Thomism, Saint Thomas Aquinas Thomism ,聖托馬斯阿奎那

General Information 一般信息

Saint Thomas Aquinas, a Dominican theologian, met the challenge posed to Christian faith by the philosophical achievements of the Greeks and Arabs.聖托馬斯阿奎那,神學多米尼加會見帶來的挑戰,以基督教信仰的哲學成就的希臘人和阿拉伯人。 He effected a philosophical synthesis of faith and reason that is one of the greatest achievements of medieval times.他對哲學合成的信仰與理性是最偉大的成就之一的中世紀時代。

Thought想法

Thomas's thought embodied the conviction that Christian revelation and human knowledge are facets of a single truth and cannot be in conflict with one another. 托馬斯的思想體現了信念,基督教的啟示和人力方面的知識是一個單一的真理,不能是相互矛盾的。

Humans know something when its truth is either immediately evident to them or can be made evident by appeal to immediately evident truths.人類知道的東西時,其真相是顯而易見要么立即向他們或可取得明顯的呼籲立即明顯的真理。 They believe something when they accept its truth on authority.他們相信的東西時,接受其真相的權威。 Religious faith is the acceptance of truths on the authority of God's Revelation of them.宗教信仰是接受真理的權威,上帝的啟示他們。 Despite the fact that this seems to make knowledge and faith two utterly distinct realms, Thomas held that some of the things God has revealed are in fact knowable.儘管事實上,這似乎使知識和信仰兩個完全不同的境界,托馬斯認為,一些事情表明上帝其實是可知的。 He called these "preambles of faith," including among them the existence of God and certain of his attributes, the immortality of the human soul, and some moral principles.他呼籲這些“序言的信念” ,其中包括它們之間存在著一定的上帝和他的屬性,不死人的靈魂,和一些道德原則。 The rest of what has been revealed he called "mysteries of faith," for example, the Trinity, the incarnation of God in Jesus Christ, the resurrection, and so on.其餘的已經透露,他所謂的“神秘的信念, ”舉例來說,三位一體,化身上帝耶穌基督的復活,等等。 He then argued that, if some of the things God has revealed can be known to be true, it is reasonable to accept the mysteries as true.然後,他爭辯說,如果一些事情表明上帝可以被稱為是真實的,可以合理地接受作為真正的奧秘。

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Thomas's conviction that truth is ultimately one because it has its source in God explains the confidence with which he approached the writings of non - Christian thinkers: Aristotle, the Muslim Aristotelians Averroes and Avicenna, and the Jewish philosopher Maimonides.托馬斯的信念,即最終的事實是,因為它有其來源解釋上帝的信心與他接觸的著作非-基督教思想家:亞里士多德,穆斯林A ristotelians阿威羅伊和阿維森納,和猶太哲學家邁蒙尼德。 He strongly opposed the Latin Averroists who claimed that something can be true in natural knowledge and false for belief and vice versa.他強烈反對拉丁美洲Averroists聲稱,誰的東西可以真正的自然知識和虛假的信念,反之亦然。

Thomas was critical of the Platonic conception of humans as rational souls inhabiting powerless, material bodies that had been incorporated into the traditional Augustinianism.托馬斯是至關重要的柏拉圖式的概念,人類理性的靈魂棲息無能為力,材料的機構已被納入傳統的奧古斯丁。 Like Aristotle, he saw the human being as a complete union of soul and body.像亞里士多德,他認為人類作為一個完整的工會的靈魂和身體。 Thus, in addition to the survival of the soul after death, the resurrection of the body seemed philosophically appropriate as well as religiously true to Thomas.因此,除了生存的靈魂死亡後,復活的身體似乎適當的哲學以及宗教真正的托馬斯。 His Aristotelianism also led to his defense of sense perception and the view that intellectual knowledge is derived by way of abstraction (concept formation) from sense data.他的亞里士多德也導致了他的防守意識和觀念認為,知識是智力的方式產生的抽象(概念形成)由意義的數據。 Plato's doctrine of Forms, or Ideas, had become part of a traditional Realism with regard to Universals, part of a theory of knowledge that held that humans have direct knowledge of immaterial entities.柏拉圖的學說的形式,或思想,已成為部分傳統寫實主義方面的共性,部分理論知識,認為人類有直接的知識無關緊要的實體。

Thomas reinterpreted Ideas as divine creative patterns and Saint Augustine's theory of illumination, or the attainment of knowledge of the immaterial through intellectual insight, as a version of the Aristotelian active intellect, which he understood as the faculty of abstracting universal meanings from particular empirical data. Thomas argued that the existence of God can be proved by such reasoning from sense data. He further argued that human concepts and language can be extrapolated, by way of analogy, to speak of God's nature.托馬斯重新思想作為神聖的創作模式和聖奧古斯丁理論的照明,或實現知識的非物質通過智力的洞察力,作為一個版本的亞里士多德積極的智力,他理解為教師的抽象普遍意義的經驗特別是數據。 托馬斯認為,上帝存在可以證明這種推理常識資料。他進一步指出,人權的概念和語言可以推斷,類推的方式,來談論上帝的性質。 This, however, is a difficult task, and it is fitting that revelation provides humans with that knowledge. Thomas also held that there are first principles of moral reasoning (Natural Law) that all humans grasp; many of them, however, have been revealed in the Ten Commandments.然而,這是一項艱鉅的任務,而且是恰當的啟示人類提供的知識。托馬斯也認為,首先是道德原則的推理(自然法) ,所有人類把握;許多人,但已顯示在十誡。

Influence影響

Thomas's synthesis of natural and revealed knowledge, a goal sought by many other medieval thinkers, did not meet with wholehearted acceptance.托馬斯的綜合自然和發現知識,目標要求的其他許多中世紀的思想家,沒有會見全心全意地接受。 In 1277 a number of Thomistic tenets were condemned by the bishop of Paris.在1277年的一些原則Thomistic譴責主教巴黎。 Thomas met with a warmer reception in his own order, and in 1309 his doctrine was prescribed for the Dominicans.托馬斯會見了溫暖的接待自己的秩序,並在1309年他的學說是明的多米尼加人。 In 1323, Thomas was canonized, and since that time his thought has become more or less the official doctrine of the Roman Catholic church.在1323年,托馬斯被冊封,並自那時以來,他的思想已成為或多或少的官方學說的羅馬天主教教堂。 He was declared a Doctor of the Church in 1567.他被醫生宣布了教會在1567年。 In the 19th century, under Pope Leo XIII, the modern revival of Thomism began.在19世紀,在教皇利奧十三世,現代復興Thomism開始。 Although uninspired adaptations of his thought have brought it into disrepute with many thinkers, Thomas himself continues to be held in high esteem.雖然平庸改編他的思想帶來了它的聲譽與許多思想家,托馬斯本人繼續被關押在崇高的敬意。

Ralph Mcinerny拉爾夫Mcinerny

Bibliography 目錄
VJ Bourke, Aquinas' Search for Wisdom (1965); MD Chenu, Toward Understanding Saint Thomas (1964); FC Copleston, Aquinas (1955); R McInerny, Saint Thomas Aquinas (1977) and, as ed., Thomism in an Age of Renewal (1966); J Maritain, The Angelic Doctor (1958); J Pieper, Guide to Saint Thomas Aquinas (1962).南軍伯克,阿奎那'搜索的智慧( 1965年) ;博士Chenu ,走向理解聖托馬斯( 1964年) ;隊Copleston ,阿奎那( 1955年) ; R McInerny ,聖托馬斯阿奎那( 1977年) ,作為版。 , Thomism時代更新( 1966年) ; J旦,醫生的天使( 1958年) ; J皮珀,指南聖托馬斯阿奎那( 1962年) 。


Thomism

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Thomism is the school of philosophy and theology following the thought of Thomas Aquinas. Thomism是學校的哲學和神學思想之後的托馬斯阿奎那。 It developed in various phases and has experienced periods of support and neglect.它開發的各個階段,並經歷了時間的支持和忽視。

When Aquinas died he left no direct successor, but his system was adopted by various individuals, most notably by many of his confreres in the dominican order and by his own original teacher, the eclectic Albertus Magnus.當阿奎那他離開死亡沒有直接的繼任者,但他的制度是通過不同的個人,尤其值得注意的是,他的許多confreres在多米尼加秩序和他自己原來的老師,在兼收並蓄的阿爾貝馬格努斯。 Nonetheless there was still much opposition to his Aristotelianism on the part of church authorities, and in 1277 in Paris and Oxford several propositions derived from Thomas's teachings were condemned.儘管如此,仍有很多人反對他的亞里士多德的一部分,教會當局,並在1277年在巴黎和牛津大學的一些主張,源自托馬斯的教誨被譴責。 It was primarily due to Dominican efforts that the system of Aquinas was not only eventually rehabilitated, but that he himself was canonized in 1323.這主要是因為多米尼加的努力,該系統的阿奎那不僅是最終平反,但他本人在1323年冊封。

From this time period on, Thomism became one of the several competing schools of medieval philosophy.從這一時期起, Thomism成為競爭的幾個學校的中世紀哲學。 In particular, it set itself off against classical Augustinianism with its reliance on Aristotle, most eminently by insisting on a unified anthropology whereby the soul is the form of the body.特別是,它為自己確定了對古典奧古斯丁其依賴於亞里士多德,最突出的堅持一個統一的,即人類學的靈魂是形式的機構。 What St. Thomas was to the Dominicans, Duns Scotus became to the Franciscans, and Scotism debated with Thomism on such issues as freedom of the will and the analogy of being.什麼是聖托馬斯的多米尼加人,成為鄧司各脫的方濟,並Scotism與Thomism辯論等問題上的自由意志和類推的福祉。 Finally, Thomism, along with the other two schools mentioned, maintained a moderate realism in contrast to nominalism.最後, Thomism ,連同其他兩所學校提到,保持了溫和的現實主義相反,唯名。 At the same time, the followers of St. Thomas did not remain uniform, but took on individual traits with particular commentators and in terms of national movements.與此同時,信徒的聖托馬斯仍然沒有統一,但在個別性狀特別評論員以及在民族運動。 This tendency is illustrated most interestingly by the Dominican Meister Eckhart (c. 1260 - 1328), who developed a mysticism that was to become characteristic of German theological life for more than a century.這種趨勢說明了最有趣的多米尼加艾克哈(角1260年至1328年) ,誰開發出一種神秘主義是成為德國的特點神學生活了一個多世紀。

