Trappists, Cistercians of the Strict Observance Trappists ,熙嚴格遵守

General Information 一般信息

Trappists is the popular name for members of the Roman Catholic order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance, which traces its beginnings back to the reforms introduced (1664) by Armand Jean le Bouthillier de Rance (1626 - 1700) at the monastery of La Trappe near Seez, France. Trappists是常用的名字成員的羅馬天主教秩序熙嚴格遵守,這些一開始痕跡返回實行的改革( 1664年)由阿爾芒讓樂Bouthillier德河( 1626年至1700年)在寺院附近的香格里拉大黴Seez ,法國。 He stressed the penitential aspect of monasticism - little food, no meat, hard manual labor, and strict silence.他強調,悔罪方面的修道-小食品,沒有肉,艱苦的體力勞動,並嚴格保持沉默。 Eventually these measures were adopted by other Cistercian monasteries.這些措施最終通過了其他修道院寺廟。 Expelled from France during the French Revolution, the La Trappe community survived as exiles under Dom Augustine de Lestrange.法國驅逐出境期間,法國大革命,在香格里拉大黴社會生存的流亡者奧古斯丁大教堂下的萊斯特蘭奇。 They returned to La Trappe in 1815.他們返回香格里拉大黴於1815年。

In the mid 20th century the Trappists increased in membership, particularly in the United States.在20世紀中期的Trappists增加成員,尤其是在美國。 One influential member was the writer Thomas Merton.一個有影響力的成員是作家托馬斯默頓。 The Trappist monks and nuns, who wear a white habit with black scapular, now have about 70 abbeys worldwide.在特拉普僧侶和尼姑,誰穿白色與黑色的習慣肩胛骨,現在有大約70修道院世界各地。

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Bibliography 目錄
AJ Krailsheimer, Armand - Jean de Rance: Abbot of La Trappe (1974); L Lekai, Cistercians: Ideals and Reality (1977); T Merton, The Silent Life (1957); MB Pennington, The Monastic Way (1990).歐塞爾Krailsheimer ,阿爾芒-讓德河:艾博特的香格里拉大黴( 1 974年) ; L樂凱,熙:理想與現實( 1 977年) ; Ť默頓,沉默的生命( 1 957年) ;甲基溴寧頓,該寺院之路( 1 990年) 。


Trappists

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The common name by which the Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de Rancé (b. 1626; d. 1700) in the Abbey of La Trappe, were known; and often now applied to the entire Order of Reformed Cistercians.共同的名字,其中熙誰後續改革落成的住持德河(灣1626 ; d. 1700 )在修道院的香格里拉黴,都是眾所周知的; ,往往現在適用於整個改革秩序熙。 Thus it cannot be said that there is an Order of Trappists; though if one were to speak of Trappist monks, he would be understood to refer to monks of the Order of Reformed Cistercians, as distinguished from the Order of Cistercians of the common Observance (see Cistercians and La Trappe).因此,不能說,有一個令Trappists ;但如果一個人講特拉普和尚,他將被理解為是指僧侶的命令歸正熙,作為區別於秩序熙共同遵守(見熙和香格里拉大黴) 。 The primitive austerities of the cistercians had fallen into desuetude in practically the entire order principally through the introduction of commendatory abbots, political disturbances, and human inconstancy; and though many and very praiseworthy attempts at their restoration had been made in France, Spain, Germany, Italy, Portugal, etc., yet these were but local or at most national in extent.原始austerities的熙已落入廢止幾乎在整個秩序主要是通過引進褒義詞abbots ,政治動亂,以及人力易變;雖然很多,非常值得稱道的企圖恢復他們已經取得了在法國,西班牙,德國,意大利,葡萄牙等,但這些人,但當地或在大多數國家的程度。 That of de Rancé, however, was destined by Divine Providence to be more enduring and of wider scope than any other.即由朗斯然而,注定了神聖的普羅維登斯更持久和更廣泛的範圍比其他任何。 Although the Abbey of La Trappe flourished exceedingly, even after the death of its venerated reformer, as evidenced by more than 300 professions between the years 1714 and 1790, yet the spirit of materialism and sensualism rampant in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, did not permit the rapid extension of the reform outside its walls; it did not even allow the entire severity of ancient Cîteaux to be introduced at La Trappe, though this reform was the most thorough and perfect of the many attempts that had then been made.雖然修道院香格里拉大黴蓬勃發展極,甚至去世後,其供養的改革者,證明了300多個專業的1714年和1790年,但精神的唯物論和感覺論猖獗的第十七和十八世紀,不容許迅速延伸的改革牆壁以外,它甚至沒有讓整個古代的嚴重性Cîteaux將在香格里拉介紹了黴,但這項改革是最徹底和完善了許多嘗試,然後了。 Consequently it founded but a small number of monasteries; these were: Buon-Solazzo, hear Florence (1705), and St. Vito at Rome (1709); Casamari, in the Papal States, was obliged to adopt the Constitutions of de Rancé (1717), but for nearly a century there was no further expansion.因此,成立,但少量的寺廟,這些是:奔,索拉佐,聽取佛羅倫薩( 1705年) ,和聖維托在羅馬( 1709 ) ; Casamari ,在教皇國,不得不通過憲法的朗斯( 1717 ) ,但近一個世紀以來,沒有進一步擴大。 It was from the time of these earliest foundations that they who embraced de Rancés reform were called Trappists.這是從這些時間最早的基金會,他們誰擁護德Rancés改革被稱為Trappists 。 Too much credit cannot be given to these noble bands of monks, who by their lives demonstrated to a corrupt world that man could have a higher ambition than the gratification of the mere natural instincts of this ephemeral life.太多的信貸不能給這些崇高帶的僧侶,誰的生活表明,一個腐敗的世界,人可以有更高的野心比滿足僅僅是自然的本能,這短暫的生命。

