Syncretism合一

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Syncretism is the process by which elements of one religion are assimilated into another religion resulting in a change in the fundamental tenets or nature of those religions . 融合過程中的內容是一個宗教同化到另一個宗教造成了變化的基本原理或性質的宗教。 It is the union of two or more opposite beliefs, so that the synthesized form is a new thing.這是工會的兩個或兩個以上相反的信念,使合成的形式是一個新事物。 It is not always a total fusion, but may be a combination of separate segments that remain identifiable compartments.這並不總是一個總的融合,但可結合不同的階層仍然識別艙室。 Originally a political term, "syncretism" was used to describe the joining together of rival Greek forces on the Isle of Crete in opposition to a common enemy.原來一個政治術語, “合一”是用來描述聯合起來的競爭對手希臘部隊在克里特島在反對共同的敵人。

Syncretism is usually associated with the process of communication. It can originate with either the sender or the receptor of the message.融合通常是與這一進程聯繫溝通。源於它可以與任何發件人或受體的訊息。 The sender may introduce syncretistic elements in a conscious attempt for relevance or by the presentation of a limited and distorted part of the message.發件人可能會推出融分子有意識地嘗試性或所提出的有限和歪曲的部分信息。 It may happen unconsciously as the result of an inadequate or faulty grasp of the message.它可能會發生不自覺的結果不足或錯誤理解的信息。 The receptor will interpret the message within the framework of his world view.該受體將訊息解釋的框架內,他的世界觀。 This may distort the data but fit his values.這可能會扭曲數據,但適合他的價值觀。

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Specifically we are faced with a problem of meaning. What is actually understood by words, symbols, or actions as expressed in creeds, or application to certain needs, is the test of the presence of syncretism. 具體來說,我們正面臨著一個問題的含義。什麼是真正理解的話,符號或行動中所表達的信仰,或適用於某些需要,是測試的存在合一。 The receptor is the one who assigns meaning.該受體是一個誰賦予的含義。 It is therefore essential that the sender communicate with words or symbols that are not merely approximate equivalents, but dynamic equivalents, of meaning.因此,至關重要的是發件人溝通字詞或符號不只是大致等同,但動態等值的意義。

Syncretism of the Christian gospel occurs when critical or basic elements of the gospel are replaced by religious elements from the host culture. It often results from a tendency or attempt to undermine the uniqueness of the gospel as found in the Scriptures or the incarnate Son of God. 合一的基督教福音時,就會發生關鍵或基本要素的福音所取代的宗教內容來自東道國的文化。結果往往從一種傾向或企圖破壞獨特的福音發現聖經中的化身或上帝之子。 The communication of the gospel involves the transmission of a message with supra - cultural elements between a variety of cultures.交流涉及福音傳播的訊息與前-文化要素之間的各種文化。 This includes the disembodiment of the message from one cultural context and the reembodiment of it in a different cultural context.這包括disembodiment的信息從一個文化背景和reembodiment它在不同的文化背景。

Cross - cultural communication of the gospel always involves at least three cultural contexts. The gospel message was originally given in a specific context. 十字-文化溝通的福音總是涉及至少有三個文化背景。福音訊息最初是考慮在特定的背景。 The receiver / sender assigns meaning to that message in terms of his own context.接收/發送指定的意義這一信息在自己的範圍內。 The receptor seeks to understand the message within a third context.受體旨在了解的訊息內第三方面。 The problem of syncretism will be encountered with each new outreach of the church and also as the culture changes around an established church.這個問題的融合將遇到的每一個新的推廣教堂,也是文化的變化圍繞著建立教堂。

The Bible reveals syncretism as a long - standing tool of Satan to separate God from his people. It strikes at the heart of the first commandment. 聖經揭示合一作為一項長期-常設工具撒旦單獨上帝從他的人民。罷工它的核心的第一誡。 Beyerhaus notes a threefold answer in the OT to the challenge of external syncretism: segregation, eradication, and adaptation. Beyerhaus注意到了三倍答案加時賽的挑戰外部合一:隔離,消除和適應能力。 Pressures from early Canaanite practices with Baal and Asherah were followed by the demands of the national gods of Assur and Babylon.從早期的壓力迦南做法與巴爾和Asherah其次是需求全國神的亞述和巴比倫。 Internally the prophets of Israel sought to enforce the obligatory nature of Israel's holy traditions, to apply the revealed will of God to actual situations, and to forcefully present the eschatological vision of God's continuing control, justice, and promises.國內先知要求以色列執行強制性性質以色列的神聖傳統,運用揭示上帝的意志,以實際情況,並提出有力的末世論的設想上帝的持續控制,正義和承諾。

