Wesley (family)韋斯利(家庭)

John Wesley約翰衛斯理

General Information 一般信息

The Wesley family was made famous by the two brothers, John and Charles, who worked together in the rise of Methodism in the British Isles during the 18th century.家庭的韋斯利了著名的兩個兄弟,約翰和查爾斯,誰一道崛起的循道在不列顛群島在18世紀。 They were among the ten children surviving infancy born to Samuel Wesley (1662 - 1735), Anglican rector of Epworth, Lincolnshire, and Susanna Annesley Wesley, daughter of Samuel Annesley, a dissenting minister.他們是10名兒童中倖存的嬰兒出生塞繆爾衛斯理( 1662年至1735年) ,英國聖公會牧師的愛華,林肯郡和蘇珊娜Annesley韋斯利,女兒塞繆爾Annesley ,持反對意見的部長。

John Wesley, b.約翰衛斯理灣 June 28, 1703, d. 1703年6月二十八日, d. Mar. 2, 1791, was the principal founder of the Methodist movement. 1791年3月二日,是主要的創始人循道衛理運動。 His mother was important in his emotional and educational development.他的母親是很重要的情感和教育發展。 The rescue of little "Jackie" from the burning rectory ("a brand plucked from the burning") has become legendary.拯救小“成龍”的燃燒目錄( “一個品牌彈撥從燃燒” )已成為傳奇。 John's education continued at Charterhouse School and at Oxford, where he studied at Christ Church and was elected (1726) fellow of Lincoln College.約翰的教育繼續在查特豪斯學校和牛津大學,在那裡他就讀於基督教會,並當選( 1726年)研究員林肯學院。 He was ordained in 1728.他是在1728年晉鐸。

After a brief absence (1727 - 29) to help his father at Epworth, John returned to Oxford to discover that his brother Charles had founded a Holy Club composed of young men interested in spiritual growth.經過簡短缺席( 1727年至1729年) ,以幫助他的父親在愛華,約翰回到牛津地發現,他的弟弟查爾斯已成立了羅馬俱樂部組成的青年男女感興趣的心靈成長。 John quickly became a leading participant of this group, which was dubbed the Methodists.約翰很快成為一個主要參與者這一組,這是被稱為衛理公會。 His Oxford days introduced him not only to the rich tradition of classical literature and philosophy but also to spiritual classics like Thomas a Kempis's Imitation of Christ, Jeremy Taylor's Holy Living and Dying, and William Law's Serious Call.他介紹了牛津天他不僅有著悠久的傳統的古典文學和哲學,而且像精神的經典托馬斯馬肯培的模仿基督,傑里泰勒的羅馬生死,和威廉法的嚴重呼叫。

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In 1735 both Wesleys accompanied James Oglethorpe to the new colony of Georgia, where John's attempts to apply his then high - church views aroused hostility.在1735年都Wesleys陪同詹姆斯奧格爾索普新的殖民地,格魯吉亞,在約翰的企圖適用當時高-教會的看法引起的敵意。 Discouraged, he returned (1737) to England; he was rescued from this discouragement by the influence of the Moravian preacher Peter Boehler.氣餒,他回到( 1737年)到英國,他被救出從這個洩氣的影響摩拉維亞牧師彼得伯勒爾。 At a small religious meeting in Aldersgate Street, London, on May 24, 1738, John Wesley had an experience in which his "heart was strangely warmed."在一個小型的宗教會議Aldersgate Street ,倫敦,在1738年5月24日,約翰衛斯理有經驗,他的“心是奇怪的溫暖。 ”

After this spiritual conversion, which centered on the realization of salvation by faith in Christ alone, he devoted his life to evangelism.在此精神的轉換,其中圍繞實現救國的信念在基督裡,僅他畢生致力於福音。 Beginning in 1739 he established Methodist societies throughout the country.從1739年他成立衛理公會社會在全國各地。 He traveled and preached constantly, especially in the London - Bristol - Newcastle triangle, with frequent forays into Wales, Ireland, and Scotland.他旅行,宣揚不斷,尤其是在倫敦-布里斯托-紐卡斯爾三角形,經常進軍威爾士,愛爾蘭和蘇格蘭。 He encountered much opposition and persecution, which later subsided.他遇到了很多人反對和迫害,後來平息。

