Utopianism烏托邦

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Utopianism is the ideal of a perfect, present, earthly society, organic, harmonious, virtuous, satisfying, has a lengthy history.烏托邦是理想的完善,目前,世俗社會,有機,和諧,良性,滿足了一個漫長的歷史。 As far as Christianity is concerned, where it has been conceived of as realizable at all, it has been only in the microcosm.至於基督教感到關切的是,它始終被設想為是實現所有,已不僅在縮影。 Where these tiny minorities have been sanctioned, it has stemmed from the conviction that the Holy Spirit can so bring the life of the heavenly community into this age that, with the response of a few heroic souls, something more approaching the society of the eternal state can be realized than the church has hitherto exhibited.如果這些微小的少數人已經認可的,它源於信念,聖靈可以帶來如此生活的天堂社區納入這個年齡段,隨著反應的幾個英靈,更接近社會的永恆狀態可以實現比教堂迄今展出。

These are eschatological communities, with special relation of their hope.這是末世論社區,特別是關於他們的希望。 Morally the Spirit gives particular grace to forget self and share both possessions and one's inmost spirit. The Spirit present in such measure also bestows his gifts, so that a charismatic community emerges.道義上的精神給予特別寬限期忘記自我和分享財產和一個人的內心深處的精神。目前的精神在這些措施也賦予他的禮物,使社會產生魅力。 In the dynamic phase of these communities there is frequently also an apocalytic element.在動態階段這些社區有經常也是一個apocalytic因素。 Such pouring out of the Spirit is the brief latter - rain manifestation indicating the imminence of the return of Jesus Christ and the ushering in of the supramundane community, either celestital or millennial.這些湧出的精神是短暫後者-下雨的表現,說明即將返回耶穌基督和迎接的s upramundane社會,無論是c elestital或千年。

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Abilities and skills are also given.能力和技能也考慮。 In its totality the Christian utopian community is filled with worship, and with joy that it is uniquely the dwelling place of God by the Spirit.在其全部的基督教烏托邦式的社會充滿了崇拜,並與喜悅,它是唯一的居住地上帝的精神。

In the Early and Medieval Church在早期和中世紀教堂

Monasticism has been the supreme form of Christian utopianism.修一直是最高形式的基督教烏托邦主義。 In the cloister the graces of poverty, confession, obedience, and peace are implemented.在迴廊的青睞貧窮,坦白,服從,和平得以實施。 Charismatic activity has varied greatly over the centuries, but even at its most minimal the abbot or abbess occupied a quasi - prophetic role. And there have always been those like Joachim of Fiore, in his twelfth century Sicilian cloister, who have regarded monasticism as a sign of that soon - coming age when the whole world would be a monastery.魅力活動已大不相同數百年,但即使在其最起碼的住持或住持被佔領的一個準-先知的作用。而且一直存在那些像約阿希姆的菲奧雷,在他1 2世紀西西里迴廊,誰把修道作為的跡象,很快-未來的時代,整個世界將是一個修道院。 So monasteries have been a window into and a preparation for heaven.因此,寺廟已變成一個窗口和一個籌備天堂。 As Roman Catholic monasteries have been in relationship with ecclesiastical authority, a balance has been given that has allowed this form of utopianism to survive and thrive through the centuries.正如羅馬天主教修道院一直在與教會的權威,餘額已獲准允許這種形式的烏托邦主義的生存和發展的世紀。 In the Middle Ages there were many utopian groups influenced by monasticism, but their apocalypticism frequently drove them to dissent, which tended to mark the end of the road in a closed society.在中世紀有許多烏托邦式的群體的影響修道,但其apocalypticism經常將他們持不同政見,這往往標誌著道路的盡頭在一個封閉的社會。