The NT was born in a melee as rulers sought to blend cultures through syncretistic monotheism, all forms of the same God. All the gods of Egypt, Persia, and Babylon became Greek. 新台幣出生於混戰中為統治者力求通過融合文化融一神教,各種形式的相同的上帝。所有的神的埃及,波斯,巴比倫和希臘成了。 The influence of Mani spread from Africa to China.的影響馬尼桑卡爾蔓延從非洲到中國。 Esoteric knowledge vied with unique, historical revelation.深奧的知識紛紛獨特的,歷史的啟示。 Rome harbored all cults and mystery religions.羅馬窩藏所有邪教和神秘的宗教。 Antioch, Ephesus, and Corinth each boasted syncretistic gods seeking to absorb the church.安提阿,以弗所和科林斯每個吹噓融神尋求吸收教堂。 NT confrontations include Simon Magus, the Jerusalem Council, the Epistle to the Colossians, combating Jewish thought mixed with early Gnosticism, and the rebuke of the church at Pergamum.新台幣西蒙對抗包括空氣,耶路撒冷委員會,書信的歌羅西書,打擊猶太思想與早期混合諾斯替主義,並指責該教堂Pergamum 。 Against these forces the church developed its creeds, canon, and celebrations.對這些部隊的教堂開發的信條,佳能,和慶祝活動。 The Christmas celebration date was set over against the festival of the birth of the sun god, Sol Invictus, in protest against a major attempt to create a syncretistic imperial religion.聖誕慶祝活動的日期定在對節日的誕生,太陽神,溶膠Invictus ,以抗議一項重大嘗試創建一個融帝國的宗教。

Visser't Hooft discusses the many syncretistic pressures of the NT times exerted by Judaism, Gnosticism, emperor worship, and the mystery cults. Visser't霍夫特討論了許多融壓力新台幣倍施加的猶太教,諾斯替主義,天皇崇拜,以及神秘的邪教。 It is helpful to study the books of Hebrews, 1 John, and the Revelation from the perspective of defending against syncretism. The NT canon and the recognized creed became the church's two greatest weapons against the growth and transmission of syncretism. Church history is filled with the struggle against syncretism from political, social, religious, and economic sources. Syncretistic pressure can be seen today.這是有益的研究書籍,希伯來人, 1約翰,和啟示的角度防合一。 新台幣佳能和公認的信條,成為教會的兩個最大的武器對付的生長和傳播合一。教會歷史充滿了鬥爭的融合從政治,社會,宗教和經濟來源。融壓力,可以看出今天。 In our global - village context secular humanism seems to be the common ground for solving shared problems.在我們的全球-村範圍內的世俗人文主義似乎是共同點,為解決共同的問題。 The values of this world view strive for a place in the church's response to both the demands for conformity and the cries for liberation confronting it.價值觀的這種世界觀爭取在教堂的反應都符合要求和呼聲它所面臨的解放。

In the striving by missionaries for an indigenous national church with a contextualized gospel, the danger of syncretism is ever present in attempts at accommodation, adjustment, and adaptation. Tippett reminds us that while striving for relevance we must remember that in communication only message is transmitted, not meaning. 在由傳教士努力的一個土著民族教會的背景福音,危險的合一是永遠存在的企圖住宿,調整和適應。蒂皮特提醒我們,同時力求意義,我們必須記住,只有在通信傳輸的信息,而不是意義。 Beyerhaus points out three steps in biblical adaptation: Beyerhaus指出三個步驟聖經適應:

  1. Discriminating selection of words, symbols, and rites, eg, "Logos."判別選擇的話,符號和儀式,如“徽標。 ”

  2. Rejection of that which is clearly incompatible with biblical truth.反對這一這顯然是不符合聖經的真理。

  3. Reinterpretation by a complete refilling of the selected rite or symbol with a truly Christian meaning.再由一個完整的填充選定的儀式或符號與真正的基督教的含義。

The supracultural teachings of Scripture must be judge of both culture and meaning as God works through men using various forms to bring all creation under his lordship.該supracultural聖經的教誨法官必須是雙方的文化和意義的作品作為上帝用男人通過各種形式,使所有在他創造貴族身份。

