Beatitude, Sermon on the Mount beatitude ,山上寶訓

General Information 一般資料

A beatitude is a declaration of happiness or promised blessing because of some virtue or good deed. 1 beatitude就是一個宣示的幸福或承諾的祝福,因為有些美德還是一件好事。 The most famous beatitudes are the blessings preached by Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount (Matt. 5).最有名的beatitudes是祝福宣揚的耶穌在山上寶訓。 ( 5 ) 。 They describe the qualities of Christian perfection and promise future blessings rather than current rewards.他們形容素質的基督教完善,並承諾在未來的祝福,而不是目前的報酬。

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Bibliography: 參考書目:
Fitch, William, The Beatitudes of Jesus (1961).惠譽,威廉, beatitudes的耶穌( 1961 ) 。


Beatitudes of Christ beatitudes基督

General Information 一般資料

The Beatitudes of Christ represent eight upward steps toward attaining the Blessedness of a Divine Life.該beatitudes基督所代表的八個向上一步步邁向實現幸福的神的生活。 They are expressed in Matthew 5 in the New Testament, as an important part of His Sermon on the Mount.他們表示,在馬太五,在新約聖經的一個重要部分,他的山上寶訓。

(Preliminary text): (初步文本) :

Matt.馬特。 5:1. 5:1 。 And seeing the multitudes, he ascended a mountain: and when he was seated, his disciples came to him:在看到眾多,他爬山:當他坐定後,他的弟子來找他:

Matt.馬特。 5:2 And he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying, 5時02分,他打開他的嘴,並告訴他們,說,

(following text:) (以下文字: )

Matt.馬特。 5:13. 5時13分。 Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt hath lost its savour, with what shall it be salted?葉是鹽的地球:不過,如果鹽祂所失去了品味,應怎樣才能鹹魚? it is then good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot by men.它是那麼得一無是處,而是要被趕出去,並可以踐踏腳下男性。

Matt.馬特。 5:14 Ye are the light of the world. 5時14分葉,是世界的光。 A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid.一個城市是定在一個山不能隱瞞。

Matt.馬特。 5:15 Neither do men light a lamp, and put it under a basket, but on a lampstand; and it giveth light to all that are in the house.下午5時15也不男子輕一盞燈,並把它根據一籃子的,但一個燈檯,並且給予輕令所有人都在眾議院。 {a bushel: the word in the original signifieth a measure containing about a pint less than a peck} (蒲式耳:字原signifieth一項措施,其中載有大約一品脫不到一啄)

Matt.馬特。 5:16 Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father who is in heaven. 5:16 ,讓你的光照耀,所以之前的男子,他們可以看到你的好作品,歌頌你的父親是誰在天上。


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Bless祝福


The Eight Beatitudes八個beatitudes

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

The solemn blessings (beatitudines, benedictiones) which mark the opening of the Sermon on the Mount, the very first of Our Lord's sermons in the Gospel of St. Matthew (5:3-10).莊嚴的祝福( beatitudines , benedictiones ) ,其中標誌開幕的山上寶訓,第一我們的主的布道,在福音的聖馬太( 5:3-10 ) 。

Four of them occur again in a slightly different form in the Gospel of St. Luke (6:22), likewise at the beginning of a sermon, and running parallel to Matthew 5-7, if not another version of the same.其中4人再次出現在一個略為不同的形式,在福音的聖盧克( 6時22分) ,同樣在年初的說教,並運行平行馬修5-7 ,如果不是另一種版本相同。 And here they are illustrated by the opposition of the four curses (24-26).在這裡,他們都表明了反對的四個詛咒( 24-26 ) 。

The fuller account and the more prominent place given the Beatitudes in St. Matthew are quite in accordance with the scope and the tendency of the First Gospel, in which the spiritual character of the Messianic kingdom -- the paramount idea of the Beatitudes -- is consistently put forward, in sharp contrast with Jewish prejudices.有關更詳盡和較為突出的地方,由於beatitudes在聖馬太相當根據的範圍和趨勢,第一個福音,其中精神品格的救世主英國-至高無上理念的b eatitudes-一貫提出的,形成鮮明對比,與猶太人的偏見。 The very peculiar form in which Our Lord proposed His blessings make them, perhaps, the only example of His sayings that may be styled poetical -- the parallelism of thought and expression, which is the most striking feature of Biblical poetry, being unmistakably clear.非常奇特的形式,使我們的主提出他的祝福,使他們,也許,唯一的例子,說明他的說法可能風格的詩歌-排比的思想和言論自由,這是一個最突出的特點聖經詩歌,正明白無誤地清楚。

The text of St. Matthew runs as follows:文聖馬太運行情況如下:

Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.有福是窮人在精神:為他們的是天國。 (Verse 3) (韻文3 )

