Ulrich Zwingli烏爾里希茨溫利

Huldrych Zwingli Huldrych茨溫利

General Information 一般信息

Ulrich (Huldreich) Zwingli, b.烏爾里希( Huldreich )茨溫利灣 Jan. 1, 1484, d. 1484年1月1日, d. Oct. 11, 1531, was a leader of the Swiss Reformation. 1531年10月11日,是一個領導者,瑞士宗教改革。 The son of a prosperous peasant, Zwingli studied music, scholastic philosophy, and humanistic subjects in Vienna, Bern, and Basel.的兒子,一個繁榮的農民,茨溫利學習音樂,學習哲學,人文學科在維也納,伯爾尼,巴塞爾。 He became a priest in Glarus (1506 - 16) and accompanied Swiss mercenary troops as chaplain on various Italian campaigns, becoming convinced that the mercenary system was a great evil.他成為一名牧師在格拉洛斯( 1506至1516年) ,並陪同瑞士僱傭軍部隊牧師意大利的各種宣傳活動,成為深信,僱傭軍系統是一個偉大的罪惡。 From Glarus, Zwingli went to Einsiedeln as parish pastor, where he continued his studies of the Bible, church fathers, and the classics.從格拉洛斯,茨溫利前往艾因西德倫作為教區的牧師,他在那裡繼續他的研究聖經,教會的父親,和經典之作。 He was strongly influenced by Desiderius Erasmus in favor of church reform.他強烈影響伊拉斯謨贊成教會改革。

In 1519, Zwingli began his duties as the people's priest of the Grand Minster in Zurich, where he preached powerful sermons based on the Scriptures, denounced the mercenary trade, dropped his own papal subsidy, and attacked ecclesiastical abuses. Trouble developed with the bishop of Constance in 1522 when several of Zwingli's associates ate meat on a fast day. Moreover, Zwingli married and thus broke his priestly vow of celibacy.在1519年,茨溫利開始了他的職責人民的神父大大教堂在蘇黎世,在那裡他鼓吹功能強大的說教基於聖經,譴責僱傭軍的貿易,放棄了自己的教皇的補貼,並攻擊教會的侵犯。故障開發的主教康斯在1522年時,幾個茨溫利的同夥吃的肉快一天。此外,茨溫利結婚,從而打破了祭司立下的獨身。 In 1524 iconoclasts removed religious statuary from the church, and the next year the Catholic mass was replaced with a Zwinglian communion using both bread and wine as symbols of Christ's body and blood.在1524 iconoclasts宗教雕像移走從教堂,並在明年的天主教彌撒取代了Zwinglian共融使用麵包和酒的象徵基督的身體和血液。 Zwingli's Sixty - seven Articles (1523) for disputation became a basic doctrinal document for the Swiss reformed church.茨溫利的60 -7條( 1 523年)的爭論成為一個基本的理論文件,改革瑞士教會。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
Zwingli was active in extending the reform to other Swiss cities, such as Basel, Sankt Gallen, and Bern.茨溫利積極擴大改革瑞士其他城市,如巴塞爾,聖加侖,和伯爾尼。 He was involved in controversy not just with Catholic opponents, but also with the Lutheran reformers because he denied Christ's real presence in any form in the Eucharist.他參與了爭議不僅僅與天主教的對手,而且還與信義的改革者,因為他否認基督的真實存在任何形式的聖體。 The effort to reconcile the views of Zwingli and Luther at the Colloquy of Marburg (1529) failed. Zwingli also opposed the Anabaptists in Zurich who rejected infant baptism.努力調和的意見茨溫利和海德在座談會馬爾堡( 1529年)失敗。茨溫利也反對在蘇黎世Anabaptists誰拒絕嬰兒的洗禮。 He was killed on the battlefield of Kappel in 1531 when the Catholic cantons of southern Switzerland attacked Zurich.他被打死在戰場上的卡普爾在1531時,天主教縣南部襲擊瑞士蘇黎世。

Lewis W Spitz劉易斯W施皮茨

Bibliography 目錄
O Farner, Zwingli, The Reformer: His Life and Work (1952); SM Jackson, Huldreich Zwingli, The Reformer of German Switzerland (1901); GR Potter, Zwingli (1976); WP Stephens, The Theology of Huldrych Zwingli (1985); RC Walton, Zwingli's Theocracy (1967). ö Farner ,茨溫利,重整:他的生活和工作( 1952 ) ;釤傑克遜, Huldreich茨溫利,重整德國瑞士( 1901年) ;受體哈利波特,運理( 1976年) ;可濕性粉劑斯蒂芬斯,神學Huldrych茨溫利( 1985 ) ;鋼筋混凝土沃爾頓,茨溫利的神( 1967年) 。


Ulrich Zwingli烏爾里希茨溫利

General Information 一般信息

Introduction導言

Huldreich Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531), was a Swiss theologian, leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. Huldreich茨溫利或烏爾里希茨溫利( 1484年至1531年) ,是一個瑞士神學家,領導人在瑞士的改革。

Zwingli was born on January 1, 1484, in Wildhaus, Sankt Gallen. He was educated at the universities of Vienna and Basel.茨溫利出生於1484年1月1日,在Wildhaus ,聖加侖。受過教育的他在大學的維也納和巴塞爾。

Early Influences早期的影響

During his formative years, Zwingli was deeply influenced by the spirit of liberal humanism.在成立初期,茨溫利了深刻的影響,精神的自由人文主義。 In 1506 he was ordained and assigned to the town of Glarus as a parish priest.在1506年,他被任命並分配給鎮格拉洛斯作為一個教區牧師。 Glarus then was well known as a center for recruiting mercenary soldiers for Europe's armies. On two occasions Zwingli served as chaplain with Glarus troops during bloody fighting on foreign soil, and these experiences led him to denounce the mercenary system publicly.格拉洛斯然後是眾所周知的為中心招募僱傭兵歐洲的軍隊。兩次茨溫利擔任牧師與格拉洛斯部隊在血腥戰鬥在外國的土地上,這些經驗使他譴責僱傭軍制度公開。 In retaliation certain town officials conspired to make his position at Glarus untenable. In 1516 he accepted an appointment at Einsiedeln, southeast of Zürich.為了報復某鎮官員合謀,使他的位置上格拉洛斯站不住腳的。在1516年,他接受了任命艾因西德倫,東南部的蘇黎世。

During his ministry at Einsiedeln, Zwingli began to entertain doubts about certain church practices.他在艾因西德倫部,茨溫利開始受理懷疑某些教會的做法。 In 1516 he read a Latin translation of the Greek New Testament published by the Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus, which he later transcribed into notebooks and memorized verbatim.在1516年,他宣讀了拉丁美洲翻譯的希臘新約全書出版的荷蘭人文主義者伊拉斯謨,後來他轉錄到筆記本電腦和逐字背誦。 On the basis of these and other scriptural readings, Zwingli charged in sermons that church teachings and practice had diverged widely from the simple Christianity of the Holy Writ. Among the practices cited by Zwingli as unscriptural were the adoration of saints and relics, promises of miraculous cures, and church abuses of the indulgence system.在此基礎上和其他聖經讀,茨溫利收取的教堂布道的教義和做法偏離了廣泛的從簡單的基督教的聖經。中提到的做法作為unscriptural茨溫利的崇拜的聖人和遺跡,神奇的承諾治療方法,並教會濫用沉迷系統。 His forthright affirmations of scriptural authority won him wide popular repute, and on January 1, 1519, he was appointed priest at the Gross Münster (German, "Great Cathedral") in Zürich.他直率肯定的聖經權威為他贏得廣泛流行的聲譽,以及1519年1月1日,他被任命為牧師在明斯特總值(德國, “偉大的大教堂” )在蘇黎世。

