); Rapport de l'académie française sur le prix de Boston, décerné à l'institut des frères des écoles chrétiennes (Paris, 1872); American Catholic Quarterly Review (October, 1879); Reports of the universal exhibitions of Paris, Vienna, Chicago, etc.; CAISSE, L'institut des frères des écoles chrétiennes, son origine, son but et ses œuvres (Montreal, 1883); CHEVALIER, Les frères des écoles chrétiennes et l'enseignement primaire (Paris, 1887); RENDU, Sept ans de guerre à l'enseignement libre (Paris, 1887); Catholic World (August, 1900; September, 1901); DES CILLEULS, Histoire de l'enseignement primaire (Paris, 1908); AZARIAS, Educational Essays (Chicago, 1896); GOSOOT, Essai critique sur l'enseignement primaire en France (Paris, 1905); JUSTINUS, Déposition dans l'enguête sur l'enseignement secondaire (Paris, 1899); CAlL, Rapport sur l'enseignement technique dans les écoles catholiques en France (Paris, 1900); Autour de l'enseignement congréganiste (Paris, 1905); VESPEYREN, La lutte scolaire en Belgique (Brussels, 1906); Bulletin de l'œuvre de Saint Jean Baptiste de La Salle; Bulletin des écoles chrétiennes; Bulletin de l'œuvre de la jeunesse; L'éducation chrétienne; Bulletins of the Various alumni associations formed by graduates of the Brothers' Schools; Bulletins and reports published by colleges, normal schools, etc.; Biographies of Brothers Irénée, Salomon, Philippe, Joseph, Scubilion, Exupérien, Auguste-Hubert, Alpert, Léon de Jésus etc.; Directoire pédagogique a l'usage des écoles chrétiennes (Paris, 1903); Conduite à l'usage des écoles chrétiennes (Paris, 1903); Eléments de Pédagogie pratique (Paris, 1901); Traité théorique et pratique de Pédagogie (Namur, 1901); Manuel de Pédagogie à l'usage des écoles primaires catholiques (Paris, 1909).年鑑德研究所萬Frères的萬écoles chrétiennes (巴黎, 1883年) ; essai historique sur香格里拉maison法語德研究所萬Frères的萬écoles chrétiennes (巴黎, 1905年) ;迪布瓦- bergerson ,就業輔導組新生力量écoles à香格里拉蘭卡斯特comparées avec升' enseignement萬Frères的萬écoles chrétiennes (巴黎, 1817年) ;香格里拉vérité sur l' enseignement mutuel (巴黎, 1821年) ; rendu ,協會恩帶有優雅,等particulièrement協會慈善萬Frères的萬écoles chrétiennes (巴黎, 1845年) ; -阿薩克,就業輔導組兄弟萬é colesc hrétiennes挂件香格里拉戰爭佛朗哥- a llemande德1 870年至1 871年(巴黎, 1 872年) ;融洽德l 'a cadémie法國s ur樂值得期待的波士頓, d écernéà研究所萬F rères的萬é colesc hrétiennes(巴黎, 1872 ) ;美國天主教每季檢討( 10月, 1879年) ;報導的世界展覽,在巴黎,維也納,芝加哥等;虧損,研究所萬Frères的萬écoles chrétiennes ,兒子原產地,兒子,但等經濟局局長œuvres (蒙特利爾, 1883年) ;士,就業輔導組兄弟萬écoles chrétiennes等l' enseignement primaire (巴黎, 1887年) ; rendu ,九月答戰爭à l' enseignement頒發資料(巴黎, 1887年) ;天主教世界( 8月, 1900年9月, 1901 ) ;萬西耶爾,歷史和德l' enseignement primaire (巴黎, 1908年) ; azarias ,教育隨筆(芝加哥, 1896年) ; gosoot , essai批判sur l' enseignement primaire恩法國(巴黎, 1905年) ; justinus , déposition dans l' enguête sur l' enseignement secondaire (巴黎, 1899年) ;號召,融洽sur l' enseignement技術dans就業輔導組écoles天主教恩法國(巴黎, 1900年) ; autour德l' enseignement congréganiste (巴黎, 1905年) ; vespeyren ,香格里拉鬥爭scolaire恩比利時(布魯塞爾, 1906年) ;公報德l' œuvre德聖讓巴蒂斯特喇沙;公報萬écoles chrétiennes ;簡訊德l' œuvre德香格里拉青年;教育和基督教;通報的各校友會,形成畢業生的兄弟學校的事件;通報和報告公佈的院校,師範院校等;傳記的兄弟irénée ,所羅門,菲利普,約瑟夫, scubilion , exupérien , ( Auguste -休伯特, alpert ,萊昂德jésus等; directoire pédagogique一l'用法萬écoles chrétiennes (巴黎, 1903年) ; conduite à l'用法萬écoles chrétiennes (巴黎, 1903年) ; eléments德pédagogie實用(巴黎, 1901年) ; traité théorique等實用德pédagogie (那慕爾, 1901年) ;曼努埃德pédagogie à升'用法萬écoles primaires天主教(巴黎, 1909年) 。


Also, see:此外,見:
Religious Orders 宗教命令
Franciscans
Jesuits 耶穌會士
Benedictines benedictines
Trappists trappists
Cistercians cistercians
Dominicans 多米尼加
Carmelites carmelites
Discalced Carmelites discalced carmelites
Augustinians 奧古斯丁會士
Marist Brothers 聖母兄弟

Monasticism 修道
Nuns 修女
Friars 方濟各會士
Convent 修道院
Ministry 財政部
Major Orders 大訂單
Holy Orders 神聖的訂單


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