Late in life Wesley married Mary Vazeille, a widow.在生命晚期韋斯利Vazeille瑪麗結婚,一個寡婦。 He continued throughout his life a regimen of personal discipline and ordered living.他繼續他的生活方案的個人紀律和有序的生活。 He died at 88, still preaching, still traveling, and still a clergyman of the Church of England.他死於88 ,仍然說教,仍然旅行,並仍然是一個牧師的英格蘭教會。 In 1784, however, he had given the Methodist societies a legal constitution, and in the same year he ordained Thomas Coke for ministry in the United States; this action signaled an independent course for Methodism.在1784年,然而,他給了衛理公會社會的法律的憲法,並在同一年,他祝聖托馬斯為省焦炭在美國這一行動標誌著一個獨立的課程循道。

Charles Wesley, b.查理衛斯理灣 Dec. 18, 1707, d. 1707年十二月18號, d. Mar. 29, 1788, was perhaps England's greatest hymn writer. 1788年3月29日,也許是英格蘭最偉大的讚美詩作家。 Educated at Oxford, he was ordained in 1735 and went to Georgia as Oglethorpe's secretary. He returned a year earlier than John.在牛津大學受過教育,他被任命在1735年,前往格魯吉亞奧格爾索普的秘書。他回到一年前同期比約翰。 After a religious experience similar to John's, he continued for many years in close association with the Methodist movement.在宗教經驗類似的約翰,他繼續多年來緊密結合循道衛理運動。 After 1756, however, he left the itinerant ministry and settled first in Bristol and later in London.在1756年,然而,他離開了巡迴部和解決在布里斯托爾第一次,後來在倫敦。 He wrote more than 5,000 hymns, among them "Hark, the Herald Angels Sing" and "Love Divine, All Loves Excelling."他寫道超過5000讚美詩,其中包括: “聽,天使在歌唱先驅報”和“神聖的愛,所有愛擅長。 ”

Frederick A Norwood弗雷德里克阿諾伍德

Bibliography 目錄
S Ayling, John Wesley (1979); F Baker, ed., The Works of John Wesley (1975); VHH Green, John Wesley (1964); AC Outler, ed., John Wesley (1964); J Pudney, John Wesley and His World (1978); KE Rowe, ed., The Place of Wesley in the Christian Tradition (1976); R Tuttle, John Wesley: His Life and Theology (1978).這是一種為了滿足璦玲,約翰衛斯理( 1979年) ,女貝克版。 ,工程的約翰衛斯理( 1975年) ; VHH綠色,約翰衛斯理( 1964年) ;交流Outler ,編輯。 ,約翰衛斯理( 1964年) ; J Pudney ,約翰衛斯理和他的世界( 1978年) ;柯羅版。地點的韋斯利在基督教傳統( 1976年) ; R塔特爾,約翰衛斯理:他的生活和神學( 1978年) 。


John Wesley (1703-1791)約翰衛斯理( 1703年至1791年)

Advanced Information 先進的信息

John Wesley was the primary figure in the eighteenth century Evangelical Revival and founder of Methodism.約翰衛斯理是主要的數字在18世紀福音復興的創始人循道。 Wesley was born in Epworth, England, to Samuel and Susanna Wesley, one of nineteen children.韋斯利出生於愛華,英格蘭,以塞繆爾和蘇珊娜韋斯利,一個19兒童。 Although both his grandfathers distinguished themselves as Puritan Nonconformists, his parents returned to the Church of England, where his father for most of his ministry held the livings of Epworth (1697- 1735) and Wroot (1725-35).雖然他的祖父尊敬自己清教徒Nonconformists ,他的父母回到了英格蘭教會,在那裡他的父親為他的大部分部舉行了livings的愛華( 1697年至1735年)和Wroot ( 1725年至1735年) 。 Wesley spent his early years under the careful direction of his remarkable mother, who sought to instill in him a sense of vital piety leading to a wholehearted devotion to God.韋斯利度過了最初幾年的方向,認真出色的母親,誰試圖在他灌輸一種重要的虔誠導致全心全意地獻身於上帝。

