Synergism增效

General Information 一般信息

Synergism, or synergistic effect, refers to the action of two different effects acting together to create a greater effect than the sum of the actions produced by each acting independently.增效作用,或協同效應,指的是採取行動的兩個不同的影響共同行動,創造一個更大的效應總和的行動由各獨立行事。


Synergism (Gr. synergos, working together)協同( Gr. synergos ,共同努力)

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Synergism is reference to the doctrine of divine and human cooperation in conversion . 協同是參照理論的神聖和人類合作的轉換。 Synergism seeks to reconcile two paradoxical truths: the sovereignty of God and man's moral responsibility.協同力求兼顧兩個矛盾的真理:主權的上帝和人類的道義責任。 Nowhere do these two truths so intersect as in the theology of conversion.任何地方做這兩個相交的真理,以便在神學的轉換。 One tradition within Christianity, the Augustinian, emphasizes the sovereignty of God in conversion (monergism or divine monergism). Calvin and Luther stood within this heritage.一個傳統的基督教的奧古斯丁,強調上帝的主權轉換( monergism或神聖monergism ) 。加爾文和路德站在這一文化遺產。 In the Small Catechism Martin Luther wrote: "I believe that by my own reason or strength I cannot believe in Jesus Christ, my Lord, or come to him. But the Holy Spirit has called me through the Gospel, enlightened me with his gifts, and sanctified and preserved me in true faith."在小問答馬丁路德寫道: “我相信,通過我自己的原因或力量我不能相信耶穌基督,我的上帝,或來找他。但聖靈已經打電話給我的福音,開明的我與他的禮物,和聖潔和維護我的真正的信仰。 “

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The other tradition, the Pelagian, emphasizes man's moral responsibility.其他的傳統, Pelagian ,強調人的道德責任。 Modified by such Roman Catholics as Erasmus of Rotterdam and such Protestants as James Arminius and John Wesley, this position stresses the freedom of the will.這種改性的羅馬天主教徒的鹿特丹伊拉斯謨等新教徒和詹姆斯亞米紐斯和約翰衛斯理,強調這一立場的自由意志。 Erasmus said, "Free will is the power of applying oneself to grace."伊拉斯謨說: “自由意志的力量,運用到自己的寬限期。 ” During the Lutheran Reformation the synergistic controversy occurred.在路德的宗教改革協同爭議發生。 Scholars debate whether or not Philip Melanchthon was a synergist.學者辯論與否菲利浦梅蘭希通是一種增效劑。 Certainly he wrote that "man is wholly incapable of doing good" and that in "external things" (secular matters) there is free will, but not in "internal things" (spiritual matters).當然,他寫道: “人是完全不能做得很好” ,在“外部事物” (世俗事務)有自由意志,而不是在“內部事物” (精神問題) 。 In the second edition of his Loci, however (published in 1535), Melanchthon wrote that in conversion "Three causes are conjoined: The Word, the Holy Spirit and the Will not wholly inactive, but resisting its own weakness.... God draws, but draws him who is willing. . . and the will is not a statue, and that spiritual emotion is not impressed upon it as though it were a statue."在第二版的他的基因,但是(發表在1535 ) ,梅蘭希頓寫道,在轉換“三個代表原因是連體:在Word中,聖靈和意願並不完全無效,但抵制自己的弱點....上帝提請,但利用他誰願意。 。 。和將不是一個雕像,這是精神情緒沒有賦予它深刻的印象,就好像是一尊雕像。 “

His followers were called Philippists.他的追隨者被稱為Philippists 。 His opponents were called Gnesio - or Genuine Lutherans.他的對手被稱為Gnesio -或正版路德會。 Melanchthon's position was embodied in the Leipzig Interim (1548).梅蘭希通的立場是體現在萊比錫臨時( 1548 ) 。 John Pfeffinger (1493 - 1573), the first Lutheran superintendent of Leipzig, sought to expound the Philippist position in De liberatate voluntaris humanae and De libero arbitrio in 1555, ascribing conversion's active concurrent causes to "the Holy Spirit moving through the Word of God, the mind in the act of thinking, and the will not resisting, but complying whenever moved by the Holy Spirit."約翰Pfeffinger ( 1493年至1573年) ,第一次信義院長萊比錫,力圖闡述的立場Philippist德liberatate voluntaris humanae和自由arbitrio德在1555年,歸咎於轉換的積極共同原因的“聖靈正在通過天主的聖言,頭腦中的思想行為,並不會抗拒,但只要遵守感動聖靈。 “ Nicholas von Amsdorf, friend of Luther, called the "Secret Bishop of the Lutheran Church," attacked Pfeffinger in 1558 for teaching synergism.尼古拉斯馮Amsdorf ,路德的朋友,所謂的“秘密主教路德教會, ”攻擊Pfeffinger在1558年的協同教學。 Victorinus Strigel (1524 - 69), professor at Jena, and John Stoltz (c. 1514 - 56), court preacher at Weimar, became involved. Victorinus Strigel ( 1524年至1569年) ,在耶拿大學教授,約翰斯托爾茲(角1514年至1556年) ,法院在魏瑪牧師,成為參與。