Blessed are the meek: for they shall posses the land.有福是溫柔:他們應擁有的土地。 (Verse 4) (韻文4 )

Blessed are they who mourn: for they shall be comforted.有福了,他們為悼念:因為他們必將安慰。 (Verse 5) (韻文5 )

Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after justice: for they shall have their fill.有福了,他們說,飢餓和乾渴之後,司法:因為他們也應享有其填補。 (Verse 6) (韻文6 )

Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.有福了,是慈悲為懷:因為他們必將得到憐憫。 (Verse 7) (韻文7 )

Blessed are the clean of heart: for they shall see God.有福是乾淨的心:因為他們將看到上帝。 (Verse 8) (韻文8 )

Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God.有福的和平締造者:對於他們應被稱為兒童的上帝。 (Verse 9) (韻文9 )

Blessed are they that suffer persecution for justice' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.有福了,他們遭受迫害的正義起見,為他們的是天國。 (Verse 10) (新詩10 )

TEXTUAL CRITICISM考據學

As regards textual criticism, the passage offers no serious difficulty.至於考據學,通過提供沒有發生嚴重困難。 Only in verse 9, the Vulgate and many other ancient authorities omit the pronoun autoi, ipsi; probably a merely accidental ommission.不僅在新詩九日, vulgate和其他許多古代當局省略代詞autoi ,同側;可能只是一個偶然ommission 。 There is room, too, for serious critical doubt, whether verse 5 should not be placed before verse 4.有空間,也嚴重危急疑問,無論是韻文五日不應放在前韻文4 。 Only the etymological connection, which in the original is supposed to have existed between the "poor" and the "meek", makes us prefer the order of the Vulgate.只有詞源方面,即在原來的是有存在的"窮"和"溫柔" ,使我們寧願秩序的vulgate 。

First Beatitude第一beatitude

The word poor seems to represent an Aramaic `ányâ (Hebrew `anî), bent down, afflicted, miserable, poor; while meek is rather a synonym from the same root, `ánwan (Hebrew `ánaw), bending oneself down, humble, meek, gentle.字窮人似乎代表著一個阿拉米文` ányâ (希伯來語` anî ) ,彎腰,折磨,悲慘的,惡劣的,而溫柔是相當別名兩岸同根, ` ánwan (希伯來語` ánaw ) ,彎曲自己,謙卑,溫柔,溫和的。 Some scholars would attach to the former word also the sense of humility; others think of "beggars before God" humbly acknowledging their need of Divine help.一些學者重視前者字也意識謙卑;他人認為"乞丐上帝面前"謙虛地承認,他們所需要的是神聖的幫助。 But the opposition of "rich" (Luke 6:24) points especially to the common and obvious meaning, which, however, ought not to be confined to economical need and distress, but may comprehend the whole of the painful condition of the poor: their low estate, their social dependence, their defenceless exposure to injustice from the rich and the mighty.但是反對黨的"富人" (盧克6時24分)分,尤其是共同而明顯的意義,因而,但是,不應該局限於經濟的需要和困擾,但可能理解整個慘痛的狀況,以及窮人:他們的低屋,他們的社會依賴性,他們手無寸鐵暴露不公,貧富浩蕩。 Besides the Lord's blessing, the promise of the heavenly kingdom is not bestowed on the actual external condition of such poverty.除了上帝的祝福,許諾的天國,是不是賜予的實際外部條件的,例如貧窮。 The blessed ones are the poor "in spirit", who by their free will are ready to bear for God's sake this painful and humble condition, even though at present they be actually rich and happy; while on the other hand, the really poor man may fall short of this poverty "in spirit".庇佑的是窮人" ,在精神" ,他們通過自己的自由意志,願意承受上帝的,為了這個痛苦和謙卑的條件,即使目前它們實際上就是豐富和快樂,而在另一方面,真正的窮人可能達不到這個貧窮的"精神" 。

Second Beatitude第二beatitude

Inasmuch as poverty is a state of humble subjection, the "poor in spirit", come near to the "meek", the subject of the second blessing.因為貧困是一個國家的卑微的屈從, "窮在精神" ,走近"溫柔" ,主題的第二個祝福。 The anawim, they who humbly and meekly bend themselves down before God and man, shall "inherit the land" and posses their inheritance in peace.該anawim ,他們低聲下氣地meekly河曲自己下來之前,人與上帝,應"繼承土地" ,並擁有自己的財產繼承在和平之中。 This is a phrase taken from Psalm 36:11, where it refers to the Promised Land of Israel, but here in the words of Christ, it is of course but a symbol of the Kingdom of Heaven, the spiritual realm of the Messiah.這是一個短語,從詩篇36:11 ,它是指應許之地的以色列,但在這裡,在基督的話,這當然只是象徵天國,精神境界的彌賽亞。 Not a few interpreters, however, understand "the earth".沒有數名口譯,不過,理解的"地球" 。 But they overlook the original meaning of Psalm 36:11, and unless, by a far-fetched expedient, they take the earth also to be a symbol of the Messianic kingdom, it will be hard to explain the possession of the earth in a satisfactory way.但它們忽略了原來的含義詩篇36:11 ,除非由一個十分牽強的權宜之計,它們採取的地球也將象徵著救世主的英國,就很難解釋藏在地球上一個滿意方式。