A central figure of developing Thomism was Thomas de Vio Cardinal Cajetan (1469 - 1534).中心人物的發展Thomism是托馬斯Vio樞機Cajetan ( 1469年至1534年) 。 His high ecclesiastical standing contributed to the authoritativeness of his expositions of Aquinas.他站在高教會作出貢獻的權威性,他論述阿奎那。 Cajetan's brand of thomism bears several distinctives. Cajetan的品牌thomism負有幾個distinctives 。 Among these is his analysis of analogy; he argues that this concept is best understood as the proportionality of an attribute to two essences rather than as the predication of an attribute primary in one essence derived in a second.其中最重要的是他的分析,類比,他認為這是最好的概念理解為相稱的一個屬性的兩個本質,而不是作為預測的主要屬性在一個本質上產生了第二位。 Further, Cajetan thought more in terms of abstract essences than his predecessors, who majored on existing substances. Third, he raised doubt concerning the provability of both God's existence and the immortality of the soul.此外,更Cajetan思想方面的抽象的本質比他的前任,誰主修現有的物質。第三,他提出的疑問涉及provability的上帝的存在和不朽的靈魂。

Thomism became the leading school of Catholic thought in the sixteenth century. Thomism成為學校領導的天主教思想在16世紀。 Several factors contributed to its ascendancy. The Jesuit order (approved in 1540), known for its aggressive teaching, aligned itself with Aquinas; also, the Council of Trent (first convened in 1545), swhich self - consciosly styled many of its pronouncements in Thomistic phraseology.有幾個因素促成其優勢。耶穌會的命令(第1540號決議批准的) ,以其積極的教學,贊同阿奎那;同時,安理會的遄達(第一次召開的1545年) , swhich自我-c onsciosly風格的許多言論中Thomistic用語。

Thomism entered the seventeenth century triumphantly, but exited void of power and originality. Thomism進入17世紀勝利,但退出無效的權力和獨創性。 John of St. Thomas (1589 - 1644) is a good representative of the early century.約翰聖托馬斯( 1589年至1644年)是一個很好的代表世紀初。 He was a creative teacher and interpreter of Aquinas's thought; he was a careful and compassionate official of the Spanish Inquisition; and he was an intimate advisor to King Philip IV.他是一個創造性的教師和翻譯的阿奎那的思想;他是一個認真的和富有同情心的官員在西班牙宗教裁判所,他是一個親密的顧問國王菲利普四。 Thus in him the intellectual, theological, and political machinations of Thomism are brought to a focus.因此,在他的智慧,神學和政治陰謀的Thomism被帶到一個重點。 But Thomism's primacy bore the seeds of its own demise. Due to lack of competition Thomism became too self - contained to cope with the rise of rationalism and empirical science on their own ground.但是Thomism的主導膛的種子自己的滅亡。由於缺乏競爭Thomism變得太自我-載,以應付增加的理性和實證科學自己的地面。 Thomism would not adapt itself; and so the alternatives left were obscurantism or non - Thomistic philosophy. Consequently, though Thomism was still alive, primarily in Dominican circles, in the eighteenth century, it was essentially a spent force. Thomism不會調整自己,並因此離開了替代蒙昧主義或非-T homistic哲學。因此,儘管T homism仍然活著,主要是在多米尼加圈子,在十八世紀,它基本上是用武力。

But the early nineteenth century saw another abrupt change in the fortunes of Thomism.但是, 19世紀初又突然看到改變命運的Thomism 。 Catholic thinkers increasingly began to see that in Thomashs works there were viable responses to topical questions not answered elsewhere.天主教思想家開始越來越多地看到,在Thomashs作品有可行的反應,局部的問題沒有回答其他地方。 Particularly the questions of human dignity in the face of rising industrialism revived Thomism. Dramatically the schools returned to the authority of Aquinas.特別是問題的人的尊嚴,面對上升的工業恢復Thomism 。神奇地返回學校的權威阿奎那。 By the time of Vatican I (1869 / 70), Thomistic principles were again in vogue.到時,梵蒂岡口( 1869至70年) , Thomistic原則再次流行。 And Thomism triumphed in 1879 when Pope Leo XIII in Aeterni Patris recalled the church to St. Thomas.和Thomism在1879年取得勝利時,教皇利奧十三世在Aeterni祖國報回顧了教堂聖托馬斯。 The result was the movement known as neo - Thomism which has persisted well past the middle of the twentieth century.其結果是運動被稱為新-T homism已存在以及過去的二十世紀中葉。

W Corduan W Corduan
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
VJ Bourke, Thomistic Bibliography: 1920 - 1940; E Gilson, The Christian Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas; H John, Thomist Spectrum; TL Miethe and VJ Bourke, Thomistic Bibliography: 1940 - 1978.南軍伯克, Thomistic參考書目: 1920年至一九四零年;電子郵件吉爾森,基督教哲學多瑪斯; H約翰,托馬斯主義譜;的TL Miethe和南軍伯克, Thomistic參考書目: 40年至78年。


Thomism

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

In a broad sense, Thomism is the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. Thomas Aquinas in philosophical and theological questions.在廣泛的意義上說, Thomism的名稱是考慮到如下系統的教學多瑪斯的哲學和神學的問題。 In a restricted sense the term is applied to a group of opinions held by a school called Thomistic, composed principally, but not exclusively, of members of the Order of St. Dominic, these same opinions being attacked by other philosophers or theologians, many of whom profess to be followers of St. Thomas.在限制意義上說,長期適用於一組的意見進行所謂的一所學校Thomistic ,主要組成,但不完全是成員的命令聖多米尼克,這些意見受到攻擊的其他哲學家或神學家,許多他們信奉的追隨者聖托馬斯。

To Thomism in the first sense are opposed, eg, the Scotists, who deny that satisfaction is a part of the proximate matter (materia proxima) of the Sacrament of Penance.為了Thomism的第一感覺是反對,例如Scotists ,誰否認這是一個滿意的一部分,近因問題(質料寶施瑪)的聖懺悔。 Anti-Thomists, in this sense of the word, reject opinions admittedly taught by St. Thomas.反Thomists ,在這個意義上,拒絕承認的意見所教聖托馬斯。

To Thomism in the second sense are opposed, eg the Molinists, as well as all who defend the moral instrumental causality of the sacraments in producing grace against the system of physical instrumental causality, the latter being a doctrine of the Thomistic School.為了Thomism第二常識都反對,例如Molinists ,以及所有誰捍衛道德工具的因果關係的聖禮生產的寬限期對系統的物理儀器的因果關係,後者是一種理論的Thomistic學校。

Anti-Thomism in such cases does not necessarily imply opposition to St. Thomas: It means opposition to tenets of the Thomistic School.反Thomism在這種情況下,並不一定意味著反對聖托馬斯:這意味著反對信條Thomistic學校。 Cardinal Billot, for instance, would not admit that he opposed St. Thomas by rejecting the Thomistic theory on the causality of the sacraments.紅衣主教Billot ,例如,將不會承認,他反對由聖托馬斯拒絕Thomistic理論的因果關係的聖禮。 In the Thomistic School, also, we do not always find absolute unanimity.在Thomistic學校,同時,我們並不總是能夠找到絕對一致。 Baflez and Billuart do not always agree with Cajetan, though all belong to the Thomistic School. Baflez和Billuart並不總是同意Cajetan ,但都屬於Thomistic學校。 It does not come within the scope of this article to determine who have the best right to be considered the true exponents of St. Thomas.它不屬於本文討論的範圍來確定是誰擁有最好的權利,被視為真正的指數的聖托馬斯。

The subject may be treated under the following headings:這個問題的處理可能會按下列標題:

I. Thomism in general, from the thirteenth century down to the nineteenth;一Thomism一般來說,從13世紀至十九;

II.二。 The Thomistic School;該Thomistic學校;