In the history of theology the term "syncretism" is used specifically to define two movements aimed at unification.在過去的歷史神學的“合一”是專門用於確定兩個運動,旨在統一。 In the Lutheran tradition, George Calixtus (1586 - 1656) attempted to reconcile Lutheran thought with Roman Catholicism on the basis of the Apostles' Creed.在信義的傳統,喬治Calixtus ( 1586年至1656年)試圖調和路德思想與羅馬天主教的基礎上使徒信經。 This precipitated a syncretistic controversy that was to last for many years.這觸發一場融爭議,是持續多年。 In Roman Catholicism "syncretism" refers to the attempt to reconcile Molinist and Thomist theology.在羅馬天主教“合一”是指試圖調和Molinist和托馬斯主義神學。

SR Imbach簡Imbach
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
WA Visser't Hooft, No Other Name; H Kraemer, Religion and the Christian Faith; T Yamamori and CR Taber, eds., Christopaganism or Indigenous Christianity; H Lietzmann, The Beginnings of the Church Universal.西澳Visser't霍夫特,沒有任何其他名稱; H克雷默,宗教和基督教信仰; Ť Yamamori和CR泰伯合編。 , Christopaganism或土著基督教; H Lietzmann ,起源教會世界。


Syncretism合一

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

From sygkretizein (not from sygkerannynai.)從sygkretizein (而不是從sygkerannynai 。 )

An explanation is given by Plutarch in a small work on brotherly love ("Opera Moralia", ed. Reiske, VII, 910).一種解釋是由普魯塔克在一個小的工作友愛( “歌劇道德” ,編輯。 Reiske ,七, 910 ) 。 He there tells how the Cretans were often engaged in quarrels among themselves, but became immediately reconciled when an external enemy approached.他沒有告訴如何Cretans經常參與它們之間的爭吵,但立即變得調和時,一個外部敵人的接觸。 "And that is their so-called Syncretism." “這就是他們所謂的融合。 ” In the sixteenth century the term became known through the "Adagia" of Erasmus, and came into use to designate the coherence of dissenters in spite of their difference of opinions, especially with reference to theological divisions. Later, when the term came to be referred to sygkerannynai, it was inaccurately employed to designate the mixture of dissimilar or incompatible things or ideas. This inexact use continues to some extent even today.在16世紀的長期被稱為通過“ Adagia ”的伊拉斯謨,並投入使用指定的連貫性,持不同政見者,儘管他們的意見分歧,特別是參照神學分歧。後來,這個詞後來被稱為以sygkerannynai ,這是不正確使用指定的混合不同或不兼容的事情或想法。使用這種不精確繼續在一定程度即使在今天。

(1) Syncretism is sometimes used to designate the fusion of pagan religions. ( 1 )融合有時是用於指定融合的異教徒的宗教。 In the East the intermixture of the civilizations of different nations began at a very early period.在東部的合金的文明,不同的國家開始在一個非常早期階段。 When the East was hellenized under Alexander the Great and the Diadochi in the fourth century BC, the Grecian and Oriental civilizations were brought into contact, and a compromise to a large extent effected.當東hellenized根據亞歷山大大帝和Diadochi在公元前4世紀,希臘和東方文明帶進接觸,並達成妥協,在很大程度上影響。 The foreign deities were identified with the native (eg Serapis = Zeus, Dionysus) and a fusion of the cults succeeded.外國神明確定了與本地(如塞拉皮斯=宙斯,狄俄尼索斯) ,並融合了邪教成功。 After the Romans had conquered the Greeks, the victors, as is known, succumbed to the culture of the vanquished, and the ancient Roman religion became completely hellenized.在羅馬人征服了希臘人,勝利者,眾所周知,屈從於文化的失敗者,和古羅馬的宗教成為完全hellenized 。 Later the Romans gradually received all the religions of the peoples whom they subdued, so that Rome became the "temple of the whole world".後來,羅馬人逐漸收到的所有宗教的人民他們制服,從而使羅馬成為“廟整個世界” 。 Syncretism reached its culmination in the third century AD under the emperors Caracalla, Heliogabalus, and Alexander Severus (211-35).融合達到了高潮在公元三世紀的皇帝卡拉卡拉, Heliogabalus ,和亞歷山大塞維魯( 211-35 ) 。 The countless cults of the Roman Empire were regarded as unessential forms of the same thing-a view which doubtless strengthened the tendency towards Monotheism.無數邪教羅馬帝國被視為非本質的形式同樣的事情,這種看法無疑加強了一神教的傾向。 Heliogabalus even sought to combine Christianity and Judaism with his religion, the cult of the sun-god. Heliogabalus甚至要求把基督教和猶太教與他的宗教,崇拜太陽神。 Julia Mamæa, the mother of Alexander Severus, attended in Alexandria the lectures of Origen, and Alexander placed in his lararium the images of Abraham and Christ.朱莉婭Mamæa ,母親亞歷山大塞維魯,出席了在亞歷山德里亞的奧利的講座,和亞歷山大放在他的圖片lararium亞伯拉罕和基督。