At the time of the Revolution, when the monastery of La Trappe, in common with all others, was ordered to be confiscated by the Government, the people of the neighbourhood petitioned that an exception be made in their favour, and the Trappists themselves, encouraged by this, addressed a memorial to the National Assembly and the king considered the matter for nearly a year, but finally decided that they should be despoiled like the others.在時間上的革命,當寺院香格里拉黴,與所有其他人,被下令予以沒收,由政府,人民的請願居民區,一個例外情況,作出有利於自己,並Trappists自己,鼓舞由這一點,給紀念館的國民議會和國王審議該事項將近一年,但最終決定,他們應像掠奪等等。 com augustine de Lestrange (b. 1754; d. 1827, see Lestrange), vicar-general of the Archdiocese of Vienna, had entered La Trappe (1780) in order to escape the burden of the episcopate.奧古斯丁的COM的萊斯特蘭奇(灣1754 ; d. 1827年,見萊斯特蘭奇) ,副主教總教區的維也納,已進入香格里拉大黴( 1780 )為了逃避的負擔主教。 He it was whom God had raised up to preserve the Trappists when so direly threatened with extinction; he resolved, therefore, to expatriate himself for the welfare of his order.他是神人提出了高達維護Trappists如此direly瀕臨滅絕;他解決,因此,外籍自己的福利,他的命令。 Having been elected superior of those who were of the same mind, and with the permission of his higher superiors, he left La Trappe 26 april, 1791, with twenty-four religious, and established a monastery at Val-Sainte, Canton of Fribourg, Switzerland.在被選出的優秀者誰是同樣的考慮,並徵得他的更高的上級,他離開香格里拉大黴1791年4月26日,與2004年的宗教,並建立了一個修道院在河谷聖,廣東的弗里堡,瑞士。 Here they had much to suffer besides the rigour of their rule, for their monastery (which had formerly belonged to the Carthusians) was an unroofed ruin; they were in want of the very necessities of life, not even having the meagre requirements they were accustomed to.在這裡,他們有很多遭受除了嚴格的規則,他們的修道院(先前屬於Carthusians )是一個屋頂廢墟;他們想的非常的生活必需品,甚至有微薄的經費,他們習慣於至。