III.三。 Neo-Thomism and the revival of Scholasticism.新Thomism和振興院。

IV.四。 Eminent Thomists知名人士Thomists

I. THE DOCTRINE IN GENERAL一,理論的一般

A. Early Opposition Overcome字母a.早日克服反對派

Although St. Thomas (d. 1274) was highly esteemed by all classes, his opinions did not at once gain the ascendancy and influence which they acquired during the first half of the fourteenth century and which they have since maintained. Strange as it may appear, the first serious opposition came from Paris, of which he was such an ornament, and from some of his own monastic brethren.雖然聖托馬斯(草1274 )是非常受人尊敬的所有課程,他的意見沒有一次獲得優勢和影響力,他們收購了上半年的14世紀和他們一直保持。奇怪,因為它可能會出現,第一次嚴重的反對來自巴黎,他是這樣一個裝飾品,和一些他自己的寺院兄弟。 In the year 1277 Stephen Tempier, Bishop of Paris, censured certain philosophical propositions, embodying doctrines taught by St. Thomas, relating especially to the principle of individuation and to the possibility of creating several angels of the same species.在1277年斯蒂芬Tempier ,巴黎主教,譴責某些哲學命題,體現了理論講授的聖托馬斯,特別是有關的原則和個性化的可能性,創造了天使的同一物種。 In the same year Robert Kilwardby, a Dominican, Archbishop of Canterbury, in conjunction with some doctors of Oxford, condemned those same propositions and moreover attacked St. Thomas's doctrine of the unity of the substantial form in man.同年羅伯特Kilwardby ,多米尼加,坎特伯雷大主教,與一些醫生,牛津譴責那些相同的主張,而且攻擊聖托馬斯的理論,統一的形式,大量的人。 Kilwardby and his associates pretended to see in the condemned propositions something of Averroistic Aristoteleanism, whilst the secular doctors of Paris had not fully forgiven one who had triumphed over them in the controversy as to the rights of the mendicant friars. Kilwardby和他的同夥假裝看到譴責主張的東西Averroistic Aristoteleanism ,而世俗的巴黎醫生沒有完全原諒了一個誰戰勝了它們在爭議的權利行乞的修士。 The storm excited by these condemnations was of short duration.興奮的風暴,這些譴責是短暫的。 Blessed Albertus Magnus, in his old age, hastened to Paris to defend his beloved disciple.阿爾貝馬格努斯有福,在他年老,趕緊巴黎捍衛自己心愛的弟子。 The Dominican Order, assembled in general chapter at Milan in 1278 and at Paris in 1279, adopted severe measures against the members who had spoken injuriously of the venerable Brother Thomas.多米尼加秩序,聚集在第一章一般在米蘭和1278年在巴黎1279年,通過嚴厲措施打擊誰的成員發言損害了古老的兄弟托馬斯。 When William de la Mare, OSF, wrote a "Correptorium fratris Thom~", an English Dominican, Richard Clapwell (or Clapole), replied in a treatise "Contra corruptorium fratris Thomae".當威廉德拉魯阿海,因子,寫了“ Correptorium fratris磅〜 ” ,英文多米尼加,理查德Clapwell (或Clapole ) ,回答了論文“魂斗羅corruptorium fratris Thomae ” 。 About the same time there appeared a work, which was afterwards printed at Venice (1516) under the title, "Correctorium corruptorii S. Thomae", attributed by some to Ægidius Romanus, by others to Clapwell, by others to Father John of Paris.大約在同一時間出現的工作,這是印刷後在威尼斯( 1516 )的標題下, “ Correctorium corruptorii南Thomae ” ,歸因於一些Ægidius羅馬,通過其他Clapwell ,通過他人之父約翰巴黎。 St. Thomas was solemnly vindicated when the Council of Vienna (1311-12) defined, against Peter John Olivi, that the rational soul is the substantial form of the human body (on this definition see Zigliara, "De mente Conc. Vicnn.", Rome, 1878).聖托馬斯莊嚴平反時,安理會的維也納( 1311年至1312年)的定義,對彼得約翰Olivi ,即合理的靈魂是形式的大量對人體(這個定義見Zigliara , “德門濃。 Vicnn 。 ” ,羅馬, 1878年) 。 The canonization of St. Thomas by John XXII, in 1323, was a death-blow to his detractors.在封聖托馬斯約翰二十二,在1323年,是一個致命打擊,他的反對者。 In 1324 Stephen de Bourret, Bishop of Paris, revoked the censure pronounced by his predecessor, declaring that "that blessed confessor and excellent doctor, Thomas Aquinas, had never believed, taught, or written anything contrary to the Faith or good morals".在1324年由卜斯蒂芬主教巴黎,撤銷了訓斥宣布他的前任,宣稱“這得天獨厚懺悔和出色的醫生,托馬斯阿奎那,一直不相信,教,或書面的任何違反信仰或道德” 。 It is doubtful whether Tempier and his associates acted in the name of the University of Paris, which had always been loyal to St. Thomas.這是懷疑是否Tempier和他的同事採取行動的名義巴黎大學,這一直是忠實於聖托馬斯。 When this university, in 1378, wrote a letter condemning the errors of John de Montesono, it was explicitly declared that the condemnation was not aimed at St. Thomas: "We have said a thousand times, and yet, it would seem, not often enough, that we by no means include the doctrine of St. Thomas in our condemnation."當這所大學,在1378年,寫了一封信,譴責錯誤約翰德薩蘭Montesono ,它明確宣布,譴責的目的不是聖托馬斯: “我們已經說過一千次,但是,看來,不是常常不夠的,我們絕不包括理論聖托馬斯在我們的譴責。 “ An account of these attacks and defences will be found in the following works: Echard, "Script. ord. prad.", I, 279 (Paris, 1719); De Rubeis, "Diss. crit.", Diss.一位到這些攻擊和防禦系統將在以下工程: Echard , “腳本。奧德。 prad 。 ”我, 279 (巴黎, 1719 ) ;德魯貝伊斯, “迪斯。臨界。 ”迪斯。 xxv, xxvi, I, p. cclxviii; Leonine edit.第二十五,二十六,我第cclxviii ; Leonine修改。 Works of St. Thomas; Denifle, "Chart. univ. Paris" (Paris, 1890-91), I, 543, 558, 566; II, 6, 280; Duplessis d'Argentré, "Collectio judiciorum de novis erroribus" (3 vols., Paris, 1733-36), 1, 175 sqq.; Du Boulay, "Hist. univ. Par.", IV, 205, 436, 618, 622, 627; Jourdain, "La phil. de S. Thomas d'Aquin" (Paris, 1858), II, i; Douais, "Essai sur l'organization des études dans l'ordre des ff. prêcheurs" (Paris and Toulouse, 1884), 87 sqq.; Mortier, "Hist. des maîtres gén. de l'ordre des ff. prêch.", II, 115142, 571; "Acta cap. gen. ord. praed.", ed.工程的聖托馬斯;德尼夫勒, “圖表。大學。巴黎” (巴黎, 1890年至1891年) ,我, 543 , 558 , 566 ;二, 6 , 280 ;杜普蕾西絲德Argentré , “ Collectio judiciorum的novis erroribus ” ( 3卷。 ,巴黎, 1733年至1736年) , 1 , 175 sqq 。 ;都布雷“ ,組織胺。大學。桿。 ” ,四, 205 , 436 , 618 , 622 , 627 ;喬丹, “香格里拉菲爾。由南托馬斯阿奎那德“ (巴黎, 1858 ) ,二,一; Douais , ” Essai要件之高級研究組織中的治安隊萬頁。 prêcheurs “ (巴黎,圖盧茲, 1884年) ,第87 sqq 。 ;莫蒂埃, ”組織胺。 maîtres萬根。治安隊萬頁。 prêch 。 “ ,二, 115142 , 571 ; ”學報帽。根。奧德。 praed 。 “版。 Reichert (9 vols., Rome, 1893-1904, II; Turner, "Hist. of Phil." (Boston, 1903), xxxix.賴克特( 9第一卷和第二卷。 ,羅馬, 1893年至〇四年,二;特納, “組織胺。菲爾。 ” (波士頓, 1903年) ,三十九。

B. Progress of Thomism灣的進展Thomism

The general chapter of the Dominican Order, held at Carcassonne in 1342, declared that the doctrine of St. Thomas had been received as sound and solid throughout the world (Douais, op. cit., 106).一般章節的多米尼加秩序,在卡爾卡松在1342年宣布,理論聖托馬斯收到了良好和堅實的世界各地( Douais ,同前。前。 , 106 ) 。 His works were consulted from the time they became known, and by the middle of the fourteenth century his "Summa Theologica" had supplanted the "Libri quatuor sententiarum", of Peter Lombard as the text-book of theology in the Dominican schools.他的作品進行了協商的時間,他們被稱為,以及中間的14世紀的“神學大全”已取代“利布里四重奏sententiarum ” ,彼得隆巴德作為教科書神學在多米尼加學校。 With the growth of the order and the widening of its influence Thomism spread throughout the world; St. Thomas became the great master in the universities and in the studia of the religious orders (see Encyc. "Aeterni Patris" of Leo XIII).隨著秩序和擴大其影響力Thomism遍布全世界;聖托馬斯成為大師的大學和學科的宗教命令(見Encyc 。 “ Aeterni祖國報”的利奧十三世) 。 The fifteenth and sixteenth centuries saw Thomism in a triumphal march which led to the crowning of St. Thomas as the Prince of Theologians, when his "Summa was laid beside the Sacred Scriptures at the Council of Trent, and St. Pius V, in 1567, proclaimed him a Doctor of the Universal Church. The publication of the "Piana" edition of his works, in 1570, and the multiplication of editions of the "Opera omnia" and of the "Summa" during the seventeenth century and part of the eighteenth show that Thomism flourished during that period. In fact it was during that period that some of the great commentators (for example, Francisco Suárez, Sylvius, and Billuart) adapted his works to the needs of the times.在第十五屆和第十六世紀Thomism看到在凱旋遊行導致至高無上的聖托馬斯的神學王子,當他的“神學奠定旁邊的神聖聖經在安理會的遄達,和聖皮烏斯五,在1567年宣布他的博士普世教會。出版的“皮亞納版”他的作品,在1570年和乘法的版本的“歌劇OMNIA公司”和“大全”在17世紀和部分18 Thomism表明,蓬勃發展在此期間。事實上這是在此期間,一些偉大的評論家(例如,弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯,導水管,並Billuart )改編他的作品以時代的需要。

C. Decline of Scholasticism and of Thomism角衰落士林和Thomism

Gradually, however, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, there came a decline in the study of the works of the great Scholastics.漸漸地,然而,在17和18世紀,有了下降的研究工程的偉大Scholastics 。 Scholars believed that there was need of a new system of studies, and, instead of building upon and around Scholasticism, they drifted away from it.學者們認為有需要一個新的系統的研究,並,而不是建設,並圍繞士林,他們漂流遠離它。 The chief causes which brought about the change were Protestantism, Humanism, the study of nature, and the French Revolution.首席原因帶來的變化是基督教,以人為本,研究的性質,以及法國大革命。 Positive theology was considered more necessary in discussions with the Protestants than Scholastic definitions and divisions.積極神學被認為更有必要在討論同新教徒比士林的定義和分歧。 Elegance of dietion was sought by the Humanists in the Greek and Latin classics, rather than in the works of the Scholastics, many of whom were far from being masters of style.優雅dietion要求的人文主義在希臘和拉丁經典,而不是在工程Scholastics ,其中許多人還遠遠沒有主人的風格。 The discoveries of Copernicus (d. 1543), Kepler (d. 1631), Galileo (d. 1642), and Newton (d. 1727) were not favourably received by the Scholastics.這一發現哥白尼(草1543 ) ,開普勒(草1631 ) ,伽利略(草1642 )和牛頓(草1727 )沒有好評的Scholastics 。 The experimental sciences were in honour; the Scholastics including St. Thomas, were neglected (cf. Turner, op cit., 433). Finally, the French Revolution disorganized all ecclesiastical studies, dealing to Thomisn a blow from which it did not fully recover until the last quarter of the nineteenth century.科學實驗是在履行;的Scholastics包括聖托馬斯,被忽略(參見特納,同前。 , 433 ) 。最後,法國大革命的混亂所有教會的研究,涉及到Thomisn一個打擊來自它沒有完全恢復直到最後一個季度的十九世紀。 At the time when Billuart (d. 1757) published his "Summa Sancti Thoma hodiernis academiarum moribus accomodata" Thomism still held an important place in all theological discussion.時Billuart (草1757年)出版他的“神學聖托馬斯hodiernis academiarum moribus accomodata ” Thomism仍然舉行了一次重要的地位在所有神學的討論。 The tremendous upheaval which disturbed Europe from 1798 to 1815 affected the Church as well as the State.在這巨大的動亂不安的歐洲1798年至1815年教會的影響以及該國。 The University of Louvain, which had been largely Thomistic, was compelled to close its doors, and other important institutions of learning were either closed or seriously hampered in their work.在魯汶大學,這在很大程度上Thomistic ,被迫關門,和其他重要機構的學習被關閉或嚴重阻礙了它們的工作。 The Dominican Order, which naturally had supplied the most ardent Thomists, was crushed in France, Germany, Switzerland, and Belgium.多米尼加秩序,這自然提供了最殷切Thomists ,被撞碎,法國,德國,瑞士和比利時。 The province of Holland was almost destroyed, whilst the provinces of Austria and Italy were left to struggle for their very existence.全省荷蘭,幾乎摧毀了,而各省的奧地利和意大利的左爭取他們的生存。 The University of Manila (1645) continued to teach the doctrines of St. Thomas and in due time gave to the world Cardinal Zephyrinus González, OP, who contributed in no small degree to the revival of Thomism under Leo XIII.大學馬尼拉( 1645 )繼續教育理論的聖托馬斯和在適當的時候給世界樞機Zephyrinus岡薩雷斯任擇議定書,誰的貢獻不小程度的恢復Thomism下利奧十三世。