(2) A modern tendency in the history of religions sees in the Biblical revealed religion a product of syncretism, the fusion of various religious forms and views. ( 2 )一個現代化的趨勢,歷史的宗教認為,在聖經啟示宗教的產物,融合,融合各種不同的宗教形式和意見。 As regards the Old Testament, the Chanaanite myth, the Egyptian, Old Babylonian, and Persian religions are regarded as the sources of Israelitic religion, the latter itself having developed from Fetichism and Animism into Henotheism and Monotheism.至於舊約的Chanaanite神話,埃及,古巴比倫,波斯和宗教被視為來源Israelitic宗教,後者本身制訂了從Fetichism和拜物教到Henotheism和一神教。 It is sought to explain the origin of Christianity from the continuation and development of Jewish ideas and the influx of Brahmanistic, Buddhist, Græco-Roman, and Egyptian religious notions, and from the Stoic and Philonic philosophy; it is held to have received its development and explanation especially.這是試圖解釋基督教起源的繼續和發展的思想和猶太人的湧入Brahmanistic ,佛教,希臘,羅馬,埃及宗教的概念,並從斯多葛和Philonic哲學,它是舉行得到發展並解釋是。 from the neo-Platonic philosophy.從新柏拉圖哲學。 That Judaism and Christianity agree with other religions in many of their external forms and ideas, is true ; many religious ideas are common to all mankind.這猶太教和基督教同意與其他宗教的許多外部形式和想法,是真的;許多宗教思想是全人類的共同。 The points of agreement between the Babylonian religions and the Jewish.該點之間的協議巴比倫的宗教和猶太人。 faith, which provoked a lively discussion some years ago after the appearance of Friedrich Delitzsch's "Babel und Bibel", maybe explained in so far as they exist (eg) as due to an original revelation, of which traces, albeit tainted with Polytheism, appear among the Babylonians.信仰,這激起了熱烈的討論幾年前出現後,弗里德里希德里的“通天塔與聖經” ,也許說明只要存在(例如)作為由於原來的啟示,其中的痕跡,儘管沾染多神教,似乎在巴比倫人。 In many cases the agreement can be shown to be merely in form, not in content; in others it is doubtful which religion contained the original and which borrowed.在許多情況下,協議可以表明只是形式,而不是內容;在其他令人懷疑的是宗教的原始載,並借來的。 As to the special doctrines of the Bible search has been vainly made for sources from which they might have been derived.至於特別理論的聖經搜索一直妄圖為來源,他們可能已經產生。 Catholic theology holds firmly to revelation and to the foundation of Christianity by Jesus of Nazareth.天主教神學持有堅決揭露和基礎的基督教的拿撒勒的耶穌。