In France the Revolution was taking its course.在法國革命正在其課程。 On 3 June, 1792, the commissioners of the Government arrived at La Trappe, took the sacred vessels and vestments, as well as everything moveable, and obliged the eighty-nine religious yet remaining to abandon their abbey and find a home as best they could; some in other monasteries, and others in charitable families of the neighbourhood. 6月3日, 1792年,委員們對政府抵達香格里拉大黴了神聖的船隻和法衣,以及一切動產,並迫使89宗教其餘尚未放棄自己的修道院,並找到最好的家,他們可以一些在其他寺廟,和其他慈善家人鄰里。 At Val-Sainte, whilst celebrating the feast of St. Stephen, the religious resolved to put into practice the exact and literal observance of the Rule of St. Benedict, and three days afterwards, 19 July, they began the new reform; establishing the order of exercises prescribed by the holy patriarch, as well as all the primitive fasts, together with the first usages of Cîteaux; even making their rule still more severe in many points.在河谷聖,而慶祝的節日聖士提反,宗教決心付諸實踐的確切文字和遵守規則的聖本篤,三天之後, 7月19日,他們開始新的改革;建立為了演習明的神聖家長,以及所有的原始齋戒,連同第一次的慣例Cîteaux ;甚至使他們的統治更嚴重的仍然在許多分。 They entered upon their new mode of life with a fervour that exceeded discretion and had soon to be moderated.他們進入其新模式生活,熱情超出自由裁量權,並很快將放緩。 Even in their exile many subjects were attracted to them, so that they were enabled to send religious to found several new monasteries: one in Spain (1793), a second in England at Lulworth the same year, a third at Westmalle, Belgium (1794), and a fourth at Mont-Brac, in Piedmont (1794).即使在其流亡許多議題吸引了他們,使他們能夠派宗教,以發現一些新的寺廟:一個在西班牙( 1793年) ,第二次在英格蘭拉爾沃思同年,第三次在Westmalle ,比利時( 1794 ) ,以及第四蒙曼布拉克,在皮埃蒙特( 1794 ) 。 On 31 July, 1794, Pius VI encouraged these religious by a special Brief, and authorized the erection of Val-Sainte into an abbey and mother-house of the congregation of Trappists.在1794年7月31日,皮烏斯第六鼓勵這些宗教的一個特別淺,並授權架設纈氨酸聖成和母親的修道院內部的聚集Trappists 。 Dom Augustine was elected abbot, 27 Nov. of this year, and given supreme authority over the abbey and congregation.奧古斯丁大教堂被選為住持, 11月27日,今年並給予最高權力機構的修道院和教會。 This state of quiet and prosperity lasted but six years.這種安靜和持續繁榮,但6年。 When the French invaded Switzerland (1798) they compelled the Trappists to find a refuge elsewhere; thus they were obliged to roam from country to country, even Russia and America being visited by the indomitable abbot and some of his companions, with the hope of finding a permanent home, until after almost incredible sufferings the fall of Napoleon permitted them to return to France.當法國入侵瑞士( 1798年) ,他們迫使Trappists找到一個避難別處;因此,他們不得不從漫遊國家,甚至俄羅斯和美國正在訪問的不屈不撓的住持和他的一些同伴,希望找到一個永久的家,直到幾乎難以置信的痛苦秋季拿破崙允許他們返回法國。 The monasteries of La Trappe and Aiguebelle came into the possess ion of Dom Augustine, who divided the community of Val-Sainte between them.該寺院的香格里拉大黴和艾格貝勒走進擁有離子奧古斯丁大教堂,誰分裂社會的纈氨酸聖它們之間。 Other monasteries were re-established from time to time, as the number of religious increased and as they were able to purchase the buildings.其他寺廟重新設立時,由於一些宗教增加,因為他們能夠購買的建築物。