Adoption of the Reformation通過改革

Zürich was a center of humanist belief, with a tradition of state limitation on the temporal power of the church. Zwingli quickly attracted large audiences to the cathedral by expounding the original Greek and Hebrew Scriptures chapter by chapter and book by book, beginning with the Gospel of Matthew. These oral translations of the original Scriptures broke sharply with church tradition. Previously priests had based their sermons on interpretations of the Vulgate and on the writings of the Fathers of the Church. In 1519 an admirer placed a printing press at the reformer's disposal, and his bold new ideas spread far beyond the confines of Zürich.蘇黎世是一個中心的人文主義者認為,與傳統的國家限制的時間權力的教堂。 茨溫利迅速吸引了大批觀眾大教堂的闡述了原來的希臘文和希伯來文聖經逐章和書籍的書,開始福音的馬修。這些口頭翻譯佛經的原始急劇爆發與教會的傳統。此前曾牧師布道基礎上解釋的拉丁文聖經和著作的父親教會。在1519年的崇拜者放在印刷機上的改革者的處置,他大膽的新想法遠遠超出了傳播的局限蘇黎世。

During the same year Zwingli read for the first time the writings of his contemporary, Martin Luther. Heartened by Luther's stand against the German hierarchy, Zwingli in 1520 persuaded the Zürich council to forbid all religious teachings without foundation in the Scriptures. Among these teachings was the church stricture against eating meat during Lent.在同一年茨溫利閱讀,這是首次在他的著作當代,馬丁路德。 鼓舞路德的立場,對德國層次,茨溫利在1520年蘇黎世說服安理會禁止所有宗教教義沒有基礎的聖經。其中的教義是狹窄的教堂對吃肉四旬期期間。 In 1522 a group of his followers deliberately broke the rule and were arrested. Zwingli vigorously defended the lawbreakers, who were released with token punishment.在1522年的一組他的追隨者故意打破了統治和被逮捕。茨溫利有力地捍衛了不法分子,誰被釋放象徵性的懲罰。

Pope Adrian VI, angered by Zwingli's behavior, then forbade him the pulpit and asked the Zürich council to repudiate him as a heretic.亞德六,憤怒茨溫利的行為,然後不准他講道,並要求安理會蘇黎世拒絕他是一個邪教。 In January 1523, Zwingli appeared before the council to defend himself.在1523年1月,茨溫利出現在安理會面前為自己辯護。 He asserted the supremacy of the Holy Writ over church dogma, attacked the worship of images, relics, and saints, and denounced the sacramental view of the Eucharist and enforced celibacy as well.他聲稱至高無上的聖經的教會的教條,攻擊朝拜的圖片,文物,和聖人,並譴責聖禮鑑於聖和執行以及獨身。 After deliberation, the council upheld Zwingli by withdrawing the Zürich canton from the jurisdiction of the bishop of Constance; it also affirmed its previous ban against preachings not founded on the Scriptures. By taking these steps the council officially adopted the Reformation. Zwingli in 1524 marked his new status by marrying Anna Reinhard, a widow with whom he had lived openly.經過討論後,議會堅持茨溫利撤回的蘇黎世州的管轄範圍之內的康斯坦茨主教,它也肯定其以往禁止preachings不成立的聖經。 通過採取這些步驟,安理會正式通過了改造。茨溫利在1524年顯著他的新地位萊因哈德安娜結婚,一個寡婦與他住公開。

Under the Reformation, Zürich became a theocracy ruled by Zwingli and a Christian magistrate.根據這項改革,蘇黎世成為一個神權統治茨溫利和基督教裁判官。 Sweeping reforms were instituted, among them the conversion of monasteries into hospitals, the removal of religious images, and the elimination of Mass and confession. Eventually Zwingli taught that devout Christians have need of neither pope nor church.大刀闊斧的改革被提起,其中包括轉換到寺廟醫院,消除宗教圖像,並消除質量和懺悔。最終茨溫利告訴我們,有虔誠的基督徒既不需要也不教皇教堂。

Conflicts Among Protestants新教徒之間的衝突

During 1525 a radical Protestant group called the Anabaptists challenged Zwingli's rule.在1525新教激進組織稱為Anabaptists挑戰茨溫利的統治。 In a disputation, however, held before the council on the following January 2, Zwingli defeated the Anabaptists, whose leaders were then banished from Zürich.在爭論,但之前舉行的理事會對下列1月2日,茨溫利擊敗Anabaptists ,其領導人當時從蘇黎世流放。

In 1529 friends of Martin Luther and Zwingli, concerned over doctrinal and political differences that had developed between the two Protestant leaders, arranged a meeting between them.在1529年的朋友馬丁路德和茨溫利,關注理論和政治上的分歧已發展兩國之間的新教領導人,安排了它們之間的會議。 At this meeting, held in Marburg an der Lahn and known since as the Marburg Colloquy, Luther and Zwingli clashed over the question of consubstantiation versus transubstantiation, and the conference failed to reconcile the two leaders.在這次會議上,舉行了馬爾堡河畔的拉恩和已知的,因為馬爾堡座談會,路德和茨溫利衝突的問題consubstantiation與transubstantiation ,並在會議未能調和這兩位領導人。

Meanwhile, Zwingli carried his crusade to cantons other than Zürich.與此同時,茨溫利進行他的十字軍東征,以縣以外的蘇黎世。 In all, six cantons were converted to the Reformation. The remaining five, known as the Forest Cantons, remained staunchly Catholic.總之,六個縣被轉換的改革。其餘5個,稱為森林縣里,仍然堅定地天主教。 The antagonisms between Catholic and Protestant cantons created a serious split within the Swiss confederation.之間的對抗天主教和新教各州造成了嚴重的分裂瑞士的邦聯。

End of the Swiss Reformation為此,瑞士宗教改革

In 1529 the hostility between the cantons flared into open civil war.在1529年的敵意各州之間爆發為公開的內戰。 On October 10, 1531, Zwingli, acting as chaplain and standard-bearer for the Protestant forces, was wounded at Kappel am Albis and later put to death by the victorious troops of the Forest Cantons.在1531年一十〇月一十〇日,茨溫利,作為牧師和旗手的基督教勢力,在受傷時阿爾比斯卡普爾,後來把死刑的部隊勝利森林縣。 After Zwingli's death the Reformation made no further headway in Switzerland; the country is still half Catholic, half Protestant.經過茨溫利的死亡改革沒有做進一步的進展,瑞士;該國仍然是半天主教,基督教的一半。

Rev. Reinhold Niebuhr牧師萊因霍爾德尼布爾


Ulrich Zwingli (1484 - 1531)烏爾里希茨溫利( 1484年至1531年)