Third Beatitude第三beatitude

The "mourning" in the Third Beatitude is in Luke (6:25) opposed to laughter and similar frivolous worldly joy. "哀悼" ,在第三beatitude是在路加( 6時25分)反對笑聲和類似無聊世俗的歡樂。 Motives of mourning are not to be drawn from the miseries of a life of poverty, abjection, and subjection, which are the very blessings of verse 3, but rather from those miseries from which the pious man is suffering in himself and in others, and most of all the tremendous might of evil throughout the world.動機的莫寧是不會捲入,從苦難的生活貧困, abjection ,隸屬,這是非常幸福的韻文3 ,而是來自這些苦楚是從其中虔誠的人是痛苦,在自己和別人,最主要的巨大威力邪惡的整個世界。 To such mourners the Lord Jesus carries the comfort of the heavenly kingdom, "the consolation of Israel" (Luke 2:25) foretold by the prophets, and especially by the Book of Consolation of Isaias (11-16).這種悼念主耶穌背負舒適的天國, "安慰的以色列" (路加福音2時25分)預言由先知,特別是按本子辦事安慰的伊薩亞斯羅( 11-16 ) 。 Even the later Jews knew the Messiah by the name of Menahhem, Consoler.即使後來猶太人知道彌賽亞所名稱menahhem , consoler 。 These three blessings, poverty, abjection, and subjection are a commendation of what nowadays are called the passive virtues: abstinence and endurace, and the Eighth Beatitude (verse 10) leads us back again to the teaching.這三個祝福,貧窮, abjection ,並服從是一個表彰的是什麼,現在所謂的被動的美德:禁慾和endurace ,第八屆beatitude (新詩10 )導致我們再次回到教學。

Fourth Beatitude第四beatitude

The others, however, demand a more active behaviour.其他人,但是,需求更積極的行為。 First of all, "hunger and thirst" after justice: a strong and continuous desire of progress in religious and moral perfection, the reward of which will be the very fulfilment of the desire, the continuous growth in holiness.首先, "飢餓和乾渴"後,司法:一個強大和持續的願望,進步的宗教和道德完善,獎勵,其中將非常滿足的慾望,持續增長成聖。

Fifth Beatitude第五beatitude

From this interior desire a further step should be taken to acting to the works of "mercy", corporal and spiritual.從這個內部的慾望要進一步採取代理該項工程的"慈悲" ,體罰和精神。 Through these the merciful will obtain the Divine mercy of the Messianic kingdom, in this life and in the final judgment.通過這些仁慈的,將獲得神聖慈悲的救世主,英國,在這個生活中,在最後的判斷。 The wonderful fertility of the Church in works and institutions of corporal and spiritual mercy of every kind shows the prophetical sense, not to say the creative power, of this simple word of the Divine Teacher.奇妙的肥力教會在工程和機構的體罰和精神慈悲的每一種顯示prophetical意義上說,並不是說,創造能力,這個簡單的詞的神聖的老師。

Sixth Beatitude第六beatitude

According to biblical terminology, "cleanness of heart" (verse 8) cannot exclusively be found in interior chastity, nor even, as many scholars propose, in a genral purity of conscience, as opposed to the Levitical, or legal, purity required by the Scribes and Pharisees.據聖經中的術語, "潔淨的心" (詩8 )不能完全被發現,在內部貞潔,也不平坦,但正如許多學者提出,在一個genral純度的良心,作為反對以levitical ,或法律,純度要求的,由文士和法利賽。 At least the proper place of such a blessing does not seem to be between mercy (verse 7) and peacemaking (verse 9), nor after the apparently more far-reaching virtue of hunger and thirst after justice.至少在適當的地方,這樣的祝福,似乎並沒有與憐憫(韻文7 )和締造和平(新詩九) ,也沒有後顯然更深遠的美德,飢餓和乾渴之後,正義。 But frequently in the Old and New Testaments (Genesis 20:5; Job 33:3, Psalms 23:4 (24:4) and 72:1 (73:1); 1 Timothy 1:5; 2 Timothy 2:22) the "pure heart" is the simple and sincere good intention, the "single eye" of Matthew 6:22, and thus opposed to the unavowed by-ends of the Pharisees (Matthew 6:1-6, 16-18; 7:15; 23:5-7, 14) This "single eye" or "pure heart" is most of all required in the works of mercy (verse 7) and zeal (verse 9) in behalf of one's neighbor.但經常在舊約及新約(創20時05分;求職33:3 ,詩篇23時04分( 24:4 )和72:1 ( 73:1 ) , 1蒂莫西1:5 ;提摩太2時22分) "純心"是一種樸素和真誠的,用意是好的, "單只眼"的馬太6時22分,並因此反對把unavowed由兩端的法利(馬太6:1-6 , 16-18 ; 7 : 15 ; 23:5-7 , 14 ) ,這"單只眼"或"純心" ,大部分都需要在工程的憐憫(韻文7 )和熱情(新詩九)在代表一個人的鄰居。 And it stands to reason that the blessing, promised to this continuous looking for God's glory, should consist of the supernatural "seeing" of God Himself, the last aim and end of the heavenly kingdom in its completion.這是合乎道理的祝福,承諾要不斷尋找上帝的榮耀,應包括超自然"百聞不如一見"的上帝,最後的目的和歸宿的天國,在完成的。