D. Distinctive Doctrines of Thomism in General D.獨特的理論Thomism一般

(1) In Philosophy ( 1 )在哲學

The angels and human souls are without matter, but every material composite being (compositum) has two parts, prime matter and substantial form.天使和人的靈魂都沒有問題,但每一個材料複合被(複方)有兩個部分,主要問題和重大的形式。 In a composite being which has substantial unity and is not merely an aggregate of distinct units, there can be but one substantial form.在目前這種複合材料具有實質性團結和不僅是一個總量的不同單位,就不可能有一個大幅度的形式。 The substantial form of man is his soul (anima rationalis) to the exclusion of any other soul and of any other substantial form.大量的人是他的靈魂(靈魂理性) ,以排除任何其他的靈魂和任何其他重大的形式。 The principle of individuation, for material composites, is matter with its dimensions: without this there can be no merely numerical multiplication: distinction in the form makes specific distinction: hence there cannot be two angels of the same species. The essences of things do not depend on the free will of God, but on His intellect, and ultimately on His essence, which is immutable.的原則,個性化,複合材料,是問題的問題:沒有這個就不會有只是數值乘法:區分的形式提出具體的區分:因此,不能有兩個天使在同一物種。的本質的東西不取決於自由意志的上帝,但他的智慧,並最終對他的本質,這是不可改變的。 The natural law, being derived from the eternal law, depends on the mind of God, ultimately on the essence of God; hence it is intrinsically immutable.自然的法律,來自永恆的法律,取決於心靈的上帝,最終對上帝的本質,因此它本質上是不可改變的。 Some actions are forbidden by God because they are bad: they are not bad simply because He forbids them [see Zigliara, "Sum. phil."有些行動是真主所不允許的,因為他們是不好的:他們是不壞只是因為他禁止他們[見Zigliara , “薩姆。菲爾。 ” (3 vols., Paris, 1889), ccx, xi, II, M. 23, 24, 25]. ( 3卷。 ,巴黎, 1889年) , ccx ,十一,二,先生23 , 24 , 25 ] 。

The will moves the intellect quoad exercitium, ie in its actual operation: the intellect moves the will quoad specificationem, ie by presenting objects to it: nil volitum nisi praecognitum.將動作的智慧quoad exercitium ,即在其實際運作:智能移動將quoad specificationem ,即提出反對它:無volitum暫準praecognitum 。 The beginning of all our acts is the apprehension and desire of good in general (bonum in communi).一開始我們所有的行為是逮捕和良好的願望一般(善在通信) 。 We desire happiness (bonum in communi) naturally and necessarily, not by a free deliberate act.我們渴望幸福(善在社區)自然和必然,而不是由一個自由蓄意行為。 Particular goods (bona particularia) we choose freely; and the will is a blind faculty, always following the last practical judgment of the intellect (Zigliara, 51).特定貨物(真正particularia ) ,我們自由選擇;和意志是一條走不通的教師,總是按照去年實際的判斷智慧( Zigliara , 51 ) 。

The senses and the intellect are passive, ie recipient, faculties; they do not create, but receive (ie perceive) their objects (St. Thomas, I, Q. lxxviii, a. 3; Q. lxxix, a. 2; Zigliara, 26, 27).感官和智慧是被動的,即受援國,院系;他們沒有創造,但收到(即感知)的對象(聖托馬斯島,我問: lxxviii ,字母a. 3 ;問: lxxix ,字母a. 2 ; Zigliara , 26 , 27 ) 。 If this principle is borne in mind there is no reason for Kant's "Critique of Pure Reason".如果這一原則是牢記沒有理由康德的“純粹理性批判” 。 On the other hand those faculties are not like wax, or the sensitive plate used by photog raphers, in the sense that they are inert and receive impressions unconsciously.另一方面這些學院並不像蠟,或敏感的板所用photog raphers ,也就是說,它們是惰性和不自覺地得到展示。 The will controls the exercise of the faculties, and the process of acquiring knowledge is a vital process: the moving cause is always within the living agent.在將控制行使學院,和的過程中獲取知識是一個重要的過程:移動事業始終是在生活代理人。

The Peripatetic axiom: "Nihil est in intellectu quod non prius in sensu" (Nothing is in the intellect that was not first in the senses), is admitted; but St. Thomas modifies it by saying: first, that, once the sense objects have been perceived, the intellect ascends to the knowledge of higher things, even of God; and, secondly, that the soul knows its own existence by itself (ie by its own act), although it knows its own nature only by refiection on its acts.在流動格言: “ Nihil就是在非intellectu獄吏普瑞斯的意義” (什麼是智慧不是第一次在感官) ,被接納,但聖托馬斯修改它說:第一,一旦物體的意義一直認為,智力上升到較高的知識外,甚至上帝;其次,靈魂知道自己的存在本身(即通過自己的行為) ,雖然它知道自己的性質只有在其refiection行為。 Knowledge begins by sense perception, but the range of the intellect is far beyond that of the senses.知識的意義上開始的看法,但一系列的智慧是遠遠超出了理智。 In the soul as soon as it begins to act are found the first principles (prima principia) of all knowledge, not in the form of an objective illumination, but in the form of a subjective inclination to admit them on account of their evidence.在靈魂盡快開始採取行動被發現的第一原則(初步原理)的所有知識,而不是形式的一種客觀的照明,但在形式的一種主觀傾向接納他們就到他們的證據。 As soon as they are proposed we see that they are true; there is no more reason for doubting them than there is for denying the existence of the sun when we see it shining (see Zigliara, op. cit., pp. 32-42).當他們提出,我們看到,他們是真正的,沒有更多的理由懷疑他們是不是否認存在的太陽當我們看到它閃亮(見Zigliara ,同前。前。頁。 32-42 ) 。

The direct and primary object of the intellect is the universal, which is prepared and presented to the passive intellect (intellectus possibilis) by the active intellect (intellectus agens) which illuminates the phantasmata, or mental images, received through the senses, and divests them of all individuating conditions.直接和主要對象的智慧是普遍的,這是準備並提交給被動的智慧( intellectus possibilis )的積極智力( intellectus agens ) ,其中照亮phantasmata ,或精神上的圖像,通過收到的感官,他們和剝離所有individuating條件。 This is called abstracting the universal idea from the phantasmata, but the term must not be taken in a matrialistic sense. Abstraction is not a transferring of something from one place to another; the illumination causes all material and individuating conditions to disappear, then the universal alone shines out and is perceived by the vital action of the intellect (Q. lxxxiv, a. 4; Q. lxxxv, a. 1, ad lum, 3um, 4um). The process throughout is so vital, and so far elevated above material conditions and modes of action, that the nature of the acts and of the objects apprehended proves the soul to be immaterial and spiritual. The soul, by its very nature, is immortal.這就是所謂的抽象的普遍想法從phantasmata ,但任期不得採取在matrialistic意義。抽象不是一個轉移的東西從一個地方到另一個地方;照明導致所有的物質和individuating條件消失,那麼普遍獨自閃耀,並認為是重要的行動智慧(問: lxxxiv ,字母a. 4 ;問: lxxxv ,字母a. 1 ,廣告課程, 3um , 4um ) 。整個過程是很重要的,迄今以上升高物質條件和方式的行動,行為的性質和宗旨逮捕證明的靈魂是無關緊要的和精神的。靈魂,由於其本身的性質,是不朽的。 Not only is it true that God will not annihilate the soul, but from its very nature it will always continue to exist, there being in it no principle of disintegration (Zigliara, p. 9). Hence human reason can prove the incorruptibility (ie immortality) of the soul.它不僅是真正的上帝不會毀滅的靈魂,而是來自其本身的性質,它會永遠繼續存在,但它是在沒有原則的解體( Zigliara ,第9頁) 。因此,人類理性可以證明的廉潔(即永生)的靈魂。

The existence of God is not known by an innate idea, it cannot be proved by arguments a priori or a simultaneo; but it can be demonstrated by a posteriori arguments.上帝存在不知道由一個天生的想法,但不能證明論點的先驗或simultaneo ;但可以表現出事後的論點。 Ontologism was never taught by St. Thomas or by Thomists (see Lepidi, "Exam. phil. theol. de ontologismo", Louvain, 1874, c. 19; Zigliara, Theses I, VIII). Ontologism從來沒有教的聖托馬斯或Thomists (見Lepidi , “考試。菲爾。 theol 。德ontologismo ” ,魯汶, 1874年,角19 ; Zigliara ,論文一,八) 。

There are no human (ie deliberate) acts indifferent in individuo.有沒有人(即故意)行為無動於衷individuo 。

(2) In Theology ( 2 )在神學

Faith and science, ie knowledge by demonstration, cannot co-exist in the same subject with regard to the same object (Zigliara, O, 32, VII); and the same is true of knowledge and opinion.信仰與科學,即知識的演示,不能共存於同一主題的關於同一對象( Zigliara ,澳, 32歲,七) ;也是如此的知識和意見。

The metaphysical essence of God consists, according to some Thomists, in the intelligere actualissimum, ie fulness of pure intellection, according to others in the perfection of aseitas, ie in dependent existence (Zigliara, Th. VIII, IX).本質的形而上學的上帝的組成,根據一些Thomists ,在intelligere actualissimum ,即豐富的純intellection ,根據其他國家的完善aseitas ,即在存在依賴( Zigliara ,釷。八,九) 。

The happiness of heaven, formally and in the ultimate analysis, consists in the vision, not in the fruition, of God.幸福的天堂,正式並在最終的分析,包括在視覺,而不是結果,上帝的。

The Divine attributes are distinguished from the Divine nature and from each other by a virtual distinction, ie by a distinctio rationis cum fundamento a parte rei.神的屬性是有別於神聖的性質和對方的一個虛擬的區別,即由一個distinctio理性兼基本法一方物。 The distinctio actualis formalis of Scotus is rejected. In attempting to explain the mystery of the Trinity -- in as far as man can conceive it -- the relations must be considered perfectiones simpliciter simplices, ie excluding all imperfection.該distinctio actualis formalis的司各脫被拒絕。在試圖解釋神秘的三位一體-在盡可能男人可以設想它-的關係,必須考慮pe rfectionessi mplicitersi mplices,即排除所有缺陷。 The Holy Ghost would not be distinct from the Son if He did not proceed from the Son as well as from the Father.在聖靈不會有別於兒子,如果他沒有從兒子以及來自父親。