Advanced Information 先進的信息

After Luther and Calvin, Zwingli was the most important early Protestant reformer.在路德和加爾文,茨溫利是最重要的早期新教改革者。 Zwingli was born in Wildhaus, St. Gall, Switzerland, and showed early promise in education.茨溫利出生於Wildhaus ,聖加爾,瑞士,表明早期教育的承諾。 He studied at Berne and Vienna before matriculating at the University of Basel, where he was captivated by humanistic studies.他研究了在伯爾尼和維也納之前matriculating巴塞爾大學,他在那裡被迷住的人文研究。 At Basel he also came under the influence of reformer Thomas Wyttenbach, who encouraged him in the directions that would eventually lead to his belief in the sole authority of Scripture and in justification by grace through faith alone.在巴塞爾,他也受到影響的改革者托馬斯Wyttenbach ,誰鼓勵他的方向,最終將導致他的信仰的唯一權威的聖經和理由的寬限期僅通過信仰。 Zwingli was ordained a Catholic priest and served parishes in Glarus (1506 - 16) and Einsiedeln (1516 - 18) until called to be the people's (or preaching) priest at the Great Minister in Zurich.茨溫利被祝聖的天主教神父,並在格拉洛斯堂( 1506年至1516年)和艾因西德倫( 1516年至1518年) ,直到要求得到人民群眾的(或說教)神父在大部長在蘇黎世。

Sometime around 1516, after diligent study in Erasmus's Greek NT and after long wrestling with the moral problem of sensuality, he experienced an evangelical breakthrough, much like Luther was experiencing at about the same time. 1516年左右,在勤奮學習的伊拉斯謨的希臘NT和摔跤經過長期的道德問題的肉感,他經歷了福音的突破,就像路德正經歷大約在同一時間。 This turned him even more wholeheartedly to the Scriptures, and it also made him hostile to the medieval system of penance and relics, which he attacked in 1518.這使他更加全心全意地聖經,也使他敵對的中世紀制度的懺悔和文物,其中他在1518年襲擊。 One of the great moments of the Reformation occurred early in 1519 when Zwingli began his service in Zurich by announcing his intention to preach exegetical sermons beginning with the Gospel of Matthew.一個偉大的時刻發生的改革在1519年年初時,茨溫利開始了他的服務在蘇黎世宣布,他打算鼓吹訓詁的說教開始,馬太福音。 In the final decade of his life he shepherded Zurich to its declaration for reform (1523).在最後十年的生命,他帶領蘇黎世其聲明的改革( 1523 ) 。 He wrote numerous tracts and aided in the composition of confessions to promote the course of the Reformation (eg, the Ten Theses of Berne, 1528); he established solid relationships with other Swiss reformers, including Oecolampadius in Basel; he inspired and then broke with the rising Anabaptist movement; and he had a momentous disagreement with Luther over the Lord's Supper (expressed most sharply at the Colloquy of Marburg in 1529).他寫了許多傳單和計算機輔助組成的口供,以促進課程改革(例如, 10論文伯爾尼, 1528 ) ;他建立牢固的關係,與其他瑞士的改革者,其中包括在巴塞爾Oecolampadius ;他的啟發,然後打破再洗禮派的上升運動;和他有一個重大分歧路德的上帝的晚餐(表示最大幅度在座談會馬爾堡在1529年) 。 Zwingli lost his life while serving as a chaplain to Zurich troops engaged in warfare with other Swiss cantons.茨溫利失去生命,而作為一個牧師蘇黎世部隊在戰爭中從事與其他瑞士各州。

Zwingli's Protestantism was a more rationalistic and biblicistic variation of Luther's theology.茨溫利的新教,是一個更加理性和biblicistic變化路德的神學。 His discussions with German Protestants about the Lord's Supper led him to doubt Luther's belief in a sacramental real presence of Christ in Communion, and even Martin Bucer's belief in a real spiritual presence, in favor of a nearly memorialistic view.他與德國新教的上帝的晚餐,他懷疑路德的信念聖禮實際存在的基督的共融,甚至馬丁布塞珥相信一個真正的精神存在,取而代之的是近memorialistic看法。 To Zwingli the Lord's Supper was primarily an occasion to remember the benefits purchased by Christ's death.為了茨溫利的上帝的晚餐主要是一個紀念的好處購買了基督的死亡。 In his approach to theology and practice Zwingli looked for strict and specific scriptural warrant, even through this led him into embarrassment when early Anabaptists demanded proof texts for the practice of infant baptism.在他的辦法,神學和實踐茨溫利期待嚴格和具體的聖經手令,即使通過這一導致他到年初時的尷尬Anabaptists要求的證明文件的做法,嬰兒的洗禮。 Zwingli's strict adherence to the Bible led him in 1527 to remove the organ from the Great Minister, since Scripture nowhere mandated its use in worship (and this in spite of the fact that Zwingli was an accomplished musician who otherwise encouraged musical expression).茨溫利的嚴格遵守聖經使他在1527年消除機關從大部長,因為聖經沒有授權其使用的禮拜(這儘管這一事實,即茨溫利是一個多才多藝的音樂家誰鼓勵其他音樂表現) 。 He was strongly predestinarian in his theology, but did not display the consummate sense of Scripture's thematic relationships which Calvin employed in the discussion of election.他強烈predestinarian在他的神學,但沒有顯示完善的聖經的主題卡爾文關係,其中僱用的討論選舉。

Zwingli had no qualms in seeking reform through the authority of the Zurich council.茨溫利沒有疑慮,尋求改革的權威,蘇黎世理事會。 Even after his death the Zurich city government under his successor, Heinrich Bullinger, exercised a dominant role in church affairs.即使他去世後,蘇黎世市政府根據他的繼任者,海因里希布凌格,發揮了主導作用在教會事務。 This model of churchstate relations eventually appealed to England's Queen Elizabeth, even as reformers Calvin and John Knox fought for the autonomy of the church over its own affairs這種模式的關係,最終churchstate呼籲英國女王伊麗莎白二世,即使改革者卡爾文和約翰諾克斯爭取自治的教會對自己的事務

Zwingli's noble character, his firm commitment to scriptural authority, and his diligent propagation of evangelical reform, even more than his writings, marked him as one of the Reformation's most appealing leaders.茨溫利的崇高品格,他的堅定承諾,聖經權威,他的勤奮和傳播福音改革甚至超過他的著作,標誌著他作為一個改革的最吸引人的領導人。

Mark A Noll標誌著諾爾
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
GW Bromiley, ed., Zwingli and Bullinger; GR Potter, Zwingli; GR Potter, ed., Huldrych Zwingli; O Farner, Huldrych Zwingli; C Carside, Zwingli and the Fine Arts.毛重Bromiley ,編輯。 ,茨溫利和布凌格;受體哈利波特,茨溫利;受體哈利波特,編輯。 , Huldrych茨溫利; ö Farner , Huldrych茨溫利; ç Carside ,茨溫利和美術。


Ulrich Zwingli烏爾里希茨溫利

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(Also, Huldreich) (另外, Huldreich )