(3) The Syncretistic Strife is the name given to the theological quarrel provoked by the efforts of Georg Calixt and his supporters to secure a basis on which the Lutherans could make overtures to the Catholic and the Reformed Churches. ( 3 )融爭的名稱是考慮到神學所挑起爭吵的努力,格奧爾格Calixt和他的支持者以確保基礎上的路德教可能使姿態天主教和基督教新教。 It lasted from 1640 to 1686.它持續了1640年至1686年。 Calixt, a professor in Helmstedt, had through his travels in England, Holland, Italy, and France, through his acquaintance with the different Churches and their representatives, and through his extensiVe study, acquired a more friendly attitude towards the different religious bodies than was then usual among the majority of Lutheran theologians. While the latter firmly adhered to the "pure doctrine", Calixt was not disposed to regard doctrine as the one thing necessary in order to be a Christian, while in doctrine itself he did not regard everything as equally certain and important. Calixt ,教授Helmstedt ,已通過他的旅行在英國,荷蘭,意大利,法國,通過他的熟人與不同的教會和他們的代表,並通過其廣泛的研究,獲得了更友好的態度對待不同的宗教機構的比然後平常的多數路德宗神學。雖然後者堅定地堅持“純理論” , Calixt沒有處置方面的理論,以作為一件事必要的,以便成為一個基督徒,而在理論本身,他並不認為一切作為同樣可以肯定和重要的。 Consequently, he advocated unity between those who were in agreement concerning the fundamental minimum, with liberty as to all less fundamental points.因此,他主張統一者之間誰是在有關協議的基本最低,與自由的所有不到基本點。 In regard to Catholicism, he was prepared (as Melanchthon once was) to concede to the pope a primacy human in origin, and he also admitted that the Mass might be called a sacrifice.關於天主教,他準備(如梅蘭希通曾經是)讓步,教皇一人的首要來源,而且他也承認,大眾可能是所謂的犧牲。 On the side of Calixt stood the theological faculties of Helmstedt, Rinteln, and Königsberg; opposed to him were those of Leipzig, Jena, Strasburg, Giessen, Marburg, and Greifswald.一方的Calixt經受住了神學系Helmstedt , Rinteln ,並康尼斯堡;反對他的那些萊比錫,耶拿,斯特拉斯堡,吉森,馬爾堡,和格賴夫斯瓦爾德。 His chief opponent was Abraham Calov.他的主要對手是亞伯拉罕Calov 。 The Elector of Saxony was for political reasons an opponent of the Reformed Church, because the other two secular electors (Palatine and Brandenburg) were "reformed", and were getting more and more the advantage of him.選民的薩克森州是出於政治原因的對手的歸正教會,因為其他兩個世俗選民(巴拉丁和勃蘭登堡州)是“改革” ,並有越來越多的好處是他。 In 1649 he sent to the three dukes of Brunswick, who maintained Helmstedt as their common university, a communication in which he voices all the objections of his Lutheran professors, and complains that Calixt wished to extract the elements of truth from all religions, fuse all into an entirely new religion, and so provoke a violent schism.他在1649年發出的三個公爵的不倫瑞克,誰保持Helmstedt作為他們的共同大學,通信,他的聲音都反對他的信義教授,並抱怨說, Calixt希望提取的內容實事求是,所有宗教,所有引信進入一個全新的宗教,所以挑起暴力分裂。 In 1650 Calov was called to Wittenberg as professor, and he signalized his entrance into office with a vehement attack on the Syncretists in Helmstedt.在1650年被稱為Calov以維滕貝格教授,他燈號他進入辦公室的強烈攻擊Syncretists在Helmstedt 。 An outburst of polemical writings followed.一個突出的論戰之後的著作。 In 1650 the dukes of Brunswick answered the Elector of Saxony that the discord should not be allowed to increase, and proposed a meeting of the political councillors.於1650年在布倫瑞克公爵回答選民的薩克森州的不和諧不應該允許增加,並提出了會議的政治委員。 Saxony, however, did not favour this suggestion.薩克森州,但並不贊成這一建議。 An attempt to convene a meeting of theologians was not more successful.嘗試召開的神學家沒有更大的成功。 The theologians of Wittenberg and Leipzig now elaborated a new formula, in which ninety-eight heresies of the Helmstedt theologians were condemned.在神學的維滕貝格和萊比錫現在制定了一個新公式,其中98異端的神學Helmstedt譴責。 This formula (consensus) was to be signed by everyone who wished to remain in the Lutheran Church.此公式(共識)是將每個人都簽署了誰願意留在路德教會。 Outside Wittenberg and Leipzig, however, it was not accepted, and Calixt's death in 1656 was followed by five years of almost undisturbed peace. The strife was renewed in Hesse-Cassel, where Landgrave Wilhelm VI sought to effect a union between his Lutheran and Reformed subjects, or at least to lessen their mutual hatred.境外維滕貝格和萊比錫,但沒有被接受,並Calixt死亡1656年之後五年的幾乎不受干擾的和平。紛爭再次在黑森州,卡塞爾,在領地威廉六設法影響工會之間的信義和改革主題,或至少減少它們彼此間的仇恨。 In 1661 he had a colloquy held in Cassel between the Lutheran theologians of the University of Rinteln and the Reformed theologians of the University of Marburg.在1661年他有一個座談會舉行卡塞爾之間的路德神學大學的Rinteln和歸正神學的馬爾堡大學。 Enraged at this revival of the Syncretism of Calixt, the Wittenberg theologians in vehement terms called on the Rimteln professors to make their submission, whereupon the latter answered with a detailed defence.激怒在此復興的Calixt融合的維滕貝格神學方面的強烈呼籲Rimteln教授,使他們提出,在這種情況下,後者回答了詳細的辯護。 Another long series of polemical treatises followed.