The angels, being pure spirits, are not, properly speaking, in any place; they are said to be in the place, or in the places, where they exercise their activity (Summa, I, Q. lii, a. 1).天使,是純粹的精神,不,正確地講,在任何地方,他們表示,將在地方,或在地方,在那裡他們行使他們的活動(神學,我問:理,字母a. 1 ) 。 Strictly speaking, there is no such thing as an angel passing from place to place; but if an angel wishes to exercise its activity first in Japan and afterwards in America, it can do so in two instants (of angelic time), and need not pass through the intervening space (Q. liii).嚴格地說,不存在這樣的東西作為一個天使傳遞地點;但如果一個天使的願望行使其活動首先在日本和美國之後,它可以這樣做,兩個instants (的天使般的時間) ,而無需通過中間的空間(問: LIII )號。 St. Thomas does not discuss the question "How many angels can dance on the point of a needle?"聖托馬斯並沒有討論這個問題“有多少天使可以跳舞的針尖? ” He reminds us that we must not think of angels as if they were corporeal, and that, for an angel, it makes no difference whether the sphere of his activity be the point of a needle or a continent (Q. lii, a. 2).他提醒我們,我們絕不能認為天使,好像他們是有形的,而且,對於一個天使,它使沒有區別是否領域的活動是針尖或大陸(問:理,字母a.第2 ) 。 Many angels cannot be said to be in the same place at the same time, for this would mean that whilst one angel is producing an effect others could be producing the same effect at the same time.許多天使不能說是在同一地點在同一時間,因為這將意味著一個天使,而正在生產的影響等可產生同樣的效果在同一時間。 There can be but one angel in the same place at the same time (Q. lii, a. 3).就不可能有一個天使,但在同一地點在同一時間(問:理,字母a. 3 ) 。 The knowledge of the angels comes through ideas (species) infused by God (QQ. lv, a.2, lvii, a.2, lviii, a.7).知識的天使是通過思想(種)注入了神( QQ.呂, 37.2 ,第五十七號, 37.2 , lviii , A.7列出) 。 They do not naturally know future contingents, the secrets of souls, or the mysteries of grace (Q. lvii, aa. 3, 45).他們不知道未來的自然特遣隊,秘密的靈魂,或神秘的寬限期(問:第五十七,氨基酸。 3 , 45 ) 。 The angels choose either good or evil instantly, and with full knowledge; hence their judgment is naturally final and irrevocable (Q. lxiv, a. 2).天使選擇好或邪惡的瞬間,並在充分了解,因此他們的判斷自然是最後的和不可改變的(問: lxiv ,字母a. 2 ) 。

Man was created in the state of sanctifying grace.人是建立在國家sanctifying寬限期。 Grace was not due to his nature, but God granted it to him from the beginning (I, Q. xcv, a. 1).格雷斯不是因為他的性質,但上帝賦予了他從一開始(一,問: xcv ,字母a. 1 ) 。 So great was the per fection of man in the state of original justice, and so perfect the subjection of his lower faculties to the higher, that his first sin could not have been a venia] sin (I-II, Q. lxxxix, a. 3).如此之大是每感染的人在該州的原始正義,如此完美的服從他的低院系較高,他的第一個罪惡不能一直是斯洛文尼亞]罪惡(一二,問: lxxxix的。 3 ) 。

It is more probable that the Incarnation would not have taken place had man not sinned (III, Q. i, a. 3).這是更有可能的化身也不會發生了沒有犯過罪的人(三,問:我,字母a. 3 ) 。 In Christ there were three kinds of knowledge: the scientia beata, ie the knowledge of things in the Divine Essence; the scientia infusa, ie the knowledge of things through infused ideas (species), and the scientia acquisita, ie acquired or experimental knowledge, which was nothing more than the actual experience of things which he already knew.在基督裡有三種知識:在科學貝阿塔,即知識的東西在神聖的本質的科學infusa ,即知識的東西通過注入思想(種) ,並獲得性的科學,即收購或實驗性的知識,這只不過是在實際經驗的事情,他已經知道。 On this last point St. Thomas, in the "Summa" (Q. ix, a. 4), explicitly retracts an opinion which he had once held (III Sent., d. 14, Q. iii, a. 3).在這一點上聖托馬斯,在“大全” (問:九,字母a. 4 ) ,明確撤回的意見,他曾經舉行(三寄件。 , d. 14 ,問:三,字母a. 3 ) 。

All sacraments of the New Law, including confirmation and extreme unction, were instituted immediately by Christ.所有聖禮新的法律,包括確認和臨終,立即制定了基督。 Circumcision was a sacrament of the Old Law and conferred grace which removed the stain of original sin.割禮是一種聖禮的舊法律賦予的寬限期,並取消了其中染色原罪。 The children of Jews or of other unbelievers may not be baptized without the consent of their parents (III, Q. lxviii, a. 10; 11-Il, Q. x, a. 12; Denzinger-Bannwart, n. 1481).孩子們的猶太人或其他信教不得洗禮同意的情況下他們的父母(三,問: lxviii ,字母a. 10 ; 11日一,問:設字母a. 12 ; Denzinger - Bannwart ,聯合國1481年) 。 Contrition, confession, and satisfaction are the proximate matter (materia proxima) of the Sacrament of Penance.懺悔,懺悔,並滿意的近因問題(質料寶施瑪)的聖懺悔。 Thomists hold, against the Scotists, that when Transubstantiation takes place in the Mass the Body of Christ is not made present per modum adduclionis, ie is not brought to the altar, but they do not agree in selecting the term which should be used to express this action (cf. Billuart, "De Euchar.", Diss. i, a. 7). Thomists舉行,對Scotists ,當Transubstantiation發生在群眾的身體基督不是每本modum adduclionis ,即不使祭壇,但他們不同意在選擇長期應該用來表達這一行動(參見Billuart , “德Euchar 。 ”迪斯。一,字母a. 7 ) 。 Cardinal Billot holds ("Dc cccl. sacr.", Rome, 1900, Th. XI, "Dc euchar.", p. 379) that the best, and the only possible, explanation is the one given by St. Thomas himself: Christ becomes present by transubstantiation, ie by the conversion of the substance of bread into the substance of His body (III, Q. lxxv, a. 4; Sent., d. XI, Q. i, a. 1, q. 1).紅衣主教Billot持有( “直流cccl 。聖。 ” ,羅馬, 1900年,釷。十一, “直流euchar 。 ”第379條) ,最好的,唯一可能的解釋是一個由聖托馬斯本人:基督成為本由transubstantiation ,即轉換的實質麵包的實質內容,他的屍體(三,問: lxxv ,字母a. 4 ;發送。 , d.十一,問:我,字母a. 1 ,問: 1 ) 。 After the consecration the accidents (accidentia) of the bread and wine are preserved by Almighty God without a subject (Q. lxxxvii, a. 1).在神聖的事故( accidentia )的麵包和葡萄酒也保存了萬能的上帝沒有主題的(問: lxxxvii ,字母a. 1 ) 。 It was on this question that the doctors of Paris sought enlightenment from St. Thomas (see Vaughan, "Life and Labours of St. Thomas", London, 1872, II, p. 544).這是在這個問題上,醫生巴黎尋求啟示聖托馬斯(見沃恩, “生命和勞動力的聖托馬斯” ,倫敦, 1872年,二,頁544 ) 。 The earlier Thomists, following St. Thomas (Suppl., Q. xxxvii, a. 2), taught that the sub-diaconate and the four minor orders were partial sacraments.早先的Thomists之後,聖托馬斯(補編,問:三十七,字母a. 2 ) ,教導分diaconate和四個小部分訂單聖禮。 Some recent Thomists -- eg, Billot (op. cit., p. 282) and Tanquerey (De ordine, n. 16) -- defend this opinion as more probable and more in conformity with the definitions of the councils.最近的一些Thomists -例如, B illot(同前。 ,第2 82頁)和T anquerey(德秩序,注1 6) -捍衛這一意見,更有可能和更符合定義的理事會。 The giving of the chalice with wine and of the paten with bread Thomists generally held to be an essential part of ordination to the priesthood.給予的杯酒和專利與麵包Thomists一般要舉行的一個重要組成部分的統籌司鐸。 Some, however, taught that the imposition of hands was at least necessary.不過,有些人告訴我們,實行手中至少是必要的。 On the question of divorce under the Mosaic Law the disciples of St. Thomas, like the saint himself (Suppl., Q. lxvii, a. 3), wavered, some holding that a dispensation was granted, others teaching that divorce was merely tolerated in order to avoid greater evils.關於離婚的鑲嵌法的門徒聖托馬斯,像聖本人(補編,問: lxvii ,字母a. 3 ) ,動搖,一些持有一個被授予特許,其他教學,離婚僅僅是不能容忍的為了避免更大的罪惡。

THE THOMISTIC SCHOOL學校的THOMISTIC

The chief doctrines distinctive of this school, composed principally of Dominican writers, are the following:首席理論鮮明的這所學校組成,主要由多米尼加作家,如下:

A. In Philosophy答:在哲學

The unity of substantial form in composite beings, applied to man, requires that the soul be the substantial form of the man, so as to exclude even the forma corporeitatis, admitted by Henry of Ghent, Scotus, and others (cf. Zigliara, P. 13; Denzinger-Bannwart, in note to n. 1655).統一的大量複合形式存在,適用於男人,需要的靈魂是大量形式的男子,以便排除即使是形式上的corporeitatis承認,亨利的根特,司各脫,和其他(參見Zigliara ,磷。 13 ; Denzinger - Bannwart ,說明為n 1655 ) 。

In created beings there is a real distinction between the essentia (essence) and the existentia (existence); between the essentia and the subsistentia; between the real relation and its foundation; between the soul and its faculties; between the several faculties.在創建人真正有區別的本質(本質)和existentia (存在的) ;之間的本質和subsistentia ;之間的真正關係,其基礎;之間的靈魂和院系之間的幾個學院。 There can be no medium between a distinctio realis and a distinctio rationis, or conceptual distinction; hence the distinctio formalis a parte rei of Scotus cannot be admitted.不能有媒介之間的distinctio實在和distinctio理性,或概念上的區分,因此distinctio formalis一方所在地的司各脫不能被承認。 For Thomistic doctrines on free will, God's knowledge, etc., see below.對於Thomistic理論的自由意志,上帝的知識等,見下文。

B. In Theology b.在神學

In the beatific vision God's essence takes the place not only of the species impressa, but also of the species expressa.在幸福的遠景上帝的本質需要的地方不僅是物種impressa ,而且物種expressa 。

All moral virtues, the acquired as well as the infused, in their perfect state, are interconneted.所有的道德,收購,以及注入,在其完美的狀態,是interconneted 。

According to Billuart (De pecc., diss. vii, a. 6), it has been a matter of controversy between Thomists whether the malice of a mortal sin is absolutely infinite.據Billuart (德議會。 ,迪斯。 ㈦ ,字母a. 6 ) ,這是一個有爭議的問題Thomists之間是否惡意的彌天大罪絕對是無限的。