Founder of the Reformation in Switzerland, born at Wildhaus in Switzerland, 1 January, 1484; died 11 October, 1531.方正改革在瑞士,在Wildhaus出生在瑞士, 1484年1月1日;死於1531年十月十一日。 Zwingli came from a prominent family of the middle classes, and was the third of eight sons.茨溫利來自望族的中產階級,是三分之一的八個兒子。 His father Ulrich was a district official of the little town of Wildhaus, and a cousin of his mother, Margaret Meili, was abbot of the Benedictine monastery in Fischingen in Thurgau. A brother of the elder Zwingli, Bartholomew, was pastor of Wildhaus until 1487, but then became pastor and dean of Wesen on the Walensee.烏爾里希,他的父親是一個地區官員的小城鎮的Wildhaus ,以及他的堂弟的母親,瑪格麗特美麗,是住持的本篤會修道院Fischingen在高州。一個兄弟老茨溫利,巴塞洛繆,是牧師Wildhaus ,直到1487年,但後來成為牧師和院長本質上Walensee 。 Zwingli received his early education at Wesen under the guidance of this uncle, by whom he was sent, at the age of ten, to Gregory Bunzli of Wesen who was studying at Basle and also teaching in the school of St. Theodore, which Zwingli henceforth attended.茨溫利接受早期教育在本質的指導下,這個叔叔,由他發出,在10歲以下,以格雷戈里Bunzli的本質誰是就讀於巴塞爾和教學的學校,聖西奧多,其中茨溫利從此出席了會議。 For his higher studies he went to Berne, whither the celebrated Swiss Humanist Schuler was attracting many students for Classical studies.他高等學業他前往伯爾尼,何處著名的瑞士人文舒勒是吸引了許多學生的經典研究。 Zwingli's name is entered on the roll of the University of Vienna for the winter term of 1498-99, but he was excluded from the university.茨溫利的名字是進入上推出的維也納大學的冬季學期的1498年至1499年,但他排除在大學。 The reason for his exclusion is unknown.原因是他的排斥不明。 Zwingli appears, however, to have overcome the difficulty, for he was again matriculated in 1500.茨溫利出現,然而,克服了困難,因為他再次在一五零零年錄取。 Two years later he returned to Basle, where, among others, Thomas Wyttenbach encouraged him to devote himself to the serious study of theology.兩年後,他回到巴塞爾,在那裡,除其他外,托馬斯Wyttenbach鼓勵他獻身的認真研究神學。 In 1506 he completed his studies and received the degree of Master of Theology.他在1506年完成他的學業並獲得碩士學位的神學。 Shortly before his graduation the parish of Glarus had selected him as its pastor, although he had not yet been ordained priest.不久之前,他的畢業堂格拉洛斯已經選定他為牧師,但他尚未晉鐸。 Apart from his exclusion from the University of Vienna, his student life presents no unusual features, though his later friends and followers relate much that is laudatory about this period.除了他排除在維也納大學,他的學生生活提出了不尋常的功能,儘管他後來的朋友和追隨者涉及許多讚美這是有關這一時期。 His studies at Berne, Vienna, and Basle, where Humanism was eagerly cultivated, made Zwingli one of its zealous supporters.他的研究在伯爾尼,維也納和巴塞爾,在那裡被人急切地栽培,取得茨溫利一個熱心的支持者。

As pastor of Glarus from 1506 to 1516, the continuation of his humanistic studies was one of Zwingli's chief occupations.作為牧師格拉洛斯一五○六年至1516年,他繼續進行他的人文研究是一個茨溫利的主要職業。 He studied Greek, read the Classics and the Fathers of the Church, and entered into familiar intercourse with the Humanists of the time, especially with Heinrich Loriti (Glareanus), Erasmus, and Vadian.他研究希臘文,讀經和父親的教會,進入熟悉的交往與人文主義的時間,特別是與海因里希Loriti ( Glareanus ) ,伊拉斯謨,並Vadian 。 He also engaged in teaching, and the later chroniclers Aegidius and Valentine Tschudi were his pupils.他還從事教學,以及後來編年史Aegidius和情人楚迪是他的學生。 In public life he was chiefly conspicuous for his political activity, in this respect following the example of many ecclesiastics of his day.在公共生活中,他主要是顯眼,他的政治活動,在這方面仿效許多教區,他一天。 In the Italian campaigns of 1513 and 1515, when the Swiss won the victories of Novara and Marignan, he acted as army chaplain. His earliest literary attempts -- the rhymed fables of the ox (about 1510), "De Gestis inter Gallos et Helvetios relatio" (1512), "The Labyrinth" (1516?) -- are all concerned with politics.在意大利運動1513和1515 ,當瑞士贏得了勝利諾瓦拉和Marignan ,他擔任軍隊牧師。他最早的文學嘗試-寓言的押韻的牛(約1 510) , “德G estis間蓋洛等H elvetios relatio “ ( 1512年) , ”迷宮“ ( 1516 ? ) -都與政治有關。 These works, which reveal Zwingli as the devoted adherent and champion of the papal party, won him the friendship of the powerful Swiss cardinal Matthew Schinner and an annual pension of fifty gulden from the pope.這些作品,這表明茨溫利的專門貼和冠軍教皇黨,為他贏得的友誼強大的瑞士基數Schinner馬修和年度養老金50頓的教宗。 So zealously indeed did he then espouse the cause of the pope that his position in Glarus became untenable when the French party became predominant there in 1516.因此,極力確實然後他信奉的事業,教皇,他的立場是站不住腳的格拉洛斯時,法國黨成為佔主導地位,在1516年。 Diebold von Geroldseck, the administrator and sole conventual in the Benedictine monastery at Einsiedeln, entrusted him with the position of a secular priest there, and at the end of 1516 Zwingli left Glarus.迪博爾德馮Geroldseck ,管理員和唯一的conventual在本篤修道院在艾因西德倫,委託他的立場,一個世俗的牧師,並在1516年底離開格拉洛斯茨溫利。

As secular priest at Einsiedeln, the celebrated place of pilgrimage for Switzerland and South Germany, Zwingli's chief office was that of preacher.由於世俗的牧師在艾因西德倫,著名的朝聖地的瑞士和德國南部,茨溫利長辦公室的佈道者。 For the fulfilment of this task he devoted himself to the study of Holy Writ, copied the Epistles of St. Paul, and learned Hebrew, but did not meanwhile neglect the Classics, a fact which won him flattering praise from the Humanists.為完成這項任務,他投身於研究聖經,複製書信的聖保羅,並學到希伯來文,但沒有同時忽視了經典,這為他贏得讚美恭維的人文主義。 Erasmus was keenly aware of the laxity of ecclesiastical life (the abuses in external worship, the degeneracy of a large proportion of the clergy), and rightly agitated a reform within the Church, impressing its necessity on the ecclesiastical authorities.伊拉斯謨敏銳地意識到了鬆懈的教會生活(虐待的外部崇拜,對簡並了很大比例的神職人員) ,並正確地激動了改革的教會,其必要性留下深刻印象的教會當局。 Zwingli worked in the same spirit at Einsiedeln from 1516 to 1518.茨溫利工作本著同樣的精神在艾因西德倫1516年至1518年。 In disputing Luther's priority, Zwingli later claimed (and most historians have supported his claim) that while at Einsiedeln he already preached against the old Faith.在爭執路德的優先事項,茨溫利後來聲稱(和大多數歷史學家都支持他的索賠) ,雖然在艾因西德倫鼓吹他已經對舊的信仰。 His claim is, however, negatived by the facts that he continued to draw his pension, that at the end of 1518, at his own petition, he was appointed by the pope acolyte chaplain of the Roman See (cf. the document in "Analecta reformatoria", I, 98), and that his friendly intercourse with Cardinal Schinner still continued when he was engaged at Zurich in 1519.他要求,但遭否決的事實,他繼續利用他的退休金,這在1518年年底,在他自己的請願書,他被任命為教皇的徒弟牧師羅馬教廷(參見文件“ Analecta reformatoria “ ,我98 ) ,他的友好交往與紅衣主教Schinner仍在繼續時,他是在蘇黎世進行的1519年。