另一個長期的一系列有爭議的論文之後。 In Brandenburg-Prussia the Great Elector (Frederick William I) forbade (1663) preachers to speak of the disputes between the Evangelical bodies.在勃蘭登堡,普魯士大選(弗雷德里克威廉一世)禁止( 1663 )傳教士講之間的糾紛福音機構。 A long colloquy in Berlin (Sept., 1662-May, 1663) led only to fresh discord.長座談會在柏林( 9月, 1662年5月, 1663年)只會導致新的不和諧。 In 1664 the elector repeated his command that preachers of both parties should abstain from mutual abuse, and should attribute to the other party no doctrine which was not actually held by such party.在1664年的選民重申了他命令傳教士雙方應避免相互虐待,並應屬性向另一方沒有理論實際上並沒有舉行此類黨。 Whoever refused to sign the form declaring his intention to observe this regulation, was deprived of his position (eg Paul Gerhardt, writer of religious songs).凡拒不簽署的形式宣布,他打算遵守這一規定,被剝奪了他的立場(如保羅格哈特,作家的宗教歌曲) 。 This arrangement was later modified, in that the forms were withdrawn, and action was taken only against those who disturbed the peace.這樣的安排後來又修改,即形式被撤銷,並採取行動只是針對那些誰擾亂了和平。 The attempts of the Wittenberg theologians to declare Calixt and his school un-Lutheran and heretical were now met by Calixt's son, Friedrich Ulrich Calixt, The latter defended the theology of his father, but also tried to show that his doctrine did not so very much differ from that of his opponents.企圖在維滕貝格神學宣布Calixt和他的學校取消路德和邪教,現在達到Calixt的兒子,弗里德里希烏爾里希Calixt ,後者的神學辯護他的父親,而且還試圖表明,他的學說並沒有因此非常不同於他的對手。 Wittenberg found its new champion in Ægidius Strauch, who attacked Calixt with all the resources of learning, polemics, sophistry, wit, cynicism, and abuse.維滕貝格發現其新的冠軍Ægidius蟾蜍,誰攻擊Calixt的一切資源的學習,爭論,詭辯,機智,玩世不恭,和性虐待。 The Helmnstedt side was defended by the celebrated scholar and statesman, Hermann Conring.該Helmnstedt一方辯護的著名學者和政治家,赫爾曼Conring 。 The Saxon princes now recognized the danger that the attempt to carry through the "Consensus" as a formula of belief might lead to a fresh schism in the Lutheran Church, and might thus render its position difficult in the face of the Catholics.薩克森王子現在認識到的危險,試圖進行通過“共識”作為一個公式的信仰可能會導致新的分裂的路德教會,因而有可能使自己的立場難以面對天主教徒。 The proposals of Calov and his party to continue the refutation and to compel the Brunswick theologians to bind themselves under obligation to the old Lutheran confession, were therefore not carried into effect.提案Calov和他的黨繼續反駁,並迫使神學的不倫瑞克約束自己有義務舊路德招供,因此沒有進行生效。 On the contrary the Saxon theologians were forbidden to continue the strife in writing.相反撒克遜神學被禁止繼續爭鬥以書面形式提出。 Negotiations for peace then resulted, Duke Ernst the Pious of Saxe-Gotha being especially active towards this end, and the project of establishing a permanent college of theologians to decide theological disputes was entertained.和平談判然後結果,恩斯特公爵的虔誠的薩克斯,特別是哥達正在積極實現這一目標,該項目建立一個常設大學神學來決定神學爭端受理。 However, the negotiations with the courts of Brunswick, Mecklenburg, Denmark, and Sweden were as fruitless as those with the theological faculties, except that peace was maintained until 1675.然而,談判與法院的不倫瑞克,梅克倫堡,丹麥和瑞典分別為那些毫無作為的神學系,但和平是維持到1675年。 Calov then renewed hostilities. Calov然後戰火重燃。 Besides Calixt, his attack was now directed particularly against the moderate John Musæus of Jena.除了Calixt ,他的攻擊是針對現在特別是對溫和的約翰Musæus的耶拿。 Calov succeeded in having the whole University of Jena (and after a long resistance Musæus himself) compelled to renounce Syncretism. Calov成功了整個耶拿大學(和經過長期抵抗Musæus本人)被迫放棄融合。 But this was his last victory.但是,這是他最後一次勝利。 The elector renewed his prohibition against polemical writings.選民再次禁止論戰的著作。 Calov seemed to give way, since in 1683 he asked whether, in the view of the danger which France then constituted for Germany, a Calixtinic Syncretism with "Papists" and the Reformed were still condemnable, and whether in deference to the Elector of Brandenburg and the dukes of Brunswick, the strife should not be buried by an amnesty, or whether, on the contrary, the war against Syncretism should be continued. Calov似乎給方式,因為在1683年他問是否認為,在的危險,然後構成了法國,德國,一個Calixtinic融合與“ Papists ”和改革仍然受到譴責,而且無論是在尊重選民和勃蘭登堡在公爵的不倫瑞克,紛爭不應該被埋葬了一項大赦,或是否與此相反,戰爭的融合應該繼續下去。 He later returned to his attack on the Syncretists, but died in 1686, and with his death the strife ended.後來他回到自己的攻擊Syncretists ,但在1686年去世,與他去世的爭鬥結束。 The result of the Syncretist Strife was that it lessened religious hatred and promoted mutual forbearance.結果Syncretist爭是,它削弱宗教仇恨和增進了相互忍讓。 Catholicism was thus benefited, as it came to be better understood and appreciated by Protestants.天主教因此受益,因為它來更好地理解和讚賞新教徒。 In Protestant theology it prepared the way for the sentimental theology of Pietism as the successor of fossilized orthodoxy.在基督教神學它編寫的方式為感傷虔誠主義神學的繼承正統的化石。