Seventh Beatitude第七屆beatitude

The "peacemakers" (verse 9) are those who not only live in peace with others but moreover do their best to preserve peace and friendship among mankind and between God and man, and to restore it when it has been disturbed. "和平締造者" (新詩九) ,是那些不僅生活在和平與他人,但同時盡最大努力去維護和平和友誼,為人類之間和人與上帝,並恢復它的時候,它一直受困擾。 It is on account of this godly work, "an imitating of God's love of man" as St. Gregory of Nyssa styles it, that they shall be called the sons of God, "children of your Father who is in heaven" (Matthew 5:45).這是考慮到這一神聖工作" ,是一個模仿的天主的愛的人" ,作為聖格雷戈里的nyssa風格,即它們應被稱為神的兒子, "孩子,你的父親是誰在天國" (馬太五日: 45 ) 。

Eighth Beatitude第八屆beatitude

When after all this the pious disciples of Christ are repaid with ingratitude and even "persecution" (verse 10) it will be but a new blessing, "for theirs is the kingdom of heaven."當畢竟這是虔誠的弟子基督的償還與ingratitude ,甚至被"迫害" (新詩10 ) ,它會,而是一個新的祝福" ,是他們的天國"

So, by an inclusion, not uncommon in biblical poetry, the last blessing goes back to the first and the second.因此,由一個包容,而不是罕見,在聖經詩歌,最後祝福源遠流長,早在第一次和第二次。 The pious, whose sentiments and desires whose works and sufferings are held up before us, shall be blessed and happy by their share in the Messianic kingdom, here and hereafter.該虔誠,他們的情緒和慾望,其作品和痛苦都舉行了擺在我們面前的,應予以祝福和快樂,他們的份額在救世主英國,在這裡和來世。 And viewed in the intermediate verses seem to express, in partial images of the one endless beatitude, the same possession of the Messianic salvation.並認為在中間小詩,似乎表示,在局部圖像的一個無休止beatitude ,同時擁有救世主的救贖。 The eight conditions required constitute the fundamental law of the kingdom, the very pith and marrow of Christian perfection. 8所需要的條件,構成了基本的法律王國,非常髓部和骨髓的基督教和完善。 For its depth and breadth of thought, and its practical bearing on Christian life, the passage may be put on a level with the Decalogue in the Old, and the Lord's Prayer in the New Testament, and it surpassed both in its poetical beauty of structure.其深度和廣度的思想,其實際意義上的基督徒的生活,通過可放到了一個層面與十誡在養老,主禱文,在新約聖經,它超越了雙方在其詩歌之美,結構。

Publication information Written by John P. Van Kasteren.出版信息書面約翰頁範kasteren 。 Transcribed by Beth Ste-Marie.轉錄由什麼您-馬里。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全書,第二卷。 Published 1907. 1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, 1907. nihil obstat , 1907 。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

Besides the commentaries on St. Matthew and St. Luke, and the monographs on the Sermon on the Mount, the Beatitudes are treated in eight homilies of ST.除了評聖馬修和聖盧克和專著山上寶訓, beatitudes對待,在8個頌歌聖。 GREGORY OF NYSSA, PG, XLIV, 1193-1302, and in one other of ST.格雷戈里的nyssa ,編號,四十四, 1193年至1302年,並在另一名聖。 CHROMATIUS, PL, XX, 323-328. chromatius ,特等,第二十條, 323-328 。 Different partristical sermons on single beatitudes are noticed in PL., CXXI (Index IV) 23 sqq.不同partristical說教單beatitudes都注意到,在特等, cxxi (指數四) 23 sqq 。


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