In choosing a medium between Rigorism and Laxism, the Thomistic school has been Antiprobabilistic and generally has adopted Probabiliorism.在選擇媒介之間Rigorism和Laxism ,學校的Thomistic已Antiprobabilistic ,一般通過Probabiliorism 。 Some defended Equiprobabilism, or Probabilism cum compensatione.一些辯護Equiprobabilism ,或然論暨compensatione 。 Medina and St. Antoninus are claimed by the Probabilists.梅迪納和聖安東尼聲稱的Probabilists 。

Thomistic theologians generally, whilst they defended the infallibility of the Roman pontiff, denied that the pope had the power to dissolve a matrimonium ratum or to dispense from a solemn vow made to God. Thomistic神學家一般,雖然他們辯護犯錯誤的羅馬教皇,否認教皇有權解散matrimonium ratum或免除從一個莊嚴的誓言了上帝。 When it was urged that some popes had granted such favours, they cited other pontiffs who declared that they could not grant them (cf. Billuart, "De matrim.", Diss. v, a. 2), and said, with Dominic Soto, "Factum pontificium non facit articulum fidei" (The action of a pope does not constitute an article of faith, in 4 dist., 27, Q. i, a. 4).當人們呼籲,一些教皇批准了這種主張,他們列舉的其他pontiffs誰宣布,他們不能給予他們(參見Billuart , “德matrim 。 ”迪斯。訴字母a. 2 ) ,並說,多米尼克德索托“事實pontificium非facit articulum信” (該行動的教皇並不構成一篇文章的信仰,在4個縣。 , 27 ,問:我,字母a. 4 ) 。 Thomists of today are of a different mind, owing to the practice of the Church. Thomists今天是一個不同的考慮,由於實踐的教會。

The hypostatic union, without any additional grace, rendered Christ impeccable.工會的本質,沒有任何額外的寬限期,使基督無懈可擊。 The Word was hypostatically united to the blood of Christ and remained united to it, even during the interval between His death and resurrection (Denzinger-Bannwart, n. 718). Word中是hypostatically團結的血基督和保持團結,甚至在間隔他的死和復活( Denzinger - Bannwart ,注718 ) 。 During that same interval the Body of Christ had a transitory form, called forma cadaverica (Zigliara, P. 16, 17, IV).在同一區間的身體基督了一個過渡形式,所謂形式上cadaverica ( Zigliara ,第16頁, 17日,四) 。

The sacraments of the New Law cause grace not only as instrumental moral causes, but by a mode of causality which should be called instrumental and physical.在聖禮新的法律造成的寬限期不僅有助於道德的原因,而是由因果關係模式應要求器樂和身體。 In the attrition required in the Sacrament of Penance there should be at least a beginning of the love of God; sorrow for sin springing solely from the fear of hell will not suffice.在自然減員需要在聖懺悔,應該至少是一個開始的上帝的愛;悲傷的罪過雨後春筍般純粹的恐懼地獄是不夠的。

Many theologians of the Thomistic School, especially before the Council of Trent, opposed the doctrine of Mary's Immaculate Conception, claiming that in this they were following St. Thomas.許多神學的Thomistic學校,特別是在安理會的遄達,反對理論的瑪麗的聖母無染原罪堂,聲稱在此之後,他們被聖托馬斯。 This, however, has not been the opinion either of the entire school or of the Dominican Order as a body. Father Rouard de Card, in his book "L'ordre des freres precheurs et l'Immaculée Conception "(Brussels, 1864), called attention to the fact that ten thousand professors of the order defended Mary's great privilege.然而,這並沒有任何的意見,整個學校或多米尼加秩序作為一個機構。 Rouard的父親卡,在他的著作“勳章之兄弟precheurs和抵制Immaculée構想” (布魯塞爾, 1864年) ,請大家注意這樣一個事實,即1.0萬教授為了捍衛瑪麗十分榮幸。 At the Council of Trent twenty-five Dominican bishops signed a petition for the definition of the dogma.在安理會的遄達25多米尼加主教簽署了一份請願書的定義的教條。 Thousands of Dominicans, in taking degrees at the University of Paris, solemnly pledged themselves to defend the Immaculate Conception.數千名多米尼加人,在考慮度巴黎大學,莊嚴承諾捍衛自己的聖母無染原罪堂。

The Thomistic School is distinguished from other schools of theology chiefly by its doctrines on the difficult questions relating to God's action on the free will of man, God's foreknowledge, grace, and predestination.該Thomistic學校有別於其他學校的神學主要由它的理論的困難問題,其中涉及上帝的行動的自由意志的人,上帝的預知,寬限期,並命。 In the articles on these subjects will be found an exposition of the different theories advanced by the different schools in their effort to explain these mysteries, for such they are in reality.在文章就這些問題將是找到了一個闡述了不同的理論提出不同的學校在他們的努力解釋這些謎,因為這種他們在現實。 As to the value of these theories the following points should be borne in mind:至於價值,這些理論的以下幾點應該牢記:

No theory has as yet been proposed which avoids all difficulties and solves all doubts;沒有理論尚未提議,避免一切困難和解決所有疑慮;

on the main and most difficult of these questions some who are at times listed as Molinists -- notably Bellarmine, Francisco Suárez, Francis de Lugo, and, in our own days, Cardinal Billot ("De deo uno et trino", Rome, 1902, Th. XXXII) -- agree with the Thomists in defending predestination ante praevisa merita.對主要和最困難的這些問題有些是誰,有時列為Molinists -特別是貝拉明,弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯,弗朗西斯德盧戈,並在我們自己的天,樞機主教B illot( “德山口烏諾等特里諾” ,羅馬, 1 902年,釷。三十二) -同意在捍衛T homists事先預定p raevisa梅麗塔。 Bossuet, after a long study of the question of physical premotion, adapted the Thomistic opinion ("Du libre arbitre", c. viii).波舒哀,經過長期研究該問題的物理premotion ,適應了Thomistic意見( “杜自由arbitre ”角八) 。

Thomists do not claim to be able to explain, except by a general reference to God's omnipotence, how man remains free under the action of God, which they consider necessary in order to preserve and explain the universality of God's causality and the independent certainty of His foreknowledge. Thomists不聲稱能夠解釋,除由籠統地提及上帝的無所不能,如何仍然是自由人的作用下上帝,因為他們認為有必要,以維護和解釋的普遍性上帝的因果關係和獨立的確定性,他預卜。 No man can explain, except by a reference to God's infinite power, how the world was created out of nothing, yet we do not on this account deny creation, for we know that it must be admitted.沒有人能夠解釋,除提及上帝的無限權力,如何創建世界的什麼,但我們並不在此建立帳戶否認,因為我們知道,必須承認。 In like manner the main question put to Thomists in this controversy should be not "How will you explain man's liberty?"在同樣的方式主要提出的問題Thomists在這場爭論不應“您將如何解釋人的自由? ” but "What are your reasons for claiming so much for God's action?"但“什麼是您的原因這麼多自稱為上帝的行動呢? ” If the reasons assigned are insufficient, then one great difficulty is removed, but there remains to be solved the problem of God's foreknowledge of man's free acts.如果轉讓的原因是不夠的,那麼一個偉大的困難是拆除,但仍有待解決的問題,上帝的預知人的自由的行為。 If they are valid, then we must accept them with their necessary consequences and humbly confess our inability fully to explain how wisdom "reacheth . . . from end to end mightily, and ordereth all things sweetly" (Wisdom 8:1).如果他們是有效的,那麼我們就必須接受其必要的後果,並謙虛地承認,我們無法完全解釋如何智慧“ reacheth 。 。 。從端到端強烈,並ordereth一切事物甜甜” (智8:1 ) 。

Most important of all, it must be clearly understood and remembered that the Thomistic system on predestination neither saves fewer nor sends to perdition more souls than any other system held by Catholic theologians. In regard to the number of the elect there is no unanimity on either side; this is not the question in dispute between the Molinists and the Thomists.最重要的是,它必須清楚地理解和記住, Thomistic系統既節省了命也少發送給更多的亡靈毀滅比任何其他系統舉行的天主教神學家。對於一些選舉不存在任何一致一方,這是沒有問題的爭執Molinists和Thomists 。 The discussions, too often animated and needlessly sharp, turned on this point: How does it happen that, although God sincerely desires the salvation of all men, some are to be saved, and must thank God for whatever merits they may have amassed, whilst others will be lost, and will know that they themselves, and not God, are to be blamed?討論中,往往不必要的動畫和尖銳,開啟了這一點:它如何發生,雖然衷心希望上帝拯救所有的人,一些人得到挽救,並且必須感謝上帝,不論是非曲直,他們可能已經積累,同時別人都將丟失,而且也知道,他們自己,而不是上帝,是受到指責? -- The facts in the case are admitted by all Catholic theologians. -事實的情況下被接納所有天主教神學。 The Thomists, appealing to the authority of St. Augustine and St. Thomas, defend a system which follows the admitted facts to their logical conclusions.該Thomists ,呼籲權威的聖奧古斯丁和聖托馬斯,保衛制度如下事實的承認其合乎邏輯的結論。 The elect are saved by the grace of God, which operates on their wills efficaciously and infallibly without detriment to their liberty; and since God sincerely desires the salvation of all men, He is prepared to grant that same grace to others, if they do not, by a free act, render themselves unworthy of it.該選舉是拯救的恩典的上帝,經營的遺囑有效,並infallibly而不損害他們的自由;自衷心希望上帝拯救所有的人,他是準備給予同樣的寬限期給他人,如果他們不由一個自由的行為,使自己不配它。 The faculty of placing obstacles to Divine grace is the unhappy faculty of sinning; and the existence of moral evil in the world is a problem to be solved by all, not by the Thomists alone. The fundamental difficulties in this mysterious question are the existence of evil and the non-salvation of some, be they few or be they many, under the rule of an omnipotent, all-wise, and all-merciful God, and they miss the point of the controversy who suppose that these difficulties exist only for the Thomists.該學院設置障礙,以神的恩典是不幸的教師斯辛寧;和存在的道義上的罪惡在世界上是一個問題要解決的所有,而不是僅僅Thomists 。困難的根本在這個神秘的問題是存在的邪惡和非得救了一些,無論他們是很少或將他們許多人來說,統治一個萬能的,所有明智的,所有仁慈的上帝,他們錯過了點爭議,誰相信這些困難不僅存在在Thomists 。 The truth is known to lie somewhere between Calvinism and Jansenism on the one hand, and Semipelagianism on the other. The efforts made by theologians and the various explanations offered by Augustinians, Thomists, Molinists, and Congruists show how difficult of solution are the questions involved.事實是眾所周知的謊言之間的加爾文主義和詹森主義,一方面,和Semipelagianism的問題。所作的努力神學和各種解釋所提供的奧古斯丁, Thomists , Molinists ,並Congruists顯示多麼困難的解決方案的有關問題。 Perhaps we shall never know, in this world, how a just and merciful God provides in some special manner for the elect and yet sincerely loves all men.也許我們永遠不會知道,在這個世界上,如何公正和仁慈的上帝提供了一些特殊的方式為尚未選出,並真誠地愛所有的人。 The celebrated Congregatio de Auxiliis did not forever put an end to the controversies, and the question is not yet settled.著名Congregatio德Auxiliis沒有永遠結束了爭論,問題尚未解決。