(4) Concerning Syncretism in the doctrine of grace, see CONTROVERSIES ON GRACE, VI, 713. ( 4 )關於在融合理論的寬限期,見爭論優雅,六, 713 。

Publication information Written by Klemens Löffler.出版信息撰稿Klemens Löffler 。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯學者波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.專門為聖心耶穌基督天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

(1) FRIEDLÄNDER, Darstellungen aus der Sittengesch. ( 1 )德蘭德, Darstellungen澳大利亞之Sittengesch 。 Roms, IV (8th ed., Leipzig, 1910), 119-281; CUMONT, Les religions orientales dans le paganisme romain (Paris, 1907) ; WENDLAND, Die hellenistisch-römische Kultur in ihren Beziehungen zu Judentum u.唯讀光碟,四( 8版。 ,萊比錫, 1910 ) , 119-281 ; CUMONT ,法國東方宗教中的樂paganisme羅曼(巴黎, 1907年) ;文德蘭德,模具hellenistisch - römische文化在ihren Beziehungen祖Judentum美國 Christentum (Tübingen, 1907); REVILLE, La religion à Rome sous les Sévères (Paris, 1886).基督教(蒂賓根大學, 1907年) ;雷維爾,香格里拉宗教羅馬蘇萊Sévères (巴黎, 1886年) 。

(2) SCHANZ, Apologie des Christentums, II (3rd ed., Freiburg, 1905); WEBER, Christl, Apologetik (Freiburg, 1907), 163-71; REISCHLE, Theologie u. Religionsgesch. ( 2 )坎茲,基督教辯護之二(第3版。 ,弗賴堡, 1905年) ;萬博, Christl , Apologetik (弗賴堡, 1907年) , 163-71 ; REISCHLE ,神學美國Religionsgesch 。 (Tübingen, 1904). (蒂賓根大學, 1904年) 。

(3) DORNER, Gesch. ( 3 ) DORNER , Gesch 。 der protest.德國抗議。 Theol. Theol 。 (Munich, 1867), 606-24; HENKE, Georg. Calixtus u. (慕尼黑1867 ) , 606-24 ;亨克,格奧爾格。 Calixtus美國 seine seit, I-II (Halle, 1853-60).塞納seit ,第一項和第二項(哈雷, 1853年至1860年) 。


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