Matthias Flacius, professor at Jena, became the major adversary of the Philippists.馬蒂亞斯Flacius ,在耶拿大學教授,成為主要對手的Philippists 。 He taught that the "natural man" is comparable to a block of wood or a piece of stone and is hostile toward the work of God.他教的“自然的人”是比較塊木頭或一塊石頭,是敵視工作的上帝。 Due to his influence John Frederick II drafted the Weimar Book of Confutations (1558 - 59), causing Strigel to be imprisoned for opposing it.由於他的影響力約翰弗雷德里克二世起草了魏瑪書Confutations ( 1558年至1559年) ,導致Strigel而被監禁的反對。 Enforced strictly by the clergy, John Frederick in 1561 deprived ministers the right to uphold it, vesting that power in the consistory at Weimar.執行嚴格的神職人員,約翰在1561年弗雷德里克部長被剝奪的權利,維護它,這種權力歸屬的一致性在魏瑪。 Flacius opposed this change and was expelled from Jena in 1561, while Strigel was reinstated in his professorship, signing an ambiguous document. John Stossel (1524 - 78), striving to justify Strigel's position, merely fueled the controversy. Flacius反對這一變化和被驅逐出德國耶拿在1561年,而Strigel恢復他的教授,簽署了一項模棱兩可的文件。約翰Stossel ( 1524年至1578年) ,力爭理由Strigel的立場,只是引發了爭議。 John William succeeded John Frederick in 1567.約翰威廉成功約翰弗雷德里克在1567年。 Desiring to resolve the controversy, he issued an edict on January 16, 1568, causing the Philippists to leave Jena, and the Flacianists (but not Flacius) to return.希望解決的爭議,他頒布一項法令,對1568年1月十六日,造成Philippists離開耶拿,並Flacianists (但不Flacius )返回。

An Altenburg Colloquy (1568 - 69) failed to solve the controversy. By 1571, however, the Final Report and Declaration of the Theologians of Both Universities, Leipzig and Wittenberg, affirmed "consideration and reception of God's Word and voluntary beginning of obedience in the heart arises out of that which God has begun graciously to work in us."一個阿爾滕堡座談會( 1568年至1569年)未能解決爭議。通過1571年,然而,最後報告和宣言的神學家的兩所大學,萊比錫和維滕貝格,申明“審議和接待上帝的Word和自願服從開始在心臟產生的上帝已經開始慷慨地向我們的工作。 “ The Formula of Concord (1577) rejected synergism, endorsed Augustinianism, avoided the rhetoric of Flacianism and the tendencies of Philippianism, teaching "through... the preaching and the hearing of his Word, God is active, breaks our hearts, and draws man, so that through the preaching of the law man learns to know his sins...and experiences genuine terror, contrition and sorrow. . . and through the preaching of...the holy Gospel...there is kindled in him a spark of faith which accepts the forgiveness of sins for Christ's sake."該公式的康科德( 1577 )拒絕協同作用,贊同奧古斯丁,避免了Flacianism言論和傾向Philippianism ,教學“通過...的說教並聽取了他的話,上帝是積極的,打破我們的心中,並提請男子,因此,通過宣講法律的人知道知道自己的罪孽...和經驗,真正的恐怖,懺悔和悲哀。 。 。 ,並通過宣揚的神聖... ...福音是在他點燃火花信仰接受免除罪孽基督的緣故。 “

CG Fry協商小組弗萊
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
TG Tappert, ed., The Book of Concord; C Manschreck, Melanchthon: The Quiet Reformer; HLJ Heppe, Geschichte der lutherischen Concordienformel und Concordie and Geschichte des deutschen Protestantismus in den Jahren 1555 - 1581; GF Schott, The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, III.熱Tappert ,編輯。 ,這本書的康科德; ç Manschreck ,梅蘭希通:安靜的改革者; HLJ Heppe ,史lutherischen Concordienformel與Concordie和德意志歷史Protestantismus在大街Jahren 1555年至1581年;石墨肖特,百科全書路德教會,三。


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