Life生命

Wesley was educated at Charterhouse, a school for boys in London, and then Christ Church, Oxford, where he received the BA degree in 1724 and the MA degree in 1727.韋斯利是在查特豪斯教育,學校,男孩在倫敦,然後基督教堂,牛津大學,在那裡他獲得了學士學位,在1724年和碩士學位在1727年。 Although a serious student in both logic and religion, Wesley was not to experience his "religious" conversion until 1725.雖然嚴重的學生邏輯和宗教,韋斯利沒有體驗他的“宗教”的轉換,直到1725年。 He was then confronted with what to do with the rest of his life.他當時面臨著如何處理餘下的生命裡。 He decided (through the influence of his mother, a religious friend, and the reading of Jeremy Taylor and Thomas a Kempis) to make religion the "business of his life."他決定(通過的影響,他的母親,一個宗教的朋友,閱讀傑里泰勒和托馬斯馬肯培) ,使宗教的“企業的生命。 ” He was ordained deacon (1725), elected to a fellowship at Lincoln College, Oxford (1726), and served as his father's curate at Wroot (1727-29).他被任命執事( 1725 ) ,當選為研究金在林肯學院,牛津( 1726年) ,並擔任他父親的牧師在Wroot ( 1727年至1729年) 。 He then returned to Oxford and became the leader of a small band of students organized earlier by his younger brother, Charles.然後,他回到牛津大學,並成為領導人的一個小樂隊的學生有組織以前他弟弟查爾斯。 This band, dubbed the "Holy Club," would later be called "Methodist" for their prescribed method of studying the Bible and for their rigid self-denial which included many works of charity.這個樂隊,名為“羅馬俱樂部” ,後來被稱為“衛”為他們訂明的方法研究聖經和他們的僵硬的自我否定,其中包括許多作品的慈善機構。 During this period (1729-35) both John and Charles fell under the influence of the nonjuror and mystic William Law.在此期間( 1729至1735年)均約翰和查爾斯下跌的影響下的nonjuror和神秘的威廉法。 Although Wesley confessed that he did not at that time understand justification by faith (seeking instead justification by his own works-righteousness), it was during this period that he formulated his views on Christian perfection, the hallmark of Methodism.雖然韋斯利供認,他當時沒有理解的理由的信念(而不是尋求正當理由的自己的作品義) ,但在此期間,他制定了自己的看法基督教完美的標誌循道。