III.三。 NEO-THOMISM AND THE REVIVAL OF SCHOLASTICISM新THOMISM和振興院

When the world in the first part of the nineteenth century began to enjoy a period of peace and rest after the disturbances caused by the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, closer attention was given to ecclesiastical studies and Scholasticism was revived.當世界上的第一部分是十九世紀開始享受一個時期的和平與休息的動亂後,所造成的法國大革命和拿破崙戰爭,更密切注意的是教會的研究和士林得到恢復。 This movement eventually caused a revival of Thomism, because the great master and model proposed by Leo XIII in the encyclical "Aeterni Patris" (4 Aug., 1879) was St. Thomas Aquinas.這場運動最終導致了復興Thomism ,因為偉大的船長和模式提出的利奧十三世在通諭“ Aeterni祖國報” ( 1879年8月4號)是多瑪斯。 . . . The Thomistic doctrine had received strong support from the older universities.該學說Thomistic收到了強有力的支持老年大學。 Among these the Encyclical "Aeterni Patris" mentions Paris, Salamanca, Alcalá Douai, Toulouse, Louvain, Padua, Bologna, Naples, and Coimbra as "the homes of human wisdom where Thomas reigned supreme, and the minds of all, teachers as well as taught, rested in wonderful harmony under the shield and authority of the Angelic Doctor".其中的通諭“ Aeterni祖國報”提到巴黎,薩拉曼卡,阿爾卡拉杜埃,圖盧茲,魯汶,帕多瓦,博洛尼亞,那不勒斯,和科英布拉的“家園人類智慧的最高統治地位,托馬斯和思想的一切,教師以及教,休息的美妙和諧的盾牌和權威的天使博士“ 。 In the universities established by the Dominicans at Lima (1551) and Manila (1645) St. Thomas always held sway.在大學設立的多米尼加人在利馬( 1551 )和馬尼拉( 1645 )聖托馬斯總是晃動。 The same is true of the Minerva school at Rome (1255), which ranked as a university from the year 1580, and is now the international Collegio Angelico.也是如此的密涅瓦學校在羅馬( 1255 ) ,其中列為一所大學從1580年,目前國際學院利科。 Coming down to our own times and the results of the Encyclical, which gave a new impetus to the study of St. Thomas's works, the most important centres of activity are Rome, Louvain, Fribourg (Switzerland), and Washington.今後,以我們自己的時間和成果的通諭,使新的動力研究聖托馬斯的作品,最重要的中心活動的羅馬,比利時魯汶,弗里堡(瑞士) ,和華盛頓。 At Louvain the chair of Thomistic philosophy, established in 1880, became, in 1889-90, the "Institut supérieur de philosophie" or "Ecole St. Thomas d'Aquin," where Professor Mercier, now Cardinal Archbishop of Mechlin, ably and wisely directed the new Thomistic movement (see De Wulf, "Scholasticism Old and New", tr. Coffey, New York, 1907, append., p. 261; "Irish Ecel. Record", Jan. 1906).在比利時魯汶主持Thomistic哲學,成立於1880年,是在1889年至1890年的“高等教育學院哲學”或“高等德聖托馬斯阿奎那, ”在那裡教授梅西埃,現在樞機主教Mechlin ,幹練和明智針對新的Thomistic運動(見德伍爾夫“ ,士林舊與新”文。科菲,紐約, 1907年,附加。 ,第261頁; “愛爾蘭Ecel 。記錄” , 1906年1月) 。 The theological department of the University of Fribourg, Switzerland, established in 1889, has been entrusted to the Dominicans.神學系弗里堡大學,瑞士,成立於1889年,已委託多米尼加。 By the publication of the "Revue thomiste" the professors of that university have contributed greatly to a new knowledge and appreciation of St. Thomas.通過出版“雜誌thomiste ”的教授,大學有很大貢獻到一個新的知識和讚賞聖托馬斯。 The Constitution of the Catholic University of America at Washington enjoins special veneration for St. Thomas; the School of Sacred Sciences must follow his leadership ("Const. Cath. Univ. Amer.", Rome, 1889, pp. 38, 43). The University of Ottawa and Laval University are the centres of Thomism in Canada.憲法的美國天主教大學在華盛頓責令特別崇拜的聖托馬斯;學院神聖的科學必須遵循他的領導( “約束。蛋白酶。大學。阿米爾。 ” ,羅馬, 1889年,頁。 38 , 43 ) 。渥太華大學和拉瓦爾大學的研究中心Thomism在加拿大。 The appreciation of St. Thomas in our days, in Europe and in America, is well set forth in Perrier's excellent "Revival of Scholastic Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century" (New York, 1909).感謝聖托馬斯在我們的天,在歐洲和北美,是規定佩里爾出色的“復興士林哲學十九世紀” (紐約, 1909年) 。

IV.四。 EMINENT THOMISTS EMINENT THOMISTS

After the middle of the fourteenth century the vast majority of philosophical and theological writers either wrote commentaries on the works of St. Thomas or based their teachings on his writings.經過中間的14世紀的絕大多數哲學和神學作家不是寫評論的作品聖托馬斯或根據他們的教誨對他的著作。 It is impossible, therefore, to give here a complete list of the Thomists: only the more important names can be given.這是不可能的,因此,這裡給一個完整的清單Thomists :只有更重要的名稱可以被考慮。 Unless otherwise noted, the authors belonged to the Order of St. Dominic.除非另有說明,作者屬於訂單聖多米尼克。 Those marked (*) were devoted to Thomism in general, but were not of the Thomistic School.這些標記( * )專門Thomism一般,但沒有的Thomistic學校。 A more complete list will be found in the works cited at the end of this article.一個更加完整名單將在發現列舉的作品在本月底的文章。

Thirteenth Century 13世紀

Thomas de Cantimpré (1270); Hugh of St. Cher (1263); Vincent of Bauvais (1264); St. Raymond de Pennafort (1275); Peter of Tarentaise (Pope Innocent V -- 1276); Giles de Lassines (1278); Reginald de Piperno (1279); William de Moerbeka (1286); Raymond Marti (1286); Bernard de Trilia (1292); Bernard of Hotun, Bishop of Dublin (1298); Theodoric of Apoldia (1299); Thomas Sutton (1300).托馬斯Cantimpré ( 1270年) ;休聖雪兒( 1263 ) ;文森特的Bauvais ( 1264 ) ;街德Pennafort雷蒙德( 1275 ) ;彼得的塔朗泰斯(諾森五-1 276年) ;賈爾斯德L assines( 1 278年) ;雷德Piperno ( 1279 ) ;威廉德Moerbeka ( 1286 ) ;雷蒙德馬蒂( 1286 ) ;伯納德德Trilia ( 1292 ) ;伯納德的Hotun ,主教都伯林( 1298 ) ;狄奧多里克的Apoldia ( 1299 ) ,托馬斯薩頓( 1300 ) 。

Fourteenth Century十四世紀

Peter of Auvergne (1301); Nicholas Boccasini, Benedict XI (1304); Godfrey of Fontaines (1304); Walter of Winterburn (1305); Ægidius Colonna (Aigidius Romanus), OSA (1243-1316); William of Paris (1314); Gerard of Bologna, Carmelite (1317); four biographers, viz Peter Calo (1310); William de Tocco (1324); Bartolommeo of Lucca (1327); Bernard Guidonis* (1331); Dante (1321); Natalis Hervieus (1323); Petrus de Palude (Paludanusi -- 1342); Thomas Bradwardin, Archbishop of Canterbury (1349); Robert Holkott (1349); John Tauler (1361); Bl.彼得的奧弗涅( 1301 ) ;尼古拉Boccasini ,篤十一( 1304 ) ;戈弗雷的方丹( 1304 ) ;沃爾特的Winterburn ( 1305 ) ; Ægidius科隆納( Aigidius羅馬) ,傑出學校獎勵計劃( 1243至1316年) ;威廉巴黎( 1314 ) ;杰拉德的博洛尼亞,加爾默羅( 1319 ) ;四個傳記,即彼得卡洛( 1310 ) ;威廉德托科( 1323 ) ; Bartolommeo盧卡( 1327 ) ;伯納德Guidonis * ( 1331 ) ;但丁( 1321 ) ;升入Hervieus ( 1323 ) ;翠德Palude ( Paludanusi -1 342年) ,托馬斯B radwardin,坎特伯雷大主教( 1 349) ;羅伯特H olkott( 1 349) ;約翰陶勒( 1 361年) ;天麻。 Henry Suso (1365); Thomas of Strasburg, OSA (1357); Jacobus Passavante (1357); Nicholas Roselli (1362); Durandus of Aurillac (1382), sometimes called Durandulus, because he wrote against Durandus a S. Portiano*, who was first a Thomist, afterwards an independent writer, attacking many of St. Thomas's doctrines; John Bromyard (1390); Nicholas Eymeric (1399).亨利蘇索( 1365年) ,托馬斯的斯特拉斯堡,傑出學校獎勵計劃( 1357年) ;雅各布Passavante ( 1357 ) ;尼古拉羅塞利( 1362 ) ; Durandus的歐里西克( 1382年) ,有時被稱為Durandulus ,因為他寫道Durandus一對美國Portiano * ,誰首先是托馬斯主義,後一個獨立的作家,許多攻擊聖托馬斯的理論;約翰Bromyard ( 1390 ) ;尼古拉Eymeric ( 1399 ) 。

Fifteenth Century 15世紀

Manuel Calecas (1410); St. Vincent Ferrer (1415); Bl.曼努埃爾Calecas ( 1410 ) ;聖文森特費雷爾( 1415 ) ;天麻。 John Dominici (1419); John Gerson*, chancellor of the University of Paris (1429); Luis of Valladolid (1436); Raymond Sabunde (1437); John Nieder (1437); Capreolus (1444), called the "Prince of Thomists"; John de Montenegro (1445); Fra Angelico (1455); St. Antoninus (1459); Nicholas of Cusa*, of the Brothers of the Common Life (1464); John of Torquemada (de Turrecrematai, 1468); Bessarion, Basilian (1472); Alanus de Rupe (1475); John Faber (1477); Petrus Niger (1471); Peter of Bergamo (1482); Jerome Savonarola (1498).約翰Dominici ( 1419年) ;約翰格爾森* ,施羅德的巴黎大學( 1429 ) ;路易斯的巴利亞多利德( 1436 ) ;雷蒙德Sabunde ( 1437 ) ;約翰下( 1437年) ; Capreolus ( 1444年) ,被稱為“王子Thomists “ ;約翰德薩蘭黑山( 1445 ) ;修士利科( 1455 ) ;聖安東尼( 1459 ) ;尼古拉斯的庫薩* ,在兄弟共同生活( 1464 ) ;約翰Torquemada (德Turrecrematai , 1468 ) ;貝薩利昂, Basilian ( 1472 ) ;藤德Rupe ( 1475 ) ;約翰法伯( 1477 ) ;佩特魯斯尼日爾( 1471 ) ;彼得的貝加莫( 1482 ) ;杰羅姆薩沃納羅拉( 1498 ) 。