In the Reformation在改革

At the time of the Reformation the magisterial Protestants, in their reaction, often possessed only a moderate expectation of what the Spirit could accomplish in believers individually or corporately.當時改革的新教徒的神,他們的反應,往往只擁有適度的期望什麼精神可以完成在信徒單獨或總體。 The keynote of "O wretched man that I am," even if it should continually impel to Christ, did not radiate great anticipation, while the whole matter of the charismatic was virtually banished.主旨的“啊,可憐的人,我, ”即使它要不斷推動基督,沒有輻射偉大的預期,而整個問題的魅力幾乎消失。 As a result it was quite consistent that monasticism should be dissolved, along with any other form of utopianism.由於它是相當一致認為修道應當解散,連同其他任何形式的烏托邦主義。

Anabaptists, on the other hand, gave more indication of continuing emphases of piety which comported well with monasticism. Anabaptists ,另一方面,更表明了繼續重點虔誠的comported與修道。 This was particularly true of the Hutterites, whose communitarian structures in Moravia exhibited a family - oriented Protestant monasticism, and have continued to do so to this day on the American plains and the Canadian prairies.這一點尤其如此Hutterites ,其社區結構展示摩拉維亞一個家庭-面向新教修道,並繼續這樣做的這一天對美國平原和加拿大大草原。

As the Reformation proceeded, Calvinism embodied some of the Anabaptist concern for a disciplined life, and this came to particular expression in the English Puritans.隨著改革的進行,加爾文主義所體現的一些再洗禮派關注的一個有紀律的生活,來到這特別體現在英文清教徒。 Their intense concern with sanctification began to create a desire in some quarters for a life akin to perfection.他們強烈關注成聖開始創建一個願望在一些宿舍生活近似於完美。 Not finding these aspirations met in mainstream Protestantism, the left wing of Puritanism, during the Cromwellian interregnum, displayed a lush spiritual vegetation of utopianism.沒有找到滿足這些願望在主流新教,左翼與清教,在Cromwellian空白,展示了茂密的植被的精神烏托邦。 Perhaps the Quakers were the most moderate, believing only that means of grace and official ecclesiastical ministries were no longer necessary for those who possessed the Spirit in such immediacy and fullness.也許誼是最溫和的,相信只有這意味著寬限期和官方教會部門都不再有必要對那些誰擁有這種精神的緊迫性和豐滿。 There were also primitivists who believed that in their age of the Spirit the restrictions of private property could no longer apply, and in addition to apocalyptic Fifth Monarchy men there were antinomian Ranters, who interpreted their lack of conscience over sexual irregularities as a certain sign that they had been lifted far beyond mundane restriction into a new realm of liberty in the Spirit.也有primitivists誰相信,在其年齡的限制,精神的私有財產可能不再適用,除了世界末日第五君主立憲制男子有antinomian Ranters ,誰解釋他們缺乏良知的性的違規行為作為某些跡象他們已經解除遠遠超出了世俗的限制,進入了一個新的境界的自由精神。

How desperately a Protestant pope was needed in such a situation. But failing such a provision, the antics in these purported vestibules of heaven did little to convince Englishmen, unspiritual or simply less spiritual, that utopianism was a desirable option. Yet in spite of this reaction the longing for heaven on earth could not be entirely quenched.如何拼命新教教皇需要,在這種情況下。但是沒有這樣的規定,滑稽在這些所謂的門廊的天堂並沒有說服英國人,非精神的或者只是少精神,是烏托邦主義是一個理想的選擇。然而,儘管這反應的嚮往天堂地球上不能完全熄滅。

In Modern Times近代

The search for utopias in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries had many stimuli.尋找烏托邦晚十八和十九世紀有許多刺激。 The eighteenth century was an age of optimism; among the figures of the Enlightenment there were advocates of human perfection, and John Wesley reached back behind the Reformation and sought to rehabilitate moral perfection in his teaching on perfect love. 18世紀是一個時代的樂觀;之間的數字啟示有主張人權的完善,以及約翰衛斯理達到回背後的改革,並設法恢復道德完善的教學完美的愛情。 And of course he had Holiness descendants who believed in the ontological eradication of evil in those redeemed and sanctified.當然,他聖潔的後裔誰相信本體消滅這些邪惡的贖回和神聖。 In such a setting Shakers and the Oneida community were only the tip of the utopian iceberg.在這種環境熱點和奧奈達社會只是冰山的烏托邦式的冰山一角。