In 1735 (Wesley's Journal begins at this point and continues until shortly before his death) Wesley went to Georgia as a missionary to the Indians.在1735 (韋斯利的雜誌開始在這一點上,並繼續,直到前不久他去世)韋斯利前往格魯吉亞作為一個傳教士的印度人。 Although the Indians eluded him, he did serve as priest to the Georgia settlers under General James Oglethorpe.雖然他未能印度人,他擔任牧師的格魯吉亞定居者一般詹姆斯奧格爾索普。 During a storm in crossing Wesley was deeply impressed with a group of Moravians on board ship.在風暴過境韋斯利留下了深刻的印象與一組摩拉維亞在船上。 Their faith in the face of death (the fear of dying was constantly with Wesley since his youth) predisposed disastrous experience in Georgia, he returned to England (1738) and met the Moravian Peter Bohler, who exhorted him to trust Christ alone for salvation.他們的信念,面對死亡(對死亡的恐懼不斷與韋斯利因為他的青年)容易發生災難性的經驗,在格魯吉亞,他回到英格蘭( 1738 )和摩拉維亞會見了彼得伯勒爾,誰告誡他的信任,僅基督救恩。 What had earlier been merely a religious conversion now became an "evangelical" conversion.什麼先前僅僅是一個宗教皈依現在成為一個“福音”的轉換。 At a Moravian band meeting on Aldersgate Street (May 24, 1738), as he listened to a reading from Luther's preface to his commentary on Romans, Wesley felt his "heart strangely warmed."在摩拉維亞波段上Aldersgate街( 1738年5月24號) ,他聽取了讀路德的前言中他評羅馬,韋斯利覺得他的“心臟奇怪的溫暖。 ” Although scholars disagree as to the exact nature of this experience, nothing in Wesley was left untouched by his newfound faith.雖然不作為學者的確切性質這方面的經驗,沒有在韋斯利是留他的新信仰。 After a short journey to Germany to visit the Moravian settlement of Herrnhut, he returned to England and with George Whitefield, a former member of the Holy Club, began preaching salvation by faith.經過短途旅行到德國訪問摩拉維亞解決Herrnhut ,他回到英格蘭和喬治Whitefield的前成員羅馬俱樂部,開始鼓吹救國的信念。 This "new doctrine" was considered redundant by the sacramentalists in the Established Church, who thought people sufficiently saved by virtue of their infant baptism.這種“新理論”被認為是多餘的sacramentalists在成立教會,誰想到人民充分保存憑藉其嬰兒的洗禮。 The established churches soon closed their doors to their preaching.所建立的教會很快關閉了大門,他們的說教。 The Methodists (a name which carried over from their Oxford days) began preaching in the open air.在衛理公會(其中一個名字結轉其牛津天)開始鼓吹在露天。

In 1739 Wesley followed Whitefield to Bristol, where a revival broke out among the miners of Kingswood.韋斯利在1739年之後,以Whitefield的布里斯托爾,在復興之間爆發了礦工的嘉湖。 At that point Wesley's true genius surfaced through his ability to organize new converts into Methodist "societies" and "bands" which sustained both them and the revival.在這一點韋斯利的真正的天才出現通過他的組織能力,轉化為新的公會“社會”和“帶”的持續兩個他們和振興。 The revival continued under Wesley's direct leadership for over fifty years.恢復繼續進行韋斯利的直接領導了五十多年。 He traveled some 250,000 miles throughout England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland, preaching some 40,000 sermons.他去一些二十五點〇萬英里整個英格蘭,蘇格蘭,威爾士,愛爾蘭,鼓吹一些40000說教。 His influence also extended to America as he (after considerable reluctance) ordained several of his preachers for the work there, which was officially organized in 1784.他的影響力也擴大到美國,他(後相當不情願)祝他的幾位傳教士的工作,這是官方舉辦的1784年。 Wesley literally established "the world as his parish" in order to spread "scripture holiness throughout the land."韋斯利字面設立“世界為他堂” ,以傳播“經文整個神聖的土地。 ” He remained fearlessly loyal to the Established Church all his life. Methodism in England did not become a separate denomination until after his death.他仍然毫不畏懼地忠實於教會成立的所有他的生命。循道在英格蘭沒有成為一個獨立的面額,直到去世後。

Theology神學

Although Wesley was not a systematic theologian, his theology can be described with reasonable clarity from the study of his published sermons, tracts, treatises, and correspondence.雖然韋斯利不是一個系統神學家,他的神學可以說是合理的明確的研究,他出版的說教,傳單,論文,和信函。 In essence, Wesley's theology, so akin to the Reformation, affirms God's sovereign will to reverse our "sinful, devilish nature," by the work of his Holy Spirit, a process he called prevenient, justifying, and sanctifying grace (grace being nearly synonymous with the work of the Holy Spirit).從本質上說,韋斯利的神學,因此類似的改革,肯定上帝的主權意志,以扭轉我們的“罪惡,邪惡的性質, ”由他的工作聖靈,這個過程他呼籲前的理由,並sanctifying寬限期(寬限期是近代名詞的工作聖靈) 。