From 1813 N.-D.從1813年N.-D. de l'Eternite, near Darfeld, Westphalia (founded 16 Oct., 1795, from the Abbey of Val-Sainte), which had been exempted some years previous from the authority of Dom Augustine, followed the Regulations of de Rancé, which differed from those of Dom Augustine principally in the hour for dinner, and the length of time devoted to manual labour; their order of exercises was naturally followed by the houses founded by them, thus instituting a new observance and the nucleus of a congregation.法國Eternite ,近Darfeld ,威斯特伐利亞(成立1795年十月十六日,從修道院的纈氨酸聖) ,已免除一些年前由權威的奧古斯丁大教堂之後,條例的朗斯,這不同於這些奧古斯丁大教堂主要是在晚餐時間,和時間用於手工勞動;他們為了演習自然之後成立的房屋由它們,從而建立一個新的遵守和核心聚集。 In 1834 the Holy See erected all the monasteries of France into the "Congregation of the Cistercian Monks of Notre-Dame de la Trappe".在1834年羅馬教廷豎立所有的寺廟,法國的“天主教修道院的僧侶的聖母院法語黴” 。 The Abbot of La Trappe was by right the vicar-general of the congregation as soon as his election was confirmed by the president-general of the Order of Cîteaux.該住持的香格里拉大黴是由權利的副主教,一般的聚集盡快當選證實了布什總統提出的命令Cîteaux 。 They were to hold a general chapter each year; were to follow the Rule of St. Benedict and the Constitutions of de Rancé, except for a few points, and retain the liturgical books of the Cistercian Order.他們舉行一般性章每年要遵循規律的聖本篤和憲法的朗斯,除了幾個百分點,並保留禮儀的書籍,修道院令。 Divergences of opinion on several matters concerning regular observance induced the abbots of the various monasteries to believe that this union could not be productive of that peace so much desired, and so at their solicitation the Holy See issued a new Decree, deciding that "All the monasteries of Trappists in France shall form two congregations, of which the former will be termed 'the Ancient Reform of Our Lady of La Trappe', and the second the 'New Reform of Our Lady of La Trappe'. Each shall be a congregation of the Cistercian Monks. The Ancient Reform is to follow the Constitutions of de Rancé, whilst the New Reform is not to follow the Constitutions of the Abbot de Lestrange, which it abandoned in 1834, but the Rule of St. Benedict, with the ancient Constitution of Cîteaux, as approved by the Holy See excepting the prescriptions contained in this Decree. The Moderator General of the Cistercian Order shall be at the head of both congregations and will confirm the election of all abbots. In France each congregation shall have its vicar-general with full authority for its administration" (Apostolic Decree, 25 Feb., 1847).意見分歧的若干事項定期遵守誘導abbots各寺廟相信這個工會不能生產的,和平如此渴望,因此在其招標羅馬教廷頒布了一項新的法令,決定, “所有的寺院的Trappists在法國應形成兩個教區,其中前者將被稱為'古代改革聖母香格里拉大黴' ,第二次的'改革的新聖母香格里拉大黴。每個應是一個聚集在修道院僧侶。古代改革是按照憲法的朗斯,而新的改革不是按照憲法的住持德萊斯特蘭奇,它被遺棄在1834年,但規則的聖本篤,與古老的憲法的Cîteaux ,核准的除外羅馬教廷的處方載於本法令。主持人一般的修道院秩序應在頭兩個教區和將確認選舉的所有abbots 。在法國每個教會應有其副主教-一般具有充分權力的政府“ (使徒法令, 1847年2月25日) 。

After this the congregations began to flourish.在這個教會開始蓬勃發展。 The Ancient Reform made fourteen foundations, some of them in China and Natal; the New Reform was even more fruitful, establishing twenty monasteries as far as the United States, Canada, Syria, etc. The Belgian congregation of Westmalle also prospered, forming five new filiations.古代改革取得14基金會,其中一些在中國和納塔爾;新的改革是更加豐碩的成果,建立21寺廟而言,美國,加拿大,敘利亞,比利時等聚集Westmalle還繁榮,形成五個新filiations 。 As the combined strength of the three congregations thus became greater than the Old Cistercian Order, the earnest desire soon developed amongst all to establish a permanent bond of union between them, with one head and a uniform observance; this was effected in 1892.隨著綜合實力的三個教區從而成為大於老修道院命令,真誠希望盡快在所有發達國家建立一個常設債券工會它們之間,其中一人頭部和一個統一的遵守,這是在1892年生效。 Dom Sebastian Wyart (b. 1839; d. 1904), Abbot of Sept-Fons and Vicar-General of the Ancient Reform, was elected first abbot-general.大教堂塞巴斯蒂安Wyart (灣1839年; d. 1904年) ,住持的9月,馮和牧師的古代改革,被選為第一住持,一般。 After twelve years of zealous labour, the most worthy monument of which was the purchase of the cradle of the Order, Cîteaux, and making it again the mother-house, he passed to his reward, and was succeeded as abbot-general by Mgr Augustin Marre, then Abbot of Igny (a monastery which he had governed since 1881), titular Bishop of Constance and auxiliary to Cardinal Langénieux of Reims; he is still ruling the order (1911), with the greatest zeal and prudence. 12年後,熱心的勞動,最值得紀念碑的是購買的搖籃秩序, Cîteaux ,並使其再次母親家,他通過他的獎勵,並成功地為住持,一般由主教奧古斯丁Marre ,然後住持伊尼(修道院這是他自1881年管轄) ,領銜主教康斯和輔助紅衣主教Langénieux蘭斯,他仍然是執政黨的命令( 1911年) ,以最大的熱情和謹慎。

