Ultramontanism

General Information 一般信息

Ultramontanism (from Latin, meaning "beyond the mountains"; specifically, beyond the Alps, in Rome) refers to the position of those Roman Catholics who historically have emphasized the importance of centralized papal authority over the authority of kings and regional ecclesiastical hierarchies . Ultramontanism (來自拉丁文,意思是“超越了山岳” ;具體地說,超出了阿爾卑斯山,在羅馬)指的立場,這些羅馬天主教徒誰歷來強調,必須集中教皇權力的權威,國王和地區教會的等級。 It was often used in opposition to such nationalist positions as Gallicanism (France), Josephinism (Austria), or Febronianism (Germany), which favored strong national churches, and to Conciliarism, which subordinated the pope's authority to that of a council of bishops.這是經常被用來反對這種民族主義的立場Gallicanism (法國) , Josephinism (奧地利) ,或Febronianism (德國) ,其中有強有力的國家教會,並Conciliarism ,其中服從教宗的權力,是一個國家的主教。

From the 17th century, ultramontanism became closely associated with the attitude of the Society of Jesus as elucidated by theologians such as Francisco Suarez.從17世紀,成為ultramontanism密切相關的態度耶穌會的神學解釋,如弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯。 Among the basic tenets of ultramontanism were the superiority of popes over councils and kings, even in temporal questions, the primacy of the popes over all other bishops, and, in some cases, papal infallibility in matters of faith and morals.其中的基本原則是ultramontanism的優越性教皇在議會和國王,即使在時間上的問題,至高無上的教皇超過所有其他主教,並在某些情況下,教皇的事項犯錯誤的信念和道德。 The ultramontanists attained their greatest triumph in the late 19th century with the formal proclamation (1870) of papal primacy and Infallibility.該ultramontanists實現其最大的勝利在19世紀後期正式宣布( 1870年)的羅馬教皇的首要和犯錯誤。

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Ultramontanism

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Ultramontanism means literally "beyond the mountains" (Alps), the term usually refers to a movement within the Roman Catholic Church in the nineteenth century that opposed conciliar and nationalist decentralization and advocated centralization of power in the papacy in order to restore the spiritual vigor of the church. Ultramontanism手段字面“超越了山岳” (阿爾卑斯山) ,任期通常是指一個運動的羅馬天主教教會在十九世紀,反對conciliar和民族權力下放和主張集權的教皇,以恢復精神活力教堂。 The concept itself actually dates from the Middle Ages, when the papacy sought increased power in order to free itself from secular control, as in the investiture controversy of the eleventh century, a movement which some call "old ultramontanism."這一概念本身實際上追溯到中世紀,當教皇尋求更多的功耗,以擺脫世俗的控制,如在investiture爭議的11世紀,一個運動的一些所謂的“老ultramontanism 。 ” Coined as a term of derision in the seventeenth century, "ultramontanism" was resurrected in the post - Napoleonic era to refer to an attempt spearheaded by French Catholic romantics to terminate the influence of Enlightenment rationalism and secular governments in church affairs and to restore papal power, a movement which some call "new ultramontanism."憑藉作為一個長期的嘲笑在十七世紀, “ ultramontanism ”是復活後-拿破崙時代提及率先嘗試由法國天主教浪漫終止的影響,啟蒙理性和世俗政府在教會事務,並恢復教皇的權力一個運動的一些所謂的“新ultramontanism 。 ”

However, it was in Germany that the movement became political and eventually touched off the Kulturkampf, literally the "struggle for civilization", between the papacy and the German government led by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck.但是,在德國,該運動成為政治,並最終引發了Kulturkampf ,字面上的“文明的鬥爭” ,與教皇和德國政府總理為首的奧托馮俾斯麥。 The conflict was brief but bitter, beginning in the 1860s and ending by 1890.衝突是短暫而痛苦的,從19世紀60年代和結束的1890年。 Diplomatic relations between Germany and the Vatican were restored in 1880, and most of the laws passed against Catholics during the period were repealed by 1886.外交關係,德國和梵蒂岡恢復於1880年,多數通過的法律對天主教徒期間被廢除了1886年。

The movement aided and abetted the growing administrative authority of the popes and the tightening of the hierachical structure of the church under their direction.運動協助及教唆他人日益增長的行政權力的教皇和緊縮的分級結構根據其教堂的方向發展。 Ultramontanists everywhere applauded such unilateral papal acts as the declaration of the immaculate conception in 1854 and the promulgation of the Syllabus of Errors in 1864. Ultramontanists到處讚揚教皇的這種單方面行為的宣言完美無暇的概念,並於1854年頒布的教學大綱的錯誤於1864年。 The movement culminated with Vatican I in 1869 - 70 and its decree of papal infallibility.該運動最終與梵蒂岡I在1869年至1870年和教皇的法令犯錯誤。

Even though Vatican II (1962 - 65) reaffirmed papal infallibility, it also weakened ultramontanism with its approval of an increased role in ecclesiastical affairs for the college of bishops and a greater voice for the laity in congregational life.儘管梵蒂岡第二( 1962年至1965年)重申教皇犯錯誤,但它也削弱了其ultramontanism批准增加的作用,教會事務學院的主教和更大的發言權的俗人在公理的生活。 On the other hand, the tone of the papacy since John Paul II took office in 1978 has been one of reassertion of the ultramontane principles of centralization of power and strong papal leadership.另一方面,調以來的教皇約翰保羅二世上任於1978年一直是重申了ultramontane原則集權和強大的羅馬教皇的領導。 It remains to be seen if a revitalized ultramontanism will emerge in Catholicism at large.還有待觀察,如果一個振興ultramontanism將出現在天主教在逃。

RD Linder路林德
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
EEY Hales, Pio Nono: A Study in European Politics and Religion in the Nineteenth Century and Papacy and Revolution, 1769 - 1846; AR Vidler, The Church in an Age of Revolution; AMJ Kloosterman, Contemporary Catholicism; DJ Holmes, The Triumph of the Holy See; P Hebblethwaite, The New Inquisition? EEY黑爾斯,皮奧諾諾:研究在歐洲政治和宗教在十九世紀教皇革命, 1769年至1846年;受體維德勒,教會時代的革命; AMJ Kloosterman ,當代天主教;的DJ霍姆斯的勝利羅馬教廷; P Hebblethwaite ,新的調查?


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