Prevenient or preventing grace for Wesley describes the universal work of the Holy Spirit in the hearts and lives of people between conception and conversion.前的寬限期或防止的韋斯利描述了普遍的工作,聖靈在心靈和人民生活的概念和之間的轉換。 Original sin, according to Wesley, makes it necessary for the Holy Spirit to initiate the relationship between God and people.原罪,根據韋斯利,使得有必要為聖靈開始之間的關係上帝和人民。 Bound by sin and death, people experience the gentle wooing of the Holy Spirit, which prevents them from moving so far from "the way" that when they finally understand the claims of the gospel upon their lives, he guarantees their freedom to say yes.受罪惡和死亡,人們的柔和的經驗吸引聖靈,這使他們無法移動迄今從“道路” ,當他們終於明白索賠的福音他們的生活時,他保證他們自由地答應。 This doctrine constitutes the heart of Wesley's Arminianism.這一理論的核心韋斯利的亞米紐斯主義。

Justifying grace describes the work of the Holy Spirit at the moment of conversion in the lives of those who say yes to the call of prevenient grace by placing their faith and trust in Jesus Christ. Wesley understood such conversion as two phases of one experience.寬限期說明理由的工作,聖靈現在的轉換生活中的這些誰答應的呼籲前的寬限期把自己的信仰和信任耶穌基督。韋斯利這樣的理解轉換為兩個階段的一個經驗。 The first phase, justification, includes the Spirit attributing or imputing to the believer the righteousness of Jesus Christ.第一階段,理由,包括精神歸屬或估算的信徒正義的耶穌基督。 The second phase, the new birth, includes the Spirit launching the process of sanctification or imparted righteousness.第二階段,新的誕生,其中包括精神開展的過程中成聖或傳授正氣。 These two phases identify, in part, the Wesleyan distinctive.這兩個階段確定,部分獨特的衛斯理。 Here he combines the "faith alone" so prevalent in the Protestant Reformation (Wesley insisted that he and Calvin were but a hair's breadth apart on justification) with the passion for holiness so prevalent in the Catholic Counter-Reformation.在這裡,他結合“的信念獨立”盛行的新教改革(韋斯利堅持說,他和Calvin人,但頭髮的廣度上的理由之外)的熱情十分普遍聖潔的天主教反宗教改革。

Sanctifying grace described the work of the Holy Spirit in the lives of believers between conversion and death. Sanctifying寬限期描述的工作聖靈生活的信徒之間的轉換和死亡。 Faith in Christ saves us from hell and sin for heaven and good works.在基督信仰拯救我們從地獄和罪惡的天堂和良好的工程。 Imputed righteousness, according to Wesley, entitles one to heaven; imparted righteousness qualifies one for heaven.估算正氣,根據韋斯利,有權一個天堂;傳授正義資格一個天堂。 It is here that Wesley goes to great lengths to describe his views on Christian perfection.正是在這裡,韋斯利去不遺餘力地描述他的看法基督教完善。

The process of sanctification or perfection culminates in an experience of "pure love" as one progresses to the place where love becomes devoid of self-interest.的過程中完善成聖或達到最高潮的經驗, “純潔的愛”作為一個進步的地方變得愛缺乏自身利益的考慮。 This second work of grace is described as the one purpose of all religion.這第二個工作的寬限期被描述為一個目的,所有宗教。 If one is not perfected in love, one is not "ripe for glory."如果沒有完善的愛情,是不是“成熟的輝煌。 ” It is important, however, to note that this perfection was not static but dynamic, always improvable.這是很重要的,但是,注意,這是完美的不是靜態的而是動態的,總是improvable 。 Neither was it angelic or Adamic.也不是天使或Adamic 。 Adam's perfection was objective and absolute, while Wesley's perfection was subjective and relative, involving, for the most part, intention and motive.亞當的完善是客觀的和絕對的,而韋斯利的完善是主觀的,相對的,涉及,在大多數情況下,意圖和動機。