The name under which the order was reorganized is "Order of Reformed Cistercians" and while its members no longer bear the name of "Trappists", yet they are heirs to the old traditions, and even the name will continue to be connected with them in the popular mind.的名稱下,以重組是“訂單革新熙”和而其成員不再承擔“的名義Trappists ” ,但他們繼承了老傳統,甚至名字將繼續與他們流行的想法。 The present Constitutions (approved 13 Aug. 1894) under which the order is governed and upon which all the usages and regulations are based, is derived from the Rule of St. Benedict, the "Charta Charitatis" and ancient usages and definitions of the general chapters of Cîteaux, and the Apostolic Letters and Constitutions.本憲法(批准1894年8月13日)根據該命令,並根據管轄的所有慣例和法規的基礎,是源於規則街篤的“憲章Charitatis ”和古老的用法和定義,一般章Cîteaux和使徒書信和憲法。 It is divided into three parts.它分為三個部分。 The first part regards the government of the order; the supreme power residing in the general chapter, which is composed of all the abbots (actually in office), titular priors and superiors of houses, and meets each year under the presidency of the abbot-general, who is elected by themselves for life. During the time the general chapter is not in session the order is directed, in urgent cases, by the abbot-general with the assistance of a council composed of five definitors, also elected by the general chapter, but for a term of five years.第一部分是關於政府的命令;的最高權力居住在一般章,這是組成所有abbots (實際上在辦公室) ,名義上的先驗和上級的房屋,並每年舉行會議的主持下的住持,總體而言,誰當選了自己的生命。時期的一般章不開會命令指示,在緊急情況下,由住持總的協助下組成的安理會五個definitors ,還選出了由一般第一章,但任期為五年。 The abbot-general is titular Abbot of Cîteaux, and must reside at Rome. The order is not divided into provinces, nor is there an officer similar to a provincial.的住持,一般是名義上的住持Cîteaux ,必須居住在羅馬。順序不是分為省,也沒有類似的官員一個省。 Each monastery is autonomous and maintains its own novitiate; its abbot or titular prior appointing all local subordinate superiors, and having full administration in both spiritual and temporal affairs.每個修道院是自主和保持自己的見習;其住持或掛名任命之前所有地方服從上級,並全面管理這兩個精神和世俗事務。 Nevertheless each monastery has the duty of visiting all the houses it has founded, either once each year, or once every two years, according to distance, and then rendering a report of its material and spiritual well-being to the next subsequent general-chapter.然而每個寺院有責任訪問所有的房屋已經成立,無論是每年一次,或者每兩年一次,根據距離,然後繪製一份報告,其物質文明和精神文明的福祉下一以後一般章。 The abbot of such a monastery is called the father-immediate, and the houses thus subject are termed "daughter-houses" or filiations.該住持的修道院這樣一個所謂的父親立即和房屋因此受到被稱為“女兒家”或filiations 。 It is especially prescribed that all houses be dedicated to the Blessed Virgin.這是特別訂明,所有的房屋是專為聖母。