Towards the end of 1518, when the post of secular preacher at Münster became vacant, Zwingli applied for the vacancy at the invitation of Oswald Myconius (a friend of his youth), who was engaged as teacher in the monastery school of that place.對1518年年底,當時的職位在世俗的佈道者明斯特出現空缺,茨溫利用於空缺的邀請奧斯瓦爾德Myconius (一個朋友,他的青年) ,誰是從事教師在修道院學校的那個地方。 Like many other clerics, Zwingli was suspected of offences against celibacy.如同許多其他神職人員,茨溫利涉嫌違反獨身生活。 These reports, which were current even in Zurich, made his position there difficult.這些報告,這是目前即使在蘇黎世,他的立場有困難。 When his friend Myconius questioned him on this point Zwingli wrote from Einsiedeln that it was not, as had been asserted, a respectable girl, but a common strumpet with whom he had been intimate.當他的朋友Myconius向他詢問關於這一點茨溫利從艾因西德倫寫道,這是不是象已經斷言,一個體面的女孩,但一個共同的strumpet與他親密了。 His friends in Zurich succeeded in suppressing these reports, and on 11 Dec., 1518, the chapter elected Zwingli by a great majority.他的朋友在蘇黎世成功地制止這些報告,並就1518年12月11號,該章當選茨溫利了絕大多數。 He was then thirty-five years old, "in body a handsome and vigorous person, fairly tall, and of a friendly aspect".然後,他被三五年歲, “在一個英俊的機構和有力的人,相當高,一個友好的方面” 。 In his intercourse with others he was an agreeable companion, of pleasant address and gay temperament, a good singer and musician, and a skilled orator.他在與他人交往,他是一個愉快的同伴,在愉快的地址和同性戀氣質,一個好的歌手和音樂家,並熟練的演說家。 Accused by his contemporaries of no slight moral offences, he made no attempt to clear himself of the charges.指控他的同時代人沒有道德的罪行輕微,他沒有試圖明確自己的指控。 As a scholar he was a Humanist rather than a theologian. Under the influence of Erasmus, he saw clearly the defects of ecclesiastical life, but could not himself claim to be spotless, and his talents led him to engage rather in disputes concerning secular affairs than to devote himself to clerical reforms.作為一名學者,他是一個人文主義者,而不是神學。的影響下伊拉斯謨,他看到明確的缺陷教會的生活,但不能聲稱自己是一塵不染,他的才華使他在從事,而有關的爭端比世俗事務投身文書改革。 So far he had no intention of introducing doctrinal innovations; such an idea occurred to him first in Zurich after 1519.到目前為止,他無意引入的理論創新;這種想法發生在他第一次在蘇黎世後, 1519年。 Luther had already hung up his ninety-five theses against indulgences at the church of the castle in Wittenberg, 31 Oct., 1517.路德已經掛了他的95篇indulgences對在教堂的城堡維滕貝格, 1517年10月31日。

On 1 January, 1519, Zwingli preached for the first time in the cathedral at Zurich.在1519年1月1日,茨溫利鼓吹首次在蘇黎世大教堂。 He began with the exposition of the Bible, taking first the Gospel of St.他開始與世博聖經,首先考慮的福音街 Matthew, and by going back to the sources showed himself especially a Humanist.馬修,並回到來源表明自己是一位人道主義者。 Of doctrinal innovation he had still scarcely any thought.理論創新,他仍幾乎沒有任何思想。 Even his stand against the indulgence preacher, Bernhardin Sanson, at the beginning of 1519, was taken with the consent of the Bishop of Constance.連他的立場,反對傳教士的放縱, Bernhardin桑松,在1519年初,被帶到徵得康斯坦茨主教。 The transformation of Zwingli the Humanist and politician into a teacher of the new faith was faciliated by the ecclesiastical and political conditions of the people and public authorities at Zurich and in Switzerland in general.轉變茨溫利的人文和政治家教師成為一個新的信仰是促進了教會和政治條件的人和公共當局在蘇黎世,在瑞士一般。 The populace displayed great religious zeal externally, eg, in pious foundations and pilgrimages.民眾表現出極大的宗教熱情外部,例如,在虔誠的基礎和朝聖。 This zeal, however, was insufficient to counteract the decay of morals, which resulted especially from the mercenary army system.這種熱情,但不足以抵消衰減道德,造成特別是來自軍隊的僱傭軍制度。 The clergy to a great extent neglected their obligations, many of them lived in concubinage, and joined in the shameless pursuit of spiritual prebends, thus damaging their prestige.神職人員在很大程度上忽略自己的義務,其中許多是住在納妾,並加入了無恥的追求精神prebends ,從而損害他們的聲譽。 Worthy clerics, however, were not wanting.值得神職人員,但是,不想。 The Bishop of Constance, Hugo von Hohenlandenberg, was a man of stainless conduct; he endeavoured to do away with abuses, and issued various mandates, but unfortunately without permanent results.主教康斯,雨果馮Hohenlandenberg ,是一位不銹鋼行為;他努力消除侵權行為,並發出各種任務,但不幸的是,沒有永久的結果。 This failure was due to the lack of cooperation on the part of the civil rulers, who then enjoyed in ecclesiastical matters very extensive rights acquired, especially by Zurich and Berne, from the popes and bishops in consequence of the Burgundian, Swabian, and Milanese wars (1474-1516).這種失敗是由於缺乏合作的一部分,民間的統治者,誰享有然後在教會的問題非常廣泛的權利獲得,尤其是蘇黎世和伯爾尼,從教皇和主教的後果,勃艮第,施瓦本,和米蘭的戰爭( 1474年至1516年) 。 Rome, like France, had endeavoured to secure, by the outlay of much money, the services of Swiss mercenaries.羅馬同法國一樣,一直努力爭取,由支出多少錢,服務的瑞士僱傭軍。 In Zurich, the "foremost and supreme place", the council espoused the cause of the pope, and opposed the French party.在蘇黎世,在“首要的和最高的地方” ,安理會支持的事業,教皇,反對法國的黨。 Zwingli did the same and came into prominence first as a politician, a fact which makes his case essentially different from that of Luther.茨溫利也做了同樣的生效和突出的首先是一個政治家,這使他的案件基本上是不同於路德。 It was only in 1520 that he voluntarily renounced his papal pension.只是在1520年,他自願放棄他的教皇養老金。 He then attacked the ruinous mercenary system, and through his efforts Zurich alone of all the cantons refused to enter the alliance with France on 5 May, 1521.然後,他襲擊了毀滅性的僱傭軍制度,並通過他的努力僅蘇黎世的所有各州拒絕進入聯盟與法國1521年5月5日。 However, 2000 mercenaries entered the service of the pope.然而,進入2000年僱傭軍服務的教宗。 On 11 Jan., 1522, all foreign services and pensions were forbidden in Zurich.在1522年1月11日,所有外國的服務和養老金被禁止在蘇黎世。 By the publication, 16 May, 1522, of his "Vermahnung an die zu Schwyz, dass sie sich vor fremden Herren hutend", Zwingli succeeded in extending his influence beyond Zurich, although only temporarily.通過出版物, 1522年5月16日,他的“死Vermahnung一個祖施維茨州,類執棒自在現場fremden赫倫hutend ” ,茨溫利成功地擴大自己的影響力超越蘇黎世,雖然只是暫時的。