The Shakers, remembered best for their artifacts and tranquility, were so filled with the Spirit that there was neither marrying nor giving in marriage and there was open confession of sin, community of possessions, pacifism, equality of the sexes, and consecrated work.的熱點,記住最好的文物與安寧,是如此充滿了精神,有沒有結婚,也不讓在婚姻和有公開懺悔的罪惡,社會的財產,和平主義,兩性平等,和神聖的工作。 Their utopianism was also charismatic, with their dancing in the Spirit and the founder, Ann Lee, being such a unique prophet of God that she was actually the incarnation of the feminine side of deity.他們的烏托邦主義也有魅力,他們的舞蹈的精神和創始人,安李,是這樣一個獨特的先知上帝,她實際上的化身女性一側的神。 In upstate New York was the Oneida community, directed by the Andover Seminary graduate John Humphrey Noyes.在紐約州北部是奧奈達社會,指示的安多弗學院研究生約翰漢弗萊諾伊斯。 Led by the apparent success of revivalism and Christian social reform, Noyes founded a community in which the Spirit's gift of love was so all - encompassing that it had to be expressed among all, even sexually.由取得明顯的成功復興和基督教社會改革,諾伊斯成立了社區的精神的禮物的愛情是如此的所有-包括,它已成為各國表示,即使性。 Though this expression was restricted and regimented, it did not require many such instances to bring utopianism into disrepute.雖然這表達受到了限制和regimented ,它並不需要很多這樣的事例,使烏托邦主義的聲譽。 And there it languished for many years.它有折磨了許多年。

During the first two thirds of the twentieth century one of the few new and viable Christian utopian communities was the Bruderhof, which patterned much of its life after the Hutterites.在第一三分之二的二十世紀少有的幾個新的和可行的基督教烏托邦式的社區是Bruderhof ,這圖案的大部分生活在Hutterites 。 Then came the social upheaval of the late 1960s and early 70s and the emergence of the Jesus Movement.接下來是社會動盪的20世紀60年代末和70年代初,出現了耶穌運動。 Communitarian experiments multiplied.社群實驗成倍增加。 some simply existed as centers of nurture, but others shared something of the dreams of Christian utopianism.一些簡單地存在中心的培育,但其他一些共同的夢想基督教烏托邦主義。 A few, picking up the ideology of Latter Rain Pentecostalism, believed that this was the age of the manifestation of the sons of God, and that they were uniquely in the forefront of the new and glorious end - time humanity.有幾個,拿起意識形態的後期雨五旬節運動,認為這是時代的體現,上帝的兒子,而且他們獨特的前列,新的和光榮的結束-人類的時間。 Most of these communities lacked a counterbalance and quickly vanished from the scene.大多數這些社區缺乏制衡,並迅速消失現場。

But the utopian Christian continues to express his challenge: there is more, much more, of the life of God that is to be unleashed on earth.但烏托邦式的基督徒繼續表達他的挑戰:有更多,更多,生活的上帝,是地球上釋放。

IS Rennie是雷尼
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
L Bouyer, A History of Christian Spirituality; N Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium; EL Tuveson, Millennium and Utopia; W Cross, The Burned - Over District; D Hayden, Seven American Utopias; B Zablocki, The Joyful Community; C Wiesbrod, The Boundaries of Utopia. L Bouyer史基督教靈性; ñ科恩,實現千年;發光•圖文森,千年與烏托邦; W交叉,燒傷-超過區; D海登,七美國烏托邦;乙Z ablocki,在歡樂的共同體; ç W iesbrod的邊界烏托邦。


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