The second part is concerned with monastic observances; which must be uniform in all the monasteries of the order.第二部分是有關寺院的紀念活動;必須統一在所有寺廟的秩序。 The Divine Office must be sung or recited in choir according to the directions of the Breviary, Missal, Ritual and Martyrology, no matter how few may be the number of religious in a particular house; the canonical Office is always preceded (except at Compline, when it is followed) by the Office of the Blessed Virgin; and on all ferial days throughout the year Vespers and Lauds are followed by the Office of the Dead.神必須在辦公室或背誦星合唱團在按照指示的祈禱, Missal ,禮儀和Martyrology ,不管多麼少數可能是一些宗教在某一特定房子;規範辦公室總是先(除在Compline ,當它是其次)辦事處的聖母;和所有ferial天全年晚禱和讚揚其次是辦公室的死海。 Mass and the day Offices are always sung with the Gregorian Chant; Matins and Lauds also are sung on Sundays and the more solemn feasts.質量和辦事處每天總是唱的格里高利聖歌; Matins和讚揚也有唱,星期日和更莊嚴的節日。 Mental prayer, one half-hour in the morning, and fifteen minutes in the evening, is of obligation, but of counsel much more frequently.心理祈禱,一個半小時,在上午和15分鐘晚上,是義務,但律師更加頻繁。 Confession must be made once each week, and daily Holy Communion is strongly commended.懺悔必須每星期一次,並每天聖餐強烈讚揚。 Out of the time of Divine Office, before which nothing is to be preferred, and when not engaged in manual labour, the monks devote themselves to prayer, study, or pious reading, for there is never any time granted for recreation; these exercises always take place in common, never in private rooms.輸出的時間神聖的辦公室之前,這沒有什麼是首選,如果不從事體力勞動,僧侶投身祈禱,學習,或虔誠的閱讀,因為從來沒有任何時候給予的娛樂;這些演習總是在共同的,從來沒有在私人房間。 The hour for rising is at 2 am on weekdays, 1:30 on Sundays, and 1 on the more solemn feasts; whilst the hour for retiring is at 7 pm in winter, and 8 in summer; in this latter season there is a siesta given after dinner, so that the religious have seven hours' sleeping the course of the day; about seven hours also are devoted to the Divine Office and Mass, one hour to meals, four hours to study and private prayers and five hours to manual labour; in winter there are only about four hours devoted to manual labour, the extra hour thus deducted being given to study.在一小時內上升是凌晨2時平日,週日1:30和1對更莊嚴的節日;小時,而退休是下午7時在冬季和夏季8 ;後者在本賽季有午睡由於晚飯後,這樣的宗教有七個小時的睡眠過程中,每天大約7小時還專門神聖的辦公室和質量,一小時,吃飯, 4個小時的研究和私人祈禱和5小時的體力勞動;在冬天,只有大約4個小時的討論體力勞動,額外的時間因此扣除正在考慮研究。

The monks are obliged to live by the labour of their hands, so the task appointed for manual labour is seriously undertaken, and is of such a nature as to render them self-supporting; such as cultivation of the land, cattle-raising, etc.僧侶不得不靠勞動的雙手,所以任務任命的體力勞動正在認真開展的,是這樣一個性質,使他們自我支持;如種植的土地,家畜養殖等。 Dinner is partaken of at 11 am in summer, at 11:30 in winter, and at 12 on fast days, with supper or collation in the evening.晚餐是partaken的上午11時在夏季,在冬季11:30 ,並在12快速天,吃晚飯,或整理在晚上。 Food consists of bread, vegetables, and fruits; milk and cheese may also be given except in Advent, Lent, and all Fridays out of Paschal time.食品包括麵包,蔬菜和水果;奶粉和乾酪還可以考慮除了在降臨,大齋期,所有星期五的復活節時間。 flesh-meat, fish, and eggs are forbidden at all times, except to the sick.肉,肉,魚,雞蛋被禁止在任何時候,除非生病。 All sleep in a common dormitory, the beds being divided from each other only by a partition and curtain, the bed to consist of mattress and pillow stuffed with straw, and sufficient covering.所有睡在一個共同的寢室,床鋪被分為彼此只有一個分區和窗簾,床組成的床墊和枕頭塞滿了稻草,和足夠的覆蓋。 The monks are obliged to sleep in their regular clothing; which consists of ordinary underwear, a habit of white, and a scapular of black wool, with a leathern cincture; the cowl, of the same material as the habit, is worn over all.僧侶不得不睡在其經常衣物;其中包括普通的內衣,習慣的白色,和一個肩胛骨的黑毛,皮與帶;的整流罩,同樣的材料的習慣,是對所有破舊。