Although Wesley talks about an instantaneous experience called "entire sanctification" subsequent to justification, his major emphasis was the continuous process of going on to perfection.雖然韋斯利談到了瞬時的經驗稱為“整個成聖”的理由以後,他的主要重點是持續不斷的過程去完善的。 Perhaps first learned from the early church fathers like Macarius and Ephraem Syrus, this emphasis upon continuous process was enforced by Wesley to prevent the horrible expectation of backsliding.也許第一次的教訓從早期教會的父親一樣馬卡里烏斯和Ephraem希如斯,這強調持續不斷的過程是強迫的韋斯利,以防止可怕的期望倒退。 Wesley soon learned that the only way to keep Methodists alive was to keep them moving.韋斯利很快了解到,唯一的辦法保持循道活著是為了讓他們感動。 This same concept of continuous process was later polished by the influence of mystics like Francois Fenelon, whose phrase moi progressus ad infinitum (my progress is without end) greatly impressed Wesley and became a major tool for the perpetuation of the Evangelical Revival.同樣的概念,持續的進程,後來被磨光了神秘主義的影響弗朗索瓦費內龍一樣,他一語報progressus無止境(我的進步是沒有完)韋斯利留下深刻印象,並成為一個重要的工具,助長了福音的復興。 The watchword for the revival became: "Go on to perfection: otherwise you cannot keep what you have."的口號成為復興: “走吧完善:否則你將無法跟上你們的。 ”

Prevenient grace, therefore, is a process. Justifying grace is instantaneous. 前的寬限期,因此,是一個過程。理由是瞬時的寬限期。 Sanctifying grace is both a process and instantaneous. Although Wesley's theology went through some subtle shifts later in life (for example, he placed more and more emphasis on good works as the inevitable fruit of saving faith), this is fairly representative of Wesley's theology throughout. Sanctifying寬限期是一個過程,瞬時。雖然韋斯利的神學經歷了一些微妙的變化以後的生活中(例如,他把越來越多的重視優秀作品的必然成果,節能的信念) ,這是相當韋斯利代表的整個神學。 Generally speaking, Wesley was a practical theologian.一般而言,韋斯利是一個切實可行的神學。 In a very practical way his theology was geared primarily to his own needs and to the needs of those given into his care.在一個非常實際的方式是他的神學主要針對自己的需求和需要的人給予他的照顧。

RG Tuttle, Jr塔特爾的RG小
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
Wesley, Journal, ed.韋斯利,雜誌編輯。 N. Curnock, 8 vols.; Letters, ed. J.北Curnock , 8卷。 ;信函,版。學者 Telford, 8 vols.; Standard Sermons, ed.德福, 8卷。 ;標準講道,編輯。 EH Sugden, 2 vols.; Works, ed.高血壓薩格登,第2卷。 ;作品,編輯。 T. Jackson, 14 vols; WR Cannon, The Theology of John Wesley; ML Edwards, John Wesley and the Eighteenth Century; VHH Green, The Young Mr. Wesley; H. Lindstrom, Wesley and Sanctification; AC Outler, ed., John Wesley; M. Piette, John Wesley in the Evolution of Protestant Discipline; RG Tuttle, John Wesley, His Life and Theology; L. Tyerman, The Life and Times of The Reverend John Wesley, 3 vols.; CW Williams, John Wesley's Theology Today.傑克遜, 14卷;西鐵農,神學約翰衛斯理;民盟愛德華茲,約翰衛斯理和十八世紀; VHH綠色,年輕的韋斯利先生閣下;特羅姆,韋斯利和成聖;交流Outler ,編輯。約翰韋斯利;先生Piette ,約翰衛斯理的演變新教紀律;的RG塔特爾,約翰衛斯理,他的生活和神學;研究Tyerman ,在生活和時代的牧師約翰衛斯理, 3卷。 ;連續威廉姆斯,約翰衛斯理的神學今天。


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Wesleyan Tradition 衛斯理傳統

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