Sixteenth Century十六世紀

Felix Faber (1502); Vincent Bandelli (1506); John Tetzel (1519); Diego de Deza (1523); Sylvester Mazzolini (1523); Francesco Silvestro di Ferrara (1528); Thomas de Vio Cajetan (1534) (commentaries by these two are published in the Leonine edition of the works of St. Thomas); Conrad Koellin (1536); Chrysostom Javelli (1538); Santes Pagnino (1541); Francisco de Vitoria (1546); Franc. Romseus (1552); Ambrosius Catherinus* (Lancelot Politi, 1553); St. Ignatius of Loyola (1556) enjoined devotion to St. Thomas; Matthew Ory (1557); Dominic Soto (1560); Melchior Cano (1560); Ambrose Pelargus (1561); Peter Soto (1563); Sixtus of Siena (1569); John Faber (1570); St. Pius V (1572); Bartholomew Medina (1581); Vincent Justiniani (1582); Maldonatus* (Juan Maldonado, 1583); St.費伯( 1502 ) ;聖文森特Bandelli ( 1506 ) ;約翰Tetzel ( 1519 ) ;聖地亞哥德德薩( 1523 ) ;西爾維斯特Mazzolini ( 1523 ) ;弗朗切斯科西爾維斯特娣費拉拉( 1528 ) ;托馬斯Vio Cajetan ( 1534 ) (評注本兩個出版的Leonine版的作品聖托馬斯) ;康拉德Koellin ( 1536 ) ;金口Javelli ( 1538 ) ; Santes Pagnino ( 1541 ) ;弗朗西斯科德維多利亞( 1546 ) ;法郎。 Romseus ( 1552 ) ;安布羅修斯Catherinus * (蘭斯洛特波利蒂, 1553 ) ;聖依納爵羅耀拉( 1556年)責成奉獻聖托馬斯;馬修稻( 1557 ) ;星德索托( 1560 ) ;梅爾基奧爾卡諾( 1560年) ;劉漢銓Pelargus ( 1561 ) ;彼得德索托( 1563 ) ;西斯錫耶納( 1569 ) ;約翰法伯( 1570 ) ;聖皮烏斯五( 1572 ) ;巴塞洛繆梅迪納( 1581 ) Justiniani文森特( 1582 ) ; Maldonatus * (胡安馬爾多納多, 1583年) ;街 Charles Borromeo* (1584); Salmerón* (1585); Ven.查爾斯鮑羅麥歐* ( 1584 ) ;薩爾梅龍* ( 1585 ) ;文。 Louis of Granada (1588); Bartholomew of Braga (1590); Toletus* (1596); Bl.路易格拉納達( 1588 ) ;巴塞洛繆的布拉加( 1590 ) ; Toletus * ( 1596 ) ;天麻。 Peter Canisius* (1597); Thomas Stapleton*, Doctor of Louvain (1598); Fonseca (1599); Molina* (1600).彼得西斯* ( 1597 ) ;托馬斯普爾頓* ,博士魯汶( 1598 ) ;豐塞卡( 1599 ) ;莫利納* ( 1600 ) 。

Seventeenth Century十七世紀

Valentia* (1603); Domingo Baflez (1604); Vásquez* (1604); Bart.倫蒂亞* ( 1603 ) ;多明戈Baflez ( 1604 ) ;斯克斯* ( 1604 ) ;巴特。 Ledesma (1604); Sánchez* (1610); Baronius * (1607); Capponi a Porrecta (1614); Aur. Menochio * (1615); Petr.萊德斯馬( 1604 ) ;桑切斯* (一千六百一十) ; Baronius * ( 1607年) ; Capponi 1 Porrecta ( 1614 ) ;敖。 Menochio * ( 1615 ) ;切赫。 Ledesma (1616); Francisco Suárez* (1617); Du Perron, a converted Calvinist, cardinal (1618); Bellarmine* (1621); St. Francis de Sales* (1622); Hieronymus Medices (1622); Lessius* (1623); Becanus* (1624); Malvenda (1628); Thomas de Lemos (1629); Alvarez; Laymann* (1635); Joann. Wiggers*, doctor of Louvain (1639); Gravina (1643); John of St. Thomas (1644); Serra (1647); Ripalda*, SJ (1648); Sylvius (Du Bois), doctor of Douai (1649); Petavius* (1652); Goar (1625); Steph.萊德斯馬( 1616年) ;弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯* ( 1617 ) ;杜門階,一個轉換加爾文主義,樞機主教( 1618年) ;貝拉明* ( 1621 ) ;聖弗朗西斯的銷售* ( 1622 ) ;海歐納莫斯Medices ( 1622 ) ; Lessius * ( 1623 ) ; Becanus * ( 1624 ) ; Malvenda ( 1628 ) ;托馬斯萊莫斯( 1629 ) ;阿爾瓦雷斯; Laymann * ( 1635 ) ;脫掉。 Wiggers * ,醫生的魯汶( 1639 ) ;格拉維納( 1643 ) ;約翰聖托馬斯( 1644年) ;塞拉( 1647 ) ; Ripalda * ,律政司司長( 1648年) ;導水管(杜波依斯) ,醫生杜埃( 1649 ) ; Petavius * ( 1652 ) ; Goar ( 1625 ) ;斯蒂芬。 Menochio, SJ* (1655); Franc. Pignatelli* (1656); De Lugo* (1660); Bollandus* (1665); Jammy (1665); Vallgornera (1665); Labbe* (1667); Pallavicini* (1667); Busenbaum* (1668); Nicolni* (1673); Contenson (1674); Jac. Menochio ,律政司司長* ( 1655 ) ;法郎。 Pignatelli * ( 1656 ) ;德盧戈* ( 1660 ) ; Bollandus * ( 1665 ) ;祥( 1665 ) ; Vallgornera ( 1665 ) ;拉韋* ( 1667 ) ; Pallavicini * ( 1667 ) ; Busenbaum * ( 1668年) ; Nicolni * ( 1673 ) ; Contenson ( 1674 ) ;江淮。 Pignatelli* (1675); Passerini* (1677); Gonet (1681); Bancel (1685); Thomassin* (1695); Goudin (1695); Sfrondati* (1696); Quetif (1698); Rocaberti (1699); Casanate (1700). Pignatelli * ( 1675 ) ;帕塞里尼* ( 1677 ) ; Gonet ( 1681 ) ; Bancel ( 1685 ) ;湯瑪森* ( 1695 ) ; Goudin ( 1695 ) ; Sfrondati * ( 1696 ) ; Quetif ( 1698 ) ; Rocaberti ( 1699 ) ; Casanate ( 1700 ) 。 To this period belong the Carmelite Salmanticenses, authors of the "Cursus theologicus" (1631-72).為了屬於這一時期的加爾默羅Salmanticenses ,作者的“ Cursus theologicus ” ( 1631年至1672年) 。

Eighteenth Century十八世紀

Guerinois (1703); Bossuet, Bishop of Meaux; Norisins, OSA (1704); Diana (1705); Thyrsus González* (1705); Massoulié (1706); Du hamel* (1706); Wigandt (1708); Piny (1709); Lacroix* (1714); Carrières* (1717); Natalis Alexander (1724); Echard (1724); Tourney*, doctor of the Sorbonne (1729); Livarius de Meyer* (1730); Benedict XIII* (1730); Graveson (1733); Th. Guerinois ( 1703 ) ;波舒哀主教莫; Norisins ,傑出學校獎勵計劃( 1704年) ;戴安娜( 1705 ) ; Thyrsus岡薩雷斯* ( 1705年) ; Massoulié ( 1706 ) ;都哈梅爾* ( 1706 ) ; Wigandt ( 1708 ) ; Piny ( 1709 ) ;拉克魯瓦* ( 1714 ) ; Carrières * ( 1717 ) ;升入亞歷山大( 1724 ) ; Echard ( 1724 ) ;賽* ,醫生的索邦大學( 1729 ) ; Livarius德邁耶* ( 1730 ) ;篤十三* ( 1730 ) ;格雷夫森( 1733 ) ;釷。 du Jardin (1733); Hyacintha Serry (1738); Duplessis d'Argentré* (1740); Gotti (1742); Drouin* (1742); Antoine* (1743); Lallemant* (1748); Milante* (1749); Preingue (1752); Concina (1759); Billuart (1757); Benedict XIV* (1758); Cuiliati (1759); Orsi (1761); Charlevoix* (1761); Reuter* (1762); Baumgartner* (1764); Berti* (1766); Patuzzi (1769); De Rubeis (1775); Touron (1775); Thomas de Burgo (1776); Gener* (1781); Roselli (1783); St. Aiphonsus Liguori (1787); Mamachi (1792); Richard (1794).杜花園( 1733 ) ; Hyacintha塞裡( 1738 ) ;杜普蕾西絲德Argentré * ( 1740 ) ;戈蒂( 1742 ) ;德勞因* ( 1742 ) ;安托萬* ( 1743 ) ; Lallemant * ( 1748 ) ; Milante * ( 1749 ) ; Preingue ( 1752 ) ; Concina ( 1759 ) ; Billuart ( 1757 ) ;篤十四* ( 1758 ) ; Cuiliati ( 1759 ) ;奧爾西( 1761 ) ;沙勒沃伊* ( 1761 ) ;羅伊特* ( 1762年) ;鮑姆加特納* ( 1764 ) ;貝爾蒂* ( 1766 ) ; Patuzzi ( 1769年) ;德魯貝伊斯( 1775 ) ; Touron ( 1775 ) ;托馬斯布爾戈( 1776年) ;通用* ( 1781 ) ;羅塞利( 1783年) ;街Aiphonsus利顧理( 1787年) ; Mamachi ( 1792年) ;理查德( 1794 ) 。

Nineteenth Century十九世紀

In this century there are few names to be recorded outside of those who were connected with the Thomistic revival either as the forerunners, the promoters, or the writers of the Neo-Scholastic period.在本世紀有幾個名字被記錄以外的那些誰都與Thomistic復興要么作為先行者,推動者,或作家的新士林時期。

Publication information Written by DJ Kennedy.出版信息撰稿的DJ肯尼迪。 Transcribed by Kevin Cawley. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.轉錄由凱文考利。天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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