Enclosure, according to canon law, is perpetual in all houses.圈地,根據教會法,是永久的在所有的房屋。 It is never allowed for the religious to speak amongst themselves, though the one in charge of a work or employment may give necessary directions; and all have the right of conversing with the superiors at any time except during the night hours, called the "great silence".這是決不允許的宗教講他們之間,雖然一個負責的工作或就業的可給予必要的方向;和所有有權利的交談與上司在任何時候,除非在夜間小時,被稱為“偉大的沉默“ 。

Studies研究

Before ordination to the priesthood (and all choir religious are destined for that) the monk must pass a satisfactory examination before the abbot, in the curriculum prescribed by the order and the Decrees of the Holy See; and afterwards all are obliged to participate in conferences on theology and Sacred Scriptures at least once each month.在協調的神父(和所有合唱團的宗教注定為)和尚必須通過一個令人滿意的考試前的住持,在課程中所訂明的命令和法令的羅馬教廷和事後都必須參加會議關於神學和神聖的聖經,至少每月一次。 Students preparing for ordination are granted extra time, during the hours of work, for the prosecution of their studies.學生準備協調給予額外的時間,在工作時間,為起訴他們的學業。

The third part deals with the reception of subjects.第三部分涉及的是接待問題。 The greatest care is insisted on to see that the postulants are of good character, honest birth, and without encumbrances of any kind; also that they have pursued the course of studies prescribed by the Holy See; they must have attained at least their fifteenth year.最大的服務是堅持地看到, postulants的良好品格,誠實出生,未經抵押權和任何種類的;還,他們追求的過程中所訂明的研究羅馬教廷;他們必須達到至少他們第十五年。 The novitiate is of two years' duration, during which time the novice is formed to the religious life, but he can leave, or the superior may send him away, if he is unable or unwilling to conform to the spirit of his vocation.是的見習兩年的時間,在這段時間裡新手組成的宗教生活,但他可以離開,或上級可派他帶走,如果他不能或不願以符合他的精神使命。 The time of probation completed, the subject is voted for, and if accepted, makes simple, but perpetual vows; these are followed by solemn vows at the end of three, or in special cases, five years.時間的試用完成,主題是投票,如果接受,使簡單,但永遠誓言;這些都是其次是莊嚴的誓言在3月底,或在特殊情況下,五年。 Besides choir religious there are lay brothers.合唱團除了有宗教奠定兄弟。 These must be at least seventeen years of age when received; they are then postulants for two years, novices for two more, after which they may be admitted to simple, though perpetual vows, then after six years more they may make solemn vows.這些必須至少十七年的年齡在收到時,它們是那麼postulants兩年,生手兩年後,他們可能被接納為簡單的,但永遠誓言,然後經過6年多,他們可能使莊嚴的誓言。 They do not recite the Divine Office, but have special prayers appointed to be said at the same hours throughout the day.他們不念神廳,但有特殊的祈禱任命應該說在同分在一整天。 They are not obliged to follow special studies, but are engaged in manual labour for a somewhat longer time than the choir religious; their habit is nearly the same as that of those in the choir, but brown in colour.他們不是必須遵守的特別研究,但從事體力勞動的較長時間比宗教合唱團,他們的習慣幾乎是一樣的人合唱團,但棕色。 They are religious in the full sense of the word, and participate in all the graces and privileges of the order, except that they have neither active nor passive voice in the management of the affairs of the order.他們是宗教在充分意義上的字,並參加所有的青睞和特權的命令,但他們既不積極,也不被動語態的管理事務的秩序。