Owing to his success as a politician his prestige and importance increased.由於他的成功作為一個政治家他的威望和重要性增加。 From 1522 he came forward as sponsor of the religious innovations.從1522年他作為贊助商的宗教革新。 His first reformatory work, "Vom Erkiesen und Fryheit der Spysen", appeared when the bookseller Froschauer and his associates publicly defied the ecclesiastical law of fasting, and a controversy concerning fasts broke out.他的第一個改革工作, “論Erkiesen與Fryheit之Spysen ” ,出現了書店Froschauer和他的助手公開違抗教會法的齋戒,爭議的有關齋戒爆發了。 Zwingli declared the fasting provisions mere human commands which were not in harmony with Holy Writ; and the Bible was the sole source of faith, as he asserted in his second writing, "Archeteles".茨溫利宣布絕食的規定僅僅是人的命令,沒有在和諧與聖經和聖經的唯一來源的信念,因為他聲稱在他的第二次寫作, “ Archeteles ” 。 Through the medium of a delegation the Bishop of Constance exhorted the town to obedience on 7 April.通過媒介的一個代表團的主教康斯告誡該鎮服從於4月7日。 On 29 Jan., 1523, the council, on whose decision everything depended, held a religious disputation at Zwingli's instigation, and agreed to base its action on the result of the debate.在1523年1月29日,理事會在其決定一切取決於舉行的一個宗教糾紛在茨溫利的煽動,並同意其行動基礎的結果進行辯論。 In sixty-seven theses (his most extensive and important work) Zwingli now proposed a formal programme for the innovations; according to his view the Bible with his interpretation was to be the sole authority.在67篇(他最廣泛和最重要的工作)茨溫利現在提出一個正式的方案創新;根據他的看法與聖經的解釋是他是唯一的權威。 The arguments brought against this view by the most important champion of the old Faith, the vicar-general Johann Faber of Constance, who appealed to the teaching and tradition of the early Church, were disregarded; the council in whose hands Zwingli reposed the government of the Church, forthwith declared in favour of the innovation.論點提起這一觀點的最重要的冠軍舊信仰,牧師,一般約翰法伯的康斯,誰呼籲教學和傳統的早期教堂,被置之不理;安理會在誰的手中茨溫利reposed政府教會,隨即宣布有利於創新。

A second religious disputation in October, 1523, dealt with the practical institution of a state church, the veneration of the saints, the removal of images, good works, and the sacraments.第二個宗教爭論在10月, 1523年,處理機構的實際狀態教堂,崇拜的聖人,消除圖像,優秀作品,以及聖禮。 No notable representative of the ancient Faith was present.沒有顯著代表的古代信仰在場。 Zwingli urged the adoption of his doctrines so successfully that even his devoted adherent, Commander Schmid of Kusnacht, warned him against the too sudden abolishment of ancient customs and usages.茨溫利敦促通過他的學說如此成功地說,即使是專門貼,指揮官的Kusnacht施密德警告說,他對太突然廢除古老的習俗和慣例。 The first steps having been taken in 1522-23, the reforms were carried into effect in Zurich in 1524-25.第一個步驟,採取了在1522年至1523年,改革進行生效蘇黎世1524年至1525年。 About Easter, 1524, indulgences and pilgrimages were abolished, the sacraments of Penance and Extreme Unction rejected, and pictures, statues, relics, altars, and organs destroyed, regardless of their artitic value.關於復活節, 1524年, indulgences和朝聖的廢除,聖禮的懺悔和臨終拒絕,照片,雕塑,文物,祭壇,和機關摧毀,而不論其artitic價值。 Sacred vessels of great value, such as chalices and monstrances, were melted into coin. Church property was seized by the State, which gained most by the suppression of the monasteries; the Fraumünster Abbey, founded in 853, was voluntarily surrendered to the secular authorities by the last abbess.神聖的船隻具有極大的價值,如chalices和monstrances ,被融化成硬幣。教會財產被沒收的國家,其中大部分獲得了制止寺廟;的Fraumünster修道院,始建於853 ,是自首的世俗當局由最後一任住持。 Celibacy was rejected as contrary to Holy Writ, and monks and nuns were married.獨身被否決違背聖經,和僧侶和尼姑結婚。 As early as 1522 Zwingli with ten other ecclesiastics assembled at Einsiedeln and addressed a petition to the Bishop of Constance and to the diet asking freedom for priests to marry.早在1522年10茨溫利其他教區聚集在艾因西德倫和處理了一份請願書,主教康斯和飲食要求自由的神職人員結婚。 "Your honourable wisdom", they declared, "has already witnessed the disgraceful and shameful life we have unfortunately hitherto led with women, thereby giving grievous scandal to everyone." “你的光榮智慧” ,他們宣稱, “已經看到了可恥的和可恥的生活,我們遺憾的是迄今導致婦女,從而使嚴重的醜聞每一個人。 ” From 1522 the marriage of priests in Zurich became ever more frequent; Zwingli himself on 2 July, 1524, married Anna Reinhard (the widow of Hans Meyer von Knonau), who bore him his first daughter on 31 July.從1522年結婚的牧師在蘇黎世變得更加頻繁;茨溫利自己的1524年7月2日,已婚安娜萊因哈德(寡婦的漢斯馮邁耶Knonau ) ,誰承擔了他的第一個女兒於7月31日。 A new marriage law of 10 May, 1525, regulated these innovations.一種新的婚姻法律1525年5月10日,這些創新規定。 In the spring of 1525 the Mass was abolished; in its place was introduced the memorial service of the Last Supper.在1525年春季群眾被廢除;在其位的是介紹了追悼會的最後晚餐。

The new doctrines were not introduced without opposition.新的理論不是沒有反對介紹。 The first opponents of the Reformers were from the ranks of their own party.第一個反對改革者是來自隊伍自身黨。 The peasants could find no reason in the Bible, the sole principle of faith, why they should contribute to their lords' taxes, tithes, and rent, and they refused any longer to do so.農民可以找到任何理由在聖經中,唯一的原則信念,為什麼他們應該有助於他們的領主'稅,什一稅和租金,他們拒絕任何更長的時間才能這樣做。 The greatest unrest prevailed everywhere, and was only quelled after long negotiations and some concessions by the Government.最大的動盪世界各地普遍存在,而且只是平息經過長期的談判和一些讓步由政府提供。 The Anabaptists were not so easily silenced.該Anabaptists不是那麼容易壓制。 From the Bible, which Zwingli had placed in their hands, they had deduced the most marvellous doctrines, much more radical than Zwingli's and questioning even the authority of the state.從聖經,其中茨溫利把在他們手中,他們推斷出最了不起的理論,更激進的比茨溫利和質疑甚至是權威的狀態。 Zwingli persecuted them mercilessly with imprisonment, torture, banishment and death; their leader Felix Manz was drowned.茨溫利他們無情地迫害與監禁,酷刑,流放和死亡;他們的領導人費利克斯曼茨被淹死。 The war against these visionary spirits was more serious for Zwingli than that against Rome.戰爭對這些有遠見的精神更為嚴重的茨溫利比對羅馬。 At first Rome allowed itself to be soothed by evasive words; the "Lutheran sects" were aimed at and the Zwinglians clung to the word of God, was the information supplied to Clement VII by Zurich on 19 August, 1524.在羅馬首次允許自己的迴避安慰的話;的“信義教派”的目的是和Zwinglians堅持上帝的話,是提供資料的克萊門特七世的蘇黎世1524年8月19日。 Soon, however, the breach with the ancient Church was too plain to be doubted.不久,但是,違反與古老的教堂太平原是毋庸置疑的。 The cantons of Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Lucerne, Zug, and Fribourg remained true to the old Faith, and offered determined opposition to Zwingli. They could not see that Zwingli was more favoured by God than the ancient saints and teachers; in his clerical life he was not superior to others, and he was inclined rather towards disturbance than towards peace.各州的開放,施維茨,翁特瓦爾登,盧塞恩,楚格,以及弗里堡仍然忠實於舊的信仰,並提出堅決反對茨溫利。他們無法看到,茨溫利更傾向於由上帝比古代聖人和教師,在他的辦事員生活,他並不優於他人,他傾向於對干擾,而不是走向和平。

The Catholic cantons, however, also strove to abolish abuses, issuing in 1525 a Concordat of Faith with important reforms which, however, never found general recognition.天主教縣里,但是,也力求廢除侵權行為,在1525年發行1協約與信仰的重要改革,但沒有找到普遍承認。 From 21 May to 8 June, 1526, they held a public disputation at Baden, to which they invited Dr. Johann Eck of Ingolstadt. 5月21日至1526年6月8日,他們舉行了一次公開爭論在德國巴登,其中博士,他們邀請德國之角的英戈爾斯塔特生產的。 Zwingli did not venture to appear.茨溫利不敢出現。 The disputation ended with the complete victory for the old Faith, but those who believed that the teaching of Zwingli could be driven out of the world by disputations deceived themselves; it had already taken too deep root.的爭論結束了完全勝利的舊信仰,但那些認為誰的教學茨溫利可能會被趕出世界disputations欺騙自己,它已經採取了過於深深紮根。 In St. Gall the Humanist and burgomaster Vadian worked successfully in Zwingli's interest -- in Schaffhausen, Dr. Sebastian Hofmeister; in Basle, (Ecolampadius. For Berne which, notwithstanding the efforts of Berchtold Haller, had previously maintained a non-committal attitude, the religious disputation held at Zwingli's suggestion, in Jan., 1528, was decisive. Zwingli himself came to the city, and the Catholic cause was but weakly represented. The new doctrines were then introduced as sweepingly into Berne as they had been at Zurich, and many places and counties which had previously wavered followed its example. Zwingli could also point to brilliant successes in 1528 and 1529. He ensured the predominance of his reforms through the "Christian Civic rights", agreed upon between Zurich and the towns of Constance (1527), Berne and St. Gall (1528), Biel, Mulhausen, and Schaffhausen (1529). To compel the Catholic cantons to accept the new doctrines, he even urged civil war, drew up a plan of campaign, and succeeded in persuading Zurich to declare war and march against the Catholic territories. The Catholic districts had endeavoured to strengthen their position by forming a defensive alliance with Austria (1529), the "Christian Union." At this juncture, however, they received no assistance. Berne showed itself more moderate than Zurich, and a treaty of peace was arranged, which, however, was very unfavourable for the Catholics.在聖加爾人文和市長Vadian成功在茨溫利的興趣-在沙夫豪森博士,塞巴斯蒂安H ofmeister;在巴塞爾( E colampadius.對於伯爾尼其中,儘管努力白德邁哈勒,曾保持了非交付的態度,宗教糾紛舉行茨溫利的建議,在1月, 1528 ,是決定性的。茨溫利自己來到了城市,和天主教的原因是弱,但代表出席了會議。新的理論,然後介紹了sweepingly到伯爾尼因為他們已在蘇黎世,和許多地方和縣原先動搖遵循的榜樣。茨溫利也可以指向輝煌的1528年和1529年。他保證他的優勢,通過改革“基督教公民權利” ,商定蘇黎世和城鎮的康斯坦茨( 1527 ) ,伯爾尼和聖加爾( 1528年) ,比爾, Mulhausen和沙夫豪森( 1529年) 。迫使天主教各州接受新的學說,他甚至敦促內戰,制定了一項計劃的運動,並成功說服蘇黎世宣布戰爭和示威遊行,抗議天主教的領土。天主教區一直努力加強其立場,形成一個防禦同盟與奧地利( 1529年) , “基督教聯盟。 ”在這個時刻,然而,他們沒有收到任何援助。伯爾尼顯示本身比較溫和的比蘇黎世,和和平條約安排,但這些是非常不利的天主教徒。

In Zurich Zwingli was now the commanding personality in all ecclesiastical and political questions.在蘇黎世茨溫利現在是指揮的個性在所有宗教和政治問題。 He was "burgomaster, secretary, and council" in one, and showed himself daily more overbearing.他是“市長,秘書長和理事會”的一個,並表明自己每天都更加咄咄逼人。 His insolence indeed prevented an agreement with Luther regarding the doctrine of the Lord's Supper, when a disputation was arranged between the two heresiarchs at Marfurt in October, 1529.他的傲慢確實無法達成協議,路德的學說有關的上帝的晚餐時,爭論被安排兩國之間的heresiarchs在Marfurt 10月, 1529年。 As a statesman, Zwingli embarked in secular politics with ambitious plans. "Within three years", he writes, "Italy, Spain and Germany will take our view". Even the King of France, whose greatest enemy he had previously been, he sought to win to his side in 1531 with the work "Christianae fidei expositio", and was even prepared to pay him a yearly pension.作為一個政治家,茨溫利開始在世俗政治與雄心勃勃的計劃。 “三年內” ,他寫道, “意大利,西班牙和德國將採取我們認為。 ”即使是法國國王,他們最大的敵人,他以前,他試圖贏得他在1531年雙方的工作“ Christianae信expositio ” ,甚至願意支付他每年的退休金。 By prohibiting intercourse with the Catholic cantons he compelled them to resort to arms.禁止交往與天主教各州,他迫使他們訴諸武力。 On 9 Oct., 1531, they declared war on Zurich, and advanced to Kappel on the frontiers.在1531年10月9日,他們宣布戰爭的蘇黎世,和先進的以卡普爾的國界。 The people of Zurich hastened to oppose them, but met a decisive defeat near Kappel on 11 Oct., Zwingli falling in the battle.人民的蘇黎世急忙反對他們,但遇到了決定性的失敗附近的卡普爾對10月11日,茨溫利下降的戰鬥中。 After a second defeat of the Reformed forces at Gubel, peace was concluded on 23 Oct., 1531.經過第二次失敗的改革力量在Gubel ,和平是結束1531年一十月23號。 The peace was of long duration, since the Catholic victors displayed great moderation.和平是長期的,因為天主教的勝利者表現出極大的克制。 Zwingli's death was an event of great importance for all Switzerland.茨溫利的死亡是一個非常重要的事件對所有瑞士。 His plan to introduce his innovations into the Catholic cantons by force had proved abortive.他的計劃,介紹他的創新納入縣天主教以武力已經證明失敗。 But even Catholics, who claimed the same rights in religious matters as the people of Zurich, regarded him as the "governor of all confederates".但是,即使天主教徒,誰人同樣的權利對宗教事務的人民蘇黎世,把他作為“省長的所有confederates ” 。 Zwingli is regarded as the most "liberal" of all the Reformers, and was less a dogmatist than Calvin.茨溫利被視為最“自由”的所有改革者,並不到教條主義者比卡爾文。 His statue, with a sword in one hand and the Bible in the other, stands near the municipal library at Zurich, which has also a Zwingli museum.他的塑像,以劍一方面和聖經中的其他,站在附近的市立圖書館在蘇黎世,這也是一個茨溫利博物館。