It may be well to deny a few customs that have been attributed, by ignorance, to the order.可以很好地否認一些習俗已歸入,由無知,該命令。 The monks do not salute one another by the "memento mori", nor do they dig a part of their grave each day; in meeting each other they salute by an inclination of the head, and graves are dug only after a brother is ready to be placed in it.僧侶不向彼此的“紀念品家蠶” ,也沒有挖的一部分,其嚴重的每一天;在滿足對方,他們表示敬意的傾斜的頭部,並挖掘墳墓之後才兄弟準備放在它。 (For statistics see Cistercians.) (見統計熙) 。

Publication information Written by Edmond M. Obrecht.出版信息撰稿愛德蒙先生Obrecht 。 Transcribed by Lois Tesluk. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.轉錄的洛伊絲Tesluk 。天主教百科全書,卷十五。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 12年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

Gaillardin, Les trappistes ou l'order de Cîteaux au XIXe. Gaillardin ,法國歐萊雅trappistes或以德Cîteaux太子港XIXe 。 (siecle Paris, 1844); Hist. (世紀末巴黎, 1844年) ;組織胺。 populaire de N.-D.人民的N.-D. de la Grande Trappe (Paris, 1895); La Trappe , by a Trappist of Sept-Fons (Paris, 1870); VErite, Cîteaux, La Trappe et Bellefontaine (Paris, 1883); The Cistercian Order, its Object; its Rule (Cambridge, 1895); La Trappe, congregation de moines de l'ordre benedictino-cistercien (Rome 1864); MPP, La Trappe mieux connue (Paris, 1834); Reglements de la Maison Dieu de No.-D.德拉魯阿大黴(巴黎, 1895年) ;香格里拉大黴,由特拉普的9月,馮(巴黎, 1870年) ;真理, Cîteaux ,香格里拉大黴等貝爾方丹(巴黎, 1883年) ;秩序的修道院,其對象;其規則(劍橋, 1895年) ;香格里拉大黴,眾德梅因治安隊benedictino - cistercien (羅馬1864年) ; MPP系統,香格里拉大黴mieux connue (巴黎, 1834年) ; Reglements德拉魯阿家上帝的No.-D. de la Trappe mis en nouvel order et augmentes des usages particuliers de la Val-Sainte (2 vols., Fribourg, 1794); Hist.德拉魯阿黴錯恩諾維爾秩序等augmentes萬慣例particuliers德拉魯阿纈氨酸聖( 2第一卷和第二卷。 ,弗里堡, 1794 ) ;組織胺。 abregee de l'order de Cîteaux by a monk of Thymadeuse (St-Brieue, 1897); Us des cisterciens reformes de la congregation de la Grande Trappe, with the Charta Charitatis and Decretum Apostolicum quo institutae sunt dua congregationes BM de Trappa in Gallia, 1847 (Toulouse, 1876); Us de l'ordre des cisterciens reformes precedes de la regle de S. Benoit et des constitutions, published by the general chapter of 1894 (Westmalle, 1895); Reglement de la Trappe du Rev. Pere Dom Armand-Jean le Bouthillier de Rancé, revu par le chapitre general de la congregation (Paris, 1878). abregee法國德Cîteaux為了一個和尚的Thymadeuse (聖Brieue , 1897年) ;我們公司cisterciens reformes德拉魯阿眾德拉魯阿大黴,與憲章Charitatis和教令Apostolicum現狀institutae必須遵守杜阿congregationes骨髓的Trappa在高盧, 1847年(圖盧茲, 1876年) ;我們治安隊之cisterciens reformes之前德拉魯阿regle德等美國伯努瓦萬憲法,出版的一般章1894 ( Westmalle , 1895年) ; Reglement德拉魯阿黴杜牧師教堂神甫阿曼德讓樂Bouthillier的朗斯, revu桿樂chapitre一般德拉魯阿眾(巴黎, 1878年) 。


Also, see:此外,見:
Religious Orders 宗教訂單
Franciscans
Jesuits 耶穌
Benedictines
Cistercians
Christian Brothers 基督教兄弟
Dominicans 多米尼加
Carmelites Carmelites
Discalced Carmelites Discalced Carmelites
Augustinians 奧古斯丁
Marist Brothers 聖母兄弟會

Nuns 修女
Friars 修士
Convent 修道院
Ministry
Major Orders 大訂單
Holy Orders 羅馬訂單


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