Heinrich Bullinger (1504-75), Zwingli's successor, undertook the internal development of the new doctrines.海因里希布凌格( 1504年至1575年) ,茨溫利的繼任者,進行了內部發展的新理論。 His father (also named Heinrich) who was pastor at Bremgarten and embraced the Reformation early, sent Bullinger to Emmerich and Cologne, where he received a thorough Humanistic training.他的父親(也稱為海因里希)誰是牧師在Bremgarten和擁護改革初期,發送到布凌格默里克和科隆,在那裡他獲得了徹底的人文培訓。 Even from his earliest activity as teacher in the Cistercian monastery near Kappel (1523-29) and later as pastor in Bremgarten (1529 31), Bullinger proved himself a zealous lieutenant of Zwingli's.即使從他最早活動的教師在修道院修道院附近卡普爾( 1523年至1529年) ,後來成為牧師Bremgarten ( 1529年31歲) ,布林格證明自己是熱心的中尉茨溫利的。 In 1528 he accompanied the latter to the religious disputation at Berne.他在1528年後伴隨的宗教爭論在伯爾尼。 On 9 Dec., 1531, he was chosen as Zwingli's successor, pastor of the Grossmünster at Zurich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575).在1531年12月9日,他被選為茨溫利的接班人,牧師Grossmünster在蘇黎世,這一立場,他舉行了結束他的生命( 1575 ) 。 Bullinger regarded union with Luther on the question of the Lord's Supper as his chief task.布林格認為工會與路德的問題,上帝的晚餐作為他的主要任務。 For this purpose he composed in 1536, with Myconius and Grynaeus, the "First Helvetic Confession", a profession of faith which was recognized by the Evangelical towns of Switzerland.為此,他在1536年組成,與Myconius和Grynaeus , “第一批海爾維第懺悔” ,一種職業的信念是公認的福音城鎮瑞士。 In the same year also appeared the "Wittenberg Concordia".在同一年還出現了“維滕貝格協和” 。 When Bullinger refused to subscribe to this agreement, which was brought about by Butzer, Luther burst out into abuse of Zwingli.當布凌格拒絕訂閱此協議,這所帶來的Butzer ,路德突然變成濫用茨溫利。 The attempt to bring about an agreement between Bullinger and Calvin on this question at Geneva was more successful, the "Consensus Tigurinus" being concluded between them in 1545.企圖使雙方之間的協議和Calvin布凌格就這一問題在日內瓦更成功, “共識Tigurinus ”正在結束它們之間在1545年。 As the expression of his personal religious conviction Bullinger composed the "Second Helvetic Confession", which was printed in 1566, and was recognized by all the Evangelical churches except that of Basle.作為表達他個人的宗教信念布凌格組成“第二海爾維第交代” ,這是印在1566年,是大家公認的福音派教堂外的巴塞爾。

Besides discharging the office of preacher, Bullinger displayed great literary activity.除了履行辦公室的傳教士,布凌格表現出極大的文藝活動。 He carried on a large correspondence with several crowned heads, with Lady Jane Grey in London, Vadian, Graubundenn, and many others.他進行了大量信件與幾個冠頭,與夫人簡格雷在倫敦, Vadian , Graubundenn ,以及其他許多人。 More than 100 sermons and theological treatises from his pen are known, as well as one drama, "Lucretia and Brutus".超過100的說教和神學論文從他的筆是眾所周知,以及一個話劇, “霞和布魯圖斯” 。 His "Diarium" and his extensive history of the Reformation are still valuable.他的“ Diarium ”和他的豐富的歷史改革仍然有價值。 It is an undecided question how far his history is independent and how far a compilation of other writings.這是一個未定的問題多遠他的歷史上是獨立的,多遠彙編的其他著作。 In character Bullinger was particularly hospitable, and many fugitives from England and France found refuge with him.在性質上布凌格特別好客,許多逃犯從英國和法國發現與他避難。 Although less overbearing than Zwingli and Luther, he was still intolerant; he approved the execution of Servetus at Geneva.雖然不是那麼咄咄逼人茨溫利和海德,他仍然不容忍,他批准了執行塞爾維特在日內瓦舉行。 He died on 17 September, 1575.他死於1575年9月17日。

Zwingli's works were first collected and published by his son-in-law, Rudolf Gwalter, and entitled: "Opera DH Zwingli vigilantissimi Tigurinae ecclesiae Antistitis, partim quidem ab ipso Latine conscripta, partim vero e vernaculo sermone in Latinum translata: omnia novissime recognita, et multis adiectis, quae hactenus visa non sunt" (4 fol. vols., Zurich, 1545; reprinted, 1581).茨溫利的作品首次收集並出版了他的女婿,魯道夫Gwalter ,題為: “歌劇署茨溫利vigilantissimi Tigurinae教會Antistitis , partim quidem從頭拉丁conscripta當然, partim維羅é vernaculo sermone在Latinum translata : OMNIA公司novissime recognita ,等多重adiectis , quae非hactenus簽證必須遵守“ ( 4奧德耶克。第一卷和第二卷。 ,蘇黎世, 1545 ;重印, 1581 ) 。 The first complete edition was edited by Melchior Schuler and Johannes Schulthess (8 vols., Zurich, 1828-42).第一次完整版編輯梅爾基奧爾和約翰尼舒勒Schulthess ( 8卷。 ,蘇黎世, 1828至42年) 。 Volumes VII and VIII, containing Zwingli's correspondence, are especially important.卷第七和第八,其中茨溫利的信件,是特別重要的意義。 A new edition of his complete works prepared by Emil Egli (d. 1908), George Finsler, and Walther Kohler is appearing in the "Corpus Reformatorum", LXXXVIII (Berlin, 1905); three volumes I, II, and VII, have already (1912) appeared.新版的他編寫完成的作品由Emil Egli (草1908年) ,喬治芬斯勒,並瓦爾特科勒是出現在“語料庫Reformatorum ” , LXXXVIII (柏林, 1905年) ;三冊一,二,七,已( 1912年)出現了。

Publication information Written by Wihelm Jos. Meyer.出版信息撰稿Wihelm聖何塞邁耶。 Transcribed by Tomas Hancil and Joseph P. Thomas. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.轉錄的托馬斯Hancil和約瑟夫托馬斯。天主教百科全書,卷十五。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 12年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在